morphology of the prometamorphic larva of the spadefoot toad, scaphiopus intermontanus (anura: pelobatidae), with an emphasis on the lateral line system and mouthparts.we provide a detailed description of the larval morphology of the great basin spadefoot toad (scaphiopus intermontanus), a species with documented morphological variability in larval structures associated with feeding. we based our findings on laboratory-raised individuals fed a herbivorous diet. we characterized the morphology of the prometamorphic larva (limited to developmental stages 37 and 38) and then related our findings to the larval ecology of the species. based on its morphology, such ...200211921040
hatching success and pesticide exposures in amphibians living in agricultural habitats of the south okanagan valley, british columbia, canada (2004-2006).in 2004 to 2006, in the okanagan valley, british columbia, canada, we measured pesticides, water chemistry, and hatching success of great basin spadefoot (spea intermontana), pacific treefrog (pseudacris regilla), western toad (bufo boreas), and columbia spotted frog (rana luteiventris). predator-proof cages containing gosner stage 4 eggs were placed in ponds in nonagricultural reference sites in conventionally sprayed and organic orchards. seventeen pesticides were detected in ponds in sprayed ...201020821610
effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of endosulfan, azinphosmethyl, and diazinon on great basin spadefoot (spea intermontana) and pacific treefrog (pseudacris regilla).we conducted dose-response exposures to compare the lethality of endosulfan, diazinon, and azinphosmethyl in the early-life stages of the great basin spadefoot (spea intermontana) and the pacific treefrog (pseudacris regilla). our experiment occurred in two 8-d phases: one, with developing embryos, and two, with gosner stage 27 tadpoles. pesticide concentrations were representative of field-measured concentrations (60 ng/l of endosulfan, 50 ng/l of azinphosmethyl, and 350 ng/l of diazinon), in t ...201020821611
climate warming mediates negative impacts of rapid pond drying for three amphibian species.anthropogenic climate change will present both opportunities and challenges for pool-breeding amphibians. increased water temperature and accelerated drying may directly affect larval growth, development, and survival, yet the combined effects of these processes on larvae with future climate change remain poorly understood. increased surface temperatures are projected to warm water and decrease water inputs, leading to earlier and faster wetland drying. so it is often assumed that larvae will ex ...201424933805
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