development of a multiplex pcr for identification of vineyard mealybugs.a simple molecular tool was developed and tested to identify seven mealybug species found in north american vineyards: pseudococcus maritimus ehrhorn, pseudococcus viburni (signoret), pseudococcus longispinus (targioni-tozzeti), pseudococcus calceolariae (maskell), planococcus ficus (signoret), planococcus citri (risso), and ferrisia gilli gullan. the developed multiplex pcr is based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit one gene. in tests, this single-step multiplex pcr correctly i ...201122217778
the link between independent acquisition of intracellular gamma-endosymbionts and concerted evolution in tremblaya princeps.many insect species establish mutualistic symbiosis with intracellular bacteria that complement their unbalanced diets. the betaproteobacterium "candidatus tremblaya" maintains an ancient symbiosis with mealybugs (hemiptera: pseudococcidae), which are classified in subfamilies phenacoccinae and pseudococcinae. most phenacoccinae mealybugs have "candidatus tremblaya phenacola" as their unique endosymbiont, while most pseudococcinae mealybugs show a nested symbiosis (a bacterial symbiont placed in ...201526161080
association between ants (hymenoptera: formicidae) and the vine mealybug (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in table-grape vineyards in eastern spain.the vine mealybug, planococcus ficus (signoret) (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) is a key pest of grapevine in the mediterranean basin. some honeydew collecting ant species are known to increase mealybug populations in other grape-growing regions. however, there is scarce information on either the ant species present in mediterranean vineyards or their impact on mealybugs. we conducted a study in four commercial vineyards in eastern spain in order to i) identify the ant species foraging on the vine c ...028608474
effect of host plant tissue on the vector transmission of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3.many biotic and abiotic factors affect the transmission efficiency of vector-borne plant pathogens. insect vector within-plant distribution and host tissue preference are known to affect pathogen acquisition and inoculation rates. in this study, we first investigated whether feeding tissue affects the transmission of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 by planococcus ficus (signoret) (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) and the effect of mealybug within-plant distribution on virus transmission under gr ...201122066175
male behaviors reveal multiple pherotypes within vine mealybug planococcus ficus (signoret) (hemiptera; pseudococcidae) populations.the vine mealybug (vm) females collected in israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (ls) and (s)-lavandulyl isovalerate (li). the males display ambiguous behavior to li: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. we addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both ls and li, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. we compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caug ...201020981534
influence of planococcus ficus on aspergillus section nigri and ochratoxin a incidence in vineyards from argentina.the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of planococcus ficus infection in red wine grapes on aspergillus section nigri and ochratoxin a (ota) contamination.201020672440
evidence for gene flow between two sympatric mealybug species (insecta; coccoidea; pseudococcidae).occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. in the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species--the citrus mealybug planococcus citri (risso) and the vine mealybug planococcus ficus (signoret). these species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. we employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patte ...201424523894
paternal inheritance in mealybugs (hemiptera: coccoidea: pseudococcidae).mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (pge); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (hc) and therefore inactive. previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. we employed crosses between two mealybug species--planococcus ficus (signoret) and pl ...201425091548
ultralow oxygen treatment for control of planococcus ficus (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ulo treatments) were developed successfully for control of vine mealybug, planococcusflcus signoret (hemiptera: pseudococcidae), on dormant grape (vitis spp.) benchgrafts. at 30 ppm oxygen, 3-d ulo treatment at 25 degrees c and 4-d ulo treatment at 150c achieved complete control of all life stages of p. ficus. at a much lower oxygen level (<1 ppm), the two ulo treatments with the same exposure periods of 3 d at 25 degrees c and 4 d at 15 deg ...201020429438
a multiplex pcr assay for the simultaneous identification of three mealybug species (hemiptera: pseudococcidae).molecular species identification is becoming more wide-spread in diagnostics and ecological studies, particularly with regard to insects for which morphological identification is difficult or time-consuming. in this study, we describe the development and application of a single-step multiplex pcr for the identification of three mealybug species (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) associated with grapevine in south africa: planococcus ficus (vine mealybug), planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) and pseudoc ...200818076775
pheromone-based mating disruption of planococcus ficus (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in california vineyards.experiments were conducted to test a mating disruption program for the mealybug planococcus ficus (signoret) (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in california vineyards. the sprayable, microencapsulated formulation of the racemic sex pheromone lavandulyl senecioate was applied with an air-blast sprayer, using three and four applications in 2003 and 2004, respectively. mating disruption was combined with an application of buprofezin (2004) in june. compared with a no-pheromone control, there were signifi ...200616937683
hot-water treatments for control of planococcus ficus (homoptera: pseudococcidae) on dormant grape immersions were tested for control of mealybug planococcus ficus (signoret), on dormant grape cuttings used for nursery stock. a range of hot-water temperatures (47-58 degrees c) were evaluated at immersion periods of 2, 5, 10, or 20 min, by using a total of 353,720 mealybugs across all treatments. a 5-min immersion at 51 degrees c is effective in killing > 99% of p. ficus. at or above this immersion period and temperature, there was no difference in mealybug stage mortality. we evalua ...200516156560
interactions within susceptible hosts drive establishment of genetically distinct variants of an insect-borne pathogen.coinfections are common, leading to pathogen interactions during transmission and establishment in a host. however, few studies have tested the relative strengths of pathogen interactions in vectors and hosts that determine the outcome of infection. we tested interactions between two genetically distinct variants of the mealybug-transmitted grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. the transmission efficiency of each variant in single variant inoculations by two vector species was determined. the e ...201526470292
development and optimization of methods for using sex pheromone for monitoring the mealybug planococcus ficus (homoptera: pseudococcidae) in california vineyards.the sex pheromone of the vine mealybug planococcus ficus signoret has been identified as a single component, lavandulyl senecioate. racemic lavandulyl senecioate was as attractive to male mealybugs as the insect-produced (s)-enantiomer, indicating that the unnatural enantiomer is not inhibitory. lavandulol, which also was found in extracts from virgin females, antagonized attraction of males at higher doses. rubber septum lures loaded with 10- to 1,000-microg doses of the pheromone were equally ...200212216810
effects of delayed mating on the reproductive biology of the vine mealybug, planococcus ficus (hemiptera: pseudococcidae).the effect of increasing mating delay on the reproductive performance and population growth rates of the vine mealybug, planococcus ficus (signoret) (hemiptera: pseudococcidae), was investigated under laboratory conditions. virgin females were mated at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after emergence and reproductive and life table parameters were estimated. the pre-oviposition period (number of days between mating and the onset of oviposition) significantly decreased in females mated within 7 day ...201728803567
the vine mealybug planococcus ficus (signoret) (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) damaging vineyards in the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the serra gaúcha region of southern brazil where the major brazilian wineries are concentrated. eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in bento gonçalves city, rio grande do sul, brazil. mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug planococcus ficus (signoret ...201627143143
food preference and foraging activity of ants: recommendations for field applications of low-toxicity baits.control of ants using baits of low toxicity cannot be effective without knowledge of bait distribution patterns and bait station densities, which are determined by ants' foraging activities. furthermore, the success of toxic baits also depends upon attractiveness of bait carriers. here, we assessed ground and vine foraging activity and food preferences for the three ant species ( linepithema humile (mayr) (hymenoptera: formicidae), anoplolepis custodiens (f. smith) and crematogaster peringueyi e ...201425373195
sex pheromone of the vine mealybug, planococcus ficus in israel: occurrence of a second component in a mass-reared population.two pheromonal components were detected in airborne collections from the vine mealybug planococcus ficus (signoret) (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) mass-reared on potato sprouts. the compounds were identified as (s)-lavandulyl senecioate (i) and (s)-lavandulyl isovalerate (ii) by gc and gc-ms by comparison with synthetic standards. chiral gc analysis on a cyclodextrin column established their chirality. compound i was identified recently as the sex pheromone of p. ficus in california. the attraction ...200312775156
mealybug transmission of grapevine leafroll viruses: an analysis of virus-vector understand ecological factors mediating the spread of insect-borne plant pathogens, vector species for these pathogens need to be identified. grapevine leafroll disease is caused by a complex of phylogenetically related closteroviruses, some of which are transmitted by insect vectors; however, the specificities of these complex virus-vector interactions are poorly understood thus far. through biological assays and phylogenetic analyses, we studied the role of vector-pathogen specificity in th ...201020626287
mating disruption of planococcus ficus (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in vineyards using reservoir pheromone dispensers.mating disruption field experiments to control the vine mealybug, planococcus ficus (signoret) (hemiptera: pseudococcidae), were carried out in 2008 and 2009 in two commercial vineyards in sardinia (italy). the effectiveness of mating disruption was evaluated by testing reservoir dispensers loaded with 100 mg (62.5 g/ha) and 150 mg (93.8 g/ha) of the sex pheromone in 2008 and 2009, respectively. the number of males captured in pheromone traps, the p. ficus population density and age structure, t ...201425347835
a comparison of two parasitoids (hymenoptera: encyrtidae) of the vine mealybug: rapid, non-discriminatory oviposition is favored when ants tend the host.the encyrtid parasitoids coccidoxenoides perminutus girault and anagyrus nr. sp. pseudococci (girault) were compared in the laboratory as parasitoids of the mealybug planococcus ficus (signoret). female c. perminutus preferred second-instar p. ficus for oviposition, and produced more adult offspring (149.3 per female) than a. nr. sp. pseudococci (54.1 per female). the development time, from egg to adult emergence, of c. perminutus decreased with increasing constant temperatures between 18.5 and ...201425182618
microbial associates of the vine mealybug planococcus ficus (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) under different rearing insects harbor diverse microbial endosymbionts that play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including contributing to host pest status. the vine mealybug, planococcus ficus, is a serious pest of grapevines, vectoring a number of pathogenic grape viruses. previous studies have shown that virus transmission is abolished when mealybugs are raised in the laboratory on potato. to examine the possible role of microbial symbionts in virus transmission, the archaeal, bacterial, a ...201525135816
baseline susceptibility of planococcus ficus (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) from california to select insecticides.between 2006 and 2008, 20 populations of planococcus ficus (signoret), from coachella and san joaquin valleys of california were measured in the laboratory for susceptibility to buprofezin, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, methomyl, and imidacloprid. toxicity was assessed using a petri dish bioassay technique for contact insecticides and by a systemic uptake technique for imidacloprid. mixed life stages were tested for susceptibility to all insecticides except for buprofezin, which was measured against ...201222928321
molecular and morphological characterization of mealybugs (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) from chilean vineyards.mealybugs are major pests of grapevines worldwide. they cause economic losses by lowering the cosmetic value of fruits, reducing yields, transmitting viruses and resulting in the quarantine or rejection of produce in international trade. knowledge of the species present in a vineyard is important for the adjustment of management strategies. we surveyed and accurately characterized the mealybugs infesting vineyards in one of the main production areas of chile; 164 mealybugs were sampled from 26 v ...201222361038
a survey of scale insects (sternorryncha: coccoidea) occurring on table grapes in south africa.increasing international trade and tourism have led to an increase in the introduction of exotic pests that pose a considerable economic threat to the agro-ecosystems of importing countries. scale insects (sternorryncha: coccoidea) may be contaminants of export consignments from the south african deciduous fruit industry to the european union, israel, united kingdom and the united states, for example. infestations of immature scale insects found on south african fruit destined for export have re ...200920050816
diel periodicity of pheromone release by females of planococcus citri and planococcus ficus and the temporal flight activity of their conspecific males.the diel periodicity of sex pheromone release was monitored in two mealybug species, planococcus citri and planococcus ficus (hemiptera; pseudococcidae), using sequential spme/gcms analysis. a maximal release of 2 ng/h pheromone by 9-12-day-old p. citri females occurred 1-2 h before the beginning of photophase. the highest release of pheromone by p. ficus females was 1-2 ng/2 h of 10-20-day-old females, approximately 2 h after the beginning of photophase. mating resulted in termination of the ph ...201424981365
an annotated checklist of scale insects (hemiptera: coccoidea) of saint lucia, lesser antilles .an annotated list of 83 scale insect species (hemiptera: sterorrhyncha: coccoidea) recorded from saint lucia is presented, based on data gathered from uk quarantine interceptions, samples collected in an urban coastal habitat in the north west of the island in 2013, and published records. thirty-three species (40%) are recorded for the first time for the country, including dysmicoccus joannesiae (costa lima), a south american mealybug, and poliaspoides formosana (takahashi), an asian armoured sc ...201425112239
transmission of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 by the vine mealybug (planococcus ficus).grapevine leafroll disease is caused by grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (glravs). within this virus complex, glrav-3 is the predominant species in the world. several glravs have been shown to be transmitted from vine to vine by mealybugs although a detailed characterization of transmission biology is lacking. the introduction of the vine mealybug (planococcus ficus) in california and other regions of the world may result in increasing disease incidence of established glravs. we studied the ...200818943455
pesticides' influence on wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. to obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. the most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (plasmopara viticola and uncinula necator), and gray mold (botrytis cinerea). on the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (l ...201020610173
identification of mealybug pest species (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in egypt and france, using a dna barcoding approach.pseudococcidae (mealybugs) is a large taxonomic group, including a number of agronomic pests. taxonomic identification of mealybug species is a recurrent problem and represents a major barrier to the establishment of adequate pest management strategies. we combined molecular analysis of three dna markers (28s-d2, cytochrome oxidase i and internal transcribed spacer 2) with morphological examination, for the identification of 176 specimens collected from 40 mealybug populations infesting various ...201222360997
molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in brazilian vineyards.mealybugs (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of brazilian table grapes. they damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. in this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in brazil, ...201425062012
integrative taxonomy methods reveal high mealybug (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) diversity in southern brazilian fruit crops.the serra gaúcha region is the most important temperate fruit-producing area in southern brazil. despite mealybugs (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) infesting several host plants in the region, there is a lack of information about the composition of species damaging different crops. a survey of mealybug species associated with commercial fruit crops (apple, persimmon, strawberry and grapes) was performed in serra gaúcha between 2013 and 2015, using both morphology and dna analyses for species identifi ...201729147020
infection and colonization of nicotiana benthamiana by grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3.grapevine leafroll disease is an increasing problem in all grape-growing regions of the world. the most widespread agent of the disease, grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (glrav-3), has never been shown to infect species outside of the genus vitis. virus transmission to several plant species used as model systems was tested using the vine mealybug, planococcus ficus. we show that glrav-3 is able to infect nicotiana benthamiana. working with glrav-3 infected n. benthamiana revealed distinct a ...201728710957
pheromone-based monitoring of pseudococcus maritimus (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) populations in concord grape vineyards.the grape mealybug, pseudococcus maritimus (ehrhorn), is the dominant mealybug in washington's concord grape vineyards (vitis labrusca l.). it is a direct pest of fruit clusters and a vector of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses. using traps baited with the sex pheromone of ps. maritimus, we determined the optimal trap density for monitoring ps. maritimus, with the goal of providing a more rapid monitoring method for ps. maritimus than visual surveys. varying densities of pheromone-baited tra ...201323448065
insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, planococcus ficus.the vine mealybug, planococcus ficus (signoret) (hemiptera: pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. the essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against p. ficus: peppermint, mentha piperita l. (lamiales: lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, satureja thymbra l., lavender, lavandula angustifolia mill, and basil, ocimum basilicum l. essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, citrus limon l. ( ...201324766523
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