leishmania herreri sp. n. from sloths and sandflies of costa rica.leishmania herreri sp. n. is described after isolation in pure culture from blood, viscera and skin of two-toed (choloepus hoffmanni) and three-toed (bradypus griseus) sloths from costa rica. also, it was isolated from the following sandflies: lutzomyia trapidoi, l. ylephiletor and l. shannoni. the amastigote forms were not seen in the final hosts but they were obtained in tissue culture at 33 c. both promastigotes and amastigotes failed to infect hamsters. the new parasite is isolated frequentl ...1979448612
leishmaniasis in colombia. i. studies on the phlebotomine fauna associated with endemic foci in the pacific coast region.studies on the phlebotomine fauna related to the leishmaniasis endemic foci of the colombian pacific coast were carried out in the municipalities of tumaco and buenaventura. in inguapí del guadual, tumaco, lutzomyia trapidoi and lu. gomezi were the predominant anthropophilic species; lu. panamensis and lu. hartmanni were less frequent. in bajo calima, buenaventura, lu. trapidoi represented over 94% of the anthropophilic sandflies. continuous sampling from 1800 to 0600 hours in inguapí del guadua ...19883177739
vesicular stomatitis virus, indiana serotype: multiplication in and transmission by experimentally infected phlebotomine sandflies (lutzomyia trapidoi). 19714327378
vesicular stomatitis virus (indiana serotype): transovarial transmission by phlebotomine sandlies.transovarial transmission of vesicular stomatitis virus (indiana serotype) by experimentally infected lutzomyia trapidoi and lutzomyia ylephiletrix to their progeny was demonstrated. virus was recovered from all developmental stages; mean virus titers from egg to first generation adult showed a four-log increase, indicating that virus multiplication occurred during development of the sandflies. virus titers in first generation adult females were comparable to those found in their parents. these ...19724335268
epidemiology of leishmaniasis in ecuador: current status of knowledge -- a review.although leishmaniasis is regarded as a significant health problem in ecuador by the ministry of health, and the incidence has increased over the last years, an official map on the geographic distribution of disease and sand fly vectors or a control strategy do not exist yet. this article reviews the current situation based on published information to improve our knowledge and understand the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in ecuador in order to help future research and to develop a n ...200415654419
leishmania (viannia) braziliensis infection in two colombian dogs: a note on infectivity for sand flies and response to treatment.although canine cutaneous leishmaniasis has been reported in several foci of south america, no published information from colombia is available.200617361862
transmission of leishmania metacyclic promastigotes by phlebotomine sand flies.a thorough understanding of the transmission mechanism of any infectious agent is crucial to implementing an effective intervention strategy. here, our current understanding of the mechanisms that leishmania parasites use to ensure their transmission from sand fly vectors by bite is reviewed. the most important mechanism is the creation of a "blocked fly" resulting from the secretion of promastigote secretory gel (psg) by the parasites in the anterior midgut. this forces the sand fly to regurgit ...200717517415
lutzomyia sand fly diversity and rates of infection by wolbachia and an exotic leishmania species on barro colorado island, panama.sand flies (diptera, psychodidae, phlebotominae) in the genus lutzomyia are the predominant vectors of the protozoan disease leishmaniasis in the new world. within the watershed of the panama canal, the cutaneous form of leishmaniasis is a continuous health threat for residents, tourists and members of an international research community. here we report the results of screening a tropical forest assemblage of sand fly species for infection by both leishmania and a microbe that can potentially se ...201020231892
anthropogenic influence on the distribution, abundance and diversity of sandfly species (diptera: phlebotominae: psychodidae), vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in panama, species of the genus lutzomyia are vectors of american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl). there is no recent ecological information that may be used to develop tools for the control of this disease. thus, the goal of this study was to determine the composition, distribution and diversity of lutzomyia species that serve as vectors of acl. sandfly sampling was conducted in forests, fragmented forests and rural environments, in locations with records of acl. lutzomyia gomezi, lutzomyia panam ...201122241128
ecuador paraiso escondido virus, a new flavivirus isolated from new world sand flies in ecuador, is the first representative of a novel clade in the genus flavivirus.a new flavivirus, ecuador paraiso escondido virus (epev), named after the village where it was discovered, was isolated from sand flies (psathyromyia abonnenci, formerly lutzomyia abonnenci) that are unique to the new world. this represents the first sand fly-borne flavivirus identified in the new world. epev exhibited a typical flavivirus genome organization. nevertheless, the maximum pairwise amino acid sequence identity with currently recognized flaviviruses was 52.8%. phylogenetic analysis o ...201526355096
dna barcoding for the identification of sand fly species (diptera, psychodidae, phlebotominae) in colombia.sand flies include a group of insects that are of medical importance and that vary in geographic distribution, ecology, and pathogen transmission. approximately 163 species of sand flies have been reported in colombia. surveillance of the presence of sand fly species and the actualization of species distribution are important for predicting risks for and monitoring the expansion of diseases which sand flies can transmit. currently, the identification of phlebotomine sand flies is based on morpho ...201424454877
sand fly fauna (diptera, pcychodidae, phlebotominae) in different leishmaniasis-endemic areas of ecuador, surveyed using a newly named mini-shannon study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in ecuador from february 2013 to april 2014. a modified and simplified version of the conventional shannon trap was named "mini-shannon trap" and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. the mini-shannon, cdc light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. the species identification of sand flies was performed main ...201425589880
identification of phlebotomine sand flies using one maldi-tof ms reference database and two mass spectrometer systems.rapid, accurate and high-throughput identification of vector arthropods is of paramount importance in surveillance programmes that are becoming more common due to the changing geographic occurrence and extent of many arthropod-borne diseases. protein profiling by maldi-tof mass spectrometry fulfils these requirements for identification, and reference databases have recently been established for several vector taxa, mostly with specimens from laboratory colonies.201525957576
first report of warileya rotundipennis (psychodidae: phlebotominae) naturally infected with leishmania (viannia) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in colombia.the expansion of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis from sylvatic ecosystems into peri-urban and domestic settings has occurred as sand flies have adapted to anthropogenic environmental modifications. assessment of the intradomiciliary presence of sand flies in households of the settlement "la cabaña", in the department of risaralda, colombia, revealed an abundance of warileya rotundipennis. this unexpected observation motivated further analyses to evaluate the participation of this species ...201525917717
spatial distribution of sand fly vectors and eco-epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in colombia.leishmania is transmitted by phlebotominae insects that maintain the enzootic cycle by circulating between sylvatic and domestic mammals; humans enter the cycles as accidental hosts due to the vector's search for blood source. in colombia, leishmaniasis is an endemic disease and 95% of all cases are cutaneous (cl), these cases have been reported in several regions of the country where the intervention of sylvatic areas by the introduction of agriculture seem to have an impact on the rearrangemen ...201526431546
cutaneous leishmaniasis and sand fly fluctuations are associated with el niño in panamá.cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) is a neglected tropical vector-borne disease. sand fly vectors (sf) and leishmania spp parasites are sensitive to changes in weather conditions, rendering disease transmission susceptible to changes in local and global scale climatic patterns. nevertheless, it is unclear how sf abundance is impacted by el niño southern oscillation (enso) and how these changes might relate to changes in cl transmission.201425275503
exposure to phlebotomus argentipes (diptera, psychodidae, phlebotominae) sand flies in rural areas of bihar, india: the role of housing conditions.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is a vector-borne infectious disease, caused by the protozoan leishmania donovani, which is transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. in an earlier study in bihar, india, we found an association between incidence of vl and housing conditions. in the current study we investigated the influence of housing structure and conditions in and around the house on the indoor abundance of phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of vl in this area.201425184542
leishmaniasis sand fly vector density reduction is less marked in destitute housing after insecticide thermal fogging.insecticide thermal fogging (itf) is a tool to control vector borne diseases. insecticide application success for vector control has been associated with housing materials and architecture. vector abundance is correlated with weather changes. nevertheless, housing quality and weather impacts on vector abundance have been unaccounted for in most new world insecticide control trials for leishmaniasis vectors.201323742709
clinical cutaneous leishmaniasis rates are associated with household lutzomyia gomezi, lu. panamensis, and lu. trapidoi abundance in trinidad de las minas, western panama.american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) transmission patterns have been increasingly associated with domestic and peridomestic environments. here, we present results from an epidemiological survey of 94 people from 24 households in trinidad de las minas, western panama. we studied the role of sand fly abundance, housing quality, peridomicile landscape matrix, and vegetation structure on shaping household clinical acl rate patterns at trinidad de las minas. we found that sand fly abundance was sig ...201323339202
a study of a population of nyssomyia trapidoi (diptera: psychodidae) caught on the pacific coast of ecuador.cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic to the pacific coast of ecuador, and nyssomyia trapidoi is considered to be its main vector. dujardin et al. [1] recorded some differences in body pigmentation and isoenzymatic profiles in sympatric populations of ny. trapidoi from the pacific coast of ecuador and suggested the existence of two cryptic species.201222824472
an epidemic outbreak of canine cutaneous leishmaniasis in colombia caused by leishmania braziliensis and leishmania panamensis.the largest recorded outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in colombia's history occurred during 2005-2009 in soldiers of the colombian army, with ~40,000 cases. this outbreak was caused by the influx of military personnel into the jungle with the mission of combat illicit crops and the guerrilla. the soldiers remain for long periods within the rainforest and are exposed to the bite of infected sand flies. during the military activities, soldiers work with dogs specially trained to detect landmine ...022556078
new records of phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) from ecuador.the number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. in 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, tiputini in the amazon rain forest and paraiso escondido in the pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. new records for ecuador consisted of five species from the amazonian region and one from paraiso escondido. the amazonian species were nyssomyia richardwardi (ready and fraiha), psathyrom ...022628901
changes in phlebotomine sand fly species composition following insecticide thermal fogging in a rural setting of western panamá.american cutaneous leishmaniasis, acl, is a zoonotic disease with a large richness of co-occurring vector species in transmission foci. here, we describe changes in patterns of phlebotomine sand fly (diptera: psychodidae: phlebotominae) species composition at the village of trinidad de las minas, capira, panamá, a hyperendemic focus of acl transmission, subjected to a vector control intervention with insecticide thermal fogging (itf). our study setting consisted of 24 houses, 12 subjected to two ...201323536748
identification of six new world leishmania species through the implementation of a high-resolution melting (hrm) genotyping assay.leishmaniases are tropical zoonotic diseases, caused by parasites from the genus leishmania. new world (nw) species are related to sylvatic cycles although urbanization processes have been reported in some south american countries such as colombia. this eco-epidemiological complexity imposes a challenge to the detection of circulating parasite species, not only related to human cases but also infecting vectors and reservoirs. currently, no harmonized methods have been deployed to discriminate th ...201425394418
cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs: is high seroprevalence indicative of a reservoir role?american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) is a complex disease with a rich diversity of animal host species. this diversity imposes a challenge, since understanding acl transmission requires the adequate identification of reservoir hosts, those species able to be a source of additional infections. in this study we present results from an acl cross-sectional serological survey of 51 dogs (canis familiaris), where we used diagnostic tests that measure dog's exposure to leishmania spp. parasites. we d ...201525990429
american cutaneous leishmaniasis in panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic lutzomyia sand fly species.we review existing information on the epidemiology of american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) in panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic lutzomyia sand fly species. evidence from panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: lutzomyia trapidoi, lu. panamensis, lu. gomezi, lu. ylephiletor, lu. sanguinaria and lu. pessoana (henceforth lu. carrerai thula). in general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their host ...201424886629
molecular identification of leishmania spp. in sand flies (diptera: psychodidae, phlebotominae) from ecuador.the detection and identification of natural infections in sand flies by leishmania protozoan species in endemic areas is a key factor in assessing the risk of leishmaniasis and in designing prevention and control measures for this infectious disease. in this study, we analyzed the leishmania dna using nuclear ribosomal internal transcript spacer (its) sequences. parasite dna was extracted from naturally infected, blood-fed sand flies collected in nine localities considered leishmaniasis-endemic ...201728981860
biting activity of two anthropophilic species of sandflies, lutzomyia, in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in ecuador.the biting patterns of lutzomyia trapidoi and lu. hartmanni, vectors of leishmaniasis, were studied using a human bait in an endemic area on the pacific slope of the andes in ecuador. the results suggest that lu. trapidoi is primarily an early biter at dusk, with the first peak at 20.00-21.00 hours and the second at 03.00-04.00 hours; and that lu. hartmanni bites more constantly throughout the night, with a pronounced peak between 23.00 and 24.00 hours. the biting activity, however, shows a mark ...19854083963
sugar-feeding behavior of lutzomyia trapidoi (diptera: psychodidae) under experimental conditions. 19744828348
a new method for rearing lutzomyia trapidoi (diptera: psychodidae), with observations on its development and behavior in the laboratory. 19751159740
successful colonization of the sand fly lutzomyia trapidoi (diptera: psychodidae), with enhancement of its gonotrophic activity. 19863701802
brain cell karyotypes of six new world sand flies (diptera: psychodidae).the brain cell karyotypes of six new world sand flies are described and compared. lutzomyia trapidoi has three pairs of chromosomes, 2n = 6. the other species, l. gomezi, l. erwindonaldoi, l. carmelinoi, l. walkeri and l. columbiana, have four pairs of chromosomes, 2n = 8. no heteromorphic chromosomes were observed. cytogenetic similarities among sand fly species are discussed.19883225564
[eco-epidemiological aspects, natural detection and molecular identification of leishmania spp. in lutzomyia reburra, lutzomyia barrettoi majuscula and lutzomyia trapidoi].the province of pichincha in ecuador is an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, where anthropophilic sand flies with natural infection by leishmania, have been reported as vectors. however, the role in transmission of zoophilic species has not been evaluated.201729161481
blood-meal identification in phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) from valle hermoso, a high prevalence zone for cutaneous leishmaniasis in ecuador.cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies of the genus lutzomyia. in south america, cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in the majority of countries. there are no previous reports of phlebotomine sand fly host feeding sources in ecuador. we identified blood meal sources for phlebotomine sand fly species in valle hermoso, a hyper endemic area for leishmaniasis in ecuador. phlebotomine sand fly collections were carried out during the dry and rain ...201526361709
cryptic speciation in lutzomyia (nyssomyia) trapidoi (fairchild & hertig) (diptera: psychodidae) detected by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.lutzomyia trapidoi is the major vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in ecuador. in the framework of an epidemiologic study, female lu. trapidoi sand flies were captured on human bait in la tablada and paraiso escondido. some coloration heterogeneity among the specimens caught led us to look for the existence of cryptic species using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. in 196 specimens studied, five of seven enzyme loci proved to be variable, making it possible to check for departures from panmixia ...19968651367
[leishmaniasis in ecuador. 5. leishmaniasis and anthropization on the pacific coast].we have evaluated the impact of anthropization of the forest on the incidence of leishmaniasis, due to leishmania panamensis, in three coastal study areas, corriente grande (primary forest), paraiso escondido and la tablada (secondary forest). the situation of isolated dwellings, in deforested areas, has also been analysed in the last two stations. in each station, the study of the density of anthropophilic sand flies, specially lutzomyia trapidoi, has been conducted in the domestic environment, ...19948024348
[leishmaniasis in ecuador. 3. lutzomyia trapidoi, vector of leishmania panamensis].lutzomyia trapidoi, the more abundant anthropophilic species, is a presumed leishmaniasis vector in the pacific foothills of ecuador. three biotopes have been sampled (dwelling, and nearby coffee crop and primary forest) in the focus of paraiso escondido, by human bait catches, from august 1991 to october 1992. a large number of sandflies, 6,965 specimens, have been dissected to estimate peri and hypopyloric infections. all the peripyloric infections, characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, ...19948024346
[leishmaniasis in ecuador. 2. man/vector contacts in leishmaniasis: the case of lutzomyia trapidoi and lu. gomezi].in two leishmaniasis endemic foci of the pacific coast of ecuador, where the primary forest is severely attacked by human settlements, intradomiciliary sandfly catches, with light trap and human bait, have been carried out from august 1991 to october 1992. the presumed vector lutzomyia trapidoi was by far the dominant species inside dwellings at paraiso escondido in the preandean hills (86% of the anthropophilic sandfly population, and 8.5 females/night catch by light trap). not a single lu. gom ...19948024345
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