conditions for splitting protodioscine--the main glycoside from tribulus terrestris l. by the enzymatic preparation from aspergillus niger bkmt-33.the conditions for splitting protodioscine--the main steroid saponine isolated from tribulus terrestris l. by the enzymic preparation of aspergillus niger str. bkmt-33 were investigated. the optimal conditions were found to be as follows: ph 4-5, temperature 30-37 degrees (the substrate concentration--5 mg%, concentration of the enzymic preparation--1%). under these conditions the enzymolysis continued 24 hours. mg+2 and k+ ions accelerated the reaction twice. as a result of the enzymic hydrolys ...19751743
cardiac action of tribulus terrestris. 19761024084
toxigenic aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins in sri lankan medicinal plant material.the fungal flora of 6 asian medicinal plants, aerva lanata (linn.) juss. alyssicarpus vaginalis d.c., tribulus terrestris linn. adhatoda vasica nees., centella asciatica (l.) urb., cardiospermum halicacabum linn. was determined. after surface disinfection aspergillus spp. were most frequently observed. aspergillus flavus, isolated from alyssicarpus vaginalis and aerva lanata produced aflatoxins in culture. aflatoxin b1 was also detected in a sample of aerra lanata at a level of 0.5 micrograms/g. ...19911906136
geeldikkop: experimental induction by feeding the plant tribulus terrestris l. (zygophyllaceae). 19724670765
genetic breakdown of chromosome behaviour of tribulus terrestris. 19725020365
effect of tribulus terrestris fruit extracts on chloride and creatinine renal clearances in dogs. 19715137670
preliminary studies on the diuretic effects of hygrophila spinosa and tribulus terrestris. 19676056282
hepatogenous photosensitization of sheep in california associated with ingestion of tribulus terrestris (puncture vine). 19947948218
crystal-associated cholangiohepatopathy and photosensitisation in lambs.four outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitisation occurred in weaned lambs in north eastern victoria during the summers of 1985 and 1986. attack rates varied between 7% and 43% and case fatality rates between 60% and 71%. clinical signs included photosensitisation and jaundice. serum biochemistry suggested hepatobiliary and hepatoparenchymal damage with impaired renal function. at necropsy livers were an ochre colour and kidneys a mottled brown to khaki. histopathologically, needle-shaped to len ...19873632500
sulphorhodamine b assay for measuring proliferation of a pigmented melanocyte cell line and its application to the evaluation of crude drugs used in the treatment of vitiligo.a rapid 96-well plate assay using sulphorhodamine b (srb) protein stain for cell number has been adopted to screen herbs used in traditional treatments of vitiligo for substances capable of stimulating melanocyte proliferation. its applicability to melan-a cells, a mouse pigmented cell line, has been validated. srb assay produced good linearity up to 11 x 10(4) cells/well and interference by melanin present in the cells accounted for less than 10% of the total optical density readings. the intra ...199910433470
a novel nigrostriatal dopaminergic disorder in sheep affected by tribulus terrestris investigation was carried out into the pathogenesis of a unique locomotory disorder of sheep. thirty sheep which had exhibited clinical signs for more than 15 months were examined for the presence of muscle atrophy, limb paresis, and spontaneous rotational behaviour. a single large dose of levodopa was administered to 12 normal and 12 affected sheep, and the drug-related effects of sedation and excitation were monitored continuously for three hours. the striatum was removed from eight normal ...19873444981
photosensitisation and crystal-associated cholangiohepatopathy in sheep grazing brachiaria decumbens.two outbreaks of photosensitivity and jaundice in sheep grazing the grass, brachiaria decumbens. in west java in 1983 and 1983 and 1990 are described. aggregates of acicular clefts and crystals were present in bile canaliculi, bile ducts, kupffer cells, hepatocytes and in kidney tubules. the number of crystals increased with the length of exposure to the plant and sheep that died had the largest accumulations. these crystalline structures have been reported before in this syndrome, but are simil ...19911929990
[studies on water soluble polysaccharides isolated from tribulus terrestris l--purification and preliminary structural determination of heteropolysaccharide h].crude polysaccharides extracted from the stem and leaf of tribulus terristris l after the removal of crude saponins are a mixture of heteropolysaccharides composed of ara, rha, xyl, gala, gal, glc and man in molar ratios of 6.0:2.1:1:3.6:3.4:7.7:2.9. a homogeneous polysaccharide h obtained by gradation and purification contains ara, rha, xyl, gala. gal and glc. in molar ratios of 1.6:2.4:0.1:3.5:1.3:1. its molecular weight was found to be 1 x 10(5). by means of pectinase and beta-d-galactosidase ...19911805519
locomotor effects in sheep of alkaloids identified in australian tribulus terrestris.fresh, mature, ungrazed tribulus terrestris plant material was subjected to a standard alkaloid extraction procedure. the extract was fractionated by thin layer chromatography (tlc) and high performance liquid chromatography (hplc). two major alkaloid fractions were demonstrated. these fractions were identified by means of tlc, ultraviolet spectrofluorimetry (uvs) and hplc, as the beta-carboline indoleamines harmane and norharmane. the extractable alkaloid content was determined to be 44 mg/kg d ...19921445080
some effects of feeding tribulus terrestris, ipomoea lonchophylla and the seed of abelmoschus ficulneus on fetal development and the outcome of pregnancy in sheep.pregnant ewes and their fetuses were chronically catheterized using aseptic procedures under general anaesthesia, and the ewes were then fed either lucerne chaff alone, or lucerne mixed with dried plant material obtained from one of three forb species, tribulus terrestris (caltrop), abelmoschus ficulneus (native rosella) or ipomoea lonchophylla (cowvine), from 103-112 days gestation until term. ingestion of the forb material was not associated with changes in maternal blood gases, plasma glucose ...19921438942
geeldikkop: preservation of toxic material.wilted tribulus terrestris plants were harvested from a camp in which geeldikkop had just previously broken out. the plants were treated in various ways in an attempt to preserve their toxicity. the only successful method of preservation found was rapid freezing of harvested material. three kg of plants were kept frozen for six weeks and then dosed via rumen fistula to a sheep which subsequently developed characteristic symptoms and lesions of geeldikkop.1978702505
tribulusamide a and b, new hepatoprotective lignanamides from the fruits of tribulus terrestris: indications of cytoprotective activity in murine hepatocyte culture.tribulusamides a (1) and b (2), new lignanamides embracing two cinnamic amide parts joined in a cis configuration, were isolated from the fruits of tribulus terrestris, together with four known compounds, n-trans-feruloyltyramine (3), terrestriamide (4), n-trans-coumaroyltyramine (5), and beta-sitosterol. the structures were elucidated by 2d-nmr spectroscopy. addition of compounds 1-5, especially 1 and 2, to primary cultured mouse hepatocytes significantly prevented cell death induced by d-galac ...19989810268
activity of certain fractions of tribulus terrestris fruits against experimentally induced urolithiasis in ethanolic extract of the fruits of t. terrestris showed significant dose dependent protection against uroliths induced by glass bead implantation in albino rats. on subsequent fractionation of the ethanol extract, maximum activity was localised in the 10% aqueous methanol fraction. it provided significant protection against deposition of calculogenic material around the glass bead. it also protected leucocytosis and elevation in serum urea levels. further, fractionation lead to decreased acti ...19947959935
biologically active steroidal glycosides from tribulus terrestris.the steroidal saponin constituents obtained from tribulus terrestris were tested for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects. the spirostanol-based steroidal saponins 1-3 exhibited remarkable activity against fungal organisms (candida albicans and cryptococcus neoformans) and cancer cell lines [human malignant melanoma (sk-mel), human oral epidermoid carcinoma (kb), human breast ductal carcinoma (bt-549), and human ovary carcinoma (sk-ov-3)], while none of the compounds possessing the furostan ...200212168535
evaluation of natural products on inhibition of inducible cyclooxygenase (cox-2) and nitric oxide synthase (inos) in cultured mouse macrophage cells.the inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis and nitric oxide production have been considered as potential anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive agents. in this study, we evaluated approximately 170 methanol extracts of natural products including korean herbal medicines for the inhibition of prostaglandin e(2) production (for cox-2 inhibitors) and nitric oxide formation (for inos inhibitors) in lipopolysaccharide (lps)-induced mouse macrophages raw264.7 cells. as a result, several extract ...200212413723
photosensitivity in south africa. viii. ovine metabolism of tribulus terrestris saponins during experimentally induced geeldikkop.geeldikkop was induced in a sheep by dosing it orally with a crude extract of the steroidal saponins from tribulus terrestris. gc-ms analysis of the sheep's ruminal contents, bile, faeces and urine for free and conjugated sapogenins, revealed the general features of the metabolic pathway by which diosgenin and yamogenin glycosides were converted into the glucuronides of epismilagenin and episarsasapogenin, the major constituents of the biliary crystals that usually form during geeldikkop. other ...19947501366
photosensitivity in south africa. ii. the experimental production of the ovine hepatogenous photosensitivity disease geeldikkop (tribulosis ovis) by the simultaneous ingestion of tribulus terrestris plants and cultures of pithomyces chartarum containing the mycotoxin sporidesmin.the mycoflora of toxic pastures were surveyed during a number of outbreaks of ovine hepatogenous photosensitivity in south africa. pure cultures of several isolates were dosed to sheep, but only those of pithomyces chartarum and myrothecium verrucaria proved to be toxic. photosensitization was induced in sheep by dosing them with cultures of a p. chartarum isolate (ga10) obtained from tribulus terrestris plants collected during an outbreak of geeldikkop in the karoo. thus for the first time a me ...19807194997
hepatopathy in sheep associated with tribulus terrestris. 19836626068
a syndrome of hepatogenous photosensitisation, resembling geeldikkop, in sheep grazing tribulus terrestris.two outbreaks of photosensitivity disease occurred in weaner sheep in south western new south wales during early autumn 1982. in each instance there was a history of access to the annual herb, tribulus terrestris and both the clinical and pathological findings were consistent with geeldikkop, a major disease in the republic of south africa. the prevalence rates of clinical cases were 21 and 37%, while the case fatality rates approached 70%. clinical signs were dominated by jaundice and photosens ...19846525116
phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions.traditional herbs have been a revolutionary breakthrough in the management of erectile dysfunction and have become known world-wide as an 'instant' treatment. the modern view of the management of erectile dysfunction subscribes to a single etiology, i.e. the mechanism of erection. a large number of pharmacological agents are orally consumed and vasoactive agents inserted intraurethrally or injected intrapenially to regain good erection. modern phytochemicals have developed from traditional herbs ...200010849504
[effect of tribulus terrestris l decoction of different concentrations on tyrosinase activity and the proliferation of melanocytes].to study the effects of the decoction of tribulus terrestris l on tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis.200212433636
experimental tribulus terrestris poisoning in sheep: clinical, laboratory and pathological findings.eleven native sheep, 1-2 years old, of both sexes were randomly divided into two groups, 6 sheep being allocated to the experimental group and 5 serving as controls. the sheep in the experimental group were fed 80% tribulus terrestris and 20% alfalfa hay and wheat straw, while the control sheep were given a mixture of 40% alfalfa hay and 60% wheat straw. clinical signs of hepatogenous photosensitivity were observed from day 11, including reddening and crust formation on the muzzle, nose, ears an ...200312625403
experimentally induced cholangiohepatopathy by dosing sheep with fractionated extracts from brachiaria decumbens.cholangiohepatopathy was induced in 5 lambs by oral administration of extracts from signal grass (brachiaria decumbens) in brazil. grossly there were pale foci multifocally distributed throughout the hepatic parenchyma in 4 lambs. the microscopic changes, which were similar to those produced by other steroidal sapogenins-containing plants such as tribulus terrestris and panicum spp., included multifocal cholangitis, bile duct proliferation, and the presence of crystals in the biliary system.200111289217
[effect of the decoction of tribulus terrestris on mice gluconeogenesis].the decoction of tribulus terresteis could significantly inhibit the gluconeogenesis and influence glycometabolism on normal mice. the decoction could also reduce the level of triglyceride and the content of cholesterol in the plasma.200111715199
antifungal activities and action mechanisms of compounds from tribulus terrestris l.antifungal activity of natural products is being studied widely. saponins are known to be antifungal and antibacterial. we used bioassay-guided fractionation to have isolated eight steroid saponins from tribulus terrestris l., which were identified as hecogenin-3-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (tts-8), tigogenin-3-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (tts-9), hecogenin-3-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)-beta-d-galactopyra ...200616169173
sexual effects of puncturevine (tribulus terrestris) extract (protodioscin): an evaluation using a rat model.apart from its claims for improvement of sexual functions in men, the puncturevine plant (tribulus terrestris: tt) has long been considered as an energizer and vitalizer in the indigenous system of medicine. sexual behavior and intracavernous pressure (icp) measurements were taken in rats to scientifically validate the claim of tt [containing protodioscin (ptn)] as an aphrodisiac.200312804079
in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of the eight steroid saponins from tribulus terrestris l. with potent activity against fluconazole-resistant fungal pathogens.antifungal activity of natural products is being studied widely. saponins are known to be antifungal and antibacterial. we have isolated eight steroid saponins from tribulus terrestris l., namely tts-8, tts-9, tts-10, tts-11, tts-12, tts-13, tts-14 and tts-15. tts-12 and tts-15 were identified as tigogenin-3-o-beta-d-xylopyranosyl(1-->2)-[beta-d-xylopyranosyl(1-->3)]-beta-d-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-d-galactopyranoside and tigogenin-3-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl(1-- ...200516327151
inhibition of adrenaline-induced aggregation of human platelets by pakistani medicinal plants.the effects of extracts of pakistani plants claiming medicinal value were observed on adrenaline-induced aggregation of human platelets according to the method of born (1962). the extracts manifested significant inhibitory activity in doses of 0.625 mgm(-1) to 2.5 mgml(-1) in this in vitro model. the potency of the plant extracts in inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by adrenaline is in the following order: sida pakistanica, ic50 = 0.90 mgml(-1) > tribulus terrestris, ic50 = 0.97 mgml(-1) > ...199116414694
effect of tribulus terrestris l. saponin mixture on some smooth muscle preparations: a preliminary study.tribulus terrestris l. is an annual plant which has been commonly used in folk medicine as diuretic and against colic pains, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in turkey. this study investigated the effects of liophilized saponin mixture of this plant on several smooth muscle preparations in vitro. the liophilized material was obtained from dried and powdered t. terrestris l. by specific extraction method for saponins. median lethal dose (ld50) of saponin mixture on swiss albino mice was calc ...199810077881
an outbreak of hepatogenous photosensitization in sheep grazing tribulus terrestris in outbreak of hepatogenous photosensitization occurred in 40% of sheep grazing tribulus terrestris in southern buenos aires province. postmortem examinations revealed diffuse jaundice and ochre discoloration of the liver. histopathological liver lesions consisted of fibroplasia, periductular lamellar fibrosis, hyperplasia of small bile ducts and diffuse swelling of hepatocytes. a crystalloid material was observed in some bile ducts. aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyltransferase serum ...19947975136
effect of tribulus terrestris on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity and androgen receptors in rat brain.tribulus terrestris l. (zygophyllaceae) have been used as an aphrodisiac both in the indian and chinese traditional systems of medicine. administration of tribulus terrestris extract (tt) increased sexual behaviour and intracavernous pressure both in normal and castrated rats and these effects were probably due to the androgen increasing property of tt. the objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of tt on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (nadph-d) activity ...200515588660
[effect of xinnao shutong capsule on cardiac muscle cell apoptosis and protein expressions of bcl-2 and bax in hyperlipidemia rats after myocardial infarction].to investigate the effect of xinnao shutong capsule, whose main ingredients gross saponins from tribulus terrestris l (gstt) on cardiac muscle cell (cmc) apoptosis and expressions of bcl-2 compound rat model of and bax in murine model of hyperlipemia after myocardial infarction (mi).200616841674
ft-ir study of the influence of tribulus terrestris on mercury intoxicated mice, mus musculus liver.ft-ir spectra of liver tissue isolated from mice, mus musculus, have been recorded in the region of 4000 - 400 cm-1 for normal, mercury treated and recovery phase. in this study, the total protein content was found to be decreased in the liver tissues after treatment with median-lethal dose of mercuric chloride. the marked fall in the level of bio-chemical constituent in the tissue due to metal exposure indicates the rapid initiation of the breakdown of the bio-chemical constituents to meet the ...200516880750
abnormal turning behaviour, gabaergic inhibition and the degeneration of astrocytes in ovine tribulus terrestris motor neuron observe the clinical signs of sheep affected by tribulus terrestris motor neuron disease, to ascertain their response to striatal dopamine reducing drugs, and to examine their brains and spinal cords for microscopic changes.200616498837
new steroidal glycosides from the fruits of tribulus terrestris.three new steroidal saponins (1-3) were isolated from the fruits of tribulus terrestris. their structures were assigned by spectroscopic methods (ir, hresims, 1d- and 2d-nmr) as 26-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25s)-5beta-furost-20(22)-en-3bet a, 26-diol-3-o-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl- (1-->4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 26-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25s)-5beta-furost-20(22)-en-3bet a, 26-diol-3-o-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 -->4)]-beta-d-gal ...200011141122
[inhibitory effects of saponins from tribulus terrestris on alpha-glucosidase in small intestines of rats].to determine the effects of saponins from tribulus terrestris (stt) on small intestinal a-glucosidase and postprandial blood glucose levels in rats.200617048632
photosensitivity in south africa. vii. chemical composition of biliary crystals from a sheep with experimentally induced geeldikkop.geeldikkop was induced in a sheep by oral administration of crude saponins from tribulus terrestris. centrifugation of the bile from this sheep gave a pale green sediment of crystalloid material which was insoluble in common organic solvents, but soluble in acetic acid. analysis of the crystalloid material by 1h and 13c nmr, edxa, tlc, lsims, and by acidic hydrolysis followed by tlc and gc-ms, revealed it to be composed principally of a 6:1 mixture of the calcium salts of the beta-d-glucuronides ...19947596574
intramolecular interchain reactions in bidesmosidic glycosides, a new insight into carbohydrate rearrangements induced by electrospray ionisation.glycoconjugates are a class of complex molecules that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and in some marine organisms. this class of compounds has a wide range of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer, antiulcer, and immunoenhancing actions.1-3 some of them also show various toxic activities such as cytotoxic, hemolytic, cardiotoxic, and teratogenic. among these compounds, steroidal and triterpenoid saponins have long been known as compon ...200717200980
preliminary pharmacological investigations of tribulus terrestris, linn. (gokhru) part 1. 19744461679
the isolation and identification of steroidal sapogenins in kleingrass.kleingrass (panicum coloratum l) has been reported to cause hepatogenous photosensitization in sheep and goats in west texas since 1973. the toxin in kleingrass has been suspected of being a steroidal saponin as kleingrass produced characteristic birefringent crystals similar to those produced by saponin-containing plants such as agave lecheguilla and tribulus terrestris. in this present study, steroidal saponis were isolated from kleingrass and their sapogenins were identified as diosgenin and ...19902389543
selected herbals and human exercise performance.herbs have been used throughout history to enhance physical performance, but scientific scrutiny with controlled clinical trials has only recently been used to study such effects. the following herbs are currently used to enhance physical performance regardless of scientific evidence of effect: chinese, korean, and american ginsengs; siberian ginseng, mahuang or chinese ephedra; ashwagandha; rhodiola; yohimbe; cordyceps: fungus, shilajit or mummio; smilax; wild oats; muira puama; suma (ecdystero ...200010919969
the clinical differentiation of nervous and muscular locomotor disorders of sheep in australia.many of the nervous and muscular locomotor disorders that affect sheep throughout australia are commonly referred to as "staggers" syndromes. the range of clinical signs displayed by sheep suffering these disorders is sufficiently diverse to enable each syndrome to be graded into one of 5 progressive clinical groups. the first group, the limb paresis syndromes, includes the primary myopathies associated with the ingestion of ixiolaena brevicompta, malva parviflora, and trachymene ochracea, as we ...19958526819
staggers in sheep associated with the ingestion of tribulus terrestris.the history of an unusual locomotory disturbance of sheep is traced from its first recognition in 1937 through to the most recent outbreak in 1981-83. the condition occurred only at certain times and in restricted areas of the central and northern slopes districts of new south wales. outbreaks were repeatedly associated with drought periods during which sheep grazed large areas of tribulus terrestris for many months at a time. many thousands of sheep were affected, but the prevalence varied grea ...19846529397
proerectile pharmacological effects of tribulus terrestris extract on the rabbit corpus cavernosum.the objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of oral treatment of tribulus terrestris (tt) extract on the isolated corpus cavernosal tissue of new zealand white (nzw) rabbits and to determine the mechanism by which protodioscin (ptn), a constituent of the tt, exerts its pharmacological effects.200010748960
the protective effect of tribulus terrestris in diabetes.tribulus terrestris l (tt) is used in the arabic folk medicine to treat various diseases. the aim of this article was to investigate the protective effects of tt in diabetes mellitus (dm). diabetes is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ros) level that subsequently contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes. rats were divided into six groups and treated with either saline, glibenclamide (glib), or tt for 30 days. rats in group 1 were given saline after the onset of streptozotocin (stz)-i ...200617151317
tribulus terrestris: preliminary study of its diuretic and contractile effects and comparison with zea mays.tribulus terrestris l. (zygophyllaceae) which is called al-gutub (in iraqi dialect) or quti;ba (in classical arabic medicine), and zea mays were both used alone or in combination by iraqi herbalists to propel urinary stones. we studied the aqueous extract of the leaves and fruits of t. terrestris and the hair of z. mays, to determine their diuretic activity and the contractile effect of t. terrestris.200312639749
antibacterial and antifungal activities of different parts of tribulus terrestris l. growing in iraq.antimicrobial activity of organic and aqueous extracts from fruits, leaves and roots of tribulus terrestris l., an iraqi medicinal plant used as urinary anti-infective in folk medicine, was examined against 11 species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtilis, bacillus cereus, corynebacterium diphtheriae, escherichia coli, proteus vulgaris, serratia marcescens, salmonella typhimurium, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa and candida albica ...200818257138
[effect of tribulus terrestris extract on melanocyte-stimulating hormone expression in mouse hair follicles].to observe the effect of tribulus terrestris extract on melanocyte stimulating hormone (msh) expression in c57bl/6j mouse hair follicles, and investigate the role of tribulus terrestris extract in activation, proliferation, epidermal migration of dormant hair follicle melanocytes.200617259119
role of tribulus terrestris (linn.) (zygophyllacea) against mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in mice, mus musculus (linn.).the present study investigates the influence of methanolic fraction (mf) of tribulus terrestris fruit extract on the kidney tissues of mercury intoxicated mice, mus musculus. at median-lethal dose of mercuric chloride (12.9 mg/kg body weight), the whole kidney tissue showed an increased level of lipid peroxidation (lpo), glutathione peroxidase (gpx) activities and simultaneously a decreased level of superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat), reduced glutathione (gsh). these parameters reached t ...200617436531
aphrodisiac properties of tribulus terrestris extract (protodioscin) in normal and castrated rats.tribulus terrestris (tt) has long been used in the traditional chinese and indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments and is popularly claimed to improve sexual functions in man. sexual behaviour and intracavernous pressure (icp) were studied in both normal and castrated rats to further understand the role of tt containing protodioscin (ptn) as an aphrodisiac. adult sprague-dawley rats were divided into five groups of 8 each that included distilled water treated (normal and ...200212127159
short term impact of tribulus terrestris intake on doping control analysis of endogenous steroids.tribulus terrestris is a nutritional supplement highly debated regarding its physiological and actual effects on the organism. the main claimed effect is an increase of testosterone anabolic and androgenic action through the activation of endogenous testosterone production. even if this biological pathway is not entirely proven, t. terrestris is regularly used by athletes. recently, the analysis of two female urine samples by gc/c/irms (gas chromatography/combustion/isotope-ratio-mass-spectromet ...200818282674
the hormonal effects of tribulus terrestris and its role in the management of male erectile dysfunction--an evaluation using primates, rabbit and rat.hormonal effects of tribulus terrestris (tt) were evaluated in primates, rabbit and rat to identify its usefulness in the management of erectile dysfunction (ed). tt extract was administered intravenously, as a bolus dose of 7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg, in primates for acute study. rabbits and normal rats were treated with 2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg of tt extract orally for 8 weeks, for chronic study. in addition, castrated rats were treated either with testosterone cypionate (10mg/kg, subcutaneously; biweekly ...200818068966
influence of tribulus terrestris extract on lipid profile and endothelial structure in developing atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of rabbits on a high-cholesterol diet.the aim of this study was to investigate the pleotropic effects of an extract of a traditional herb, tribulus terrestris (tt), on the lipid profile and vascular endothelium of the abdominal aorta in new zealand rabbits fed a cholesterol-rich diet. eighteen rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (n=6 for each). one experimental group (eg-i) was given a cholesterol-rich diet, a second experimental group (eg-ii) was treated with tt following a cholesterol-rich diet, and a control group (cg ...200919269683
potent inhibition of human phosphodiesterase-5 by icariin derivatives.plant extracts traditionally used for male impotence (tribulus terrestris, ferula hermonis, epimedium brevicornum, cinnamomum cassia), and the individual compounds cinnamaldehyde, ferutinin, and icariin, were screened against phosphodiesterase-5a1 (pde5a1) activity. human recombinant pde5a1 was used as the enzyme source. only e. brevicornum extract (80% inhibition at 50 microg/ml) and its active principle icariin (1) (ic50 5.9 microm) were active. to improve its inhibitory activity, 1 was subjec ...200818778098
effects of tribulus terrestris on endocrine sensitive organs in male and female wistar rats.investigate the possible effects of tribulus terrestris (tt) on endocrine sensitive organs in intact and castrated male rats as well as in a post-menopausal rat model using ovariectomized females.201019781624
kleingrass (panicum coloratum l.) poisoning in sheep.twenty-four lambs grazing pastures of panicum coloratum developed photosensitization secondary to hepatic dysfunction. lesions were necrosis of scattered hepatocytes, obstruction of small bile ducts and bile canaliculi by small aggregates of birefringent crystals, and accumulation of birefringent crystals in phagocytes within sinusoids. the number of crystals in livers of affected sheep varied, depending on the amount of time of exposure to toxic plants and severity of hepatic abnormalities. cry ...19873455080
structural analysis of saponins from medicinal herbs using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.the underivatized saponins from tribulus terrestris and panax ginseng have been investigated by electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (esi-ms(n)). in esi-ms spectra, a predominant [m + na](+) ion in positive mode and [m - h](-) ion in negative mode were observed for molecular mass information. multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry of the molecular ions was used for detailed structural analysis. fragment ions from glycoside cleavage can provide information on the mass of agl ...200414766280
evaluation of traditional indian antidiabetic medicinal plants for human pancreatic amylase inhibitory effect in vitro.pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. eleven ayurvedic indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic α-amylase. analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong human pancreatic amylase (hpa) inhibitory potential. o ...201020953430
inhibition of the growth of urinary calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate crystals with aqueous extracts of tribulus terrestris and bergenia ligulata.urinary type calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (chpd) or brushite crystals were grown by the single diffusion gel technique in silica hydro-gels. the gel framework acts as a three dimensional crucible in which the crystal nuclei are delicately held in the position of their formation and nutrients are supplied for their growth. this technique can be utilized as a simplified screening model to study the growth and dissolution of urinary stones in vitro. the action of the putatively litholytic m ...200515791467
ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commonly used by kani tribals in tirunelveli hills of western ghats, india.for thousands of years, medicinal plants have played an important role throughout the world in treating and preventing a variety of diseases. kani tribal people in tirunelveli hills still depend on medicinal plants and most of them have a general knowledge of medicinal plants which are used for first aid remedies, to treat cough, cold, fever, headache, poisonous bites and some simple ailments.201121291981
acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some turkish medicinal plants.the chloroform:medianol (1:1) extracts of a number of the plant species belonging to eight families, namely corydalis solida (l.) swartz subsp. solida and glaucium corniculatum (l.) j. h. rudolph (papaveraceae), rhododendron ponticum l. subsp. ponticum and rhododendron luteum sweet. (ericaceae), buxus sempervirens l. (buxaceae), vicia faba l. (fabaceae), robinia pseudoacacia l. (caeselpiniaceae), tribulus terrestris l. and zygophyllum fabago l. (zygophyllaceae), lycopodium clavatum l. (lycopodia ...200415036468
effect of tribulus terrestris on oxalate metabolism in rats.this study concerns the effect of an aqueous extract of tribulus terrestris on the metabolism of oxalate in male rats fed sodium glycolate. glycolate feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased activities of oxalate synthesizing enzymes of the liver i.e. glycolate oxidase (gao), glycolate dehydrogenase (gad) and lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), and decreased kidney ldh activity. t. terrestris administration to sodium glycolate fed rats produced a significant decrease in urinary oxalate ex ...19947853865
effects of herbal preparation on libido and semen quality in boars.the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a preparation from herbal extracts (phe) on libido and semen quality in breeding artificial insemination boars. ten fertile boars were divided into control and experimental groups according to significant difference of libido. there were no differences in semen quality between groups. animals were fed a commercial feeding mixture for boars. the feeding mixture for the experimental group was enriched with phe, which was prepared from e ...201021092065
unusual hepatic parenchymal crystalloid material and biliary microliths in goats.investigation into an outbreak of suspected photosensitivity in boer goats grazing green oats (avena sativa) led to the finding of microscopical parenchymal crystaloid material and biliary microliths in the livers of 3 ewes that were killed for necropsy. neither tribulus terrestris nor panicum spp. occurred on the farm. further investigation resulted in the isolation, from leaf spots on the oat leaves, of the fungus drechslera campanulata, cultures of which have been shown to be highly toxic to ...19892634769
[effects of tribulus terrestris l. saponion on apoptosis of cortical neurons induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation in rats].to observe the effects of tribulus terrestris l. saponion (ttls) on apoptosis in cortical neurons induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation in rats.200818184546
screening of yemeni medicinal plants for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.ethanolic extracts of 20 selected plant species used by yemeni traditional healers to treat infectious diseases were screened for their antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as for cytotoxic activity. fourteen of the ethanolic extracts showed variable degrees of antibacterial activity. the active ethanolic extracts were partitioned between ethyl acetate and water for a first separation. the ethyl acetate extract of lawsonia inermis was found to be ...200111167035
effect of sa1, a herbal formulation, on sexual behavior and penile erection.sa1 is a mixture of 9 oriental herbs (korean red ginseng, fermented soybean, tribulus terrestris, fructus rubi, fructus lycii, semen cuscutae, dioscorea rhizome, fructus corni and fructus crataegi) that are widely used as energizers and vitalizers in the indigenous system of medicine and have been alleged to improve the sexual functions in men. this study evaluated sa1 using both in vitro and in vivo experiments on laboratory animals in order to determine its effect on the sexual behavior and pe ...200616819173
photosensitivity in south africa. ix. structure elucidation of a beta-glucosidase-treated saponin from tribulus terrestris, and the identification of saponin chemotypes of south african t. terrestris.saponin c, a beta-glucosidase-treated saponin isolated from ethanol-water extracts of a south african collection of tribulus terrestris, was shown by one- and two-dimensional nmr spectroscopy to be ruscogenin 1-o-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-d-6)-acetylglucopyranoside++ +. gc-ms analysis of the hydrolysed ethanol-water (4:1) extracts of t.terrestris specimens from two of four sites, revealed high levels of ruscogenin and potentially lithogenic diosgenin saponins. specimens from two other ...19969173364
distribution of steroidal saponins in tribulus terrestris from different geographical regions.the steroidal saponins of tribulus terrestris l. (zygophyllaceae) are considered to be the factor responsible for biological activity of products derived from this plant. the activity depends on the concentration and the composition of active saponins, which in turn is influenced by the geographical origin of plant material. samples of t. terrestris collected in bulgaria, greece, serbia, macedonia, turkey, georgia, iran, vietnam and india were analyzed by lc-esi/ms/ms for the presence and the co ...200817719068
diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of tribulus terrestris.recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. the present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of tribulus terrestris commonly called as "gokhru" which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis.201020815954
the analgesic effect of tribulus terrestris extract and comparison of gastric ulcerogenicity of the extract with indomethacine in animal experiments.tribulus terrestris has been used in traditional medicine for relieving rheumatic pain and as an analgesic plant for a long time. in this investigation the analgesic effect of methanolic extract of this plant on male albino mice was evaluated by formalin and tail flick test. extraction of the fruits of the plant was done by two different methods (suxheletion and percolation) with methanol 80%. the percolated extract was injected intraperitoneally in mice at 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg. the ...200717404054
[effect of gross saponins of tribulus terrestris on cardiocytes impaired by adriamycin].this study is to observe the protection of gross saponins of tribulus terrestris (gstt) on cardiocytes impaired by adriamycin (adr) and approach its mechanism of action. cardiocytes of neonate rat were cultivated for 72 hours and divided into normal control group, model (adr 2 mg x l(-1)) group, and gstt (100, 30, and 10 mg x l(-1)) groups. mtt colorimetric method was deployed to detect cardiocyte survival rate, activities of ck, ldh, ast, sod, mda and no were detected, and apoptosis was detecte ...201021351446
antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of methanolic and aqueous extracts of tribulus terrestris in rats.the effects of methanolic and aqueous extracts of tribulus terrestris on rat blood pressure (bp) and the perfused mesenteric vascular bed were investigated. the extracts dose-dependently reduced bp in spontaneously hypertensive rats (shrs) with the aqueous fraction being more potent than the methanolic fraction at all doses tested. in vitro, the methanolic but not aqueous extract produced a dose-dependent increase in perfusion pressure of the mesenteric vascular bed. when perfusion pressure was ...200616289603
evaluation of effects of zingiber officinale on salivation in rats.there are some herbal plants in iranian traditional system of medicine which are believed to be excellent remedies to alleviate the symptoms of xerostomia. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of seven different herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. the extracts of 7 herbs; zingiber officinale roscoe (zingiberaceae), citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck (rutaceae), artemisia absinthium l. (asteraceae), cichorium intybus l. (asteraceae), pimpinell ...201121874635
chemopreventive potential of tribulus terrestris against 7,12- dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis in the present investigation, the chemopreventive potential of aqueous extracts of the root and fruit of tribulus terrestris (an ayurvedic medicinal plant) on 7, 12 - dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (dmba) induced papillomagenesis in male swiss albino mice was studied. a significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden and cumulative number of papillomas was observed, along with a significant increase in average latent period in mice treated orally with tribulus terrestris suspension continuou ...200616839225
study of antihypertensive mechanism of tribulus terrestris in 2k1c hypertensive rats: role of tissue ace activity.tribulus terrestris is a natural herb used for treating many diseases including hypertension. according to previous reports, aqueous extract of tribulus fruits may have some antihypertensive effect with an unknown mechanism. the present study investigated the antihypertensive mechanism of tribulus in 2k1c hypertensive rats by measurement of circulatory and local ace activity in aorta, heart, kidney and lung. four groups of rats were selected; control, sham, operated or hypertensive and tribulus ...200314519445
phytopharmacological overview of tribulus terrestris.tribulus terrestris (family zygophyllaceae), commonly known as gokshur or gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the indian and chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. it has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypoli ...024600195
antibacterial activity of tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with capsella bursa-pastoris and glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with capsella bursa-pastoris and glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely streptococcus mutans, streptococcus sanguis, actinomyces viscosus, enterococcus faecalis staphylococcus aureus, and escherichia coli.201726101754
in vitro screening for anti-acetylcholiesterase, anti-oxidant, anti-glucosidase, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effect of three traditional medicinal this study we investigated the phytoconstituents calluna vulgaris, ferula hermonis and tribulus terrestris, and then assessed their possible biological activities by using standard methods. a preliminary phytochemical investigation of the three extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins, lipids, phenolic compounds, saponins, sterols and amino acids. three extracts showed anti-oxidant effect as they inhibited the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (dpph) oxidation and produc ...201426740784
a new compound from an endophytic fungus alternaria tenuissima.a new secondary metabolite, named altertoxin iv (1), together with altertoxin ii (2), was isolated from the fermentation broth of alternaria tenuissima, an endophytic fungal strain residing in the stem of tribulus terrestris l. the structure of new compound 1 was established by hr-esi-ms, multinuclear nmr spectroscopy, and single crystal x-ray diffraction method. in their in vitro bioassay, compound 2 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against pc-3 cell lines with an ic50 value of 14.28 μm.201424660902
Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management.Herbal medicine long has been used in the management of sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction. Many patients have attested to the efficacy of this treatment. However, is it evidence-based medicine? Studies have been done on animal models, mainly in the laboratory. However, randomized controlled trials on humans are scarce. The only herbal medications that have been studied for erectile dysfunction are Panax ginseng, Butea superba, Epimedium herbs (icariin), Tribulus terrestris, Secu ...201121948222
effect of unex on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats.this study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the unex capsule on albino rats as a preventive agent against the development of kidney stones. the unex capsule is a marketed product of unijules life sciences, nagpur, containing the extracts of boerhaavia diffusa and tribulus terrestris. activity of unex was studied using the ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis model. standard drug used was cystone. several parameters were used including urinary volume, urine ph, urine analysis, and serum ...201121845008
Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage.The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) could protect the cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same.201122022002
documentation and quantitative analysis of the local knowledge on medicinal plants among traditional siddha healers in virudhunagar district of tamil nadu, india.india has a population with high degree of medical pluralism. siddha system of indian traditional medicine is practiced dominantly by the people in tamil nadu. the traditionally trained siddha healers still play an important role in the rural health care. their knowledge is comparatively more vulnerable than the documented traditional knowledge. thus, the present study was aimed to document and quantitatively analyze the local knowledge of the traditional siddha healers in virudhunagar district ...201121718779
alternative treatment of ovarian cysts with tribulus terrestris extract: a rat model.tribulus terrestris has long been used in traditional medicine to treat impotency and improve sexual functions in man. the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of t. terrestris extract in the treatment of polycystic ovary (pco) in wistar rat. estradiol valerate was injected to 15 mature wistar rats to induce pco. rats were randomly divided into three groups (control, low-dose and high-dose groups) of five each and received 0, 5 and 10 mg of t. terrestris extract, respectively.treatme ...201121883512
larvicidal potential of wild mustard (cleome viscosa) and gokhru (tribulus terrestris) against mosquito vectors in the semi-arid region of western rajasthan.cleome viscosa l. (family: capparaceae) commonly known as tickweed or wild mustard and tribulus terrestris l. (family: zygophyllaceae) commonly known as gokhru, growing wildly in the desert areas in the monsoon and post monsoon season, are of great medicinal importance. comparative larvicidal efficacy of the extracts from seeds of c. viscosa and fruits and leaves of t. terrestris was evaluated against 3rd or early 4th stage larvae of anopheles stephensi (liston), aedes aegypti (linnaeus) and cul ...201424665757
evaluation of tribulus terrestris linn (zygophyllaceae) acetone extract for larvicidal and repellence activity against mosquito vectors.acetone extracts of leaves and seeds from the tribulus terrestris (zygophyllaceae) were tested against mature and immature different mosquito vectors under laboratory condition. the extract showed strong larvicidal, properties 100 per cent mortality in the 3rd-instar larvae was observed in the bioassays with an. culicifacies giles species a, an. stephensi liston, culex quinquefasciatus say and aedes aegypti linn, against 200 ppm of the leaf acetone extract and 100 ppm seed acetone extract. the l ...200819579717
tribulosin suppresses apoptosis via pkc epsilon and erk1/2 signaling pathway during hypoxia/reoxygenation in neonatal rat ventricular cardiac myocytes.tribulosin (tigogenin 3-o-β-d-xylopyranosyl(1-2)-[β-d-xylopyranosyl (1-3)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1-4)-[a-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-2)]-β-d-galactopyranoside), a component of gross saponins of tribulus terrestris, has been shown to produce cytoprotective effects in heart. yet, the precise mechanisms are not fully understood. we examined the mechanisms of tribulosin on myocardial protection. ventricular myocytes were isolated from the heart of neonatal rats and were exposed to 3 h of hypoxia followed by 2 ...201122115037
saponins from tribulus terrestris l are less toxic for normal human fibroblasts than for many cancer lines: influence on apoptosis and proliferation.the objective of the study was to explore the influence of saponins derived from tribulus terrestris l. (tt) on normal human skin fibroblasts and to compare it with their anticancer properties. in this study, [3h]thymidine incorporation and mtt to assess cell proliferation and viability, respectively, and immunoblotting and hplc analysis to explore intracellular signal transduction pathways have been used. we found that tt caused a dose-dependent decrease in [3h]thymidine incorporation into the ...200717202593
scanning electron microscopic observations on micro-organisms in the root nodules of tribulus terrestris l. (zygophyllaceae).scanning electron microscopic observations were made on the micro-organisms of root nodules of tribulus terrestris l. the results showed that nodules of t. terrestris contained dual infection consisting of rhizobium sp. and newmania karachiensis. based on these observations, t. terrestris should be grouped with nonlegume parasponia-type bacterial nodules.200616898671
changes in the brain cortex of rabbits on a cholesterol-rich diet following supplementation with a herbal extract of tribulus terrestris.extracts of the medicinal herb tribulus terrestris (tt) are used for treating various diseases. the saponins, a component of tt, play a role in regulating blood pressure and in treatment of hyperlipidemia. the aim of the study was to investigate the immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations in the cerebral cortex of experimental rabbits on a cholesterol rich diet treated with tt. the rabbits were divided into three groups and followed for 12 weeks as control group (cg); experimental gr ...200919337967
a triterpene saponin from tribulus terrestris attenuates apoptosis in cardiocyte via activating pkc signalling transduction pathway.the present study was conducted to examine the role of hecogenin-3-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (1), which is a triterpene saponin of tribulus terrestris in cardiocytes during chemical hypoxia-ischaemia in vitro. neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion and treated with nacn for 12 h. cell apoptosis was defined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dutp nick end labelling (tunel) and flow cytometry. [ca(2+)] was measured by c ...200818058379
photosensitivity in south africa. vi. the experimental induction of geeldikkop in sheep with crude steroidal saponins from tribulus terrestris.geeldikkop was induced in sheep by the oral administration of crude steroidal saponins from tribulus terrestris. two of the sheep developed typical lesions of geeldikkop, including birefringent crystalloid material in bile ducts and concentric periductal lamellar fibrosis. the clinical pathological changes in these sheep were also consistent with those of geeldikkop: aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities in the sera of both were elevated, and one had bilirubinaemia. a ...19912052320
an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in terai forest of western nepal.nepal himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since vedic periods. present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in western nepal.201222591592
effect of aqueous extract of tribulus terrestris on oxalate-induced oxidative stress in rats.the present study was aimed at studying the effect of tribulus terrestris on different parameters of oxidative stress and gene expression profiles of antioxidant enzymes in renal tissues of male wistar rats after induction of hyperoxaluria. the animals were divided into three groups. the animals in group i (control) were administered vehicle only. in group ii, the animals were treated with ethylene glycol (hyperoxaluric agent) and those in group iii were administered t. terrestris plant extract ...201121886973
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