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effect of hydrostatic pressure on ligand binding to hemoglobin.increase in hydrostatic pressure to 1000 atm increased the affinity of human and menhaden (brevoortia tyrannus) hemoglobins for oxygen. with necessary assumptions about the form of the equilibrium curve, and after correction for changes in ph and volume due to pressure, the increase in affinity is about 2-fold for both hemoglobins. at ph 6.5, hill's n for menhaden hemoglobin is near 1, and it is believed to remain in the t state, whereas human hemoglobin undergoes a t to r transition. this sugge ...197716924
subunit dissociation in fish hemoglobins.the tetramer-dimer dissociation equilibria (k 4,2) of several fish hemoglobins have been examined by sedimentation velocity measurements with a scanner-computer system for the ultracentrifuge and by flash photolysis measurements using rapid kinetic methods. samples studied in detail included hemoglobins from a marine teleost, brevoortia tyrannus (common name, menhaden); a fresh water teleost, cyprinus carpio, (common name, carp); and an elasmobranch prionace glauca (common name, blue shark). for ...19761002703
chronic inflammatory cells with epithelial cell characteristics in teleost fishes.certain cells that participate in the chronic inflammatory response of teleost fishes have many features typical of epithelioid cells of mammals. such features include high metabolic activity, frequent phagolysosomes, and cytoplasmic interdigitations between adjacent cells; however, the epithelioid granulomas formed in response to certain diseases in teleost fishes also have several features associated with epithelial cells. cases of ulcerative mycosis or acid-fast bacterial infection in atlanti ...19892686148
novel branched-chain fatty acids in certain fish oils.methyl-branched fatty acids, which are usually minor components (equal or less than 0.1%) in fish oils, were concentrated in the non-urea-complexing fraction along with polyunsaturated fatty acids during the enrichment of omega-3 fatty acids from certain fish oils via the urea complexation process. the methyl-branched fatty acids in the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrates, which were prepared from three fish body oils, were characterized by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/m ...19892779367
circular dichroism and conformation of fish hemoglobins.the circular dichroism spectrum of fully liganded co hemoglobin from the atlantic bluefin tuna (tunnus thynnus) shows a ph- and temperature-dependent feature at 416 nm. it is half-developed at ph 5.9 and 20 degrees c and its change with temperature corresponds to a heat of 34 kcal/mol (tetramer) for the transition. correlation with studies on function (morris, r. j., and gibson, q. h. (1982) j. biol. chem. 257, 4869-4874) shows that the dichroism feature changes at about 1 ph unit below the r-t ...19836833248
toxicity of ozonated estuarine water to juvenile blue crabs (callinectes sapidus) and juvenile atlantic menhaden (brevoortia tyrannus). 19817248539
fish lesions in the chesapeake bay: pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates and other etiologies.ulcerative lesions and mass mortalities of atlantic estuarine fish, particularly menhaden (brevoortia tyrannus), have been associated with exposure to pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates and their toxins. we collected fish from the chicamacomico river, maryland, and observed solitary ulcerative lesions on the majority of menhaden sampled. one striped bass (morone saxatilis) had an area of reddening around the base of the dorsal fin. bluegill (lepomis machrochirus), channel catfish (ictalurus punctat ...19989601194
effects of hypoxia on movements and behavior of selected estuarine organisms from the southeastern united states.hypoxia, or low dissolved oxygen, remains a common occurrence in estuarine waters as human activity in coastal areas expands. fish kills, probably the most recognized indicator of these and other water quality problems, have significantly increased in recent years in many southeastern united states estuaries. while entire aquatic communities are impacted by changes in available oxygen, estuarine organisms serve as appropriate indicators of these changes as they exhibit complex physiological and ...200010841932
predator-prey relations between age-1+ summer flounder (paralichthys dentatus, linnaeus) and age-0 winter flounder (pseudopleuronectes americanus, walbaum): predator diets, prey selection, and effects of sediments and macrophytes.laboratory experiments and weekly trammel net surveys in the navesink river, new jersey (usa) were used to examine the predator-prey interaction between age-1+ summer flounder (paralichthys dentatus) and age-0 winter flounder (pseudopleuronectes americanus). winter flounder (24-67 mm tl) were the dominant piscine prey of summer flounder (n=95, 252-648 mm tl) collected in trammel nets. we observed a temporal shift in summer flounder diets from sand shrimp (crangon septemspinosa) and winter flound ...200010958899
etiologies, observations and reporting of estuarine finfish lesions.lesions in estuarine finfish are associated with a variety of organisms including parasites and bacterial, viral, and fungal infectious agents. in addition, trauma, suboptimal water quality, and other abiotic stress factors may result in the loss of homeostasis. we have observed solitary ulcerative lesions on menhaden sampled from the chesapeake bay, maryland, the pimlico river, north carolina, and the st. johns river, florida. histologically, the lesions demonstrated a marked chronic inflammato ...200011460735
purification and characterization of a vulnificolysin-like cytolysin produced by vibrio tubiashii.an extracellular cytolysin from vibrio tubiashii was purified by sequential hydrophobic interaction chromatography with phenyl-sepharose cl-4b and gel filtration with sephacryl s-200. this protein is sensitive to heat and proteases, is inhibited by cholesterol, and has a molecular weight of 59,000 and an isoelectric point of 5.3. in addition to lysing various erythrocytes, it is cytolytic and/or cytotoxic to chinese hamster ovary cells, caco-2 cells, and atlantic menhaden liver cells in tissue c ...200111472951
differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions in fish.tissues such as skin and muscle have a limited repertoire of morphological response to injury. the two most important phenomena that determine the outcome of cell injury appear to be a) critical cell membrane damage, with associated fluid and ionic imbalances; and b) inability of mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, to restart atp synthesis. in fish, skin ulcers can have many different etiologies, including infectious agents, toxins, physical causes, immunologic causes, and nutritional and ...200111677175
skin ulcers in estuarine fishes: a comparative pathological evaluation of wild and laboratory-exposed fish.the toxic dinoflagellate pfiesteria piscicida steidinger & burkholder has recently been implicated as the etiologic agent of acute mass mortalities and skin ulcers in menhaden, brevoortia tyrannus, and other fishes from mid-atlantic u.s. estuaries. however, evidence for this association is largely circumstantial and controversial. we exposed tilapia (oreochromis spp.) to pfiesteria shumwayae glasgow & burkholder (identification based on scanning electron microscopy and molecular analyses) and co ...200111677176
new fish-killing alga in coastal delaware produces neurotoxins.ten fish mortality events, involving primarily atlantic menhaden, occurred from early july through september 2000 in several bays and creeks in delaware, usa. two events involved large mortalities estimated at 1-2.5 million fish in bald eagle creek, rehoboth bay. samples from indian inlet (bethany beach), open to the atlantic, as well as from an enclosed area of massive fish kills at nearby bald eagle creek and torque canal were collected and sent to our laboratory for analysis. microscopic exam ...200212003749
infectivity and pathogenicity of the oomycete aphanomyces invadans in atlantic menhaden brevoortia tyrannus.atlantic menhaden brevoortia tyrannus develop characteristic skin ulcers in response to infection by the oomycete aphanomyces invadans. to investigate pathogenicity, we conducted a dose response study. juvenile menhaden were inoculated subcutaneously with 0, 1, 5, 10, 100, and 500 secondary zoospores per fish and monitored for 37 d post-injection (p.i.). survival rates declined with increasing zoospore dose, with significantly different survivorship curves for the different doses. moribund and d ...200312747639
infection experiments with aphanomyces invadans in four species of estuarine fish.along the eastern seaboard of the us, atlantic menhaden, brevoortia tyrannus, develop characteristic ulcerative lesions, a condition termed ulcerative mycosis. these lesions are identical to those seen across asia in fish affected by epizootic ulcerative syndrome, a condition caused by the fungus-like oomycete aphanomyces invadans. young-of-the-year menhaden inhabiting estuarine environments are the primary species affected in the usa and little is known about the factors involved in the initiat ...200415139907
etiology of ulcerative lesions of atlantic menhaden (brevoortia tyrannus) from james river, virginia.we observed ulcerative lesions on live atlantic menhaden, brevoortia tyrannus, during ichthyofaunal sampling in the tidal james river in october 1999 (near jamestown, va, usa). other synoptically collected fishes exhibited no signs of lesions or pre-ulcerative tissues. live fish were classified as unremarkable (no dermal anomalies), pre-ulcerative (integument intact with boil-like swelling), and ulcerative (severe focal lesions). specimens were analyzed for bacteria, fungi, and pathogenic protoz ...200516133297
factors influencing the sporulation and cyst formation of aphanomyces invadans, etiological agent of ulcerative mycosis in atlantic menhaden, brevoortia tyrannus.oomycete infections caused by aphanomyces invadans occur in freshwater and estuarine fishes around the world. along the east coast of the usa, skin ulcers caused by a. invadans are prevalent in atlantic menhaden, brevoortia tyrannus. from laboratory observations low salinities appear crucial to transmission of the pathogen. to better understand aspects of transmission, we characterized sporulation and cyst formation of secondary zoospores of two isolates of a. invadans at different salinities an ...200516392244
molecular assays for detecting aphanomyces invadans in ulcerative mycotic fish lesions.the pathogenic oomycete aphanomyces invadans is the primary etiological agent in ulcerative mycosis, an ulcerative skin disease caused by a fungus-like agent of wild and cultured fish. we developed sensitive pcr and fluorescent peptide nucleic acid in situ hybridization (fish) assays to detect a. invadans. laboratory-challenged killifish (fundulus heteroclitus) were first tested to optimize and validate the assays. skin ulcers of atlantic menhaden (brevoortia tyrannus) from populations found in ...200616461710
mycobacteria as environmental portent in chesapeake bay fish species.infection with environmental mycobacteria is increasing among many chesapeake bay fish species. prevalence in juvenile atlantic menhaden differed between tributaries and ranged from 2% to 57%. mycobacterial infection may be a syndromic sentinel of altered environmental conditions that threaten aquatic animal health.200717479905
mycobacteria isolated from chesapeake bay fish.mycobacteriosis in fish can result in ulcers, emaciation, and in some cases death. mycobacteria have been previously isolated from a variety of chesapeake bay fish species, and the current study was designed to identify potential host specificity and location fidelity of mycobacterial isolates. mycobacteria were isolated from wild fish of the chesapeake bay collected from the upper bay, the choptank river, herring bay, the chicamacomico river, the pocomoke river and the potomac river in 2003-200 ...201019909394
quantitative pcr assay for mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and mycobacterium shottsii and application to environmental samples and fishes from the chesapeake bay.striped bass (morone saxatilis) in the chesapeake bay are currently experiencing a very high prevalence of mycobacteriosis associated with newly described mycobacterium species, mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and m. shottsii. the ecology of these mycobacteria outside the striped bass host is currently unknown. in this work, we developed quantitative real-time pcr assays for m. pseudoshottsii and m. shottsii and applied these assays to dna extracts from chesapeake bay water and sediment samples, as ...201020656856
mercury and selenium levels in 19 species of saltwater fish from new jersey as a function of species, size, and season.there are few data on risks to biota and humans from mercury levels in saltwater fish. this paper examines mercury and selenium levels in muscle of 19 species of fish caught by recreational fisherfolk off the new jersey shore, as a function of species of fish, size, and season, and risk of mercury to consumers. average mercury levels ranged from 0.01 ppm (wet weight) (menhaden brevoortia tyrannus) to 1.83 ppm (mako shark isurus oxyrinchus). there were four categories of mercury levels: very high ...201121292311
ontogenetic patterns in bluefish (pomatomus saltatrix) feeding ecology and the effect on mercury biomagnification.in this study, bluefish (pomatomus saltatrix; age 0-7, nôçë=ôçë632) and their prey (forage fish, macroinvertebrates, zooplankton; nôçë=ôçë2,005) were collected from the narragansett bay estuary (ri, usa), and total hg concentration was measured in white muscle and whole-body tissues, respectively. bluefish hg concentrations were analyzed relative to fish length, prey hg content, and ontogenetic shifts in habitat use and foraging ecology, the latter assessed using stomach content analysis (nôçë=ô ...201121381087
beyond zar: the use and abuse of classification statistics for otolith chemistry.classification method performance was evaluated using otolith chemistry of juvenile atlantic menhaden brevoortia tyrannus when assumptions of data normality were met and were violated. four methods were tested [linear discriminant function analysis (ldfa), quadratic discriminant function analysis (qdfa), random forest (rf) and artificial neural networks (ann)] using computer simulation to determine their performance when variable-group means ranged from small to large and their performance under ...201727325371
excitation-emission matrix scan analysis of raw fish oil from coastal new jersey menhaden collected before and after hurricane sandy.the impact of hurricane sandy (october 29, 2012) on pah exposure was investigated in adult atlantic menhaden (brevoortia tyrannus) collected along the nj coast. collections were made in august, september and/or october of 2011, 2012 and 2013. pahs were monitored in raw fish oil using excitation-emission matrix (eem) spectroscopy. results showed that raw fish oils had relatively high levels of high molecular weight, pah-like compounds (173 to 24,421ng/ml) compared to values reported for bile in o ...201626849916
determination of the triacylglycerol fraction in fish oil by comprehensive liquid chromatography techniques with the support of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry data.fish oil made from menhaden (brevoortia tyrannus) can be used as a dietary supplement for the presence of high levels of the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids, viz. epentaenoic and docosahexanoic. in this work, for the first time, two different multidimensional approaches were developed and compared, in terms of peak capacity, for triacylglycerol characterization. in particular, silver ion chromatography with a silver-ion column and non-aqueous reverse-phase liquid chromatography with a c18 colum ...201525963648
age, growth and hatch dates of ingressing larvae and surviving juveniles of atlantic menhaden brevoortia tyrannus.ages, growth and hatch dates of ingressing brevoortia tyrannus larvae were determined in a 3 year sampling survey at the mouth of the chesapeake bay, u.s.a. to determine if otolith-aged cohorts had variable relative survival, hatch dates of summer-caught young-of-the-year (yoy) juveniles collected throughout the chesapeake bay were compared with hatch dates of ingressing larvae. modal total length of ingressing larvae was similar among years: 28 mm in 2005-2006 and 2007-2008, and 30 mm in 2006-2 ...201223020567
mass spectrometric elucidation of triacylglycerol content of brevoortia tyrannus (menhaden) oil using non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography under ultra high pressure conditions.a non-aqueous reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed, and optimized for triacylglycerol analysis in a brevoortia tyrannus (menhaden) oil sample. four columns were serially coupled to tackle such a task, for a total length of 60 cm of shell-packed stationary phase, and operated under ultra high pressure conditions. as detection, positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry was used to attain identification of the analyzed sample compo ...201222503927
multitiered health assessment of atlantic menhaden in the pamlico river, north carolina.during the fall of 2001 and 2002, atlantic menhaden brevoortia tyrannus were collected from several creeks in the pamlico river, north carolina, to investigate recent fish kills and ulcerative skin lesions. high skin lesion prevalence (>50%) was associated with the atlantic menhaden kills in fall 2001, whereas there were no fish kills in fall 2002 and skin lesion prevalence was lower (< or =50%). indicators of tissue damage (histopathological analyses of gills, heart, liver, intestine, and anter ...200718333477
sieving functional morphology of the gill raker feeding apparatus of atlantic menhaden.menhaden occupy an important position in estuarine food webs, thus the rate processes associated with their feeding are critical to the ecosystem management of fishery and ecological resources. atlantic menhaden feed on a wide range of plankton, the size and food quality of which change ontogenetically. we analyzed the functional morphology of the menhaden feeding apparatus in a size series of menhaden representative of juveniles and the adult migratory stock. the physical dimensions of gill arc ...200617041916
a quantitative real-time rt-pcr assay to measure tgf-beta mrna and its correlation with hematologic, plasma chemistry and organo-somatic indices responses in triamcinolone-treated atlantic menhaden, brevoortia tyrannus.a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay was developed to measure transforming growth factor-beta (tgf-beta) in atlantic menhaden (brevoortia tyrannus), an estuarine-dependent species plagued by ulcerative skin lesions in the estuaries along the eastern united states. atlantic menhaden were acclimated in a closed system for two weeks prior to initiation of the study. the synthetic glucocorticoid, triamcinolone acetonide (10mg/kg body weight) was adm ...200616139358
myxosporean plasmodial infection associated with ulcerative lesions in young-of-the-year atlantic menhaden in a tributary of the chesapeake bay, and possible links to kudoa clupeidae.ulcers in atlantic menhaden brevoortia tyrannus (latrobe) (clupeidae), observed along the usa east coast, have been attributed to diverse etiologies including bacterial, fungal and, recently, harmful algal blooms. to understand the early pathogenesis of these lesions, we examined juvenile atlantic menhaden collected during their seasonal presence in chesapeake bay tributaries from april to october 1999 and from march to august 2000. we conducted histopathological examinations of young-of-the-yea ...200312650247
ontogeny of visual and mechanosensory structure and function in atlantic menhaden brevoortia tyrannusthe importance of visual, mechanoreceptive and auditory inputs to escape responses was examined in larvae of the atlantic menhaden (brevoortia tyrannus) presented with a simulated predatory stimulus. ontogenetic changes in the retina, superficial neuromasts and auditory bullae were examined in concert with behavioral trials in which sensory inputs were selectively blocked. menhaden larvae showed a decrease in cone photoreceptor density and first developed rod photoreceptors when their total leng ...19969320556
gas chromatographic method for determination of dimethylamine, trimethylamine, and trimethylamine oxide in fish-meat frankfurters.a method is described for analysis of minced fish-meat and surimi-meat frankfurters for dimethylamine (dma), trimethylamine (tma), and trimethylamine oxide (tmao) using a headspace-gas chromatographic technique. after simple acid extraction and addition of naoh, the headspace was directly injected into a gas chromatograph by a gas-tight syringe. dma and tma were separated on a chromosorb 103 column and detected by a flame ionization detector. tmao was measured as tma after zn reduction. repeatab ...20122050619
dna fingerprints from hypervariable mitochondrial genotypes.conventional surveys of restriction-fragment polymorphisms in mitochondrial dna of menhaden fish (brevoortia tyrannus/patronus complex) and chuckwalla lizards (sauromalus obesus) revealed exceptionally high levels of genetic variation, attributable to differences in mtdna size as well as in restriction sites. the observed probabilities that any two randomly drawn individuals differed detectably in mtdna genotype were 0.998 and 0.983 in the two species, respectively. thus, the variable gel profil ...19892576092
behavioral modification of estuarine fish exposed to sulfur dioxide.this study was designed to determine the avoidance responses of juvenile striped bass (morone saxatilis) and atlantic menhaden (brevoortia tyrannus) exposed to sulfur dioxide (sulfite) at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees c. predictive models were developed and compared for each species at each acclimation temperature. striped bass avoided 2.2, 2.3, 3.0, and 3.5 mg sulfite/l at 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees c, respectively. atlantic menhaden avoided 3.2, 3.6, 2.9, and 3.0 mg su ...19846492212
a comparison of the avoidance responses of individual and schooling juvenile atlantic menhaden, brevoortia tyrannus subjected to simultaneous chlorine and delta t conditions.the objectives of this study were to determine and compare the avoidance responses of individual and groups of atlantic menhaden, brevoortia tyrannus, exposed to simultaneous elevated temperature (0, 2, 4, and 6 degrees c) and total residual chlorine (trc) (0.00, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 mg/l) conditions. an unbalanced three-factor factorial design was used to develop predictive avoidance models with this species at a test temperature of 25 degrees c. fish tested in groups elicited the following avo ...19827161833
asynchronous ligand binding and proton release in a root effect hemoglobin.co binding to the root effect hemoglobin of menhaden, brevoortia tyrannus, has been studied by flash photolysis and equilibrium measurements in [bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]tris(hydroxymethyl)methane and tris buffers, containing 0.2 m nacl, between ph 6.0 and 8.0. the equilibrium and kinetic data were analyzed according to the two-state model, extended to include chain differences. the calculated value of the allosteric constant, l, varied from 3 x 10(6) at ph 6.0 to 20 at ph 8.0, lower at each ph ...19817217097
separation and characterization of menhaden hemoglobin components.hemolysate from brevoortia tyrannus (atlantic menhaden) consists of two major and two minor components, as determined by ion-exchange chromatography. oxygen equilibria, flash photolysis and rapid mixing techniques are used to detect functional differences between the two major components, revealing a system analogous to the trout i-iv system. menhaden iv exhibits a moderate root effect and is sensitive to organic phosphate inhibition. menhaden i exhibits little sensitivity to ph changes or the p ...19807353958
carbon monoxide binding to a fish hemoglobin under photostationary conditions.determinations of carbon monoxide binding curves for hemoglobin from brevoortia tyrannus under equilibrium and photostationary conditions show that in the light, the curve is shifted to the right and altered in shape. the bohr effect is much less in the light. the kinetics of the transition between equilibrium and photostationary states has been examined. all of the results are satisfactorily described using the two-state model of monod, j. wyman, j., and changeux, j.p. (1965) j. mol. biol. 12, ...1978701255
kinetics of the bohr effect of menhaden hemoglobin, brevoortia tyrannus. 19765084
observations on the marine leech calliobdella carolinensis (hirudinea: piscicolidae), epizootic on the atlantic menhaden. 19734799586
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