new avian influenza a virus subtype combination h5n7 identified in danish mallard ducks.during the past years increasing incidences of influenza a zoonosis have made it of uppermost importance to possess methods for rapid and precise identification and characterisation of influenza a viruses. we present here a convenient one-step rt-pcr method that will amplify full-length haemagglutinin (ha) and neuraminidase (na) directly from clinical samples and from all known subtypes of influenza a. we applied the method on samples collected in september 2003 from a danish flock of mallards w ...200515763149
an emerging avian influenza a virus h5n7 is a genetic reassortant of highly pathogenic genes.we full genome characterised the newly discovered avian influenza virus h5n7 subtype combination isolated from a stock of danish game ducks to investigate the composition of the genome and possible features of high pathogenicity. it was found that the haemagglutinin and the acidic polymerase genes were closely related to a low pathogenic h5 strain (a/duck/denmark/65047/04 h5n2). the neuraminidase and the non-structural genes were closely related to the highly pathogenic h7n7 strains from the net ...200616814904
genome characterisation of the newly discovered avian influenza a h5n7 virus subtype denmark, in 2003, a previously unknown subtype combination of avian influenza a virus, h5n7 (a/mallard/denmark/64650/03), was isolated from a flock of 12,000 mallards. the h5n7 subtype combination might be a reassortant between recent european avian influenza a h5, h7, and a third subtype, possibly an h6. the haemagglutinin and the acidic polymerase genes of the virus were closely related to a low-pathogenic danish h5n2 virus a/duck/denmark/65041/04 (h5n2). the neuraminidase gene and the non- ...200717115305
summary of avian influenza activity in europe, asia, africa, and australasia, 2002-2006.between december 2003 and january 2004 highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1 infections of poultry were declared in china, japan, south korea, laos, thailand, cambodia, vietnam, and indonesia. in 2004 an outbreak was reported in malaysia. in 2005 h5n1 outbreaks were recorded in poultry in russia, kazakhstan, mongolia, romania, turkey, and ukraine, and virus was isolated from swans in croatia. in 2004 hpai h5n1 virus was isolated from smuggled eagles detected at the brussels airport and i ...200717494548
persistence of low-pathogenic avian influenza h5n7 and h7n1 subtypes in house flies (diptera: muscidae).avian influenza caused by avian influenza virus (aiv) has a negative impact on poultry production. low-pathogenic aiv (lpaiv) is naturally present in wild birds, and the introduction of the virus into domestic poultry is assumed to occur through contact with wild birds and by human activity, including the movement of live and dead poultry, and fomites such as clothing and vehicles. at present, the possible role of insects in the spread of aiv is dubious. the objective of the present work was to ...201121661322
transmission characteristics of low pathogenic avian influenza virus of h7n7 and h5n7 subtypes in layer chickens.low pathogenic avian influenza virus (lpaiv) infections of h5 and h7 subtypes in poultry are notifiable to the oie, hence surveillance programmes are implemented. the rate at which lpaiv strains spread within a flock determines the prevalence of infected birds and the time it takes to reach that prevalence and, consequently, optimal sample size and sampling frequency. the aim of this study was to investigate the transmission characteristics of an h7n7 and an h5n7 lpaiv in layer chickens. two tra ...201121982127
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of avian influenza virus subtypes h5 and h7 antibodies.avian influenza virus (aiv) subtypes h5 and h7 attracts particular attention because of the risk of their potential pathogenicity in poultry. the haemagglutination inhibition (hi) test is widely used as subtype specific test for serological diagnostics despite the laborious nature of this method. however, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) are being explored as an alternative test method.h5 and h7 specific monoclonal antibodies were experimentally raised and used in the development of i ...201324256721
transmission of sars and mers coronaviruses and influenza virus in healthcare settings: the possible role of dry surface contamination.viruses with pandemic potential including h1n1, h5n1, and h5n7 influenza viruses, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars)/middle east respiratory syndrome (mers) coronaviruses (cov) have emerged in recent years. sars-cov, mers-cov, and influenza virus can survive on surfaces for extended periods, sometimes up to months. factors influencing the survival of these viruses on surfaces include: strain variation, titre, surface type, suspending medium, mode of deposition, temperature and relative ...201626597631
persistence of low-pathogenic h5n7 and h7n1 avian influenza subtypes in filtered natural waters.wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir of avian influenza virus (aiv), and the virus is transmitted among birds through a fecal-oral route. infected birds excrete significant amounts of aiv into the environment, and thereby sustain the circulation of aiv in the bird populations. improved knowledge on the influence of environmental factors on the persistence of aiv in natural habitats would be valuable for risk assessments. the presented work investigated the persistence of two low-pathogen ...201323891171
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