molecular genetic key for the identification of 17 ixodes species of the united states (acari:ixodidae): a methods model.a taxonomic key, based on restriction enzyme analysis of the second internal-transcribed spacer (its-2) in the nuclear ribosomal dna gene, was developed for identification of 17 ixodes tick species in the united states. this key includes: ixodes affinis neumann, ixodes angustus neumann, ixodes baergi cooley and kohls, ixodes brunneus koch, ixodes cookei packard, ixodes dentatus marx, ixodes jellisoni cooley and kohls, ixodes kingi bishopp, ixodes minor neumann, ixodes muris bishopp and smith, ix ...199910461941
ticks of south carolina (acari: ixodoidea).county and host records are reported for 19 species of ticks from south carolina: amblyomma americanum, amblyomma maculatum, amblyomma tuberculatum, aponomma latum, boophilus annulatus, boophilus microplus, dermacentor albipictus, dermacentor variablis, haemaphysalis leporispalustris, ixodes affinis, ixodes brunneus, ixodes cookei, ixodes marxi, ixodes minor, ixodes scapularis, ixodes texanus, ixodes woodi, rhipicephalus sanguineus, and ornithodoros capensis. ixodes woodi is recorded from south ...199910672552
tick infestations of birds in coastal georgia and alabama.mist-netted birds were examined for ticks on jekyll island, glynn co., georgia (32 bird species) in 1996-1998, and at fort morgan, baldwin co., alabama (36 species) in 1998 during fall migration. sixty-two (14.7%) of 423 birds from jekyll island and 22 (13.3%) of 165 birds from fort morgan were infested with ticks. the mean number of ticks per infested bird was 2.0 on jekyll island and 6.3 at fort morgan. ten species of birds were infested with ticks on jekyl1 island where 87% of all ticks were ...200010780541
ticks (acari: ixodidae) and spirochetes (spirochaetaceae: spirochaetales) recovered from birds on a georgia barrier island.from september 1997 through july 1999, 300 individuals and 46 species of birds were mist-netted and screened for ticks and spirochetes on st. catherine's island, liberty county, ga. seventy-six (25%) of the birds were parasitized by a meal intensity of 4.6 ticks. seasonally, more birds were infested with ticks during the summer (50% in 1998, 34% in 1999) than in spring (15% in 1998, 11% in 1999) or fall (21% in 1997, 20% in 1998), mainly because of severe infestations on some birds by immature s ...200111296828
host associations and seasonal occurrence of haemaphysalis leporispalustris, ixodes brunneus, i. cookei, i. dentatus, and i. texanus (acari: ixodidae) in southeastern missouri.hemaphysalis leporispalustris (packard), ixodes brunneus koch, ixodes cookei packard, ixodes dentatus marx, and ixodes texanus banks were collected during a 3-yr study of pathogen-tick-host interactions in southeastern missouri. h. leporispalustris was collected from the eastern cottontail rabbit, northern bobwhite, and carolina wren, and it was active all year. i. brunneus was collected by drag and from passerine birds during december, march, and april. i. cookei was collected from raccoons and ...200312597662
survey of ticks collected in mississippi for rickettsia, ehrlichia, and borrelia species.from november 1999 through october 2000, we tested ticks collected from vegetation as well as from deer, dogs, and humans for spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae, ehrlichia chaffeensis, and borrelia spp. spirochetes. a total of 149 adult ticks representing four species was collected from 11 collection sites from southwestern to northern mississippi. amblyomma americanum was most commonly collected (n=68), followed by ixodes scapularis (n=53). the bird tick, ixodes brunneus (usually rare), was ...200314714667
role of migratory birds in introduction and range expansion of ixodes scapularis ticks and of borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum in canada.during the spring in 2005 and 2006, 39,095 northward-migrating land birds were captured at 12 bird observatories in eastern canada to investigate the role of migratory birds in northward range expansion of lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and their tick vector, ixodes scapularis. the prevalence of birds carrying i. scapularis ticks (mostly nymphs) was 0.35% (95% confidence interval [ci] = 0.30 to 0.42), but a nested study by experienced observers suggested a more realistic infe ...200818245258
ectoparasites and associated pathogens of free-roaming and captive animals in zoos of south carolina.a survey of ectoparasites and their associated pathogens was conducted in two south carolina zoos, from 2004 to 2007. dead, wild birds and mammals, as well as captive animals examined during routine veterinary checks constituted the study populations. ectoparasites were tested for species of anaplasma, bartonella, coxiella burnetii, ehrlichia, rickettsia, and trypanosoma. forty-six species of ectoparasites were collected from 133 free-roaming and captive hosts and their associated nesting and be ...200918973443
high-prevalence borrelia miyamotoi [scapin wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) in tennessee.during spring and fall 2009, 60 wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) harvested by tennessee hunters were surveyed for borrelia spp. by sampling their blood, tissue, and attached ticks. in both seasons, 70% of turkeys were infested with juvenile amblyomma americanum; one spring turkey hosted an adult female ixodes brunneus. polymerase chain reaction assays followed by dna sequencing indicated that 58% of the turkeys were positive for the spirochete borrelia miyamotoi, with tissue testing positive m ...201021175079
an acarologic survey and amblyomma americanum distribution map with implications for tularemia risk in the united states, tickborne diseases occur focally. missouri represents a major focus of several tickborne diseases that includes spotted fever rickettsiosis, tularemia, and ehrlichiosis. our study sought to determine the potential risk of human exposure to human-biting vector ticks in this area. we collected ticks in 79 sites in southern missouri during june 7-10, 2009, which yielded 1,047 adult and 3,585 nymphal amblyomma americanum, 5 adult amblyomma maculatum, 19 adult dermacentor variab ...201121363979
tick paralysis in australia caused by ixodes holocyclus neumann.ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of various animals, including humans, and are abundant in temperate and tropical zones around the world. they are the most important vectors for the pathogens causing disease in livestock and second only to mosquitoes as vectors of pathogens causing human disease. ticks are formidable arachnids, capable of not only transmitting the pathogens involved in some infectious diseases but also of inducing allergies and causing toxicoses and paralysis, wit ...201121396246
larval keys to the genera of ixodidae (acari) and species of ixodes (latreille) ticks established in california, hard (ixodidae) ticks transmit at least 8 zoonotic disease agents (1 virus, 6 bacteria, 1 protozoan) to humans or other animals. the correct taxonomic identification of all 3 parasitic stages (larvae, nymphs, adults) of ticks is integral to understanding host-tick associations and disease dynamics, but immature ticks, especially the larvae, can be difficult to identify. here, we present larval keys to the 4 genera of ixodidae (dermacentorkoch, 1844; haemaphysaliskoch, 1844; ixodes ...200820027236
ticks and spotted fever group rickettsiae of southeastern virginia.the incidence of tick-borne rickettsial disease in the southeastern united states has been rising steadily through the past decade, and the range expansions of tick species and tick-borne infectious agents, new and old, has resulted in an unprecedented mix of vectors and pathogens. the results of an ongoing 4-year surveillance project describe the relative abundance of questing tick populations in southeastern virginia. since 2009, more than 66,000 questing ticks of 7 species have been collected ...201324201057
single-tube real-time pcr assay for differentiation of ixodes affinis and ixodes scapularis.ixodes affinis neumann (1899) and ixodes scapularis say (1821) are tick vectors of the etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. ixodes affinis and i. scapularis are morphologically very similar, and as they are sympatric in the mid- and south-atlantic u.s. coastal states, their accurate identification is crucial to studies of disease and vector ecology in this area. this work describes a rapid, single-tube sybr(®) green-based real-time pcr assay for differentiation of ...201324192510
population and demographic structure of ixodes scapularis say in the eastern united states.the most significant vector of tick-borne pathogens in the united states is ixodes scapularis say (the blacklegged tick). previous studies have identified significant genetic, behavioral and morphological differences between northern vs. southern populations of this tick. because tick-borne pathogens are dependent on their vectors for transmission, a baseline understanding of the vector population structure is crucial to determining the risks and epidemiology of pathogen transmission.201425025532
detection of microbial agents in ticks collected from migratory birds in central italy.tick species characterization and molecular studies were performed within ornithological surveys conducted during 2010 and 2011 in the lazio region of central italy. a total of 137 ticks were collected from 41 migratory birds belonging to 17 species (four partial migrants and 13 long-distance migrants). most ticks were nymphs, with a predominance of hyalomma marginatum marginatum and h. m. rufipes, and a small portion of ixodes and amblyomma species. all tick species analyzed were infected, and ...201424576218
habitat and vegetation variables are not enough when predicting tick populations in the southeastern united states.two tick-borne diseases with expanding case and vector distributions are ehrlichiosis (transmitted by amblyomma americanum) and rickettiosis (transmitted by a. maculatum and dermacentor variabilis). there is a critical need to identify the specific habitats where each of these species is likely to be encountered to classify and pinpoint risk areas. consequently, an in-depth tick prevalence study was conducted on the dominant ticks in the southeast. vegetation, soil, and remote sensing data were ...201526656122
lyme disease risk in southern california: abiotic and environmental drivers of ixodes pacificus (acari: ixodidae) density and infection prevalence with borrelia burgdorferi.tick-borne diseases, particularly lyme disease, are emerging across the northern hemisphere. in order to manage emerging diseases and predict where emergence will likely occur, it is necessary to understand the factors influencing the distribution, abundance and infection prevalence of vector species. in north america, lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease and is transmitted by blacklegged ticks. this study aimed to explore the abiotic and environmental drivers of density and infe ...201728057067
the phenology of ticks and the effects of long-term prescribed burning on tick population dynamics in southwestern georgia and northwestern florida.some tick populations have increased dramatically in the past several decades leading to an increase in the incidence and emergence of tick-borne diseases. management strategies that can effectively reduce tick populations while better understanding regional tick phenology is needed. one promising management strategy is prescribed burning. however, the efficacy of prescribed burning as a mechanism for tick control is unclear because past studies have provided conflicting data, likely due to a fa ...201425375797
scanning electron microscopy of ticks for systematic studies. 2. structure of haller's organ in ixodes brunneus and ixodes frontalis. 1977903942
avian tick paralysis caused by ixodes brunneus in the southeastern united states.between 1988 and 1994, 16 definitive and 26 presumptive cases of tick paralysis were diagnosed in 10 species of birds from five southeastern states in the usa. all birds had engorged adult female ixodes brunneus ticks on the head region and were partially paralyzed or dead. cases occurred in the winter and early spring months, and most birds were passerines found in private yards or near feeders. all stages of i. brunneus feed exclusively on birds, and this species previously has been associated ...19968627926
observations on questing activity of adult ixodes brunneus koch (acari: ixodidae) in mississippi.the tick ixodes brunneus koch is a rare species occurring primarily in north america, where it feeds on many species of passeriform birds. virtually nothing is known about the questing activity of this tick, although adults often stand with their front legs straight up, suggesting that they quest from a horizontal position. the present study analyzed i. brunneus questing behavior based on field data from drag cloth collections in northern mississippi, as well as observational laboratory data fro ...201322924912
new records of immature ixodes brunneus koch (acari: ixodidae) from mississippi, u.s.a. 201324581375
first record of ixodes brunneus in kansas.a single specimen, a partially engorged female, of ixodes brunneus was recovered from a common grackle (quiscalus quiscula) in butler county, near el dorado, kansas (usa). the discovery of this tick in kansas represents a new state record.19911758045
new records of ixodes affinis (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing avian hosts in southeastern virginia.ixodes affinis neumann (acari: ixodidae) is a hard-bodied tick species distributed throughout much of the southeastern united states. although i. affinis does not parasitize humans, it is a competent vector of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative-agent of lyme disease, and thus contributes to the enzootic maintenance of this pathogen. this study presents evidence of i. affinis parasitizing five new host passerine species. during 2012-2014, 1,888 birds were captured and examined for ...201626586535
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