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trichinella zimbabwensis n.sp. (nematoda), a new non-encapsulated species from crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus) in zimbabwe also infecting mammals.since 1995, trichinella larvae have been detected in 39.5% of farmed crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus) in zimbabwe. morphological, biological, biochemical and molecular studies carried out on one isolate from a farmed crocodile in 2001 support the conclusion that this parasite belongs to a new species, which has been named trichinella zimbabwensis n.sp. this species, whose larvae are non-encapsulated in host muscles, infects both reptiles and mammals. the morphology of adults and larvae is simil ...200212464425
effect of host age in the distribution of adult trichinella zimbabwensis in the small intestines of golden hamsters (mesocricetus auratus) and balb c mice.golden hamsters (mesocricetus auratus) and balb c mice were experimentally infected with trichinella zimbabwensis to determine the effect of host age in the distribution of adult stages in the small intestines. the hamsters and mice were divided into two groups of young and old animals. hamsters aged 90 days were designated as young and those aged 360 days were designated as old while mice of 30 days of age were designated as young and those aged 90 days as old. to recover the adult parasites of ...200312967176
biochemical analysis of encapsulated and non-encapsulated species of trichinella (nematoda, trichinellidae) from cold- and warm-blooded animals reveals a high genetic divergence in the genus.multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was used to analyse genetic variation in the genus trichinella. twenty-eight isolates belonging to eight species and six genotypes were analysed for 12 enzyme systems, producing 19 different phenotypes. according to jaccard's similarity index, the isolates clustered into two main groups, specifically, encapsulated species/genotypes and non-encapsulated species/genotypes. furthermore, the non-encapsulated species clustered into two other groups: the species infec ...200314557876
trichinella papuae and trichinella zimbabwensis induce infection in experimentally infected varans, caimans, pythons and turtles.the discovery of trichinella zimbabwensis in farm crocodiles of zimbabwe has opened up a new frontier in the epidemiology of the trichinella genus. the objective of the present study was to investigate the infectivity of encapsulated species (t. spiralis, t. nativa, t. britovi, t. murrelli and t. nelsoni) and non-encapsulated species (t. pseudospiralis, t. papuae and t. zimbabwensis) in caimans (caiman crocodilus), varans (varanus exanthematicus), pythons (python molurus bivittatus) and turtles ...200415074882
inappropriate feeding practice favors the transmission of trichinella papuae from wild pigs to saltwater crocodiles in papua new guinea.the recent discovery of trichinella zimbabwensis in farmed crocodiles (crocodilus niloticus) of zimbabwe and its ability to infect mammals, and the development of both t. zimbabwensis and trichinella papuae in experimentally infected reptiles led to an investigation of trichinella infection in saltwater crocodiles (crocodylus porosus) and in wild pigs (sus scrofa) of papua new guinea, to see if t. papuae also, is present in both cold- and warm-blooded animals. of 222 crocodiles examined, 47 anim ...200415710525
the broad spectrum of trichinella hosts: from cold- to warm-blooded animals.in recent years, studies on trichinella have shown that the host range is wider than previously believed and new trichinella species and genotypes have been described. three classes of vertebrates are known to act as hosts, mammals, birds and reptiles, and infected vertebrates have been detected on all continents but antarctica. mammals represent the most important hosts and all trichinella species are able to develop in this vertebrate class. natural infections with trichinella have been descri ...200515970384
evaluation of the infectivity of trichinella papuae and trichinella zimbabwensis for equatorial freshwater fishes.the discovery of trichinella species infecting poikilotherm vertebrates has opened new possibilities in the epidemiology of this parasite group. the aim of the present work was to investigate the infectivity of the two non-encapsulated species of trichinella infecting both mammals and reptiles, trichinella papuae and trichinella zimbabwensis, for equatorial freshwater carnivore fishes. to this end, two species of piranhas, four serrasalmus nattereri and four serrasalmus rhombeus, were each inocu ...200515982818
phylogenetic analysis of encapsulated and non-encapsulated trichinella species by studying the 5s rdna tandemly repeated intergenic region.the identification of sequence regions in the genomes of pathogens which can be useful to distinguish among species and genotypes, is of great importance for epidemiological, molecular, and phylogenetic studies. the 5s ribosomal dna intergenic spacer region has been identified as a good target to distinguish among eight trichinella species and genotypes. the recent discovery of two non-encapsulated species in this genus, trichinella papuae and trichinella zimbabwensis, which can infect both mamm ...200516076532
[methods and tools for parasite differentiation within the genus trichinella].this review summarizes the major biological, biochemical and molecular methods which have been developed during last 20 years to distinguish parasites of the genus trichinella. from the time of the discovery of trichinella in 1835 until the 1970, it was assumed that trichinellosis was caused by a single species of parasite, trichinella spiralis. many biological parameters have been compared to differentiate the parasite, such as host specificity, geographical distribution, reproductive abilities ...200617432239
trichinella zimbabwensis in wild reptiles of zimbabwe and mozambique and farmed reptiles of ethiopia.in 1995, a new species of trichinella (trichinella zimbabwensis) was discovered in farmed nile crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus) in zimbabwe, where the mode of transmission was the consumption of the meat of slaughtered crocodiles, used as feed. to determine whether t. zimbabwensis affects poikilotherm vertebrates in the wild, monitor lizards (varanus niloticus) and nile crocodiles were collected in zimbabwe and mozambique. in 5 (17.6%) of the 28 monitor lizards from zimbabwe, t. zimbabwensis la ...200716982152
experimental infections of baboons (papio spp.) and vervet monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops) with trichinella zimbabwensis and successful treatment with ivermectin.experimental trichinella zimbabwensis infections were established in three baboons (papio sp.) and four vervet monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops) and the clinical-pathological manifestations assessed. the infected animals showed clinical signs ranging from fever, diarrhoea, periorbital oedema and muscular pain in varying degrees. one baboon became blind due to the infection. levels of creatinine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased to reach a peak on day 42 post-infection (pi) for bot ...200818788211
evaluation of inflammatory responses against muscle larvae of different trichinella species by an image analysis system.the aim of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory response in the muscle tissue against trichinella larvae of encapsulated (t. spiralis, t. britovi) and non-encapsulated (t. pseudospiralis) species. the inflammatory response was estimated in histological sections of muscle tissues from trichinella-infected cd1 mice by a newly developed method. nuclei were stained with one fluorescent probe, which binds nucleic acids with high affinity, and fluorescence was analysed by a software program. ev ...200919046814
trichinella zimbabwensis in wild nile crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus) of south africa.recent discovery of trichinella zimbabwensis in crocodiles from zimbabwe, lake cahora basa, mozambique, and from lake abaja, ethiopia, prompted strict control measures to curb the possible spread of the infection to humans and also to prevent its introduction to other countries, which were considered free of this pathogen. in 2006, the chief directorate veterinary services of mpumalanga province of south africa launched a survey to investigate the status of wild and commercial breeding crocodile ...200919167165
trichinella zimbabwensis in a naturally infected mammal.trichinella zimbabwensis has been detected in wild and farmed nile crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus) and in wild monitor lizards (varanus niloticus) of several african countries, but it has never been detected in mammals in nature, in spite of its infectivity to rodents, pigs, foxes and monkeys under laboratory conditions. the aim of this work was to describe the first detection of t. zimbabwensis in a naturally infected lion (panthera leo) of the kruger national park (knp) of south africa. the ...201019580688
trichinella infections in animals and humans in sub-saharan africa: a review.the aim of this review is to provide information on trichinella infection in humans, livestock and wildlife in sub-saharan africa mainly focusing on geographical distribution of species/genotypes, biology, host range, life cycles and to identify research gaps. trichinella britovi, trichinella nelsoni and trichinella zimbabwensis and one genotype (trichinella t8) are known to occur in sub-saharan africa. distinct geographic ranges with overlapping of some taxa in some areas have been observed. ge ...201323041114
development of an elisa to detect the humoral immune response to trichinella zimbabwensis in nile crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus).crocodiles are known reservoir hosts of trichinella papuae and trichinella zimbabwensis, two zoonotic parasites that also infect mammals. since commercial crocodile farming represents a key source of income in several countries, it is important to monitor this nematode infection in both farmed crocodiles and in breeding stocks which are frequently introduced from the wild. for this purpose, an indirect elisa was developed to detect the anti-trichinella immune response in crocodile sera. new zeal ...201323433644
the occurrence of trichinella zimbabwensis in naturally infected wild crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus) from the kruger national park, south africa.trichinella zimbabwensis has been found naturally infecting crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus) in zimbabwe, mozambique, ethiopia and south africa, as well as monitor lizards (varanus niloticus) in zimbabwe. the reports on natural infections were mostly accidental rather than structured surveys and involved very few animals. previous surveillance studies in south africa reported a 38.5% prevalence of t. zimbabwensis among wild crocodiles tested from the mpumalanga province and kruger national park ...201322335961
assessment of selected biochemical parameters and humoral immune response of nile crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus) experimentally infected with trichinella zimbabwensis.fifteen crocodiles were randomly divided into three groups of five animals. they represented high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups of 642 larvae/kg, 414 larvae/kg and 134 larvae/kg bodyweight, respectively. the parameters assessed were blood glucose, creatine phosphokinase (cpk), lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), aspartate transaminase (ast) and alanine transaminase (alt). the humoral immune response to trichinella zimbabwensis infection was evaluated in all three groups by an ind ...201425686027
assessment of selected biochemical parameters and humoral immune response of nile crocodiles (<i>crocodylus niloticus</i>) experimentally infected with <i>trichinella zimbabwensis</i>.fifteen crocodiles were randomly divided into three groups of five animals. they represented high-infection, medium-infection and low-infection groups of 642 larvae/kg, 414 larvae/kg and 134 larvae/kg bodyweight, respectively. the parameters assessed were blood glucose, creatine phosphokinase (cpk), lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), aspartate transaminase (ast) and alanine transaminase (alt). the humoral immune response to trichinella zimbabwensis infection was evaluated in all three groups by an ind ...201428235303
distribution patterns and predilection muscles of trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in experimentally infected nile crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus laurenti).no controlled studies have been conducted to determine the predilection muscles of trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in nile crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus) or the influence of infection intensity on the distribution of the larvae in crocodiles. the distribution of larvae in muscles of naturally infected nile crocodiles and experimentally infected caimans (caiman crocodilus) and varans (varanus exanthematicus) have been reported in literature. to determine the distribution patterns of t. zimbabw ...201424833069
distribution patterns and predilection muscles of <i>trichinella zimbabwensis</i> larvae in experimentally infected nile crocodiles (<i>crocodylus niloticus</i> laurenti).no controlled studies have been conducted to determine the predilection muscles of trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in nile crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus) or the influence of infection intensity on the distribution of the larvae in crocodiles. the distribution of larvae in muscles of naturally infected nile crocodiles and experimentally infected caimans (caiman crocodilus) and varans (varanus exanthematicus) have been reported in literature. to determine the distribution patterns of t. zimbabw ...201428235274
first report of a mixed infection of trichinella nelsoni and trichinella t8 in a leopard (panthera pardus) from the greater kruger national park, south africa.at least three trichinella species, namely trichinella nelsoni, trichinella britovi and trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (trichinella t8), have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the african continent. with the exception of t. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the kruger national park (knp), south africa, and knp neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater knp area). lions (panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) appear ...201425686214
first report of a mixed infection of <i>trichinella nelsoni</i> and <i>trichinella</i> t8 in a leopard (<i>panthera pardus</i>) from the greater kruger national park, south africa.at least three trichinella species, namely trichinella nelsoni, trichinella britovi and trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (trichinella t8), have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the african continent. with the exception of t. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the kruger national park (knp), south africa, and knp neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater knp area). lions (panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) appear ...201428235280
metabolic and adaptive immune responses induced in mice infected with tissue-dwelling nematode trichinella zimbabwensis.tissue-dwelling helminths are known to induce intestinal and systemic inflammation accompanied with host compensatory mechanisms to counter balance nutritional and metabolic deficiencies. the metabolic and immune responses of the host depend on parasite species and tissues affected by the parasite. this study investigated metabolic and immuno-inflammatory responses of mice infected with tissue-dwelling larvae of trichinella zimbabwensis and explored the relationship between infection, metabolic ...201627882304
efficacy of maslinic acid and fenbendazole on muscle larvae of trichinella zimbabwensis in laboratory rats.trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by nematode species of the genus trichinella. anthelmintics targeting the intestinal adults and muscle-dwelling larvae of trichinella spp. have been tested, with limited success. this study was aimed at determining the efficacy of maslinic acid and fenbendazole on muscle larvae of trichinella zimbabwensis in laboratory rats. forty-two sprague-dawley rats, with an average weight of 270 g and 180 g for males and females respectively, were infected with t ...201626693889
differential immune responses in mice infected with the tissue-dwelling nematode trichinella zimbabwensis.to improve diagnostic tools, immunotherapies and vaccine development for trichinellosis surveillance and control there is a need to understand the host immune responses induced during infection with trichinella zimbabwensis, a tissue-dwelling nematode. in this study, we sought to determine immune responses induced in mice during t. zimbabwensis infection. the parasite strain used (code iss1209) was derived from a naturally infected crocodile (crocodylus niloticus) and is the main trichinella spe ...201626294082
host pregnancy influences the establishment of trichinella zimbabwensis in balb c mice.in order to determine the effect of host pregnancy in the establishment of trichinella zimbabwensis, 120 female balb c mice were divided into 4 groups of 30 mice each. group 1 animals were orally infected with 50 t. zimbabwensis larvae per gram (lpg) of body weight on day 0; group 2 were mated on day 0 and not infected; group 3 were mated at day 0 and infected with 50 lpg at day 7 post-mating and group 4 were control animals which were neither mated nor infected. six animals from each group were ...201728848281
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