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[new faunal and biological observations on ticks in abruzzo].ticks collected during the years 1975-76 in abruzzo (prov. l'aquila and chieti) italy are reported. the following species have been identified: ixodes canisuga, ixodes frontalis, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis sulcata, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus sanguineus, hyalomma marginatum. new hosts are: felis catus for ixodes canisuga; scolopax rusticola, motacilla flava, corvus cornix for ixodes frontalis; sciurus vulgaris for haemaphysalis punctata; garrul ...19761032325
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from two different foci in spain.the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in several tick species was studied over a 2 year period in two ecologically different areas in spain. one area was an endemic area for lyme disease, with a number of autochthonous human cases and supported large populations of ixodes ricinus on cattle and birds; the second area was characterized by the absence of i. ricinus together with the presence of foxes and their associated tick species. while i. ricinus was the main vector of b. burgdorer ...19957634972
general review of tick species present in portugal.at present, 24 species are known to occur in portugal: argas vespertilionis, ornithodoros maritimus and ornithodoros erraticus in argasidae; ixodes acuminatus, ixodes bivari, ixodes canisuga, ixodes frontalis, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes ricinus, ixodes simplex simplex, ixodes ventalloi, ixodes vespertilionis, dermacentor marginatus, dermacentor pictus', haemaphysalis hispanica, haemaphysalis inermis, haemaphysalis punctata, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus pusillus, rhipicephalus sanguineus, rhi ...199911071535
ectoparasite ticks and chewing lice of red-legged partridge, alectoris rufa, in spain.during the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 shooting seasons, 212 wild red-legged partridge, alectoris rufa (galliformes: phaisanide) were captured in 18 spanish provinces and examined for chewing lice and ticks. three tick species and six species of chewing lice were found. ticks (acari: ixodidae) haemaphysalis punctata canestrini & fanzago, hyalomma lusitanicum koch and ixodes frontalis panzer were found at the lowest prevalence (1.4% overall tick prevalence). the louse (mallophaga) species, goniodes d ...200312680922
ticks from european-asiatic birds migrating through egypt into africa.from 321 of 7381 birds (28 species), 504 immature european-asiatic ticks were collected: ixodes frontalis, haemaphysalis punctata, haemaphysalis sulcata, hyalomma spp. (probably mostly m. marginatum), hyalomma aegyptium, and hyalomma m. marginatum. many additional detaching ticks were eaten by the hosts. uninfested bird species numbered 29 (998 individuals).196113715711
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from migratory birds in switzerland.the prevalence of ticks infected by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato on birds during their migrations was studied in switzerland. a total of 1,270 birds captured at two sites were examined for tick infestation. ixodes ricinus was the dominant tick species. prevalences of tick infestation were 6% and 18.2% for birds migrating northward and southward, respectively. borrelia valaisiana was the species detected most frequently in ticks, followed by borrelia garinii and borrelia lusitaniae. among bird ...200616391149
ixodes frontalis and avian tick-related syndrome in the united kingdom.this study aimed to characterise tick species responsible for avian tick infestations in the uk, to analyse various risk factors for tick-related syndrome in tick-infested birds and to test samples for the presence of certain tick-transmitted pathogens.200616911113
biogeography of tick-borne bhanja virus (bunyaviridae) in europe.bhanja virus (bhav) is pathogenic for young domestic ruminants and also for humans, causing fever and affections of the central nervous system. this generally neglected arbovirus of the family bunyaviridae is transmitted by metastriate ticks of the genera haemaphysalis, dermacentor, hyalomma, rhipicephalus, boophilus, and amblyomma. geographic distribution of bhav covers southern and central asia, africa, and southern (partially also central) europe. comparative biogeographic study of eight know ...201020182535
tick surveillance in great britain.the ability for public/veterinary health agencies to assess the risks posed by tick-borne pathogens is reliant on an understanding of the main tick vector species. crucially, the status, distribution, and changing trends in tick distribution and abundance are implicit requirements of any risk assessment; however, this is contingent on the quality of tick distribution data. since 2005 the health protection agency has promoted an enhanced tick surveillance program. through engagement with a variet ...201120849277
the hard-tick fauna of mainland portugal (acari: ixodidae): an update on geographical distribution and known associations with hosts and pathogens.this work is an updated revision of the available information on portuguese ixodid tick species. it includes data on tick biology, ecology, taxonomy and host/pathogen-associations. the current list of portuguese ixodid ticks comprises twenty species: dermacentor marginatus (sulzer, 1776), dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius, 1794), haemaphysalis hispanica gil collado, 1938, haemaphysalis inermis birula, 1895, haemaphysalis punctata canestrini & fanzago, 1878, hyalomma lusitanicum koch, 1844, hyal ...201121452063
ticks of poland. review of contemporary issues and latest research.the paper presents current knowledge of ticks occurring in poland, their medical importance, and a review of recent studies implemented in the polish research centres on ticks and their significance in the epidemiology of transmissible diseases. in the polish fauna there are 19 species of ticks (ixodida) recognized as existing permanently in our country: argas reflexus, argas polonicus, carios vespertilionis, ixodes trianguliceps, ixodes arboricola, ixodes crenulatus, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes li ...201223444797
larval keys to the genera of ixodidae (acari) and species of ixodes (latreille) ticks established in california.in california, hard (ixodidae) ticks transmit at least 8 zoonotic disease agents (1 virus, 6 bacteria, 1 protozoan) to humans or other animals. the correct taxonomic identification of all 3 parasitic stages (larvae, nymphs, adults) of ticks is integral to understanding host-tick associations and disease dynamics, but immature ticks, especially the larvae, can be difficult to identify. here, we present larval keys to the 4 genera of ixodidae (dermacentorkoch, 1844; haemaphysaliskoch, 1844; ixodes ...200820027236
spotted fever rickettsia species in hyalomma and ixodes ticks infesting migratory birds in the european mediterranean area.a few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in europe and their wintering grounds in africa. many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. the aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in europe as disseminators of rickettsia-infecte ...201425011617
interactions between tick and transmitted pathogens evolved to minimise competition through nested and coherent networks.natural foci of ticks, pathogens, and vertebrate reservoirs display complex relationships that are key to the circulation of pathogens and infection dynamics through the landscape. however, knowledge of the interaction networks involved in transmission of tick-borne pathogens are limited because empirical studies are commonly incomplete or performed at small spatial scales. here, we applied the methodology of ecological networks to quantify >14,000 interactions among ticks, vertebrates, and path ...201525993662
the recent evolution of a maternally-inherited endosymbiont of ticks led to the emergence of the q fever pathogen, coxiella burnetii.q fever is a highly infectious disease with a worldwide distribution. its causative agent, the intracellular bacterium coxiella burnetii, infects a variety of vertebrate species, including humans. its evolutionary origin remains almost entirely unknown and uncertainty persists regarding the identity and lifestyle of its ancestors. a few tick species were recently found to harbor maternally-inherited coxiella-like organisms engaged in symbiotic interactions, but their relationships to the q fever ...201525978383
spatial disaggregation of tick occurrence and ecology at a local scale as a preliminary step for spatial surveillance of tick-borne diseases: general framework and health implications in belgium.the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing in europe. sub national information on tick distribution, ecology and vector status is often lacking. however, precise location of infection risk can lead to better targeted prevention measures, surveillance and control.201323800283
on the potential roles of ticks and migrating birds in the ecology of west nile virus.mosquitoes are the primary vectors of west nile virus (wnv). ticks have, however, been suggested to be potential reservoirs of wnv. in order to investigate their role in the spread of the virus, ticks, which had been collected from birds migrating northwards from africa to europe, were analyzed for the potential presence of wnv-rna.201424455105
hard ticks (acari, ixodidae) of croatia.the present paper is based on original and literature data. in croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. the number of tick species recorded in croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. a total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in croatia. ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by rhipice ...201223372407
bird ticks in hungary reflect western, southern, eastern flyway connections and two genetic lineages of ixodes frontalis and haemaphysalis concinna.birds play an important role in short- and long-distance transportation of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. the aim of the present study was to provide comprehensive information on the species and genetic diversity of ixodid ticks transported by migratory and non-migratory bird species in central europe, and to evaluate relevant data in a geographical, as well as in an ecological context.201626912331
the first german map of georeferenced ixodid tick locations.georeferenced locations of ixodid ticks are required to depict the observed distribution of species. further, they are used as input data for species distribution models also known as niche models. the latter were applied to describe current and future (projected) tick distributions. beside model assumptions and selected climate parameters, the number of georeferenced tick locations available as a digital dataset is of fundamental importance for the reliability of such models. for germany, howev ...201425301245
assessment of exposure to piroplasms in sheep grazing in communal mountain pastures by using a multiplex dna bead-based suspension array.piroplasms are tick-borne hemoprotozoans with a major impact on extensive management systems. detection of sub-clinical low-level carriers, which can act as source of infection for vector ticks, is key to protect livestock trade and facilitate preventive control programs. the purpose of this study was to develop a method for the detection of ovine piroplasms and to use it in a field study aimed at investigating piroplasms infection in semi-extensive production systems in the basque country (nort ...201324499621
characterization of the uukuniemi virus group (phlebovirus: bunyaviridae): evidence for seven distinct species.evolutionary insights into the phleboviruses are limited because of an imprecise classification scheme based on partial nucleotide sequences and scattered antigenic relationships. in this report, the serologic and phylogenetic relationships of the uukuniemi group viruses and their relationships with other recently characterized tick-borne phleboviruses are described using full-length genome sequences. we propose that the viruses currently included in the uukuniemi virus group be assigned to five ...201323283959
detection of tick-borne anaplasma bovis, anaplasma phagocytophilum and anaplasma centrale in spain.the genus anaplasma (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae) includes species of medical and veterinary importance. the presence of anaplasma spp. in ticks from birds, as well as in haemaphysalis punctata (ixodida: ixodidae) specimens collected from cattle and vegetation in northern spain was investigated. a total of 336 ticks from birds [174 ixodes frontalis (ixodida: ixodidae), 108 h. punctata, 34 hyalomma marginatum (ixodida: ixodidae), 17 ixodes ricinus (ixodida: ixodidae) and three ixodes spp.], an ...201526111122
patterns of tick infestation and their borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in wild birds in portugal.wild birds may act as reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens and may be mechanical carriers of pathogen infected vector ticks through long distances during migration. the aim of this study was to assess tick infestation patterns in birds in portugal and the prevalence of tick infection by borrelia burgdorferi s.l. using pcr techniques. seven tick species were collected from birds including haemaphysalis punctata, hyalomma spp., ixodes acuminatus, ixodes arboricola, ixodes frontalis, ixodes ricinus an ...201526159798
bridging of cryptic borrelia cycles in european songbirds.the principal european vector for borrelia burgdorferi s.l., the causative agents of lyme disease, is the host-generalist tick ixodes ricinus. almost all terrestrial host-specialist ticks have been supposed not to contribute to the terrestrial borrelia transmission cycles. through an experiment with blackbirds, we show successful transmission by the widespread i. frontalis, an abundant bird-specialized tick that infests a broad range of songbirds. in the first phase of the experiment, we obtaine ...201728152581
characterization through multilocus sequence analysis of borrelia turdi isolates from portugal.borrelia turdi is a spirochete from the borrelia burgdorferi complex, first reported in japan, that has been increasingly detected in europe. this genospecies is mostly associated with avian hosts and their ornithophilic ticks such as ixodes frontalis. in this study, we isolated b. turdi from five i. frontalis feeding on turdus merula, turdus philomelos, parus major and troglodytes troglodytes, and one ixodes ricinus feeding on a t. merula in portugal. these isolates were genetically characteris ...201626311126
presence of borrelia turdi and borrelia valaisiana (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) in ticks removed from birds in the north of spain, 2009-2011.the genus borrelia includes species responsible for severe human diseases such as lyme disease. birds are involved in their epidemiology as dispersers of infected ticks (ixodida: ixodidae) and as reservoirs or amplifiers of the bacterium. herein, the presence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner in 336 ticks collected from birds in the north of spain from 2009 to 2011 was investigated. nucleic acid extracts from 174 ixodes frontalis (panzer), 108 ...201627694146
ticks and tick-borne pathogens in wild birds in greece.wild birds are common hosts of ticks and can transport them for long distances, contributing to the spreading of tick-borne pathogens. the information about ticks on birds and tick-borne pathogens in greece is limited. the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and species of ticks infesting wild resident birds (mostly small passerines) in greece, and to assess borrelia and rickettsia infection in the collected ticks. detection of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. was performed by nested pcr tar ...201626847630
a preliminary investigation on ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting birds in kızılırmak delta, turkey.ticks are mandatory blood-feeding ectoparasites of mammals, birds, reptiles, and even amphibians. turkey has a rich bird fauna and is located on the main migration route for many birds. however, information on ticks infesting birds is very limited. in the present study, we aimed to determine ticks infesting birds in kızılırmak delta, turkey. in 2014 autumn bird migration season, a total of 7,452 birds belonging to 79 species, 52 genera, 35 families, and 14 orders were examined for tick infestati ...201626487249
role of birds in dispersal of etiologic agents of tick-borne zoonoses, spain, 2009.we amplified gene sequences from anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia garinii, b. valaisiana, b. turdi, rickettsia monacensis, r. helvetica, r. sibirica sibirica, and rickettsia spp. (including candidatus rickettsia vini) in ticks removed from birds in spain. the findings support the role of passerine birds as possible dispersers of these tick-borne pathogens.201222709801
[collecting with the flagging method and fixing on man of ixodes (trichotoixodes) frontalis (panzer, 1795)].as he was beginning to sort a batch of ixodid ticks, collected with the flagging technique, the operator noticed that a female tick identified as ixodes frontalis had fixed itself rapidly on the top of one of his finger. that species is usually considered as "strict-specific to birds". the low frequency of such a fixing on human beings, as for as we know, is of limited value from an epidemiological point of view.19979296062
ixodes frontalis panzer, 1795. a review of the species. 195214929573
the immature stages of ixodes frontalis panzer 1795. 195313046904
ixodes frontalis on the baltic island of gotland, sweden. 19989622378
first record of ixodes frontalis collected by flagging in germany.for the first time, a female specimen of ixodes frontalis was collected using the flagging method in a public park in the bavarian city of ingolstadt, germany. previous reports were from migratory birds only. therefore, this is the first evidence that i. frontalis may be part of the tick fauna of germany.201122108018
first records of the tick ixodes frontalis (panzer, 1795) (acari, ixodidae) in slovakia.ixodes frontalis (panzer, 1975) is a three-host tick usually considered strictly specific to birds. the first evidence of i. frontalis from slovakia is presented in this paper. one male and 4 nymphs were collected using the flagging method in 2 different geomorphological units, the slovak karst and the zvolen basin, during collections in the autumn of 2011, and next in spring and autumn 2012. the fact that we managed to capture 2 different stages of i. frontalis several times on vegetation suppo ...201324001993
scanning electron microscopy of ticks for systematic studies. 2. structure of haller's organ in ixodes brunneus and ixodes frontalis. 1977903942
ticks on passerines from the archipelago of the azores as hosts of borreliae and rickettsiae.we examined the presence of borreliae and rickettsiae bacteria in ticks from wild passerine birds on three islands of the archipelago of the azores, the westernmost region of palearctic. a total of 266 birds belonging to eight species from seven families were examined on são miguel, santa maria and graciosa islands in 2013. ticks collected from these birds consisted of 55 ixodes frontalis (22 larvae, 32 nymphs, 1 adult female) and 16 haemaphysalis punctata nymphs. turdus merula and erithacus rub ...201526013915
habitat and occurrence of ixodid ticks in the liguria region, northwest italy.questing ticks were collected during monthly dragging sessions (march-august 2011) in three provinces of the liguria region, north-western italy, to evaluate the species occurrence, spatial distribution and relative abundance. a total of 1,464 specimens were collected in 94 dragging sites. ixodes ricinus was the most abundant species (81.3 % of collected ticks), followed by haemaphysalis punctata (10.9 %), dermacentor marginatus (5.5 %), ixodes frontalis (1.3 %), and rhipicephalus spp. (0.9 %). ...201424682615
comparative survey of the ectoparasite fauna of wild and farm-reared red-legged partridges ( alectoris rufa), with an ecological study in wild populations.we compared the ectoparasite fauna of 89 wild red-legged partridges (alectoris rufa) from four hunting estates and 25 farm-reared partridges from three farms. we found 62% of the wild but only 20% of the farmed partridges harboured ectoparasites. on the wild partridges, one hippoboscid fly species (ornithophila metallica, 2%), two tick species (ixodes frontalis, 2%; hyalomma sp., 17%) and eight louse species were found (menacanthus lyali, 3%; m. numidae, 3%; menopon pallens, 21%; myrsidea picae, ...200415103557
first record of ixodes arboricola (ixodida: ixodidae) from turkey with presence of candidatus rickettsia vini (rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae).birds are the specific hosts of many tick species and may contribute to the dissemination of ticks and tick-borne pathogens throughout the world. determination of ticks infesting birds and their pathogens are important for the detection of natural foci of human pathogens. unfortunately, there is very limited information about the occurrence of ticks on birds and associated pathogens in turkey. we performed a tick survey on three passerine bird species; parus major, sylvia atricapilla, and turdus ...201425118420
tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from breeding and migratory birds in switzerland.from 2007 to 2010, 4558 migrating and breeding birds of 71 species were caught and examined for ticks in switzerland. a total of 1205 specimens were collected; all were ixodes ricinus ticks except one ixodes frontalis female, which was found on a common chaffinch (fringilla coelebs) for the first time in switzerland. each tick was analysed individually for the presence of borrelia spp., rickettsia spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev). altogether, 11.4% of bird ...201425113989
ticks (ixodidae) on birds migrating from europe and asia to africa 1959-61.the need for imaginative thinking and research in the epidemiology of diseases transmitted by arthropods is made manifest by new views of the longevity and host ranges of arthropod-borne viruses, as well as by other biological and medical phenomena. among these is the intercontinental transport of ticks by migrating birds. during the fall migration periods of 1959, 1960 and 1961, 32 086 birds (comprising 72 forms) were examined for ticks in egypt while en route from asia and eastern europe to tr ...196313961632
detection of tick-borne pathogens in ticks from migratory birds in the baltic region of russia.we report the finding of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe)-virus in indigenous ixodes ricinus (l.), 'candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis' in exotic ixodes frontalis (panzer) and rickettsia aeshlimannii in exotic hyalomma marginatum koch subadult ticks detached from 18.5% (107/577) infested migratory birds in the baltic region of russia. this is the first record of human pathogenic 'candidatus n. mikurensis' in i. frontalis ticks. moreover, seven other pathogens were identified in i. ricinus ticks. sp ...201322924442
blackbirds turdus merula as competent reservoirs for borrelia turdi and borrelia valaisiana in portugal: evidence from a xenodiagnostic experiment.to confirm that thrushes, such as blackbirds turdus merula, play a role as reservoir for some borrelia genospecies, we performed a xenodiagnostic experiment with blackbirds captured in a mixed wood located in western portugal where borrelia turdi, an uncommon genospecies in europe, was the most prevalent genospecies associated with birds. two out of five birds harboured b. turdi infected ixodes frontalis at the time of capture. four out of five birds transmitted spirochaetes to ixodes ricinus xe ...201323864576
differential diagnosis of three common ixodes spp. ticks infesting songbirds of western europe: ixodes arboricola, i. frontalis and i. ricinus.the three most common ixodes spp. ticks found on songbirds in western europe are ixodes frontalis, i. arboricola and i. ricinus. as the latter species is a generalist, it shares several avian hosts with the two strictly ornithophilic species. infestations of the three species can overlap in time and space, implying that tick-borne pathogens maintained by the ornithophilic ticks and their hosts could be bridged by i. ricinus to non-avian hosts. whereas the endophilic ixodes arboricola only occurs ...201425113983
presence of borrelia turdi and borrelia valaisiana (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) in ticks removed from birds in the north of spain, 2009-2011.the genus borrelia includes species responsible for severe human diseases such as lyme disease. birds are involved in their epidemiology as dispersers of infected ticks (ixodida: ixodidae) and as reservoirs or amplifiers of the bacterium. herein, the presence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner in 336 ticks collected from birds in the north of spain from 2009 to 2011 was investigated. nucleic acid extracts from 174 ixodes frontalis (panzer), 108 ...201728082654
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