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microdam impoundments provide suitable habitat for larvae of malaria vectors: an observational study in western kenya.impoundments formed by microdams in rural areas of africa are important sources of water for people, but they provide potential larval habitats for anopheles (diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes that are vectors of malaria. to study this association, the perimeters of 31 microdam impoundments in western kenya were sampled for anopheles larvae in three zones (patches of floating and emergent vegetation, shorelines of open water, and aggregations of cattle hoofprints) across dry and rainy seasons. of 3 ...201829462354
shady business: understanding the spatial ecology of exophilic anopheles mosquitoes.understanding the ecology of exophilic anophelines is a key step toward developing outdoor control strategies to complement existing indoor control tools against malaria vectors. this study was conducted to assess the movement pattern of exophilic anopheles mosquitoes between blood meal sources and resting habitats, and the landscape factors dictating their resting habitat choice.201830290799
indoor and outdoor malaria vector surveillance in western kenya: implications for better understanding of residual transmission.the widespread use of indoor-based malaria vector control interventions has been shown to alter the behaviour of vectors in africa. there is an increasing concern that such changes could sustain residual transmission. this study was conducted to assess vector species composition, feeding behaviour and their contribution to indoor and outdoor malaria transmission in western kenya.201729110670
malaria impact of large dams at different eco-epidemiological settings in ethiopia.dams are important to ensure food security and promote economic development in sub-saharan africa. however, a poor understanding of the negative public health consequences from issues such as malaria could affect their intended advantages. this study aims to compare the malaria situation across elevation and proximity to dams. such information may contribute to better understand how dams affect malaria in different eco-epidemiological settings.201728250711
mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in mauritania: a review of their biodiversity, distribution and medical importance.although mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) are important disease vectors, information on their biodiversity in mauritania is scarce and very dispersed in the literature. data from the scientific literature gathered in the country from 1948 to 2016 were collected and analyzed. overall 51 culicid species comprising 17 anopheles spp., 14 aedes spp., 18 culex spp. and two mansonia spp. have been described in mauritania among which anopheles arabiensis, aedes vexans, culex poicilipes and culex antennat ...201728103955
comparison of two adult mosquito sampling methods with human landing catches in south-central ethiopia.the human landing catch (hlc) is the standard reference method for measuring human exposure to mosquito bites. however, hlc is labour-intensive, exposes collectors to infectious mosquito bites and is subjected to collector bias. these necessitate local calibration and application of alternative methods. this study was undertaken to determine the relative sampling efficiency (rse) of light traps with or without yeast-produced carbon dioxide bait vs. hlc in south-central ethiopia.201728086776
human-biting activities of anopheles species in south-central ethiopia.indoor residual spraying (irs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) are the key malaria vector control interventions in ethiopia. the success of these interventions rely on their efficacy to repel or kill indoor feeding and resting mosquitoes. this study was undertaken to monitor human-biting patterns of anopheles species in south-central ethiopia.201627716416
sensitivity of ethiopian aquatic macroinvertebrates to the pesticides endosulfan and diazinon, compared to literature data.the aims of the present study were to present a methodology for toxicity tests that can be used when analytical resources to verify the test concentrations are limited, and to evaluate whether the sensitivity of a limited number of ethiopian species to pesticides differs from literature values for, mainly, temperate species. acute toxicity tests were performed using three ethiopian aquatic invertebrate species, one crustacean (diaphanosoma brachyurum) and two insects (anopheles pharoensis and cu ...201627221822
combining the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique: iii-robust mating competitiveness of irradiated triple wolbachia-infected aedes albopictus males under semi-field conditions.combination of the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique is considered to be a safe approach to control aedes albopictus populations in the absence of an accurate and scalable sex separation system or genetic sexing strain. our previous study has shown that the triple wolbachia-infected ae. albopictus strain (walba, walbb and wpip) was suitable for mass rearing and females could be completely sterilized as pupae with a radiation dose of at least 28 gy. however, whether ...201626990981
malaria incidence and entomological findings in an area targeted for a cluster-randomized controlled trial to prevent malaria in ethiopia: results from a pilot study.this study was part of the work to prepare for a cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of combining indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets on malaria incidence. a pilot study was done to estimate the variations of malaria incidence among villages, combined with entomological collections and an assessment of susceptibility to insecticides in malaria vectors.201626957044
ecology of urban malaria vectors in niamey, republic of niger.urbanization in african cities has major impact on malaria risk. niamey, the capital of the republic of niger, is situated in the west african sahel zone. the short rainy season and human activities linked with the niger river influence mosquito abundance. this study aimed at deciphering the factors of distribution of urban malaria vectors in niamey.201627277707
malaria in three epidemiological strata in mauritania.malaria epidemiology in mauritania has been characterized on the basis of epidemiological strata, defined by climatic and geographic features, which divide the country into three zones: sahelian zone, sahelo-saharan transition zone, and saharan zone. the association between geographic stratification and malaria transmission was assessed through a series of parasitological and entomological surveys.201627068219
finding wolbachia in filarial larvae and culicidae mosquitoes in upper egypt governorate.wolbachia is an obligatory intracellular endosymbiotic bacterium, present in over 20% of all insects altering insect reproductive capabilities and in a wide range of filarial worms which is essential for worm survival and reproduction. in egypt, no available data were found about wolbachia searching for it in either mosquitoes or filarial worms. thus, we aimed to identify the possible concurrent presence of wolbachia within different mosquitoes and filarial parasites, in assiut governorate, egyp ...201627417080
rickettsia felis, an emerging flea-borne rickettsiosis.rickettsia felis is an emerging insect-borne rickettsial pathogen and the causative agent of flea-borne spotted fever. first described as a human pathogen from the usa in 1991, r. felis is now identified throughout the world and considered a common cause of fever in africa. the cosmopolitan distribution of this pathogen is credited to the equally widespread occurrence of cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis), the primary vector and reservoir of r. felis. although r. felis is a relatively new member ...201627340613
high prevalence of west nile virus in domestic birds and detection in 2 new mosquito species in madagascar.west nile virus is an arthropod-borne zoonosis transmitted by a large number of mosquito species, and birds play a key role as reservoir of the virus. its distribution is largely widespread over africa, asia, the americas and europe. since 1978, it has frequently been reported in madagascar. studies described a high seroprevalence level of the virus in humans in different areas of the island and a human fatal case of wnv infection was reported in 2011. despite these reports, the epidemiology of ...201626807720
similar trends of susceptibility in anopheles arabiensis and anopheles pharoensis to plasmodium vivax infection in ethiopia.around half of the global population is living in areas at risk of malaria infection. plasmodium vivax malaria has become increasingly prevalent and responsible for a high health and socio-economic burden in ethiopia. the availability of gametocyte carriers and mosquito species susceptible to p. vivax infection are vital for malaria transmission. determining the susceptibility of vector species to parasite infection in space and time is important in vector control programs. this study assesses t ...201627756355
composition and genetics of malaria vector populations in the central african republic.in many african countries malaria has declined sharply due to a synergy of actions marked by the introduction of vector control strategies, but the disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in central african republic (car). an entomological study was initiated with the aim to characterize the malaria vectors in bangui, the capital of car, and determine their vector competence.201627456078
seasonal dynamics, longevity, and biting activity of anopheline mosquitoes in southwestern ethiopia.continuous monitoring of vector species composition, abundance, dynamics, feeding pattern, and host finding strategy is the base to determine when, what, and how control should be implemented. thus, this study was conducted to assess entomological parameters of anopheline mosquitoes in nine villages in seka district, southwestern ethiopia, from june to december 2012. mosquito collection was carried out from selected households in each of the nine study villages using light trap catches from june ...201626798142
zoophagic behaviour of anopheline mosquitoes in southwest ethiopia: opportunity for malaria vector control.increased understanding of the feeding behaviours of malaria vectors is important to determine the frequency of human-vector contact and to implement effective vector control interventions. here we assess the relative feeding preferences of anopheles mosquitoes in relation to cattle and human host abundance in southwest ethiopia.201526684464
monitoring changes in malaria epidemiology and effectiveness of interventions in ethiopia and uganda: beyond garki project baseline survey.scale-up of malaria interventions seems to have contributed to a decline in the disease but other factors may also have had some role. understanding changes in transmission and determinant factors will help to adapt control strategies accordingly.201526337671
malaria incidence and assessment of entomological indices among resettled communities in ethiopia: a longitudinal study.population resettlement has been considered among factors that may increase risk of malaria transmission. this study reports, the impact of resettlement on malaria incidence and entomological indices among communities resettled in suburbs of jimma town, southwestern ethiopia.201525626598
entomological monitoring and evaluation: diverse transmission settings of icemr projects will require local and regional malaria elimination strategies.the unprecedented global efforts for malaria elimination in the past decade have resulted in altered vectorial systems, vector behaviors, and bionomics. these changes combined with increasingly evident heterogeneities in malaria transmission require innovative vector control strategies in addition to the established practices of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. integrated vector management will require focal and tailored vector control to achieve malaria elimination. ...201526259942
malaria in mauritania: retrospective and prospective overview.malaria has become a major public health problem in mauritania since the 1990s, with an average of 181,000 cases per year and 2,233,066 persons at risk during 1995-2012. this paper provides the first publicly available overview of malaria incidence and distribution in mauritania. information on the burden and malaria species distribution is critical for guiding national efforts in malaria control. as the incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of epidemiological data are necessar ...201525880759
spatial and temporal variation of malaria entomological parameters at the onset of a hydro-agricultural development in central côte d'ivoire.a deeper understanding of the ecology and small-scale heterogeneity of malaria transmission is essential for the design of effective prevention, control and elimination interventions. the spatial and temporal distribution of malaria vectors was investigated in five villages in close proximity to a hydro-agricultural system in côte d'ivoire over the course of construction and the early phase of irrigated rice farming.201526341670
assessment of control measures and trends of malaria in burie-zuria district, west gojjam zone, amhara region, north west ethiopia.introduction. malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite plasmodium and transmitted by the bite of anopheles mosquitoes. the aim of this study was to assess control measures and trends of malaria and guide intervention measures at burie-zuria district, amhara region. methods. descriptive cross-sectional assessment of control measures was undertaken. we used health facility records of malaria data. we surveyed households for clinical malaria cases and utilization of long lasting impregnated nets ...201526171274
xenomonitoring of different filarial nematodes using single and multiplex pcr in mosquitoes from assiut governorate, egypt.wuchereria bancrofti, dirofilaria immitis, and dirofilaria repens are filarial nematodes transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to culex, aedes, and anopheles genera. screening by vector dissection is a tiresome technique. we aimed to screen filarial parasites in their vectors by single and multiplex pcr and evaluate the usefulness of multiplex pcr as a rapid xenomonitoring and simultaneous differentiation tool, in area where 3 filarial parasites are coexisting. female mosquitoes were collected fro ...201525748712
impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of pyrethroid-based malaria vectors control tools in benin: decreased toxicity and repellent effect.since the first evidence of pyrethroids resistance in 1999 in benin, mutations have rapidly increased in mosquitoes and it is now difficult to design a study including a control area where malaria vectors are fully susceptible. few studies have assessed the after effect of resistance on the success of pyrethroid based prevention methods in mosquito populations. we therefore assessed the impact of resistance on the effectiveness of pyrethroids based indoor residual spraying (irs) in semi-field co ...201526674643
malaria impact of large dams in sub-saharan africa: maps, estimates and predictions.while there is growing recognition of the malaria impacts of large dams in sub-saharan africa, the cumulative malaria impact of reservoirs associated with current and future dam developments has not been quantified. the objective of this study was to estimate the current and predict the future impact of large dams on malaria in different eco-epidemiological settings across sub-saharan africa.201526337834
a systematic, realist review of zooprophylaxis for malaria control.integrated vector management (ivm) is recommended as a sustainable approach to malaria control. ivm consists of combining vector control methods based on scientific evidence to maximize efficacy and cost-effectiveness while minimizing negative impacts, such as insecticide resistance and environmental damage. zooprophylaxis has been identified as a possible component of ivm as livestock may draw mosquitoes away from humans, decreasing human-vector contact and malaria transmission. it is possible, ...201526264913
a field study in benin to investigate the role of mosquitoes and other flying insects in the ecology of mycobacterium ulcerans.buruli ulcer, the third mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy, is caused by the environmental mycobacterium m. ulcerans. there is at present no clear understanding of the exact mode(s) of transmission of m. ulcerans. populations affected by buruli ulcer are those living close to humid and swampy zones. the disease is associated with the creation or the extension of swampy areas, such as construction of dams or lakes for the development of agriculture. currently, it is supposed tha ...201526196901
analysing the oviposition behaviour of malaria mosquitoes: design considerations for improving two-choice egg count experiments.choice egg-count bioassays are a popular tool for analysing oviposition substrate preferences of gravid mosquitoes. this study aimed at improving the design of two-choice experiments for measuring oviposition substrates preferences of the malaria vector anopheles gambiae senso lato, a mosquito that lays single eggs.201526088669
increasing prevalence of plasmodium vivax among febrile patients in nouakchott, mauritania.the occurrence of plasmodium vivax malaria was reported in nouakchott, mauritania in the 1990s. several studies have suggested the frequent occurrence of p. vivax malaria among nouakchott residents, including those without recent travel history to the southern part of the country where malaria is known to be endemic. to further consolidate the evidence for p. vivax endemicity and the extent of malaria burden in one district in the city of nouakchott, febrile illnesses were monitored in 2012-2013 ...201525582695
specific antibodies to anopheles gsg6-p1 salivary peptide to assess early childhood exposure to malaria vector bites.the estimates of risk of malaria in early childhood are imprecise given the current entomologic and parasitological tools. thus, the utility of anti-anopheles salivary gsg6-p1 peptide antibody responses in measuring exposure to anopheles bites during early infancy has been assessed.201526198354
structural changes of the follicular cells during developmental stages of the malaria vector mosquitoes anopheles pharoensis (diptera: culicidae) in egypt.the structure modulation of follicular cells and the ovarian changes during fourth larval instar and pupal stage of the malaria vector mosquitoes anopheles pharoensis theobald were investigated using the light and electron microscopy. the generative organs consist of a pair of polytrophic ovaries (ov), which are oblong, spindle-shaped bodies, lying dorsolaterally and occupying the region from the mid-fifth to the mid-sixth abdominal segment in the fourth larval instar, while in the pupal stage, ...201425241910
secondray structure and sequence of its2-rdna of the egyptian malaria vector anopheles pharoensis (theobald).out of the twelve anophelines present in egypt, only five species known to be malaria vectors. anopheles (an.) pharoensis proved to be the important vector all over egypt, especially in the delta. anopheles sergenti proved to be the primary vector in the oases of the western desert, an. multicolor in faiyoum, an. stephensi in the red sea coast, and an. superpictus in sinai. genomic dna was isolated from single adult mosquito of an. pharoensis (sahel sudanese form), pcr was performed to amplify i ...201424961025
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among malaria suspects attending gambella hospital, southwest ethiopia.glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (g6pdd) is widespread across malaria endemic regions. g6pd-deficient individuals are at risk of haemolysis when exposed, among other agents, to primaquine and tafenoquine, which are capable of blocking malaria transmission by killing plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and preventing plasmodium vivax relapses by targeting hypnozoites. it is evident that no measures are currently in place to ensure safe delivery of these drugs within the context of g6pdd ...201425406667
plasmodium falciparum infection rates for some anopheles spp. from guinea-bissau, west africa.presence of plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (csp) was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) in a sample of anopheles gambiae s.s., a. melas and a. pharoensis collected in guinea-bissau during october and november 2009. the percentage of p. falciparum infected samples (10.2% overall; confidence interval (ci): 7.45-13.6%) was comparable to earlier studies from other sites in guinea-bissau (9.6-12.4%). the majority of the specimens collected were identified as a. gamb ...201425383188
a description of malaria sentinel surveillance: a case study in oromia regional state, ethiopia.in the context of the massive scale up of malaria interventions, there is increasing recognition that the current capacity of routine malaria surveillance conducted in most african countries through integrated health management information systems is inadequate. the timeliness of reporting to higher levels of the health system through health management information systems is often too slow for rapid action on focal infectious diseases such as malaria. the purpose of this paper is to: 1) describe ...201424618105
re-evaluation of microscopy confirmed plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax malaria by nested pcr detection in southern ethiopia.with 75% of the ethiopian population at risk of malaria, accurate diagnosis is crucial for malaria treatment in endemic areas where plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax co-exist. the present study evaluated the performance of regular microscopy in accurate identification of plasmodium spp. in febrile patients visiting health facilities in southern ethiopia.201424502664
a genotypically distinct, melanic variant of anopheles arabiensis in sudan is associated with arid environments.anopheles arabiensis, an important malaria vector in sudan and other countries in sub-saharan africa, exhibits considerable ecological and behavioural plasticity allowing it to survive in the harsh conditions of arid regions. it has been shown that adult populations of an. arabiensis in the semi-desert habitat of western khartoum state survive through the long dry season in a state of partial aestivation, characterized by limited feeding activity and a degree of arrested ovarian development. ano ...201425496059
modeling larval malaria vector habitat locations using landscape features and cumulative precipitation measures.predictive models of malaria vector larval habitat locations may provide a basis for understanding the spatial determinants of malaria transmission.201424903736
biting by anopheles funestus in broad daylight after use of long-lasting insecticidal nets: a new challenge to malaria elimination.malaria control is mainly based on indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. the efficacy of these tools depends on the behaviour of mosquitoes, which varies by species. with resistance to insecticides, mosquitoes adapt their behaviour to ensure their survival and reproduction. the aim of this study was to assess the biting behaviour of anopheles funestus after the implementation of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins).201424678587
transmission patterns of plasmodium falciparum by anopheles gambiae in benin.to better control malaria, the clear and urgent need is for improved data to inform decision makers, but in several african countries, there is a lack of baseline data on vectors and variation in the intensity of malaria transmission. this has resulted in the implementation of vector control efforts that ignore variation in vector behaviour and intensity of transmission, an approach that is most often not cost-effective. this study presents a detailed entomological description of mosquito distri ...201425412948
increased malaria transmission around irrigation schemes in ethiopia and the potential of canal water management for malaria vector control.irrigation schemes have been blamed for the increase in malaria in many parts of sub-saharan africa. however, proper water management could help mitigate malaria around irrigation schemes in this region. this study investigates the link between irrigation and malaria in central ethiopia.201425218697
anopheles ziemanni a locally important malaria vector in ndop health district, north west region of cameroon.malaria transmission in cameroon is mediated by a plethora of vectors that are heterogeneously distributed across the country depending on the biotope. to effectively guide malaria control operations, regular update on the role of local anopheles species is essential. therefore, an entomological survey was conducted between august 2010 and may 2011 to evaluate the role of the local anopheline population in malaria transmission in three villages of the ndop health district in the northwest region ...201424903710
evidence for perennial malaria in rural and urban areas under the sudanian climate of kandi, northeastern benin.in arid settings, droughts usually lead to periods of very low or no malaria transmission. however, in rural kandi (sonsoro) in northeastern benin, several malaria cases are often diagnosed during dry seasons. the underlying factors accounting for this phenomenon remain unknown.201424564957
impact of land-use on malaria transmission in the plateau region, southeastern benin.the goal of the study is to investigate if local agricultural practices have an impact on malaria transmission in four villages located in the same geographical area within a radius of 15 kilometers. among the villages, one (itassoumba) is characterized by the presence of a large market garden and fishpond basins, the three others (itakpako, djohounkollé and ko-koumolou) are characterized by traditional food-producing agriculture.201324330734
impact of housing condition on indoor-biting and indoor-resting anopheles arabiensis density in a highland area, central ethiopia.exposure of individuals to malaria infection may depend on their housing conditions as houses serve as biting and resting places of vectors. this study describes the association of housing conditions with densities of indoor-biting and indoor-resting anopheles arabiensis in hobe, dirama and wurib villages of a highland area in central ethiopia.201324191901
impact of operational effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) on malaria transmission in pyrethroid-resistant areas.a dynamic study on the transmission of malaria was conducted in two areas (r⁺ area: low resistance area; r⁺⁺⁺ area: high resistance area) in the department of plateau in south eastern benin, where the population is protected by long lasting insecticidal nets (llins). the aim of this study was to determine if the resistance of malaria vectors to insecticides has an impact on their behavior and on the effectiveness of llins in the reduction of malaria transmission.201324499508
the effect of screening doors and windows on indoor density of anopheles arabiensis in south-west ethiopia: a randomized trial.screening of houses might have impact on density of indoor host-seeking anopheles mosquitoes. a randomized trial of screening windows and doors with metal mesh, and closing openings on eves and walls by mud was conducted to assess if reduce indoor densities of biting mosquitoes.201324028542
environmentally friendly tool to control mosquito populations without risk of insecticide resistance: the lehmann's funnel entry trap.current malaria control strategies have cut down the malaria burden in many endemic areas, however the emergence and rapid spread of insecticide and drug resistance undermine the success of these efforts. there is growing concern that malaria eradication will not be achieved without the introduction of novel control tools. one approach that has been developed in the last few years is based on house screening to reduce indoor mosquito vector densities and consequently decrease malaria transmissio ...201323758904
west nile virus transmission in sentinel chickens and potential mosquito vectors, senegal river delta, 2008-2009.west nile virus (wnv) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus usually transmitted to wild birds by culex mosquitoes. humans and horses are susceptible to wnv but are dead-end hosts. wnv is endemic in senegal, particularly in the senegal river delta. to assess transmission patterns and potential vectors, entomological and sentinel serological was done in ross bethio along the river senegal. three sentinel henhouses (also used as chicken-baited traps) were set at 100 m, 800 m, and 1,300 m from the river, ...201324084679
blood meal sources and entomological inoculation rates of anophelines along a highland altitudinal transect in south-central ethiopia.the role of anophelines in transmitting malaria depends on their distribution, preference to feed on humans and also their susceptibility to plasmodium gametocytes, all of which are affected by local environmental conditions. blood meal source and entomological inoculation rate of anophelines was assessed along a highland altitudinal transect in south- central ethiopia.201323433348
plasmodium falciparum infection during dry season: igg responses to anopheles gambiae salivary gsg6-p1 peptide as sensitive biomarker for malaria risk in northern senegal.the northern part of senegal is characterized by a low and seasonal transmission of malaria. however, some plasmodium falciparum infections and malaria clinical cases are reported during the dry season. this study aims to assess the relationship between igg antibody (ab) responses to gsg6-p1 mosquito salivary peptide and the prevalence of p. falciparum infection in children during the dry season in the senegal river valley. the positive association of the ab response to gsg6-p1, as biomarker of ...201323988032
evidence of man-vector contact in torn long-lasting insecticide-treated nets.studies indicate that physical damage to long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (llins) occurs at a surprisingly rapid rate following net distribution. to what extent does such damage affect the impact of llins? can vectors pass a compromised llin barrier to bite? do more resistant vectors enter the insecticide-treated nets (itns) through holes?201323941585
incorporating the effects of humidity in a mechanistic model of anopheles gambiae mosquito population dynamics in the sahel region of africa.low levels of relative humidity are known to decrease the lifespan of mosquitoes. however, most current models of malaria transmission do not account for the effects of relative humidity on mosquito survival. in the sahel, where relative humidity drops to levels <20% for several months of the year, we expect relative humidity to play a significant role in shaping the seasonal profile of mosquito populations. here, we present a new formulation for anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquito surv ...201323938022
climate change and epidemiology of human parasitosis in egypt: a review.climate change is an emerging global issue. it is expected to have significant impacts both in egypt and around the world. thus, the country is in need for taking action to prepare for the unavoidable effects of climate change, including the increase in water stress, the rise in sea level, and the rapidly increasing gap between the limited water availability and the escalating demand for water in the country. also, weather and climate play a significant role in people's health. direct impacts of ...201325685530
population ecology of mosquitoes and the status of bancroftian filariasis in el dakahlia governorate, the nile delta, egypt.mosquitoes were surveyed (oct. 2010 & apr. - oct. 2011) in some localities representing 13 centers of el-dakahlia governorate. six mosquito species were collected: culex pipiens, cx. antennatus, cx. perexiguus, ochlerotatus detritus, anopheles pharoensis and an. tenebrosus. culex pipiens was predominating (ca 79% larvae, 51% adults). culex antennatus and cx. perexiguus were also common. of the four types of the breeding habitats, the drainage canals were the most productive (53.4% larvae). for t ...201323697019
[agricultural activities and epidemiology of malaria in soudano-sahelian zone in cameroon].we have comparatively studied the dynamics of malaria transmission in the villages of mokolo-douvar located in the rural area with traditional agriculture and gounougou irrigated rice area, in 2004 august and november and 2006 may and october, to assess vectors biting habits, and malaria inoculation rate and malaria parasite prevalence in cohort of children from 0 to 15 years. mosquitoes were collected by landing catches on volunteers and by pyrethrum spray collections. a total of 5961 anopheles ...201222294407
linking land cover and species distribution models to project potential ranges of malaria vectors: an example using anopheles arabiensis in sudan and upper egypt.anopheles arabiensis is a particularly opportunistic feeder and efficient vector of plasmodium falciparum in africa and may invade areas outside its normal range, including areas separated by expanses of barren desert. the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how spatial models can project future irrigated cropland and potential, new suitable habitat for vectors such as an. arabiensis.201222866895
how does an ethiopian dam increase malaria? entomological determinants around the koka reservoir.to identify entomological determinants of increased malaria transmission in the vicinity of the koka reservoir in central ethiopia.201222909096
assessment of anopheles salivary antigens as individual exposure biomarkers to species-specific malaria vector bites.malaria transmission occurs during the blood feeding of infected anopheline mosquitoes concomitant with a saliva injection into the vertebrate host. in sub-saharan africa, most malaria transmission is due to anopheles funestus s.s and to anopheles gambiae s.l. (mainly anopheles gambiae s.s. and anopheles arabiensis). several studies have demonstrated that the immune response against salivary antigens could be used to evaluate individual exposure to mosquito bites. the aim of this study was to as ...201223276246
risk mapping of anopheles gambiae s.l. densities using remotely-sensed environmental and meteorological data in an urban area: dakar, senegal.high malaria transmission heterogeneity in an urban environment is basically due to the complex distribution of anopheles larval habitats, sources of vectors. understanding 1) the meteorological and ecological factors associated with differential larvae spatio-temporal distribution and 2) the vectors dynamic, both may lead to improving malaria control measures with remote sensing and high resolution data as key components. in this study a robust operational methodology for entomological malaria ...201223226351
igg responses to the gsg6-p1 salivary peptide for evaluating human exposure to anopheles bites in urban areas of dakar region, sénégal.urban malaria can be a serious public health problem in africa. human-landing catches of mosquitoes, a standard entomological method to assess human exposure to malaria vector bites, can lack sensitivity in areas where exposure is low. a simple and highly sensitive tool could be a complementary indicator for evaluating malaria exposure in such epidemiological contexts. the human antibody response to the specific anopheles gsg6-p1 salivary peptide have been described as an adequate tool biomarker ...201222424570
low and seasonal malaria transmission in the middle senegal river basin: identification and characteristics of anopheles vectors.during the last decades two dams were constructed along the senegal river. these intensified the practice of agriculture along the river valley basin. we conducted a study to assess malaria vector diversity, dynamics and malaria transmission in the area.201222269038
malaria risk mapping for control in the republic of sudan.evidence shows that malaria risk maps are rarely tailored to address national control program ambitions. here, we generate a malaria risk map adapted for malaria control in sudan. community plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (pfpr) data from 2000 to 2010 were assembled and were standardized to 2-10 years of age (pfpr(2-10)). space-time bayesian geostatistical methods were used to generate a map of malaria risk for 2010. surfaces of aridity, urbanization, irrigation schemes, and refugee camps we ...201223033400
prevalence of malaria infection in butajira area, south-central ethiopia.in 2005, the ethiopian government launched a massive expansion of the malaria prevention and control programme. the programme was aimed mainly at the reduction of malaria in populations living below 2,000 m above sea level. global warming has been implicated in the increase in the prevalence of malaria in the highlands. however, there is still a paucity of information on the occurrence of malaria at higher altitudes. the objective of this study was to estimate malaria prevalence in highland area ...201222443307
abundance and dynamics of anopheline larvae in a highland malarious area of south-central ethiopia.malaria is a public health problem in ethiopia, and increasingly so in highland areas, possibly because of global warming. this study describes the distribution, breeding habitat and monthly dynamics of anopheline larvae in butajira, a highland area in south-central ethiopia.201222695178
assessment of the effect of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying for malaria control in three rural kebeles of adami tulu district, south central ethiopia.in the adami tulu district, indoor residual spraying (irs) and insecticide-treated nets (itns) has been the main tool used to control malaria. the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of irs and itns control strategies in aneno shisho kebele (lowest administrative unit of ethiopia) compared with kamo gerbi (supplied itn only) and jela aluto (no irs and itns), with regards to the prevalence of malaria and mosquito density.201222533789
malaria vectors in lake victoria and adjacent habitats in western kenya.the prevalence of malaria among the residents of the lake victoria basin remains high. the environment associated with the lake may maintain a high number of malaria vectors. lake habitats including water hyacinths have been suspected to be the source of vectors. this study investigated whether malaria vectors breed in the lake habitats and adjacent backwater pools. anopheline larvae were collected within the littoral zone of the lake and adjacent pools located along approximately 24.3 km of the ...201222412913
dry season ecology of anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in two traditionally semi-arid villages in baringo, kenya.pre-adult stages of malaria vectors in semi-arid areas are confronted with highly variable and challenging climatic conditions. the objective of this study was to determine which larval habitat types are most productive in terms of larval densities in the dry and wet seasons within semi-arid environments, and how vector species productivity is partitioned over time.201121352608
are herders protected by their herds? an experimental analysis of zooprophylaxis against the malaria vector anopheles arabiensis.the number of anopheles arabiensis (diptera: culicidae) and anopheles pharoensis caught by human and cattle baits was investigated experimentally in the arba minch district of southern ethiopia to determine if attraction to humans, indoors or outdoors, was affected by the presence or absence of cattle.201121435266
plasmodium falciparum transmission and aridity: a kenyan experience from the dry lands of baringo and its implications for anopheles arabiensis control.abstract: background: the ecology of malaria vectors particularly in semi-arid areas of africa is poorly understood. accurate knowledge on this subject will boost current efforts to reduce the burden of malaria in sub-saharan africa. the objective of this study was to describe the dynamics of malaria transmission in two model semi-arid sites (kamarimar and tirion) in baringo in kenya. methods: adult mosquitoes were collected indoors by pyrethrum spray collections (psc) and outdoors by centers fo ...201121569546
feeding behaviour of potential vectors of west nile virus in senegal.west nile virus (wnv) is a widespread pathogen maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds with occasional spill-over into dead-end hosts such as horses and humans. migratory birds are believed to play an important role in its dissemination from and to the palaearctic area, as well as its local dispersion between wintering sites. the djoudj park, located in senegal, is a major wintering site for birds migrating from europe during the study period (sept. 2008- jan. 2009). in this ...201121651763
efficacy of permanet-« 2.0 and permanet-« 3.0 against insecticide-resistant anopheles gambiae in experimental huts in c+¦te d'ivoire.pyrethroid resistance in vectors could limit the efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) because all llins are currently treated with pyrethroids. the goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and wash resistance of permanet-« 3.0 compared to permanet-« 2.0 in an area of high pyrethroid in c+¦te d'ivoire. permanet-« 3.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 85 mg/m2 on the sides of the net and with deltamethrin and piperonyl butoxide on the roof. permanet-« 2.0 is impregnated with ...201121699703
environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the rift valley, central ethiopia.larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in ethiopia and elsewhere. for effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporal variation in larval production is essential. a study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between adami tulu and meki towns, in the middle course of the ethiopian rift valley.201121715730
Conditions of malaria transmission in Dakar from 2007 to 2010.Previous studies in Dakar have highlighted the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of Anopheles gambiae s.l. biting rates. In order to improve the knowledge of the determinants of malaria transmission in this city, the present study reports the results of an extensive entomological survey that was conducted in 45 areas in Dakar from 2007 to 2010.201122018223
the impact of a small-scale irrigation scheme on malaria transmission in ziway area, central ethiopia.to assess the impact of a small-scale irrigation scheme in ziway area, a semi-arid area in the central ethiopian rift valley, on malaria transmission.201019917039
effects of forced egg retention on the temporal progression of west nile virus infection in culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae).environmental factors that impact the biology of mosquito vectors can have epidemiological implications. lack of oviposition sites facilitated by environmental factors such as temperature and drought can often force culex spp. mosquitoes to retain their eggs. culex pipiens quinquefasciatus say were fed blood meals containing west nile virus (wnv; family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus) and either allowed to oviposit or forced to retain their eggs through different time points postinfection (9, 13 ...201020146856
distribution of the main malaria vectors in kenya.a detailed knowledge of the distribution of the main anopheles malaria vectors in kenya should guide national vector control strategies. however, contemporary spatial distributions of the locally dominant anopheles vectors including anopheles gambiae, anopheles arabiensis, anopheles merus, anopheles funestus, anopheles pharoensis and anopheles nili are lacking. the methods and approaches used to assemble contemporary available data on the present distribution of the dominant malaria vectors in k ...201020202199
diversity in anopheline larval habitats and adult composition during the dry and wet seasons in ouagadougou (burkina faso).several cases of malaria are frequently recorded during the dry period in ouagadougou town (burkina faso). this has led to the design of a series of studies focusing on both parasitological and entomological investigations intended to provide relevant health data on the risk of local malaria transmission according to the way of urbanisation.201020298619
rift valley fever virus epidemic in kenya, 2006/2007: the entomologic investigations.in december 2006, rift valley fever (rvf) was diagnosed in humans in garissa hospital, kenya and an outbreak reported affecting 11 districts. entomologic surveillance was performed in four districts to determine the epidemic/epizootic vectors of rvf virus (rvfv). approximately 297,000 mosquitoes were collected, 164,626 identified to species, 72,058 sorted into 3,003 pools and tested for rvfv by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. seventy-seven pools representing 10 species tested po ...201020682903
epidemiological investigation of bovine ephemeral fever outbreaks in israel.outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever (bef) occurred in israel in 1990, 1999, and 2004. the main patterns of bef spread were similar in the 1990 and in 1999 epidemics, and the bef virus was probably carried in vectors transported by air streams across the rift valley and the red sea. in the 2004 outbreak, the primary focus of the disease was the southern mediterranean coastal plain and the disease agent was apparently brought by infected mosquitoes carried from their breeding site in the nile delt ...201020814543
spatial heterogeneity and temporal evolution of malaria transmission risk in dakar, senegal, according to remotely sensed environmental data.the united nations forecasts that by 2050, more than 60% of the african population will live in cities. thus, urban malaria is considered an important emerging health problem in that continent. remote sensing (rs) and geographic information systems (gis) are useful tools for addressing the challenge of assessing, understanding and spatially focusing malaria control activities. the objectives of the present study were to use high spatial resolution spot (satellite pour l'observation de la terre) ...201020815867
culicidae diversity, malaria transmission and insecticide resistance alleles in malaria vectors in ouidah-kpomasse-tori district from benin (west africa): a pre-intervention study.abstract:201020819214
unexpected anthropophily in the potential secondary malaria vectors anopheles coustani s.l. and anopheles squamosus in macha, zambia.abstract anopheles coustani s.l. and anopheles squamosus are sub-saharan mosquito species that have been implicated in malaria transmission. although generally believed to be of negligible importance due to their overwhelmingly zoophilic behavior, an. coustani s.l. and an. squamosus made up a large proportion of the anophelines collected by human landing catches during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 rainy seasons in macha, zambia. further, polymerase chain reaction-based blood meal identification s ...201021142969
identifying the most productive breeding sites for malaria mosquitoes in the gambia.ideally larval control activities should be targeted at sites that generate the most adult vectors, thereby reducing operational costs. despite the plethora of potential mosquito breeding sites found in the floodplains of the gambia river, about 150 km from its mouth, during the rainy season, only a small proportion are colonized by anophelines on any day. this study aimed to determine the characteristics of larval habitats most frequently and most densely populated by anopheline larvae and to e ...200919361337
preliminary study of malaria incidence in nouakchott, mauritania.malaria is one of the main motives for outpatient consultation and hospitalization in mauritania. however, its incidence remains unclear because of diagnostic problems and insufficient epidemiological data.200919416545
malaria vectors and transmission dynamics in goulmoun, a rural city in south-western chad.knowledge of some baseline entomological data such as entomological inoculation rates (eir) is crucially needed to assess the epidemiological impact of malaria control activities directed either against parasites or vectors. in chad, most published surveys date back to the 1960's. in this study, anopheline species composition and their relation to malaria transmission were investigated in a dry sudanian savannas area of chad.200919463189
highly focused anopheline breeding sites and malaria transmission in dakar.urbanization has a great impact on the composition of the vector system and malaria transmission dynamics. in dakar, some malaria cases are autochthonous but parasite rates and incidences of clinical malaria attacks have been recorded at low levels. ecological heterogeneity of malaria transmission was investigated in dakar, in order to characterize the anopheles breeding sites in the city and to study the dynamics of larval density and adult aggressiveness in ten characteristically different urb ...200919552809
major variations in malaria exposure of travellers in rural areas: an entomological cohort study in western côte d'ivoire.malaria remains a major threat, to both travellers and military personnel deployed to endemic areas. the recommendations for travellers given by the world health organization is based on the incidence of malaria in an area and do not take the degree of exposure into account. the aim of this article is to evaluate the exposure of travellers by entomologic methods, which are the commonly used measures of the intensity of malaria transmission.200919638219
integration of irradiation with cytoplasmic incompatibility to facilitate a lymphatic filariasis vector elimination approach.abstract:200919682363
epidemiology of malaria in the forest-savanna transitional zone of ghana.information on the epidemiology of malaria is essential for designing and interpreting results of clinical trials of drugs, vaccines and other interventions. as a background to the establishment of a site for anti-malarial drugs and vaccine trials, the epidemiology of malaria in a rural site in central ghana was investigated.200919785766
male mating biology.before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (sit) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colo ...200919917078
field site selection: getting it right first time around.the selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (sit) requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1) a single malaria vector, 2) an unstructured, relatively low density target population, 3) isolation of the target population and 4) actual or potential malaria incidence. such a site can exist in a diverse range of situations or can be ...200919917079
habitat suitability and ecological niche profile of major malaria vectors in cameroon.suitability of environmental conditions determines a species distribution in space and time. understanding and modelling the ecological niche of mosquito disease vectors can, therefore, be a powerful predictor of the risk of exposure to the pathogens they transmit. in africa, five anophelines are responsible for over 95% of total malaria transmission. however, detailed knowledge of the geographic distribution and ecological requirements of these species is to date still inadequate.200920028559
radiation biology of mosquitoes.there is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (sit) to control african malaria vectors in designated areas. the sit relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. this paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of anopheles mosquitoes. in general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. the dose-re ...200919917076
bionomics of malaria vectors and relationship with malaria transmission and epidemiology in three physiographic zones in the senegal river basin.following the implementation of two dams in the senegal river, entomological and parasitological studies were conducted in three different ecological zones in the senegal river basin (the low valley of senegal river, the guiers lake area and the low valley of ferlo) every 3 month in june 2004, september 2004, december 2004 and march 2005. the objective of this work was to study the influence of environmental heterogeneities on vector bionomics and malaria epidemiology. mosquitoes were collected ...200818068685
risk factors for house-entry by malaria vectors in a rural town and satellite villages in the gambia.in the pre-intervention year of a randomized controlled trial investigating the protective effects of house screening against malaria-transmitting vectors, a multi-factorial risk factor analysis study was used to identify factors that influence mosquito house entry.200818179686
host choice and multiple blood feeding behaviour of malaria vectors and other anophelines in mwea rice scheme, kenya.studies were conducted between april 2004 and february 2006 to determine the blood-feeding pattern of anopheles mosquitoes in mwea kenya.200818312667
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