a longitudinal study of salmonella and campylobacter jejuni isolates from day of hatch through processing by automated ribotyping.comparisons of bacterial populations over long periods of time allow researchers to identify clonal populations, perhaps those responsible for contamination of farms or humans. salmonella and campylobacter can cause human illness, and our objective was to use a library typing system to track strains that persist in the poultry house and through the processing plant. two farms, over four consecutive flocks, were studied. multiple samples were taken of the poultry house environment, feed mill, tra ...200617186658
fecal shedding of salmonella spp. by dairy cows on farm and at cull cow part of a national study of the u.s. dairy cow population, fecal samples were collected from representative cows on 91 dairies and 97 cull dairy cow markets in 19 states. salmonella spp. were recovered from 5.4% of milk cows, 18.1% of milk cows expected to be culled within 7 days, and 14.9% of culled dairy cows at markets. on a premise basis, salmonella shedding in milk cows was detected on 21.1% of dairies and 66% of cull dairy cow markets. the percentage of herds with at least one cow with ...200111198437
travel-acquired salmonellosis due to salmonella kentucky resistant to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and co-trimoxazole and associated with treatment failure. 200717449886
synthesis of oligosaccharide fragments of the repeating unit of salmonella kentucky o-specific polysaccharide and conversion of the oligosaccharides into the glycosyl phosphates.alpha-d-man-(1----2)-alpha-d-man-(1----3)-d-gal, a structural fragment of the main chain of salmonella serogroups c2 and c3 o-specific polysaccharides, and the isomer with the central residue beta have been synthesised, as have some oligosaccharides related to the structure of the o-specific polysaccharide of s. kentucky (serogroup c3), namely, alpha-d-glc-(1----4)-d-gal, alpha-d-man-(1----3)-[alpha-d-glc-(1----4)]-d-gal, and alpha-d-man-(1----2)-alpha-d-man-(1----3)-[alpha-d-glc-(1----4)]-d-gal ...19873568001
infection of laboratory mice with salmonella kentucky. 195713470256
antimicrobial resistance in salmonella and escherichia coli isolated from commercial shell eggs.the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria has become a global problem. isolates of salmonella and escherichia coli recovered from shell egg samples, collected at 3 commercial plants, were analyzed for resistance to 16 antimicrobial agents (n=990). eggs were sampled by rinsing in a saline solution. pooled samples were preenriched in buffered peptone water and then selectively isolated using standard broths and agars. salmonella-positive isolates were serogrouped immunologically befo ...200616977855
evaluation of salmonella serotype distributions from commercial broiler hatcheries and grower conventional trayliner (hatcheries) and drag swab assembly (broiler houses) culture methods, the isolation distribution of salmonella serotypes from five commercial broiler hatcheries (three sample times) and 13 broiler farms (eight sample times) was evaluated. a total of 11 different salmonella serotypes were isolated from hatcheries, with salmonella heidelberg (9/30) and salmonella kentucky (6/30) accounting for 50% of the total isolations. of 700 chick paperpad trayliners sampled, regardle ...199910216758
structural studies of the o-specific polysaccharide from salmonella kentucky strain 98/39 (o:8, h:i, z6). 19901707755
serotyping and antibiotic resistance profiling of salmonella in feedlot and nonfeedlot beef part of a larger study to assess risk factors associated with hide and carcass contamination of beef cattle during transport to slaughter, a total of 281 salmonellae were isolated from 1,050 rectal, hide, carcass, and environmental samples. for feedlot cattle, salmonellae were recovered from 4.0% of rectal samples, 37.5% of hide samples, 19.0% of carcass samples, and 47.4% of environmental samples. for nonfeedlot cattle, salmonellae were recovered from 10.9% of rectal samples, 37.5% of hide s ...200212430688
an effective lacticin biopreservative in fresh pork sausage.lacticin 3147 is a novel heat-stable bacteriocin, produced by lactococcus lactis dpc 3147, that exhibits a broad-range inhibition spectrum similar to nisin. in this study, the effect of lacticin 3147 and nisin on the shelf life of fresh pork sausage and their ability to control pathogens (clostridium perfringens dsm 756, salmonella kentucky at1) and nonpathogenic listeria innocua dpc 1770 was investigated. the following preservative regimens were evaluated, both in broth and sausage systems: (i) ...200010716567
serotypes of salmonella isolated from california turkey flocks and their environment in 1984-89 and comparison with human isolates.serotypes of salmonella from turkeys and their environment identified at the california veterinary diagnostic laboratory system (cvdls) between 1984 and 1989 are reported. between 1988 and 1989, salmonella serotypes from turkeys were compared from two sources: from routine submissions to the cvdls (primarily associated with the national poultry improvement plan), and from a random sample of turkey farms conducted by the national animal health monitoring system (nahms). serotype isolation frequen ...19938257361
assessment of the microbiological safety of salad vegetables and sauces from kebab take-away restaurants in the united kingdom.the purpose of this study was to establish the microbiological safety of salad vegetables and sauces served in kebab take-away restaurants. comparison with published microbiological guidelines revealed that 4.7% of 1213 salad vegetable samples were of unsatisfactory microbiological quality due to escherichia coli and/or staphylococcus aureus levels at > or =10(2) cfu g(-1). another 0.3% of salad samples were of unacceptable quality due to s. aureus at > or =10(4) cfu g(-1) (2 samples) or the pre ...200919527831
[the structure of o-antigenic polysaccharide of gram negative bacteria salmonella kentucky strain 98/39(0:8, h:i,z6)].the computerized calculation of the 13c nmr spectra of polysaccharide and oligosaccharides (anmrol), together with chemical analysis (methylation and smith degradation) showed that the polysaccharide has the following structure: (formula; see text) which differs from the previous data published for salmonella kentucky strain i. s. 98 (8.20).19892483943
structural and serological studies of lipopolysaccharides of citrobacter o35 and o38 antigenically related to salmonella.structural analysis using 13c nmr spectroscopy and methylation showed that lipopolysaccharides (lpss) of citrobacter freundii o35 and salmonella arizonae o59 have structurally identical o-specific polysaccharide chains, and those of c. freundii o38 and salmonella kentucky differ only in the presence of o-acetyl groups in the former. serological relationships between the structurally similar lpss were demonstrated using inhibition of elisa, rocket immunoelectrophoresis, double gel diffusion, and ...19968821392
a strain of salmonella kentucky lacking antigen 20: salmonella kentucky var. jerusalem = (8):i:z6. 19655843696
[the unknown functions of heterologous antigens of different origins].after a single injection of 125i-labeled erythrocytic antigen to mice, the protein determinants of this antigen were found in nuclear rnp of b lymphocytes of the immune animals. on day 2 after the injection of shigella sonnei phase i lps (also containing protein) to mice hybridization between total rna isolated from b lymphocytes and 32p-labeled plasmid pss 120, controlling the synthesis of the s. sonnei phase i antigen, was observed. on day 1 after immunization no hybridization between cell rna ...19979304338
determination of the influence of organic acids and nisin on shelf-life and microbiological safety aspects of fresh pork sausage.the effect of replacing sulphur dioxide with organic acids and nisin to reduce the microbial counts in fresh pork sausage was examined. the potential of sodium citrate or sodium lactate, used singly or in combination with nisin, was also assessed in sausage inoculated with staphylococcus aureus mmpr 3 and salmonella kentucky at 1. the results indicate that a combination of sodium lactate and nisin wa particularly effective in reducing total bacterial counts in this food product. it also appears ...19979351222
occurrence of salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium dt104a in retail ground beef.surveillance data of cattle and human isolates of salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium dt104 indicate that this pathogen emerged worldwide in the 1980s, particularly in cattle. studies were conducted to determine the prevalence of salmonella typhimurium dt104 in ground beef. samples were also tested for the presence of generic escherichia coli. a total of 404 fresh ground beef samples obtained at retail stores from new york, san francisco, philadelphia, denver, atlanta, houston, and chicago w ...200211848574
salmonella enterica serotypes isolated from imported frozen chicken meat in the canary determine the prevalence of salmonella enterica serotypes in imported frozen chicken meat, 406 samples (whole chicken, legs, and breast meat) were analyzed for salmonella according to iso6579 rules, serotypes were assigned, and phage typing was conducted for salmonella serotypes enteritidis, typhimurium, and heidelberg. the overall frequency of salmonella isolation was 16.5%. by country of origin, the highest percentage of cases was found among the samples from france followed by samples from ...200516355846
pathogenicity of different serogroups of avian salmonellae in specific-pathogen-free chickens.the pathogenicity of one isolate of salmonella typhimurium, four isolates of salmonella heidelberg, three isolates of salmonella kentucky, two isolates of salmonella montevideo, one isolate of salmonella hadar, and two isolates of salmonella enteritidis (se), one belonging to phage type (pt)13a and the other to pt34, was investigated in specific-pathogen-free chicks. three hundred eighty-four chicks were separated into 16 equal groups of 24 chicks. thirteen groups were inoculated individually wi ...200111785896
salmonella populations and prevalence in layer feces from commercial high-rise houses and characterization of the salmonella isolates by serotyping, antibiotic resistance analysis, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis.salmonella species are recognized as a major cause of foodborne illnesses that are closely associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry and egg products. the objectives of this study were to evaluate the salmonella populations and prevalence in layer feces during the laying cycle and molting of the hen and to characterize the layer fecal salmonella isolates by serotyping, antibiotic resistance analysis, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. fecal samples were collected from a commerci ...200717297173
ciprofloxacin-resistant salmonella kentucky in travelers. 200617176589
prevalence of salmonella serotypes on pig carcasses from high- and low-risk herds slaughtered in three abattoirs.the aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of salmonella serotypes at two different sites on pig carcasses from herds classified as high-risk or low-risk and to elucidate the relationship between carcass contamination levels and serological status. caecal samples and carcass surface swabs were cultured for salmonella from a total of 210 pigs from low risk herds (< 19% of pigs in herd salmonella seropositive) and 209 pigs from high risk herds (> 32% of pigs in herd salmonella seropositiv ...200111570178
thermal inactivation of eight salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.dry heat was used to inactivate salmonella newington, salmonella typhimurium, salmonella anatum, salmonella kentucky, salmonella cubana, salmonella seftenberg, salmonella thompson, and salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. the flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees c (120 degrees f); viable salmonella cells were counted on trypticase (bbl microbiology systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h int ...19817337467
antimicrobial resistance pattern of salmonella serotypes isolated from food items and personnel in addis ababa, ethiopia.antimicrobial susceptibility test of 98 isolates of salmonella was assayed from september 2003 to february 2004 using the guidelines of the national committee for clinical laboratory standards (nccls).the result revealed that 32.7% of salmonella isolates were resistant to one or more of the 24 antimicrobials tested. generally resistance for 13 different antimicrobial drugs was recognized. the most common resistance was to streptomycin (24/32, 75%), ampicillin (19/32, 59.4%), tetracycline (15/32, ...200918516698
sequence analysis of the polysaccharides from salmonella newport and salmonella kentucky. 19724647672
mechanism of o-specific polysaccharide biosynthesis in salmonella serogroups c2 and c3.cell envelope and soluble glycosyl transferase preparations from salmonella newport (serogroup c2) and salmonella kentucky (serogroup c3) were found to catalyze formation of polyprenyl pyrophosphate tetrasaccharides corresponding to the structure of the repeating unit of the main chain of o-specific polysaccharides. plant polyprenyl phosphate may serve as an exogenous sugar acceptor. galactose residue is an initiator of a chain growth: transfer of galactosyl phosphate from uridine diphosphate ga ...1979510311
effect of a direct-fed microbial (primalac) on structure and ultrastructure of small intestine in turkey poults.the effects of dietary supplementation of the direct-fed microbial (dfm) primalac in mash or crumbled feed on histological and ultrastructural changes of intestinal mucosa was determined in 2 populations of poults; 1 with and 1 without a salmonella spp. challenge. three hundred thirty-six 1-d-old female large white turkey poults were randomly distributed into 8 treatment groups with 6 replicates of 7 poults in each pen. the poults were placed on 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial ...200919211517
a new salmonella type: salmonella kentucky. 193820475432
salmonella in broiler flocks in the republic of order to obtain an estimation of the prevalence of salmonella spp. in flocks of broilers in the republic of ireland, a study was conducted in 2006 in a total of 362 broiler flocks associated with four integrated companies. salmonella spp. was isolated from 27.3% of flocks, and eight salmonella serovars were identified, none of which were salmonella enteritidis or salmonella typhimurium. the most prevalent serovar was salmonella mbandaka, followed by salmonella kentucky, which respectively acc ...200919061369
an enhanced discriminatory pulsed-field gel electrophoresis scheme for subtyping salmonella serotypes heidelberg, kentucky, saintpaul, and hadar.conventional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) protocols, used extensively as a successful approach for subtyping many salmonellae, may be inadequate for discriminating strains sharing levels of homogeneity within the same serotype. four additional restriction enzymes (spei, paci, sfii, and noti), in addition to xbai and blni, were used in pfge typing of 33 salmonella heidelberg, 27 salmonella kentucky, 27 salmonella saintpaul, and 27 salmonella hadar isolates that were recovered from poul ...200818939754
assessment of post-hurricane katrina recovery in poultry slaughter establishments.control of bacterial contamination during poultry slaughter can be compromised by natural disaster. in october 2005, disaster recovery was evaluated in 11 broiler slaughter establishments 1 month after operations were disrupted by hurricane katrina. a questionnaire was administered to characterize the establishment's operational disruption. carcass rinses were collected at the early and late stage of the slaughter process (rehang and postchill). counts for generic escherichia coli were determine ...200717612083
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of salmonella recovered from processed poultry.this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of salmonella isolates recovered from processed poultry. four hundred eighty pre- and postchill whole broiler chicken carcasses were collected from a poultry processing plant between july 2004 and june 2005. water samples also were collected at the entrance and exit of the chiller. after preenrichment, carcass and water samples were analyzed for the presence of salmonella using the automated bax system followed by ...200718044422
Molecular analysis and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates recovered from raw meat marketed in the area of "Grand Tunis", Tunisia.A total of 315 samples of chicken (60), beef (144), minced meat (56), lamb meat (33), merguez (10) and fish (12) were collected from various local outlet stores in the area of "Grand Tunis", Tunisia between 2006 and 2008. Salmonella was recovered from 80 samples with the highest occurrence in chicken (48.3%) followed by beef (29.8%), minced meat (10.7%) and lamb (6.0%). No Salmonella were isolated from 12 fish and 10 merguez samples (typical Tunisian sausages). Nine serovars were identified amon ...201121856095
antimicrobial resistance and molecular analysis of non-typhoidal salmonella isolates from human in tunisia.during the period from 2006 to 2007, a total of 32 clinical isolates of salmonella enterica were isolated from diarrheagenic stool samples and further examined for their susceptibility to various antibiotics. sixteen of the human isolates were from the capital tunis, 11 were from sousse, four were from nabeul and one was from mahdia, tunisia. the isolates were serotyped and identified at the national centre of enteropathogenic bacteria, pasteur institute, tunis (centre national de salmonella, sh ...201020685046
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of salmonella serovars in conventional and organic chickens from louisiana retail this 1-year survey from october 2006 to september 2007, we isolated and characterized 126 salmonella isolates from conventionally raised (n=141) and organically raised (n=53) chicken carcasses obtained from 27 retail stores in baton rouge, louisiana. salmonella was isolated from 22% of conventional and from 20.8% of organic chicken samples. eight salmonella serovars were identified; predominant ones included kentucky, hadar, and enteritidis. the vast majority of isolates within the same chick ...200919610326
occurrence of selected foodborne pathogens on poultry and poultry giblets from small retail processing operations in trinidad.we conducted a study to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the presence of campylobacter spp., escherichia coli, staphylococci, total coliforms, total aerobic bacteria, and salmonella on broiler carcasses from selected small retail processors in trinidad. we used standard media and procedures for detection and quantification. all carcass and weep samples were positive for aerobic bacteria, e. coli, total coliforms, and staphylococci. significant differences in the mean counts of aerobic ...200616715810
oligonucleotide microarray for molecular characterization and genotyping of salmonella spp. characterize and subtype multidrug-resistant salmonella isolates by determining the virulence factors, prophage sequences and antimicrobial resistance genes using a novel salmonella-specific oligonucleotide microarray.200717897936
salmonella enterica isolated from wildlife at two ohio rehabilitation centers.between may and september 2004, fecal samples from various wildlife species admitted to two rehabilitation centers in ohio were cultured for salmonella enterica and escherichia coli o157:h7. eight of 71 (11%) samples, including specimens from three opossums (didelphis virginiana), two gray squirrels (sciurus carolinensis), a woodchuck (marmota monax), a harris hawk (parabuteo unicinctus), and a screech owl (otus asio) tested positive for salmonella serovars braenderup, senftenberg, oranienburg, ...200717939349
development and validation of a predictive microbiology model for survival and growth of salmonella on chicken stored at 4 to 12 °c.salmonella spp. are a leading cause of foodborne illness. mathematical models that predict salmonella survival and growth on food from a low initial dose, in response to storage and handling conditions, are valuable tools for helping assess and manage this public health risk. the objective of this study was to develop and to validate the first predictive microbiology model for survival and growth of a low initial dose of salmonella on chicken during refrigerated storage. chicken skin was inocula ...201121333149
longitudinal study of a clonal, subclinical outbreak of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar cerro in a u.s. dairy herd.salmonellae are a major group of foodborne pathogens known to affect both humans and animals. dairy cattle are a known reservoir of these bacteria and human salmonella infections have been associated with the consumption of improperly processed or contaminated dairy products. many of the over 2500 known serotypes of salmonella are known to infect cattle, resulting in asymptomatic to fatal salmonellosis. this study describes the course of a salmonella outbreak and subsequent endemic infection on ...200718041954
salmonella enterica isolates from pasture-raised poultry exhibit antimicrobial resistance and class i integrons.while considerable foodborne pathogen research has been conducted on conventionally produced broilers and turkeys, few studies have focused on free-range (organic) or pastured poultry. the current surveillance study was designed to isolate, identify and genetically characterize salmonella from pastured poultry farm environment and from retail samples.201020722876
extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamases and ampc {beta}-lactamases in ceftiofur-resistant salmonella enterica isolates from food and livestock obtained in germany during 2003-07.detection and characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbls) and ampc-encoding genes was conducted in german salmonella isolated from different sources from 2003 to 2007.200919474065
effect of vaccinating breeder chickens with a killed salmonella vaccine on salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks.the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of breeder chickens on salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks. chickens housed on six commercial breeder farms were vaccinated with a killed salmonella vaccine containing salmonella typhimurium, salmonella enteritidis, and salmonella kentucky. unvaccinated breeders placed on six additional farms served as controls. eggs from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks were kept separately in the ...201121549042
salmonella spp. infection in imported 1-day-old chicks, ducklings, and turkey poults: a public health risk.the occurrence of salmonella in 750 birds was assessed. the samples included the internal organs (caecal pouches, yolk sac, liver, and lung) of imported 1-day-old chicks (n = 150), grandparent chicks (n = 150), breeder chicks (n = 150), ducklings (n = 150), and turkey poults (n = 150), and paper-lined boxes (n = 250). salmonellae isolated from the internal organs and paper-lined box of 1-day-old chicks, ducklings, and poults were mostly evident from the paper-lined box followed by caecal samples ...201020001323
antibiotic resistance and diversity of salmonella enterica serovars associated with broiler chickens.the objective of this study was to analyze the antibiotic resistance phenotype and genotype of salmonella isolated from broiler production facilities. a total of 193 salmonella isolates recovered from commercial farms in british columbia, canada, were evaluated. susceptibility to antibiotics was determined with the sensititre system. virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were detected by pcr assay. genetic diversity was determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) typing. seventeen s ...201424405997
genetic lineages of salmonella enterica serovar kentucky spreading in pet reptiles.the purpose of the study was to define genetic diversity of reptilian salmonella enterica serovar (s.) kentucky isolates and their epidemiological relations to the ones from poultry, food, and environmental origin in poland. between 2010 and 2012 twenty-four s. kentucky isolates derived from snakes (n=8), geckos (n=7), chameleons (n=4), agamas (n=1), lizard (n=1), and environmental swabs taken from reptile exhibition (n=3) were identified. they were characterized with antimicrobial minimal inhib ...201323962467
isolation and characterization of salmonella enterica in day-old ducklings in egypt.importing day-old ducklings (dod) unknowingly infected with non-typhoid salmonella (nts) may be associated with disease risk. domestic and international trade may enhance this risk. salmonella enterica serovars, their virulence genes combinations and antibiotic resistance, garner attention for their potentiality to contribute to the adverse health effects on populations throughout the world. the aim of this study was to estimate the risk of imported versus domestic dod as potential carriers of n ...201424548159
dynamics of salmonella serotype shifts in an endemically infected dairy herd.salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the united states. it is a zoonotic pathogen found in many species of food animals, and contamination of foodstuffs by strains of salmonella found on farms is an important source of human exposure. here we describe a long-term (2004-2010) study of salmonella colonization on a typical dairy farm in the northeastern united states. the fecal shedding prevalence in the herd ranged from 8% to 97%, and greater than 50% of the herd was shedding salm ...201222300223
diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonella enterica serovars isolated from pig farms in ibadan, nigeria.animals including food animals play a significant role in the epidemiology of salmonella enterica. the control requires identification of sources and institution of targeted interventions. this study investigates the diversity of s. enterica serovars, antimicrobial susceptibility, and occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (pmqr) genes in pigs in ibadan, nigeria. pooled fresh pen floor fecal samples of pigs collected from 31 pig farms were cultured; the salmonella isolates were sero ...201423893398
molecular detection of the index case of a subclinical salmonella kentucky epidemic on a dairy farm.salmonella enterica commonly colonizes the intestinal tract of cattle and is a leading cause of foodborne illness. a previously described investigation into the prevalence of s. enterica on a dairy farm revealed an 8-year-long asymptomatic s. enterica epidemic caused by serotypes cerro and kentucky in the lactating herd. to investigate the source of the s. kentucky strains, the genomes of two s. kentucky isolates were sequenced; one collected prior to the epidemic (2004) and one collected during ...201525703396
comparison of five molecular subtyping methods for differentiation of salmonella kentucky isolates in tunisia.salmonellosis is one of the most common causes of food-borne infection worldwide. in the last decade, salmonella enterica serovar kentucky has shown an increase in different parts of the world with the concurrent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates. these drug-resistant types spread from africa and the middle east to europe and asia. although s. kentucky serovar is of potential human relevance, there is currently no standardized fingerprinting method for it, in tunisia. in the present stud ...201423839713
prevalence and characterization of motile salmonella in commercial layer poultry farms in bangladesh.salmonella is a globally widespread food-borne pathogen having major impact on public health. all motile serovars of salmonella enterica of poultry origin are zoonotic, and contaminated meat and raw eggs are an important source to human infections. information on the prevalence of salmonella at farm/holding level, and the zoonotic serovars circulating in layer poultry in the south and south-east asian countries including bangladesh, where small-scale commercial farms are predominant, is limited. ...201222558269
high-level fluoroquinolone resistant salmonella enterica serovar kentucky st198 epidemic clone with inca/c conjugative plasmid carrying bla(ctx-m-25) gene.multidrug resistant salmonella kentucky strains have been isolated from turkeys in poland since 2009. multiple mutations within chromosomal genes gyra and parc were responsible for high-level ciprofloxacin resistance. one of the isolates was extended spectrum β-lactamase- (esbl) positive: the strain 1643/2010 carried a conjugative 167,779 bps plasmid of inca/c family. the sequence analysis revealed that it carried a blactx-m-25 gene and an integron with another β-lactamase encoding gene-blaoxa-2 ...201525465657
structure of an abequose-containing o-polysaccharide from citrobacter freundii o22 strain pcm 1555.the lipopolysaccharide of citrobacter freundii o22 (strain pcm 1555) was degraded under mild acidic conditions and the o-polysaccharide released was isolated by gel chromatography. sugar and methylation analyses along with (1)h and (13)c nmr spectroscopy, including two-dimensional (1)h,(1)h roesy and (1)h,(13)c hmbc experiments, showed that the repeating unit of the o-polysaccharide has the following structure: alpha-abep 1 -->3 --> 2)-alpha-d-manp-(1-->4)-alpha-l-rhap-(1-->3)-alpha-d-galp-(1--> ...200919576576
a whole-genome sequencing approach to study cefoxitin-resistant salmonella enterica serovar heidelberg isolates from various sources.this study characterized cefoxitin-resistant and -susceptible salmonella enterica serovar heidelberg strains from humans, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry to assess the molecular relationships of isolates from these sources in québec in 2012. isolates were collected as part of the canadian integrated program for antimicrobial resistance surveillance (cipars). all isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pcr for cmy-2, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), and whole ...201728137797
efficacy of lytic bacteriophage preparation in reducing salmonella in vitro, on turkey breast cutlets, and on ground turkey.the efficacy of the recently approved salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation (salmofresh) in reducing salmonella enterica serotype heidelberg on turkey breast cutlets and ground turkey was evaluated. in a broth model assay, the phage preparation completely inhibited the growth of four s. enterica serotypes (salmonella enteritidis, salmonella heidelberg, salmonella kentucky, and salmonella typhimurium) at 37°c at a multiplicity of infection of 10,000 pfu/cfu. at 4°c in 0.1% peptone water (pw) ...201526197288
wgs for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance: a pilot study to detect the prevalence and mechanism of resistance to azithromycin in a uk population of non-typhoidal salmonella.wgs and phenotypic methods were used to determine the prevalence of azithromycin resistance in salmonella enterica isolates from the uk and to identify the underlying mechanisms of resistance.201627585964
antimicrobial susceptibility and plasmid replicon typing of salmonella enterica serovar kentucky isolates recovered from broilers.salmonella kentucky has become the predominant serovar recovered from broilers slaughtered in the united states, and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (amr) has increased dramatically in this serovar. relationships between amr, genotype, and plasmid replicon types were characterized for 600 salmonella kentucky isolates recovered from chicken carcasses from 2004 to 2013. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis cluster analysis revealed 112 unique types sharing 79% similarity. over half of the i ...201627028167
genomic and evolutionary analysis of two salmonella enterica serovar kentucky sequence types isolated from bovine and poultry sources in north america.salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar kentucky is frequently isolated from healthy poultry and dairy cows and is occasionally isolated from people with clinical disease. a genomic analysis of 119 isolates collected in the united states from dairy cows, ground beef, poultry and poultry products, and human clinical cases was conducted. results of the analysis demonstrated that the majority of poultry and bovine-associated s. kentucky were sequence type (st) 152. several bovine-associated (n ...201627695032
prevalence of nontyphoidal salmonella and salmonella strains with conjugative antimicrobial-resistant serovars contaminating animal feed in texas.the objective of this study was to characterize 365 nontyphoidal salmonella enterica isolates from animal feed. among the 365 isolates, 78 serovars were identified. twenty-four isolates (7.0%) were recovered from three of six medicated feed types. three of these isolates derived from the medicated feed, salmonella newport, salmonella typhimurium var. o 5- (copenhagen), and salmonella lexington var. 15+ (manila), displayed antimicrobial resistance. susceptibility testing revealed that only 3.0% ( ...201626818979
bacteriophages lytic for salmonella rapidly reduce salmonella contamination on glass and stainless steel surfaces.a cocktail of six lytic bacteriophages, salmofresh™, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of surface-applied salmonella kentucky and brandenburg from stainless steel and glass surfaces by > 99% (2.1-4.3 log). both strains were susceptible to salmofresh™ in the spot-test assay. conversely, salmofresh™ was unable to reduce surface contamination with a salmonella paratyphi b strain that was not susceptible to the phage cocktail in the spot-test assay. however, by replacing two salmofresh™ co ...201324228226
[bacteremia caused by ciprofloxacin-resistant salmonella serotype kentucky: a case report and the review of literature].salmonella infections can be seen in four clinical types, namely gastroenteritis, bacteremia/sepsis, enteric fever and carriage. these infections can result in uncomplicated diarrhea in most cases, but can lead to invasive disease requiring antimicrobial therapy and can be life-threatening in elderly or immunocomprimised patients. broad-spectrum cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones are crucial options in the treatment of the invasive infections. ciprofloxacin resistance is rarely seen in non-typh ...201628124965
emergence of salmonella genomic island 1 (sgi1) among proteus mirabilis clinical isolates in dijon, france.salmonella genomic island 1 (sgi1) is often encountered in antibiotic-resistant salmonella enterica and exceptionally in proteus mirabilis. we investigated the prevalence of sgi1-producing clinical isolates of p. mirabilis in our hospital (dijon, france).201323580563
salmonella serovars and their distribution in nigerian commercial chicken layer farms.commercial poultry farms (n° 523), located in all the six regions of nigeria were sampled with a view to generate baseline information about the distribution of salmonella serovars in this country. five different matrices (litter, dust, faeces, feed and water) were collected from each visited farm. salmonella was isolated from at least one of the five matrices in 228 farms, with a farm prevalence of 43.6% (ci95[39.7-48.3%]). altogether, 370 of 2615 samples collected (14.1%, ci95[12.8; 15.5%]) co ...201728278292
chlorine inactivation of salmonella kentucky isolated from chicken carcasses: evaluation of strain variation.the current study was undertaken to evaluate chlorine resistance among strains of salmonella kentucky isolated from chicken carcasses. selected strains (n = 8) were exposed to 30 ppm of chlorine in 10% buffered peptone water (ph 7.4) for 0 to 10 min at 4°c and 150 rpm. the initial level (mean ± sd) of salmonella kentucky was 6.18 ± 0.09 log cfu/ml and did not differ (p > 0.05) among strains. a two-way analysis of variance indicated that the level of salmonella kentucky in chlorinated water was a ...201525710160
invasion and transmission of salmonella kentucky in an adult dairy herd using approximate bayesian outbreak of salmonella kentucky followed by a high level of sustained endemic prevalence was recently observed in a us adult dairy herd enrolled in a longitudinal study involving intensive fecal sampling. to understand the invasion ability and transmission dynamics of salmonella kentucky in dairy cattle, accurate estimation of the key epidemiological parameters from longitudinal field data is necessary. the approximate bayesian computation technique was applied for estimating the transmission ...201324304969
antimicrobial effect of the tunisian nana variety punica granatum l. extracts against salmonella enterica (serovars kentucky and enteritidis) isolated from chicken meat and phenolic composition of its peel extract.punica granatum l. is widely recognized for its potency against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. the purpose of this study was to explore the inhibitory and the bactericidal activities of punica granatum against salmonella strains. the effect of extracts obtained from different parts (peels, seeds, juice and flowers) of pomegranate and using different solvents against salmonella enterica serovars kentucky and enteritidis isolated from chicken meat was thus investigated. salmonella strain ...201727776287
comparison of microbial communities isolated from feces of asymptomatic salmonella-shedding and non-salmonella shedding dairy the united states salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes kentucky and cerro are frequently isolated from asymptomatic dairy cows. however, factors that contribute to colonization of the bovine gut by these two serotypes have not been identified. to investigate associations between salmonella status and bacterial diversity, as well as the diversity of the microbial community in the dairy cow hindgut, the bacterial and archaeal communities of fecal samples from cows on a single dairy far ...201627313565
survey of salmonella contamination in chicken layer farms in three caribbean countries.this study was conducted to investigate the demography, management, and production practices on layer chicken farms in trinidad and tobago, grenada, and st. lucia and the frequency of risk factors for salmonella infection. the frequency of isolation of salmonella from the layer farm environment, eggs, feeds, hatchery, and imported day-old chicks was determined using standard methods. of the eight risk factors (farm size, age group of layers, source of day-old chicks, vaccination, sanitation prac ...201425198837
in vitro antimicrobial activity screening of xylaria hypoxylon.fungi have a potential of using both as nutritive and medicinal food stuff. because of containing several therapeutic agents, they are reported to be used for hundreds of years to treat several diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. the aim of this study is to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of xylaria hypoxylon, which were collected from yomra, trabzon, turkey.201628852719
prevalence, virulence and antibiotic susceptibility of salmonella spp. strains, isolated from beef in greater tunis (tunisia).the aim of this work was to investigate the presence of salmonella spp. in 300 beef meat samples collected from cattle carcasses of different categories (young bulls, culled heifers and culled cows). the detection of salmonella spp. was performed by the alternative vidas easy salmonella technique and confirmed by pcr using salmonella specific primers. salmonella serotypes were determined by slide agglutination tests. the resistance to 12 antibiotics was determined by the diffusion method on muel ...201627183540
a comparative study on invasion, survival, modulation of oxidative burst, and nitric oxide responses of macrophages (hd11), and systemic infection in chickens by prevalent poultry salmonella serovars.poultry is a major reservoir for foodborne salmonella serovars. salmonella typhimurium, salmonella enteritidis, salmonella heidelberg, salmonella kentucky, and salmonella senftenberg are the most prevalent serovars in u.s. poultry. information concerning the interactions between different salmonella species and host cells in poultry is lacking. in the present study, the above mentioned salmonella serovars were examined for invasion, intracellular survival, and their ability to modulate oxidative ...201223067396
a temporal study of salmonella serovars from fluff samples from poultry breeder hatcheries in ontario between 1998 and 2008.the objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of salmonella, trends, major serovars, and their clusters from fluff samples, in poultry hatcheries in ontario between 1998 and 2008. multi-level logistic regression modelling with random effects for hatchery and sampling visit (day on which samples were collected from a hatchery) was used to identify factors [poultry breeder type, year (trend), and season] associated with the prevalence of salmonella and a cluster detection test was ...201323814352
salmonella kentucky: antimicrobial resistance and molecular analysis of clinical, animal and environment isolates, morocco. 201728459231
prevalence, molecular and antimicrobial resistance of salmonella isolated from sausages in meknes, morocco.salmonella is among the most important food borne pathogens worldwide contaminating a wide range of animal products including meat products. the aims of this study go through two steps: the first step is to estimate the proportion of sausages products contaminated with salmonella in meknes city (morocco), which were collected from various shopping sites: butchery, street vendors, supermarket and souk (weekly market combines the population of the small villages around meknes city). the second one ...201728258000
characterization of salmonella spp. from wastewater used for food production in morogoro, tanzania.wastewater use for crop irrigation and aquaculture is commonly practiced by communities situated close to wastewater treatment ponds. the objective of this study was to characterize salmonella spp. and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among isolates from wastewater and tilapia fish. a total of 123 salmonella spp. isolates were isolated from 52 water and 21 fish intestinal samples. genotyping of salmonella spp. isolates was done by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). antimicrobial ...201728160117
potential sources and transmission of salmonella and antimicrobial resistance in kampala, sub‒saharan africa, non‒typhoidal salmonellae (nts) cause invasive disease particularly in children and hiv infected adults, but the disease epidemiology is poorly understood. between 2012 and 2013, we investigated nts sources and transmission in kampala. we detected salmonella in 60% of the influent and 60% of the effluent samples from a wastewater treatment plant and 53.3% of the influent and 10% of the effluent samples from waste stabilization ponds that serve the human population; 40.9% o ...201626999788
lower prevalence of antibiotic-resistant salmonella on large-scale u.s. conventional poultry farms that transitioned to organic a result of the widespread use of antibiotics in large-scale u.s. poultry production, a significant proportion of salmonella strains recovered from conventional poultry farms and retail poultry products express antibiotic resistance. we evaluated whether large-scale poultry farms that transitioned from conventional to organic practices and discontinued antibiotic use were characterized by differences in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant salmonella compared to farms that maintained conven ...201424486494
prevalence, serovars, phage types, and antibiotic susceptibilities of salmonella strains isolated from animals in the united arab emirates from 1996 to 2009.the aim of this study was to give some insights into the prevalence, serovars, phage types, and antibiotic resistances of salmonella from animal origin in the united arab emirates. data on diagnostic samples from animals (n = 20,871) examined for salmonella between 1996 and 2009 were extracted from the databases of the central veterinary research laboratory in dubai and from typed strains (n = 1052) from the robert koch institute, wernigerode branch in germany and analyzed for general and animal ...201222476789
molecular characterization of antibiotic resistant salmonella typhimurium and salmonella kentucky isolated from pre- and post-chill whole broilers carcasses.there is conflicting data regarding whether commercial chilling has any effect on persistence of salmonella serovars, including antibiotic resistant variants, on chicken carcasses. a total of 309 salmonella typhimurium and salmonella kentucky isolates recovered from pre- and post-chill whole broiler carcasses were characterized for genetic relatedness using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and for the presence of virulence factors (inva, pagc, spvc) by pcr and for aerobactin and colicin p ...201424290620
reduction of salmonella in skinless chicken breast fillets by lauric arginate surface application.lauric arginate (lae) has been found to be effective against various foodborne pathogens. in this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of lae against salmonella and mesophilic organisms was evaluated in fresh, skinless, boneless, uncooked chicken breast fillets. the effect of lae treatments on ph and color of breast fillets was also assessed. chicken breast fillets were inoculated with a 4-strain salmonella cocktail (salmonella enteritidis atcc 4931, salmonella heidelberg atcc 8326, salmonella kent ...201323571354
genotypic and phenotypic characterization of multidrug resistant salmonella typhimurium and salmonella kentucky strains recovered from chicken carcasses.salmonella typhimurium is the leading cause of human non-typhoidal gastroenteritis in the us. s. kentucky is one the most commonly recovered serovars from commercially processed poultry carcasses. this study compared the genotypic and phenotypic properties of two salmonella enterica strains typhimurium (st221_31b) and kentucky (sk222_32b) recovered from commercially processed chicken carcasses using whole genome sequencing, phenotype characterizations and an intracellular killing assay. illumina ...201728481935
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