identification and molecular characterization of 18 paramyxoviruses isolated from snakes.viral agents from 18 different snake species (families colubridae, viperidae, and crotalidae) showing respiratory symptoms and neuronal disease were identified as paramyxoviruses by typical cytopathogenic effect (cpe), electron microscopy, and hemagglutination inhibition. detailed molecular characterization of the viruses was performed by partial l- and f-gene-specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and sequencing, nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignment, and phylo ...200111597749
full-length genome sequence of mossman virus, a novel paramyxovirus isolated from rodents in australia.mossman virus (mov) was isolated on two occasions from wild rats trapped in queensland, australia, during the early 1970s. together with nariva virus and j-virus mov belongs to a group of novel paramyxoviruses isolated from rodents during the last 40 years, none of which had been characterized at the molecular level until now. cdna subtraction strategies used to isolate virus-specific cdna derived from both mov-infected cells and crude mov pellets were pivotal steps in rapid characterization of ...200314698671
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against formalin-inactivated nipah virus isolated from the lungs of a pig.eight clones of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to nipah virus (nv) were produced against formalin-inactivated nv antigens. they reacted positive by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, and one of them also demonstrated virus neutralizing activity. they were classified into six different types based on their biological properties. these mabs will be useful for immunodiagnosis of nv infections in animals and further research studies involving the genomes and proteins of nv.200414960818
basis for fusion inhibition by peptides: analysis of the heptad repeat regions of the fusion proteins from nipah and hendra viruses, newly emergent zoonotic paramyxoviruses.nipah virus (niv) and hendra virus (hev) are novel zoonotic members of the paramyxoviridae family and are the prototypes for a newly designated genus, genus henipavirus. recent studies have shown that paramyxovirus might adopt a similar mechanism of virus fusion-entry. under this mechanism, the two highly conserved heptad repeat (hr) regions, hr1 and hr2, in the fusion (f) protein, seem to show characteristic structure in the fusion core: the formation of a 6-helix coiled-coil bundle. the three ...200414975752
emerging infectious diseases. nipah virus (or a cousin) strikes again. 200414976284
nipah virus. 200415038065
emerging encephalitogenic viruses: lyssaviruses and henipaviruses transmitted by frugivorous bats.three newly recognized encephalitogenic zoonotic viruses spread from fruit bats of the genus pteropus (order chiroptera, suborder megachiroptera) have been recognised over the past decade. these are: hendra virus, formerly named equine morbillivirus, which was responsible for an outbreak of disease in horses and humans in brisbane, australia, in 1994; australian bat lyssavirus, the cause of a severe acute encephalitis, in 1996; and nipah virus, the cause of a major outbreak of encephalitis and p ...200415119765
novel viral encephalitides associated with bats (chiroptera)--host management strategies.several novel viruses recently described in bats of the genus pteropus (sub-order megachiroptera) in australia and southeast asia cause encephalitic disease in animals and humans. these viruses include hendra virus and nipah virus (genus henipavirus, family paramyxoviridae) and australian bat lyssavirus (ablv; genus lyssavirus, family rhabdoviridae). broadly, strategies for disease prevention and control in the spillover host are directed at minimising direct or indirect contact with the natural ...200415119766
henipaviruses: recent observations on regulation of transcription and the nature of the cell receptor.hendra virus (henv) and nipah virus (nipv) are classified in the new genus henipavirus, within the subfamily paramyxovirinae, family paramyxoviridae. the genetic and biological characteristics that differentiate henipaviruses from other members of the subfamily are summarized. although they do not display neuraminidase and hemagglutination activities and in that regard resemble viruses in the genus morbillivirus, several recent observations highlight similarities between henipaviruses and respir ...200415119767
nipah virus outbreak(s) in bangladesh, january-april 2004. 200415132054
mapping of domains responsible for nucleocapsid protein-phosphoprotein interaction of henipaviruses.hendra virus (hev) and nipah virus (niv) are members of a new genus, henipavirus, in the family paramyxoviridae. each virus encodes a phosphoprotein (p) that is significantly larger than its counterparts in other known paramyxoviruses. the interaction of this unusually large p with its nucleocapsid protein (n) was investigated in this study by using recombinant full-length and truncated proteins expressed in bacteria and a modified protein-blotting protein-overlay assay. results from our group d ...200415166452
specific detection of nipah virus using real-time rt-pcr (taqman).nipah and hendra viruses belong to the novel henipavirus genus of the paramyxoviridae family. its zoonotic circulation in bats and recent emergence in malaysia with fatal consequences for humans that were in close contact with infected pigs, has made the reinforcement of epidemiological and clinical surveillance systems a priority. in this study, taqman rt-pcr of the nipah nucleoprotein has been developed so that nipah virus rna in field specimens or laboratory material can be characterized rapi ...200415288966
nipah's return. the lethal "flying fox" virus may spread between people. 200415376742
reactivity of anti-nipah virus monoclonal antibodies to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues from experimental nipah and hendra virus infections.the immunohistochemical reactivity of seven clones of mouse monoclonal antibodies raised to nipah virus antigens were investigated using formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded porcine and equine lung tissues from experimental nipah and hendra virus infection, respectively. either microwave irradiation or enzymatic digestion effectively unmasked the viral antigens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. four clones showed positive reaction to both nipah virus-infected porcine lung tissue ...200415528861
[nipah virus infections]. 200415624469
isolation and molecular identification of nipah virus from pigs.nipah viruses from pigs from a malaysian 1998 outbreak were isolated and sequenced. at least two different nipah virus strains, including a previously unreported strain, were identified. the findings highlight the possibility that the malaysia outbreaks had two origins of nipah virus infections.200415663869
receptor binding, fusion inhibition, and induction of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies by a soluble g glycoprotein of hendra virus.hendra virus (hev) and nipah virus (niv) are closely related emerging viruses comprising the henipavirus genus of the paramyxovirinae, which are distinguished by their ability to cause fatal disease in both animal and human hosts. these viruses infect cells by a ph-independent membrane fusion event mediated by their attachment (g) and fusion (f) glycoproteins. previously, we reported on hev- and niv-mediated fusion activities and detailed their host-cell tropism characteristics. these studies al ...200515890907
[emerging respiratory infections caused by pneumotropic viruses]. 200515915382
invasion of the central nervous system in a porcine host by nipah virus.nipah virus, a newly emerged zoonotic paramyxovirus, infects a number of species. human infections were linked to direct contact with pigs, specifically with their body fluids. clinical signs in human cases indicated primarily involvement of the central nervous system, while in pigs the respiratory system was considered the primary virus target, with only rare involvement of the central nervous system. eleven 5-week-old piglets were infected intranasally, orally, and ocularly with 2.5 x 10(5) pf ...200515919907
hendra virus under the microscope. 200515971804
novel innate immune functions for galectin-1: galectin-1 inhibits cell fusion by nipah virus envelope glycoproteins and augments dendritic cell secretion of proinflammatory cytokines.galectin-1 (gal-1), an endogenous lectin secreted by a variety of cell types, has pleiotropic immunomodulatory functions, including regulation of lymphocyte survival and cytokine secretion in autoimmune, transplant disease, and parasitic infection models. however, the role of gal-1 in viral infections is unknown. nipah virus (niv) is an emerging pathogen that causes severe, often fatal, febrile encephalitis. the primary targets of niv are endothelial cells. niv infection of endothelial cells res ...200515972675
ephrin-b2 ligand is a functional receptor for hendra virus and nipah virus.hendra virus (hev) and nipah virus (niv) belong to the genus henipavirus of the family paramyxoviridae and are unique in that they exhibit a broad species tropism and cause fatal disease in both animals and humans. they infect cells through a ph-independent membrane fusion process mediated by their fusion and attachment glycoproteins. previously, we demonstrated identical cell fusion tropisms for hev and niv and the protease-sensitive nature of their unknown cell receptor and identified a human ...200515998730
nipah virus in lyle's flying foxes, cambodia.we conducted a survey in cambodia in 2000 on henipavirus infection among several bat species, including flying foxes, and persons exposed to these animals. among 1,072 bat serum samples tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antibodies reactive to nipah virus (niv) antigen were detected only in pteropus lylei species; cynopterus sphinx, hipposideros larvatus, scotophilus kuhlii, chaerephon plicata, taphozous melanopogon, and t. theobaldi species were negative. seroneutralization applied on ...200516022778
the clinical presentation and outcomes of children infected with newly identified respiratory tract viruses.numerous emerging respiratory tract viruses have been identified as significant causes of acute upper and lower respiratory tract illness in children. human metapneumovirus is a paramyxovirus discovered in 2001 in the netherlands, with a seasonal occurrence and spectrum of clinical illness most similar to the closely related respiratory syncytial virus. several new members of the corona-virus family have been identified, including the truly novel agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome and ot ...200516102649
[diagnostic tests: nipah virus (niv)]. 200516111263
a golden hamster model for human acute nipah virus infection.a predominantly pig-to-human zoonotic infection caused by the novel nipah virus emerged recently to cause severe morbidity and mortality in both animals and man. human autopsy studies showed the pathogenesis to be related to systemic vasculitis that led to widespread thrombotic occlusion and microinfarction in most major organs especially in the central nervous system. there was also evidence of extravascular parenchymal infection, particularly near damaged vessels (wong kt, shieh wj, kumar s, n ...200314578210
location of, immunogenicity of and relationships between neutralization epitopes on the attachment protein (g) of hendra virus.epitopes involved in a protective immune response to hendra virus (hev) (henipavirus, paramxyoviridae) were investigated by generating five neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to the virus attachment protein (g) of hev (hev g) and sequencing of the g gene of groups of neutralization-escape variants selected with each mab. amino acid substitutions occurred at eight distinct sites on hev g. relationships between these sites were investigated in binding and neutralization assays using heterol ...200516186240
cathepsin l is involved in proteolytic processing of the hendra virus fusion protein.proteolytic processing of paramyxovirus fusion (f) proteins is essential for the generation of a mature and fusogenic form of the f protein. although many paramyxovirus f proteins are proteolytically processed by the cellular protease furin at a multibasic cleavage motif, cleavage of the newly emerged hendra virus f protein occurs by a previously unidentified cellular protease following a single lysine at residue 109. we demonstrate here that the cellular protease cathepsin l is involved in conv ...200516188974
bats are natural reservoirs of sars-like coronaviruses.severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) emerged in 2002 to 2003 in southern china. the origin of its etiological agent, the sars coronavirus (sars-cov), remains elusive. here we report that species of bats are a natural host of coronaviruses closely related to those responsible for the sars outbreak. these viruses, termed sars-like coronaviruses (sl-covs), display greater genetic variation than sars-cov isolated from humans or from civets. the human and civet isolates of sars-cov nestle phyloge ...200516195424
membrane fusion tropism and heterotypic functional activities of the nipah virus and hendra virus envelope glycoproteins.nipah virus (niv) and hendra virus (hev) are novel paramyxoviruses from pigs and horses, respectively, that are responsible for fatal zoonotic infections of humans. the unique genetic and biological characteristics of these emerging agents has led to their classification as the prototypic members of a new genus within the paramyxovirinae subfamily called henipavirus: these viruses are most closely related to members of the genus morbillivirus and infect cells through a ph-independent membrane fu ...200212388678
emerging zoonotic encephalitis viruses: lessons from southeast asia and oceania.the last decade of the 20th century saw the introduction of an unprecedented number of encephalitic viruses emerge or spread in the southeast asian and western pacific regions (mackenzie et al, 2001; solomon, 2003a). most of these viruses are zoonotic, either being arthropod-borne viruses or bat-borne viruses. thus japanese encephalitis virus (jev), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has spread through the indonesian archipelago to papua new guinea (png) and to the islands of the torres strait of nort ...200516287684
the ecology of emerging neurotropic viruses.the authors review common themes in the ecology of emerging viruses that cause neurological disease. three issues emerge. first, 49% of emerging viruses are characterized by encephalitis or serious neurological clinical symptoms. second, all of these viruses are driven to emerge by ecological, environmental, or human demographic changes, some of which are poorly understood. finally, the control of these viruses would be enhanced by collaborative multidisciplinary research into these drivers of e ...200516287685
functional properties of the fusion and attachment glycoproteins of nipah virus.nipah virus (nv) and hendra virus (hv) are recently emergent, related viruses that can cause severe disease in humans and animals. the goal of this study was to investigate the immunogenic and functional properties of the fusion (f) and attachment (g) glycoproteins of nv. vaccination of mice with recombinant vaccinia viruses (rvvs) expressing either the f (rvv/nv-f) or g (rvv/nv-g) proteins of nv induced neutralizing antibody responses to nv, with higher titers produced after vaccination with rv ...200212036330
genetic characterization of nipah virus, bangladesh, 2004.until 2004, identification of nipah virus (nv)-like outbreaks in bangladesh was based on serology. we describe the genetic characterization of a new strain of nv isolated during outbreaks in bangladesh (nv-b) in 2004, which confirms that nv was the etiologic agent responsible for these outbreaks.200516318702
hendra and nipah viruses: different and dangerous.hendra virus and nipah virus are highly pathogenic paramyxoviruses that have recently emerged from flying foxes to cause serious disease outbreaks in humans and livestock in australia, malaysia, singapore and bangladesh. their unique genetic constitution, high virulence and wide host range set them apart from other paramyxoviruses. these features led to their classification into the new genus henipavirus within the family paramyxoviridae and to their designation as biosafety level 4 pathogens. t ...200616357858
[nipah virus infections].nipah virus (niv) is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that was first recognized in 1999 as the causative agent of outbreaks of human encephalitis in malaysia and singapore, in association with severe respiratory and neurological disease in pigs. since then, outbreaks of niv encephalitis have also occurred in bangladesh during 2001-2004, but without an association to infected swine or other animals. although niv infections typically result in acute encephalitis with high mortality, other clinical manifes ...200516363687
hendra and nipah viruses: pathogenesis and therapeutics.within the past decade a number of new zoonotic paramyxoviruses emerged from flying foxes to cause serious disease outbreaks in man and livestock. hendra virus was the cause of fatal infections of horses and man in australia in 1994, 1999 and 2004. nipah virus caused encephalitis in humans both in malaysia in 1998/99, following silent spread of the virus in the pig population, and in bangladesh from 2001 to 2004 probably as a result of direct bat to human transmission and spread within the human ...200516375714
late clinical and magnetic resonance imaging follow up of nipah virus infection.the nipah virus is a newly identified paramyxovirus responsible for an outbreak of fatal encephalitis in malaysia and singapore. this paper reports the follow up clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings in 22 affected subjects. of 13 patients with encephalitis, one died, one was lost to follow up, and seven recovered. among the four remaining patients, one had residual sixth nerve palsy, another suffered from severe clinical depression, and a third patient had evidence of retinal artery ...200312486285
antibody prophylaxis and therapy against nipah virus infection in hamsters.nipah virus (niv), a member of the paramyxoviridae family, causes a zoonotic infection in which the reservoir, the fruit bat, may pass the infection to pigs and eventually to humans. in humans, the infection leads to encephalitis with >40 to 70% mortality. we have previously shown that polyclonal antibody directed to either one of two glycoproteins, g (attachment protein) or f (fusion protein), can protect hamsters from a lethal infection. in the present study, we have developed monoclonal antib ...200616439553
developments towards effective treatments for nipah and hendra virus infection.hendra and nipah virus are closely related emerging viruses comprising the henipavirus genus of the subfamily paramyxovirinae and are distinguished by their ability to cause fatal disease in both animal and human hosts. in particular, the high mortality and person-to-person transmission associated with the most recent nipah virus outbreaks, as well as the very recent re-emergence of hendra virus, has confirmed the importance and necessity of developing effective therapeutic interventions. much r ...200616441208
nipah virus: an emerging paramyxovirus. 200516140219
inhibition of henipavirus fusion and infection by heptad-derived peptides of the nipah virus fusion glycoprotein.the recent emergence of four new members of the paramyxovirus family has heightened the awareness of and re-energized research on new and emerging diseases. in particular, the high mortality and person to person transmission associated with the most recent nipah virus outbreaks, as well as the very recent re-emergence of hendra virus, has confirmed the importance of developing effective therapeutic interventions. we have previously shown that peptides corresponding to the c-terminal heptad repea ...200516026621
bat nipah virus, thailand.surveillance for nipah virus (nv) was conducted in thailand's bat population. immunoglobulin g antibodies to nv were detected with enzyme immunoassay in 82 of 1,304 bats. nv rna was found in bat saliva and urine. these data suggest the persistence of nv infection in thai bats.200516485487
nipah virus strain variation. 200516485499
nipah virus-associated encephalitis outbreak, siliguri, india.during january and february 2001, an outbreak of febrile illness associated with altered sensorium was observed in siliguri, west bengal, india. laboratory investigations at the time of the outbreak did not identify an infectious agent. because siliguri is in close proximity to bangladesh, where outbreaks of nipah virus (niv) infection were recently described, clinical material obtained during the siliguri outbreak was retrospectively analyzed for evidence of niv infection. niv-specific immunogl ...200616494748
meeting the challenge of epidemic infectious disease outbreaks: an agenda for research.challenges arising from epidemic infectious disease outbreaks can be more effectively met if traditional public health is enhanced by sociology. the focus is normally on biomedical aspects, the surveillance and sentinel systems for infectious diseases, and what needs to be done to bring outbreaks under control quickly. social factors associated with infectious disease outbreaks are often neglected and the aftermath is ignored. these factors can affect outbreak severity, its rate and extent of sp ...200515906881
[nipah virus--another product from the asian "virus factory"]. 200515892474
henipavirus in pteropus vampyrus bats, indonesia. 200616715584
[nipah virus infection].nipah virus (niv), emerged in peninsular malaysia, caused an outbreak of severe febrile encephalitis in humans and respiratory diseases in pigs between 1998 and 1999. by may of 1999, the death of 105 humans and the culling of about 1.1 million pigs were reported. fruitbats of pteropid species were identified as the natural reservoir hosts. the epidemiological studies suggested that niv was introduced into pig farms by fruitbats, and was than transmitted to humans (mainly pig farmers) and other a ...200415745162
drinking bat blood may be hazardous to your health. 200616779764
nipah/hendra virus outbreak in siliguri, west bengal, india in 2001.the viral encephalitides caused by animal or human viruses are characterized by sudden outbreaks of neurological disease in both tropical and temperate regions. an outbreak of acute encephalitis occurred in siliguri (west bengal) town of india between january 31 and february 23, 2001. this outbreak was investigated by a team of scientists from four major institutions, and the findings are presented here.200616783047
immunomodulatory properties of morbillivirus nucleoproteins.morbillivirus infections have been known for a long time to be associated with an acute immunosuppression in their natural hosts. here, we show that recombinant morbillivirus nucleoproteins from canine distemper virus, peste-des-petits-ruminants virus, and rinderpest virus bind b-lymphocytes from dogs, goats, and cattle, respectively, similarly to measles virus nucleoprotein in humans. the use of surface plasmon resonance imaging allowed the real time detection of differential interactions betwe ...200616817775
feral cats and risk for nipah virus transmission. 200616848051
purification of the extra-cellular domain of nipah virus glycoprotein produced in escherichia coli and possible application in diagnosis.the glycoprotein (g) of nipah virus (niv) is important for virus infectivity and induction of the protective immunity. in this study, the extra-cellular domain of niv g protein was fused with hexahistidine residues at its n-terminal end and expressed in escherichia coli. the expression under transcriptional regulation of t7 promoter yielded insoluble protein aggregates in the form of inclusion bodies. the inclusion bodies were solubilized with 8 m urea and the protein was purified to homogeneity ...200515707682
serodiagnosis using recombinant nipah virus nucleocapsid protein expressed in escherichia coli.nipah virus nucleocapsid (niv-n) protein was expressed in escherichia coli and purified by histidine tag-based affinity chromatography. an indirect immunoglobulin g (igg) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for human and swine sera and an igm capture elisa for human sera were established using the recombinant niv-n protein as an antigen. one hundred thirty-three suspected patient sera and 16 swine sera were used to evaluate the newly established elisa systems in comparison with the cdc ina ...200616954238
in silico identification of a putative new paramyxovirus related to the henipavirus genus.a database search for genes encoding paramyxoviral proteins revealed sequences that were designated as human but presented strong evidence of being of viral origin. the two cdna-derived sequences designated angrem104 and angrem52 were originally described as human gene products that were upregulated by angiotensin ii in primary mesangial kidney cells. however, their high degree of sequence relatedness to known viral proteins suggests that they represent the p/c/v, m, and f genes of a putative ne ...200415527844
feline model of acute nipah virus infection and protection with a soluble glycoprotein-based subunit vaccine.nipah virus (niv) and hendra virus (hev) are paramyxoviruses capable of causing considerable morbidity and mortality in a number of mammalian species, including humans. case reports from outbreaks and previous challenge experiments have suggested that cats were highly susceptible to niv infection, responding with a severe respiratory disease and systemic infection. here we have assessed the cat as a model of experimental niv infection and use it in the evaluation of a subunit vaccine comprised o ...200617005664
rna synthesis during infection by hendra virus: an examination by quantitative real-time pcr of rna accumulation, the effect of ribavirin and the attenuation of transcription.hendra virus is one of two virus species within the newly-formed genus henipavirus, subfamily paramxyovirinae. it is a designated select agent with potential biosecurity threat to both human and animal health. quantitative real-time pcr was used to measure viral rna synthesis in vero cells infected by hendra virus, and to examine the inhibitory effect of ribavirin. it was also used to determine the points of attenuation during transcription of the six viral genes n, p, m, f, g and l by targeting ...200515526144
a solid-phase blocking elisa for detection of antibodies to nipah virus.a monoclonal antibody (mab) based solid-phase blocking elisa was developed for detection of antibodies to nipah virus. the elisa was designed to detect remaining antigens on the plate with anti-nipah mab conjugate after the reaction with sample serum, and enabled simple procedure, detection of neutralizing antibody to nipah virus, and application of samples from different animal species. forty of 200 swine reference sera examined were positive by the elisa, of which thirty seven were found posit ...200415381364
hendra virus infection in a veterinarian.a veterinarian became infected with hendra virus (hev) after managing a terminally ill horse and performing a limited autopsy with inadequate precautions. although she was initially only mildly ill, serological tests suggested latent hev infection. nevertheless, she remains well 2 years after her initial illness. recently emerged zoonotic viruses, such as hev, necessitate appropriate working procedures and personal protective equipment in veterinary practice.200617115969
host evasion by emerging paramyxoviruses: hendra virus and nipah virus v proteins inhibit interferon signaling.interferon (ifn) can activate signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat) proteins to establish a cellular antiviral response and inhibit virus replication. many viruses have evolved strategies to inhibit this antiviral mechanism, but paramyxoviruses are unique in their abilities to directly target the ifn-responsive stat proteins. hendra virus and nipah virus (henipaviruses) are recently emerged paramyxoviruses that are the causative agents of fatal disease outbreaks in australia an ...200415279700
efficacy of dna immunization with f and g protein genes of nipah virus.we investigated the antibody response of dna immunization with two mammalian codon optimized envelope glycoprotein genes, f and g, of nipah virus in a mouse model. the results indicated that g gene immunization elicited more significant specific serum igg response and neutralization antibody response than f gene did, suggesting that the g gene dna immunization is a potential vaccine strategy against nipah virus.200617135518
radiology of biological weapons--old and the new? 200717174174
quantitative analysis of nipah virus proteins released as virus-like particles reveals central role for the matrix protein.nipah virus (niv) is an emerging paramyxovirus distinguished by its ability to cause fatal disease in both animal and human hosts. together with hendra virus (hev), they comprise the genus henipavirus in the paramyxoviridae family. niv and hev are also restricted to biosafety level-4 containment and this has hampered progress towards examining details of their replication and morphogenesis. here, we have established recombinant expression systems to study niv particle assembly and budding throug ...200717204159
inhibition of henipavirus infection by nipah virus attachment glycoprotein occurs without cell-surface downregulation of ephrin-b2 or ephrin-b3.nipah virus (niv) and hendra virus (hev) are newly identified members of the family paramyxoviridae and have been classified in the new genus henipavirus based on unique genetic characteristics distinct from other paramyxoviruses. transgenic cell lines were generated that expressed either the attachment protein (g) or the fusion protein (f) of niv. functional expression of niv f and g was verified by complementation with the corresponding glycoprotein, which resulted in the development of syncyt ...200717251577
emerging viruses: coming in on a wrinkled wing and a prayer.the role that bats have played in the emergence of several new infectious diseases has been under review. bats have been identified as the reservoir hosts of newly emergent viruses such as nipah virus, hendra virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronaviruses. this article expands on recent findings about bats and viruses and their relevance to human infections. it briefly reviews the history of chiropteran viruses and discusses their emergence in the context of geography, phylogeny ...200717278066
neutralization assays for differential henipavirus serology using bio-plex protein array systems.hendra virus (hev) and nipah virus (niv) are related emerging paramyxoviruses classified in the genus henipavirus. both cause fatal disease in animals and humans and are classified as biosafety level 4 pathogens. here we detail two new multiplexed microsphere assays, one for antibody detection and differentiation and another designed as a surrogate for virus neutralization. both assays utilize recombinant soluble attachment glycoproteins (sg) whereas the latter incorporates the cellular receptor ...200717292974
monoclonal antibody-based immunohistochemical diagnosis of malaysian nipah virus infection in pigs.formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues of three malaysian farm pigs naturally infected with nipah virus were used to investigate the value of anti-nipah virus mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs) and rabbit polyclonal antibody for immunohistochemical diagnosis. mabs 11f6 and 12a5 gave intense immunolabelling in lung tissue that had been fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for about 4 years, whereas the reactivity of mabs 13a5 and 18c4 and polyclonal antibody was reduced significantly by ...200415276859
foodborne transmission of nipah virus, bangladesh.we investigated an outbreak of encephalitis in tangail district, bangladesh. we defined case-patients as persons from the outbreak area in whom fever developed with new onset of seizures or altered mental status from december 15, 2004, through january 31, 2005. twelve persons met the definition; 11 (92%) died. serum specimens were available from 3; 2 had immunoglobulin m antibodies against nipah virus by capture enzyme immunoassay. we enrolled 11 case-patients and 33 neighborhood controls in a c ...200617326940
fatal fruit bat virus sparks epidemics in southern asia. 200415129247
identification of the nuclear export signal and stat-binding domains of the nipah virus v protein reveals mechanisms underlying interferon evasion.the v proteins of nipah virus and hendra virus have been demonstrated to bind to cellular stat1 and stat2 proteins to form high-molecular-weight complexes that inhibit interferon (ifn)-induced antiviral transcription by preventing stat nuclear accumulation. analysis of the nipah virus v protein has revealed a region between amino acids 174 and 192 that functions as a crm1-dependent nuclear export signal (nes). this peptide is sufficient to complement an export-defective human immunodeficiency vi ...200415113915
henipavirus and tioman virus antibodies in pteropodid bats, madagascar.specimens were obtained from the 3 malagasy fruit bats, pteropus rufus, eidolon dupreanum, and rousettus madagascariensis. antibodies against nipah, hendra, and tioman viruses were detected by immunoassay in 23 and by serum neutralization tests in 3 of 427 serum samples, which suggests that related viruses have circulated in madagascar.200717370536
hendra virus infection in a veterinarian. 200717371223
proceedings of a meeting entitled emerging viral infectious diseases, april 4-5, 2005, hanoi, vietnam. 200717470907
molecular characteristics of the nipah virus glycoproteins.nipah virus (niv) is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus, which emerged in 1998 from fruit bats in malaysia and caused an outbreak of severe respiratory disease in pigs and fatal encephalitis in humans with high mortality rates. in contrast to most paramyxoviruses, niv can infect a large variety of mammalian species. due to this broad host range, its zoonotic potential, its high pathogenicity for humans, and the lack of effective vaccines or therapeutics, niv was classified as a biosafety level 4 ...200717470910
envelope-receptor interactions in nipah virus pathobiology.nipah (niv) and hendra (hev) viruses are members of the newly defined henipavirus genus of the paramyxoviridae. nipah virus (niv) is an emergent paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis in up to 70% of infected patients, and there is increasing evidence of human-to-human transmission. niv is designated a priority pathogen in the niaid biodefense research agenda, and could be a devastating agent of agrobioterrorism if used against the pig farming industry. endothelial syncytium is a pathognom ...200717470911
[nipah virus infection]. 200717491382
solubility, immunogenicity and physical properties of the nucleocapsid protein of nipah virus produced in escherichia coli.the nucleocapsid (n) protein of nipah virus (niv) can be produced in three escherichia coli strains [top10, bl21(de3) and sg935] under the control of trc promoter. however, most of the product existed in the form of insoluble inclusion bodies. there was no improvement in the solubility of the product when this protein was placed under the control of t7 promoter. however, the solubility of the n protein was significantly improved by lowering the growth temperature of e. coli bl21(de3) cell cultur ...200415042656
risk of nosocomial transmission of nipah virus in a bangladesh hospital.we conducted a seroprevalence study and exposure survey of healthcare workers to assess the risk of nosocomial transmission of nipah virus during an outbreak in bangladesh in 2004. no evidence of recent nipah virus infection was detected despite substantial exposures and minimal use of personal protective equipment.200717520553
epidemiological perspectives on hendra virus infection in horses and flying foxes. 200717615038
insurance and epidemics: sars, west nile virus and nipah virus.severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) reminds us that sudden disease emergence is a permanent part of our world--and should be anticipated in our planning. historically the emergence of new diseases has had little or no impact beyond a small, localized cluster of infections. however, given just the right conditions, a highly virulent pathogen can suddenly spread across time and space with massive consequences, as has occurred on several occasions in human history. in the wake of the sars outb ...200314971089
molecular determinants of antiviral potency of paramyxovirus entry inhibitors.hendra virus (hev) and nipah virus (niv) constitute the henipavirus genus of paramyxoviruses, both fatal in humans and with the potential for subversion as agents of bioterrorism. binding of the hev/niv attachment protein (g) to its receptor triggers a series of conformational changes in the fusion protein (f), ultimately leading to formation of a postfusion six-helix bundle (6hb) structure and fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. the ectodomain of paramyxovirus f proteins contains two co ...200717652384
single amino acid changes in the nipah and hendra virus attachment glycoproteins distinguish ephrinb2 from ephrinb3 usage.the henipaviruses, nipah virus (niv) and hendra virus (hev), are lethal emerging paramyxoviruses. ephrinb2 and ephrinb3 have been identified as receptors for henipavirus entry. niv and hev share similar cellular tropisms and likely use an identical receptor set, although a quantitative comparison of receptor usage by niv and hev has not been reported. here we show that (i) soluble niv attachment protein g (sniv-g) bound to cell surface-expressed ephrinb3 with a 30-fold higher affinity than that ...200717652392
[expression of nipah virus structural proteins f1 and g and preparation of hyperimmune antisera against two proteins].the fusion protein (f) and attachment glycoprotein (g) of nipah virus (niv) are important for the virus to infect cells and induce protective immunity. in this study, the niv f1 and g gene fragments without the sequences of signal peptide and transmembrane domain were amplified by pcr, then cloned into e. coli expression vector pgex-6p-1 and modified baculovirus vector, respectively. after induction by iptg, niv f1 and g proteins were efficiently expressed in e. coli when analyzed by sds-page, b ...200717672307
long-term neurological and functional outcome in nipah virus infection.nipah virus (niv) is an emerging zoonosis. central nervous system disease frequently results in high case-fatality. long-term neurological assessments of survivors are limited. we assessed long-term neurologic and functional outcomes of 22 patients surviving niv illness in bangladesh.200717696217
nipah virus: vaccination and passive protection studies in a hamster model.nipah virus, a member of the paramyxovirus family, was first isolated and identified in 1999 when the virus crossed the species barrier from fruit bats to pigs and then infected humans, inducing an encephalitis with up to 40% mortality. at present there is no prophylaxis for nipah virus. we investigated the possibility of vaccination and passive transfer of antibodies as interventions against this disease. we show that both of the nipah virus glycoproteins (g and f) when expressed as vaccinia vi ...200414694115
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against binary ethylenimine inactivated nipah virus.nipah virus, a zoonotic paramyxovirus which emerged recently was chemically inactivated using binary ethylenimine (bei). the inactivated virus was concentrated and purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation. the gradient fractions were examined by electron microscopy and western immunoblot, and gradient fraction containing mainly nipah matrix (m) and nucleocapsid (n) proteins was used for immunizing balb/c mice to generate hybridomas. screening of the resultant hybridoma clones identified five ...200616226320
hendra virus v protein inhibits interferon signaling by preventing stat1 and stat2 nuclear accumulation.the v protein of the recently emerged paramyxovirus, nipah virus, has been shown to inhibit interferon (ifn) signal transduction through cytoplasmic sequestration of cellular stat1 and stat2 in high-molecular-weight complexes. here we demonstrate that the closely related hendra virus v protein also inhibits cellular responses to ifn through binding and cytoplasmic sequestration of both stat1 and stat2, but not stat3. these findings demonstrate a v protein-mediated ifn signal evasion mechanism th ...200314557668
nipah virus: impact, origins, and causes of emergence.nipah virus is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe febrile encephalitis resulting in death in 40% to 75% of human cases. nipah virus is considered a biosafety level-4 pathogen and is listed as a select agent with high risk for public health and security due to its high mortality rate in people and the lack of effective vaccines or therapies. the natural reservoir for nipah virus and related members of the genus henipavirus are fruit bats of the genus pteropus. nipah virus emerged in ...200616448602
monoclonal antibodies against the nucleocapsid proteins of henipaviruses: production, epitope mapping and application in immunohistochemistry.four monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were generated by immunizing balb/c mice with recombinant nucleocapsid protein (n) of nipah virus (niv) and hendra virus (hev) expressed in e. coli. two mabs each were obtained for the hev n and niv n, respectively. all four mabs displayed specific reactivity with the recombinant n proteins of both viruses by western blot, which was further confirmed by immunofluorescent antibody assay using fixed insect cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses expressing e ...200817978885
nipah virus: an emergent paramyxovirus causing severe encephalitis in humans.nipah virus is a recently emergent paramyxovirus that is capable of causing severe disease in both humans and animals. the first outbreak of nipah virus occurred in malaysia and singapore in 1999 and, more recently, outbreaks were detected in bangladesh. in humans, nipah virus causes febrile encephalitis with respiratory syndrome that has a high mortality rate. the reservoir for nipah virus is believed to be fruit bats, and humans are infected by contact with infected bats or by contact with an ...200516287690
functional studies of host-specific ephrin-b ligands as henipavirus receptors.hendra virus (hev) and nipah virus (niv) are closely related paramyxoviruses that infect and cause disease in a wide range of mammalian hosts. to determine whether host receptor molecules play a role in species-specific and/or virus-specific infection we have cloned and characterized ephrin-b2 and ephrin-b3 ligands from a range of species, including human, horse, pig, cat, dog, bats (pteropus alecto and pteropus vampyrus) and mouse. hev and niv were both able to infect cells expressing any of th ...200818054977
henipavirus susceptibility to environmental variables.the routes of henipavirus transmission between hosts are poorly understood. the purpose of this study was to measure the persistence of henipaviruses under various environmental conditions and thereby gain an insight into likely mechanisms of transmission. henipaviruses survived for more than 4 days at 22 degrees c in ph-neutral fruit bat urine but were sensitive to higher temperatures and ph changes. on mango flesh, survival time varied depending on temperature and fruit ph, ranging from 2h to ...200818166242
reproduction and nutritional stress are risk factors for hendra virus infection in little red flying foxes (pteropus scapulatus).hendra virus (hev) is a lethal paramyxovirus which emerged in humans in 1994. poor understanding of hev dynamics in pteropus spp. (flying fox or fruit bat) reservoir hosts has limited our ability to determine factors driving its emergence. we initiated a longitudinal field study of hev in little red flying foxes (lrff; pteropus scapulatus) and examined individual and population risk factors for infection, to determine probable modes of intraspecific transmission. we also investigated whether sea ...200818198149
person-to-person transmission of nipah virus in a bangladeshi encephalitis outbreak was investigated in faridpur district, bangladesh, in april-may 2004 to determine the cause of the outbreak and risk factors for disease. biologic specimens were tested for nipah virus. surfaces were evaluated for nipah virus contamination by using reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr). thirty-six cases of nipah virus illness were identified; 75% of case-patients died. multiple peaks of illness occurred, and 33 case-patients had close contact with another nipah virus patien ...200718214175
exceptionally potent cross-reactive neutralization of nipah and hendra viruses by a human monoclonal antibody.we have previously identified neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against nipah virus (niv) and hendra virus (hev) by panning a large nonimmune antibody library against a soluble form of the hev attachment-envelope glycoprotein g (sg hev). one of these antibodies, m102, which exhibited the highest level of cross-reactive neutralization of both niv and hev g, was affinity maturated by light-chain shuffling combined with random mutagenesis of its heavy-chain variable domain and panning agains ...200818271743
development and validation of a chemiluminescent immunodetection assay amenable to high throughput screening of antiviral drugs for nipah and hendra virus.there are currently no antiviral drugs approved for the highly lethal biosafety level 4 pathogens nipah and hendra virus. a number of researchers are developing surrogate assays amenable to biosafety level 2 biocontainment but ultimately, the development of a high throughput screening method for directly quantifying these viruses in a biosafety level 4 environment will be critical for final evaluation of antiviral drugs identified in surrogate assays, in addition to reducing the time required fo ...200818313148
two key residues in ephrinb3 are critical for its use as an alternative receptor for nipah virus.ephrinb2 was recently discovered as a functional receptor for nipah virus (niv), a lethal emerging paramyxovirus. ephrins constitute a class of homologous ligands for the eph class of receptor tyrosine kinases and exhibit overlapping expression patterns. thus, we examined whether other ephrins might serve as alternative receptors for niv. here, we show that of all known ephrins (ephrina1-a5 and ephrinb1-b3), only the soluble fc-fusion proteins of ephrinb3, in addition to ephrinb2, bound to solub ...200616477309
bacterial infections in pigs experimentally infected with nipah virus.nipah virus (niv; paramyxoviridae) caused fatal encephalitis in humans during an outbreak in malaysia in 1998/1999 after transmission from infected pigs. our previous study demonstrated that the respiratory, lymphatic and central nervous systems are targets for virus replication in experimentally infected pigs. to continue the studies on pathogenesis of niv in swine, six piglets were inoculated oronasally with 2.5 x 10(5) pfu per animal. four pigs developed mild clinical signs, one exudative epi ...200818405339
henipavirus v protein association with polo-like kinase reveals functional overlap with stat1 binding and interferon evasion.emerging viruses in the paramyxovirus genus henipavirus evade host antiviral responses via protein interactions between the viral v and w proteins and cellular stat1 and stat2 and the cytosolic rna sensor mda5. polo-like kinase (plk1) is identified as being an additional cellular partner that can bind to nipah virus p, v, and w proteins. for both nipah virus and hendra virus, contact between the v protein and the plk1 polo box domain is required for v protein phosphorylation. results indicate th ...200818417573
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