carcinogenicity of some folk medicinal herbs in rats.twelve medicinal herbs were bioassayed to correlate a high incidence of esophageal carcinoma in natives of different places with their habitual consumption of these products. outbred nih black rats were given 72 weekly sc injections of the total aqueous extracts of the plant materials. the tanninrich plant extracts from areca catechu and rhus copallina produced local tumors in 100 and 33%, respectively, of the experimental animals. other materials included diospyros virginiana and extracts from ...1978625070
betel-nut chewing and asthma.two asian patients admitted to hospital with acute severe asthma had been chewing betel nut immediately before the attacks. arecoline, a cholinergic alkaloid, is a major constituent of areca catechu (betel) nut and causes the euphoric effects. we sought an association between betel-nut chewing and bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients. in vitro, arecoline caused dose-related contraction of human bronchial smooth-muscle strips, with one-tenth the potency of methacholine. in a double-blind cha ...19921349367
the growth inhibition of streptococcus mutans by 5'-nucleotidase inhibitors from areca catechu 5'-nucleotidase inhibitors named nf-86i, nf-86ii were recently isolated from the seeds of areca catechu l. nf-86i and nf86ii showed inhibitory effects on the growth of streptococcus mutans mt8148(c) and streptococcus mutans mt6715(g), respectively. in addition, these inhibitors could inhibit insoluble glucan formation from sucrose. nf-86i and nf-86ii were found to be polyphenolic substances. some polyphenols such as tannic acid bind non-specifically to proteins (tannic activity). the 5'-nucl ...19911914009
cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of arecoline and sodium nitrite on human cells in vitro.arecoline, an active alkaloid of areca catechu l., and sodium nitrite, a food additive, are highly cytotoxic and cytostatic on the hep 2 cell line when administered in an acidic environment (ph 4.2) in the presence of s-9 mixture. hep 2 cells (10(6)) were treated with either 0.145, 0.725 or 1.449 mm sodium nitrite or 0.042, 0.085 or 0.339 mm arecoline or sodium nitrite (0.145 mm) plus varied concentrations of arecoline (0.042, 0.085 or 0.339 mm). their effects were additive in nature. hep 2 cell ...19911993547
stabilisation of collagen by betel nut polyphenols as a mechanism in oral submucous fibrosis.treatment of reconstituted collagen fibrils and pieces of rat dermis with the crude extract, purified tannins or (+)-catechin from betel nut (areca catechu) increases their resistance to both human and bacterial collagenases in a concentration-dependent manner. these tanning agents may stabilise collagen in vivo following damage to the oral epithelium, and promote the sub-epithelial fibrosis which occurs in betel nut chewers.19873032668
aflatoxin contamination of some common drug plants.this paper deals with the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in some common drug plants collected from storehouses in bihar, india. of 15 samples analyzed, 14 were aflatoxin positive. the highest level of aflatoxin contamination was detected in the seeds of piper nigrum (1.20 micrograms/g), followed by the level detected in the seeds of mucuna prurita (1.16 micrograms/g), and the lowest level was detected in the bark of acacia catechu (0.09 micrograms/g). of 158 isolates of aspergillus flavus obta ...19883132102
betel chewing and dietary habits of chewers without and with submucous fibrosis and with concomitant oral cancer.the betel-nut chewing habit and the intake of chillies in the diet were analysed in 178 chewers identified during a stratified random survey and in 124 hospital patients suffering from submucous fibrosis (sf). there were no signs or symptoms of sf in 115 chewers from the survey; the remaining 63 exhibited features of impending and established sf. of the 124 hospital patients, 10 also had oral cancer. subjects suffering from sf had practised the habit in whatever form for a significantly shorter ...19883194806
formation of reactive oxygen species and of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in dna in vitro with betel quid ingredients.the formation of reactive oxygen species (ros) from betel quid ingredients, namely areca nut, catechu and tobacco, was studied using a chemiluminescence (cl) technique. aqueous extracts of areca nut and catechu were capable of generating superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide at ph greater than 9.5. the formation of o2 was enhanced by fe2+, fe3+ and cu2+ but inhibited by mn2+. tobacco extract failed to generate ros under similar conditions. saliva was found to inhibit both o2 and h2o2 formation ...19873664791
[quid of betel].after clarifying some necessary terminology to understand what quid of betel is, the authors, in the first part of this article, expose its location around the world. then, they report on the three main basic components: piper betle l. leaf, areca catechu nut, and slaked lime. they add too some other ingredients which modify the taste of the quid to a certain extent. in the third part, the authors expose the role given to betel in the traditional medicine according to bibliographical sources ava ...19854068974
a parasitological study of pulau pinang and pulau perhentian kechil, off trengganu, west malaysia. i. malaria and filariasis. 19684240821
a parasitological study of pulau pinang and pulau perhentian kechil, off trengganu, west malaysia. ii. intestinal helminthiasis. 19694242178
anthiovulatory activity of five indigenous plants in rabbits.the petroleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of 5 indigenous plants, known to have antifertility activity in female rats and mice (areca catechu linn, carica papaya linn, daucus carota linn, mentha arvensis linn and polygonum hydropiper linn), were evaluated for their possible antiovulatory activity in rabbits with copper-induced ovulation. the alcoholic extract of mentha arvensis (leaves) and the petroleum ether extract of the roots of polygonum hydropiper were the most successful age ...19744442983
effect of acacia catechu on niacin biosynthesis and on niacin requirement in rats. 19715140836
effect of acacia catechu on niacin, ascorbic acid and riboflavin status in rats. 19705513330
chromosome-damaging activity of saliva of betel nut and tobacco chewers.saliva of volunteers chewing betel quid, cured betel nut (areca catechu), betel leaves (piper betle), a mixture of quid ingredients (dried betel nut flakes, catechu, cardamon, lime, copra and menthol) and indian tobacco was collected and examined for its genotoxic activity. chromosome aberrations (chromatid breaks and chromatid exchanges) in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells were used to estimate the genotoxic effect. no detectable levels of clastogenic activity were observed in the saliva of no ...19827116324
potentiation of genotoxicity by concurrent application of compounds found in betel quid: arecoline, eugenol, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and mn2+.5 components of the betel quid were examined for their clastogenic activities individually and in various combinations. they included the alkaloid, arecoline, from the betel nut (areca catechu l.), eugenol, from the betel vine (piper belle l.), chlorogenic acid, from tobacco leaves (nicotiana tabacum), quercetin, from fennel seeds (foeniculus vulgare mill.) and the ubiquitous transition metal mn2+. the clastogenic effects of the concurrent applications of arecoline plus eugenol, arecoline plus q ...19817335107
smoke as a form of personal protection against mosquitos, a field study in papua new guinea.smoke from burning different kinds of vegetation or wood is often used as a cheap personal protection measure against mosquitos during the evening. to test the efficacy of smoke, a comparative field trial was conducted in the wosera district, papua new guinea. repellency of smoke from burning wild mango wood (mangifera spp), leaves from betelnut (areca catechu), wild ginger (alpinia spp) and coconut husks (cocos nutifera) was assessed using man-biting catches. a mosquito species and smoke specif ...19947667730
ethanol potentiates the clastogenicity of pan masala--an in vitro experience.the significance of the interaction between alcohol and tobacco in causing head and neck cancers is well documented. our previous reports on in vitro studies using aqueous and organic extracts as well as cytogenetic studies among pan masala consumers have conclusively shown the genotoxic potential of pan masala--a dry mixture of the areca nut, lime, catechu, unspecified flavouring agents, etc., often containing tobacco in it and is widely consumed in india. now in the present report, the clastog ...19947923597
in vitro studies on chemoprotective effect of purnark against benzo(a)pyrene-induced chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes.human lymphocytes were used as an assay system to test chemopreventive activity of natural products. purnark, a mixture of extracts of turmeric, betel leaf and catechu, was tested for its chemoprotective activity against bp induced dna damage. sister chromatid exchange and micronuclei were used as markers to assess the protective activity of purnark. purnark gave 50-60% protection against bp induced sces and micronuclei. purnark at 100 micrograms dose did not show any genotoxicity.19948186767
detection of dengue virus from field aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus adults and larvae.mosquito adults and larvae were collected from dengue high risk areas and transported to the laboratory for identification. identified mosquitos were pooled according to the species, date and locality and stored at -70 degrees c. a total of 1,385 pools of aedes albopictus and 267 pools of ae. aegypti were collected from major towns in 12 states in peninsular malaysia. virus isolation was carried out using cell culture (c6/36 clone) of ae. albopictus and detection of dengue virus by the peroxidas ...19979322296
betel: consumption and consequences.betel is a compound of natural substances chewed for its psychostimulating effects. betel is composed of the nut of the areca palm (areca catechu), the leaf of the betel pepper (piper betle), and lime (calcium hydroxide). approximately 200 million persons chew betel regularly throughout the western pacific basin and south asia. only three drugs (nicotine, ethanol, and caffeine) are consumed more widely than betel. when betel is chewed, it produces mild psychoactive and cholinergic effects. there ...19989448210
protection from pan masala induced genomic damage by beta-carotene and retinoic acid--an in vitro experience.cytogenetic studies in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells using aqueous and organic extracts of pan masalas, as well as genomic damage observed among pan masala consumers have conclusively shown genotoxic potential of pan masala-a dry complex mixture of areca nut, lime, catechu, cardamom, unspecified flavoring agent, etc., often containing tobacco in it. tobacco and areca nut, major ingredients of pan masala, are closely associated with oral cancer. the most widely studied group of compounds in t ...19989717530
role of chewing and smoking habits in the etiology of oral submucous fibrosis (osf): a case-control study.oral submucous fibrosis (osf), a premalignant and crippling condition of the oral mucous membrane, was studied to identify its relationship to various chewing and smoking habits. two hundred and thirty-six consecutive cases of osf were compared with 221 control subjects matched for age, sex and socio-economic conditions. it was found that chewing of areca nut/quid or pan masala (a commercial preparation of areca nuts, lime, catechu and undisclosed colouring, flavouring and sweetening agents) was ...19989831959
influence of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on pan masala induced genomic damage. an in vitro experiment.pan masala is a dry complex mixture of areca nut, catechu, lime, cardamon, unspecified flavouring agents etc., with (pmt) or without tobacco (pm). we have previously reported genotoxic potential of tobacco, areca nut and pan masala per se. an antigenotoxic effect of alpha-tocopherol (at) and ascorbic acid (aa) against the pm/pmt induced genotoxic on chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells have been studied using chromosone aberration (ca) assay. at and aa, per se, had no effect on ca frequency at the ...199810089061
is pan masala-containing tobacco carcinogenic?pan masala-containing tobacco (pm-t) was introduced in the indian market during the 1970s. it is a mixture of areca nut, tobacco, lime, catechu and spices. despite mounting evidence of health hazards of tobacco, tobacco manufacturers as well as policy-makers often seek evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of newer tobacco mixtures such as pm-t.199910326326
antigenic relationship between four airborne palm pollen grains from calcutta, india.the pollen grains of areca catechu, borassus flabellifer, cocos nucifera and phoenix sylvestris, all belonging to the family aracaceae (palmae), are airborne and found to be potent in causing human respiratory allergy. the present study was undertaken to discover the antigenic relationship, if any, in the four relevant palm pollen grains. the study was conducted by using borassus and phoenix antisera raised in rabbit. these antisera were used in rabbit igg specific elisa-inhibition and rocket im ...199910384216
influence of buthionine sulfoximine and reduced glutathione on arecoline-induced chromosomal damage and sister chromatid exchange in mouse bone marrow cells in vivo.arecoline (arc), an alkaloid of the betel nut (areca catechu), is a major ingredient of betel quid. the carcinogenic potentiality as well as its cell transformation ability has already been reported. reduced glutathione (gsh), a major non-protein thiol substance plays an important role in protection of cells against the toxic effect of exogenous compounds. in order to understand the role of factors which affect arc sensitivity, we have made an attempt to establish a relationship between arc-indu ...19989643582
hypoglycaemic activity of arecoline in betel nut areca catechu l. 19938359856
behavioral and biochemical studies of dichloromethane fraction from the areca catechu nut.the dichloromethane fraction from areca catechu was found to inhibit monoamine oxidase type a isolated from the rat brain with an ic50 of 665 +/- 65.1 microg/ml. studies with pharmacological models of depression, i.e., forced swim and tail-suspension tests, indicated that it caused significant reduction in the immobility time similar to that of moclobemide (a selective inhibitor of mao-a) without causing a significant change in motor performance. alkaloids such as arecaidine, arecoline, and a fe ...200010638628
antifertility activity of a traditional contraceptive pill comprising acacia catechu, a. arabica & tragia involucerta. 19846526444
falls from trees and tree associated injuries in rural melanesians.falls from trees and other tree related injuries are the most common cause of trauma in some parts of rural melanesia. a four year review of all admissions for trauma to the provincial hospital at alotau, milne bay province, papua new guinea, showed that 27% were due to falls from trees, and a further 10% were due to related injuries, such as being struck by a falling branch or a coconut. a questionnaire distributed to rural health centres showed that during the study period at least 28 villager ...19846440619
oral lesions, genotoxicity and nitrosamines in betel quid chewers with no obvious increase in oral cancer risk.a link between the generation of areca nut-related n-nitrosamines in the saliva, the induction of genotoxic damage in the oral mucosa, as judged by an increase in micronucleated exfoliated cells (mec), and a low incidence of oral cancer was studied in 2 population groups characterized by their habit of chewing quids without tobacco: guamanians, who chew areca nuts (areca catechu) with or without the addition of betel leaf (piper betle); taiwanese, who use areca nut, betel leaf or inference and s ...19863697952
catechin as an antimutagen: its mode of the present study, we report that the betel quid ingredient catechu, its extract and pure principle catechin were nonmutagenic in salmonella typhimurium ta 100, ta 1535, ta 98, and ta 1538 assays with or without metabolic activation. they also exhibited dose-dependent decreases in mutagenicity of benzo(a)pyrene [b(a)p] and dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (dmba) in strain ta 98 with metabolic activation. we further report that these compounds inhibited activities of cytochrome p-450 and had no effec ...19883127400
anti-mutagenicity of catechin against environmental mutagens.catechu is the non-mutagenic component of betel quid. we have tested catechu extract and catechin for anti-mutagenic activity in salmonella typhimurium strain ta98 against environmental mutagens relevant to india. catechu extract, as well as catechin, shows a dose-dependent decrease in the mutagenicity of tobacco and masheri extracts, and bidi and cigarette smoke condensates in ta98 with s9 mix. mutagenicity of extracts of charred and non-charred meat in ta98 is also inhibited by catechu extract ...19883062316
haemodynamic effects of pan masala in healthy volunteers.we studied acute haemodynamic effects of pan masala (powdered mixture of areca nut, slaked lime, catechu, and condiments) in healthy volunteers.200011273174
antihypertensive substance in seeds of areca catechu l.among various tannins tested, areca ii-5-c, a fraction isolated from seeds of areca catechu l., showed the most potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitory activity in vitro. its antihypertensive activity was therefore investigated in normotensive and spontaneous hypertensive rats (shr) after both oral and intravenous (i.v.) administration. the activity was compared with that of captopril (d-3-mercapto-2-methylpropanoyl-l-proline), a potent ace inhibitor. oral administration of areca i ...19863007909
supplementation of areca catechu l. extract alters triglyceride absorption and cholesterol metabolism in rats.areca extracts have already been found to exhibit a strong inhibitory activity on cholesterol absorption in high-cholesterol-fed rats. accordingly, this study was performed to determine whether areca extracts also exert an inhibitory activity on triglyceride absorption in triglyceride-fed rats. male rats were fed a diet containing corn oil (10%, w/w) with or without an areca nut extract supplement (0.5%, w/w). the supplementation of the areca extract significantly lowered the absorption of trigl ...200111786651
cytogenetic studies reveal increased genomic damage among 'pan masala' consumers.pan masala (pm), a dried powdered mixture containing ingredients like areca nut, catechu, lime, cardamom and flavouring agents, is consumed abundantly by indians and is also exported to western countries. pan masala with tobacco (pm-t) is also available on the market. in view of the role of the ingredients of pm in the causation of oral diseases, the possible harmful effects of consuming this complex mixture were analysed in individuals regularly consuming pm and among healthy non-consuming cont ...19912056918
role of lime in the generation of reactive oxygen species from betel-quid ingredients.the role of lime in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ros), i.e., o2-., h2o2, and oh., from betel-quid components (extracts of areca nut and catechu) was investigated in vitro using a chemiluminescence technique and an assay for oxidative dna damage involving analysis of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. of the various areca-nut extracts, the catechin fraction, at alkaline ph, was shown to be the most active producer of ros. the free ca(oh)2 content and ph of lime samples (a component of bete ...19921486850
study of unscheduled dna synthesis following exposure of human cells to arecoline and extracts of betel nut in vitro.aqueous, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid and ethanol extracts of betel nut (areca catechu l.) have been found to induce unscheduled dna synthesis in hep 2 cells obtained from human larynx carcinoma, in vitro. different concentrations of extracts of betel nut induced dose-dependent unscheduled dna synthesis in hep 2 cells. together with the viability of the hep 2 cells, our results indicate that the aqueous and acetic acid extracts of betel nut induce relatively more unscheduled dna synthesis than ...19921373864
role of reactive oxygen species in the development of cytotoxicity with various forms of chewing tobacco and pan masala.the oral use of chewing tobacco has greatly increased in recent years, and this usage is associated with cancers of the mouth, lip, nasal cavities, esophagus and gut. use of chewing tobacco is extremely popular in far east and middle east countries. in some of these countries, these chewing tobaccos are mixed with areca nut, lime and catechu and sold as pan masala. in this study, we examined three different forms of commercially available pan masala, and examined the development of cytotoxicity ...200212270596
hypoglycaemic activity of acacia catechu, acacia suma, and albizzia odoratissima seed diets in normal albino rats. 1976965073
areca nut, energy metabolism and hunger in asian men.the nut of the areca catechu palm has long been attributed effects on hunger and the digestive process.200312519653
effects of the areca nut constituents arecaidine and guvacine on the action of gaba in the cat central nervous system.arecaidine and guvacine, constituents of the nut of areca catechu, inhibited the uptake of gaba and beta-alanine, but not that of glycine, by slices of cat spinal cord. in cats anesthetised with pentobarbitone, electrophoretic arecaidine enhanced the inhibitory actions of gaba and beta-alanine, but not those of glycine or taurine, on the firing of spinal neurones. similarly, electrophoretic guvacine enhanced the inhibition of spinal neurones by gaba but not that by glycine. the uptake of gaba by ...1977922499
areca nut: a review.areca cattechu linn is commonly known as areca nut or betel nut. it is a very widely cultivated plant in eastern countries like india, bangladesh, ceylon, malaya, the philippines and japan. the importance of this nut is due to its use for chewing purposes. it had an important place as a pharmaceutical in ayurveda--the ancient indian system of medicine--also in the chinese medicinal practices. the pharmaceutical importance of areca nut is due to the presence of an alkaloid, arecoline. synthetic a ...1976786304
screening of medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant activity.the methanol extracts of nine medicinal plants traditionally used in chinese medicine were screened for antioxidant activity versus resveratrol, which has been shown to protect cells from oxidative damage [toxicol. lett. 102 (1998) 5]. most of the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the h(2)o(2)-induced apoptosis of chinese hamster lung fibroblast (v79-4) cells. the extracts of areca catechu var. dulcissima, paeonia suffruticosa, alpinia officinarum, glycyrrhiza uralensis and cinnamomun ...200312738032
aeroallergens in clinical practice of allergy in india. an overview.allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are dramatically increasing all over the world including developing countries like india. today, more than 30 % of the population is known to suffer from one or other allergic ailment. major causative agents implicated are pollen grains, fungal spores, dust mites, insect debris, animal epithelia, etc. several aerobiological studies have been conducted in different parts of the country to ascertain aerial concentr ...200314677902
betel quid chewing and oral cancer: experimental studies on hamsters.betel quid ingredients--betel nut, betel leaf, lime, catechu and tobacco--were tested separately and in various combinations for carcinogenicity, using hamster cheek pouch as the experimental site. the four modes of administration used were (1) tri-weekly painting of the cheek pouch with aqueous extracts of test materials, (2) deposition of replaceable wax pellets containing the test material, (3) gelatin capsules containing the powdered material and (4) insertion of natural material into the po ...1979544535
[epidemiological investigation of taenia saginata asiatica in duyun, guizhou and detection of amino acids and elements of adult worms].to study epidemiological factors of taeniasis and to detect amino acid and element components of adult worms in duyun of guizhou province.200315108532
long-term carcinogenicity of pan masala in swiss mice.carcinogenicity of pan masala, a dry powdered chewing mixture of areca nut, catechu, lime, spices and flavoring agents was evaluated by means of the long-term animal bio-assay 6- to 7-week old male and female s/rvcri mice were divided randomly into intermediate and lifetime exposure groups and fed normal diet without pan masala-(zero dose) or diet containing 2.5% and 5% pan masala. animals in the intermediate-exposure group (n = 10/gender/dose group) were killed after 6, 12 or 18 months of treat ...199910521807
arecoline-induced changes of poly-adp-ribosylation of cellular proteins and its influence on chromatin organization.arecoline, the major alkaloid of betel nut (areca catechu l.) and a suspected carcinogen, has been implicated in human cancers of various sites. a considerable portion of the world's population is constantly exposed to arecoline due to the habit of masticating betel nuts. the present work relates to the study of early molecular events following chronic arecoline exposure at a dose of 10 microg/ml to swiss albino mice. poly-adp-ribosylation of all cellular proteins, histones and poly-adp-ribose p ...199910408909
allergenic relationship among four common and dominant airborne palm pollen grains from eastern india.palm pollen grains are predominant aeroallergens in the tropics including india. evidence of allergenic crossreactivity had been reported from various parts of the world on different families, e.g. poaceae, asteraceae, etc. no such information is available about the palm pollen of tropical countries.19989756202
[the effects of natural medicine on adherence of streptococcus mutans to salivary acquired pellicle].to investigate the effects of 5 kinds of natural medicine such as radix et rhizoma rhei on the adherence of streptococcus mutans to salivary acquired pellicle, and to screen effective natural medicines for the prevention of caries.200415460420
active-oxygen scavenging activity of traditional nourishing-tonic herbal medicines and active constituents of rhodiola sacra.the active-oxygen scavenging activity of 70 traditional herbal medicines used in china and japan as nourishing tonics were evaluated by electron spin resonance (esr) technique, in order to evaluate their effectiveness for anti-aging and to search for new active-oxygen scavengers from natural resources. most of the 70 herbal medicines showed scavenging activity with various intensities. areca catechu (methanol extract), dendrobium plicatile (methanol extract), juglans regia (water extract), paeon ...199910616967
evaluation of carcinogenic/co-carcinogenic activity of a common chewing product, pan masala, in mouse skin, stomach and esophagus.pan masala, a dry powdered mixture of areca nut, catechu, lime, unspecified spices and flavoring agents, has gained widespread popularity as a chewing substitute in india. in this study, the carcinogenic and tumor-promoting potential of an ethanolic pan masala extract (epme) was determined using skin of s/rvcri-ba mice and forestomach and esophagus of icrc mice as the target tissues. carcinogenic activity of pan masala was tested by painting the mouse skin for 40 weeks with epme or by gavage fee ...19989462712
herb-drug interactions.concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (ginkgo biloba), garlic (allium sativum), dong quai (angelica sinensis), or danshen (salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix st john's wort (hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs ar ...200010675182
screening of anti-helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from taiwanese folk medicinal this study, extracts from 50 taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-helicobacter pylori activity. ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. paederia scandens (lour.) merr. (psm), plumbago zeylanica l. (pzl), anisomeles indica (l.) o. kuntze (aiok), bombax malabaricum dc. (bmdc) and alpinia speciosa (j. c. wendl.) k. schum. (asks) and bombax malabaricum dc. (bmdc) all demonstrated strong anti-h. pylori activities. the minimum inhibitory concentrat ...200515681161
genotoxic and non-genotoxic effects of betel quid ingredients on oral mucosal fibroblasts in understand the role of betel quid (bq) in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (osf) and oral cancer, we used dna damage, cytotoxicity, and cell proliferation assays to study the pathobiological effects of aqueous extracts of three bq constituents [betel nut (areca catechu, bn), inflorescence of piper betle (ipb), and lime], one bn alkaloid (arecoline), and one bn polyphenol [(+)-catechin] on cultured oral mucosal fibroblasts. extracts of bn and ipb induced dna strand break formation i ...19948006230
[in vitro study of the effect of 11 kinds of natural drugs on the growth and acid production of lactobacillus].to study the effect of 11 different natural drugs on the growth and acid production of lactobacillus, as a preparation for screening an effective agent to mediate the balance of oral microflora.200515747019
ortho- and meta-tyrosine formation from phenylalanine in human saliva as a marker of hydroxyl radical generation during betel quid chewing.the habit of betel quid chewing, common in south-east asia and the south pacific islands, is causally associated with an increased risk of oral cancer. reactive oxygen species formed from polyphenolic betel quid ingredients and lime at alkaline ph have been implicated as the agents responsible for dna and tissue damage. to determine whether hydroxyl radical (ho.) is generated in the human oral cavity during chewing of betel quid, the formation of o- and m-tyrosine from l-phenylalanine was measur ...19957767985
differences in the pattern of gastric carcinoma between north-eastern and north-western peninsular malaysia: a reflection of helicobacter pylori prevalence.a retrospective study on demographics of gastric carcinoma was conducted in hospital pulau pinang (hpp) with the aim of comparing it to a previous study done in hospital universiti sains malaysia (husm), kelantan. the incidence of gastric carcinoma was much higher in penang compared to kelantan. it was commonest in males and chinese. the incidence and site of gastric carcinoma closely parallels helicobacter pylori infection rates. this was evidenced by the higher incidence and non-cardia locatio ...200415779598
the aetiology of oral submucous fibrosis: the stimulation of collagen synthesis by extracts of areca nut.oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic disabling disease developing in up to 0.5% of the estimated 500 million habitual chewers of the "betel" quid. the quid, or chew, usually comprises a leaf of the piper betel vine in which is wrapped fragments of the nut of areca catechu, together with slaked lime and varied additives, including tobacco. the precise aetiology of oral submucous fibrosis (osf) remains obscure, but epidemiological and animal studies have pointed to a close association with the pro ...19816807873
hypotensive action of acacia catechu. 19846473551
the influence of ph on the convertogenic activity of plant phenolics.the genotoxicity of plant phenolics, including pyrogallol, gallic acid, resorcinol and catechin, and a water extract and tannin fraction of betel nut (areca catechu) was examined at ph levels ranging from 5 to 10. strain d7 of saccharomyces cerevisiae was used since the cells can withstand a wide range of ph levels without any loss of viability. at alkaline ph ranges, the examined phenolics and betel nut extracts induced mitotic conversion, whereas they lacked this capacity at acid ph levels. th ...19846363914
effect of betel/areca nut (areca catechu) extracts on intestinal epithelial cell lining.carcinogenic and other toxic manifestations of areca/betel nut extracts on the buccal cavity and upper digestive tract are well documented. the present study deals with in vivo and in situ effects of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of areca nut on rat intestinal epithelial cell membrane. in vivo daily oral administration by gastric intubation for 1p w produced significant declines in brush border membrane alkaline phosphatase, ca2+-mg2+-atpase, and the digestive enzyme sucrase. the decline in act ...200011003113
stimulation of human buccal mucosa fibroblasts in vitro by betel-nut alkaloids.oral submucous fibrosis (osf) is characterized by excessive collagen production by mucosal fibroblasts and is associated with the habitual chewing of betel-nuts (areca catechu); nut extracts stimulate fibroblast activity in vitro. the metabolism of arecoline, the major alkaloid in the nut, by human buccal mucosa fibroblasts in vitro was investigated; alkaloid metabolites extracted from culture media were analysed by gas chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. [3h]-arecoline was metabolized ...19863458437
lower absorption of cholesteryl oleate in rats supplemented with areca catechu l. extract.areca catechu l. extracts i and ii, prepared using two different solvent systems, exhibited strong inhibitory activities against pancreatic cholesterol esterase (pcease) in vitro. to determine their cholesterol-lowering effects, these two extracts were investigated by analyzing plasma lipid levels, intestinal enzyme activities, and the absorption of cholesteryl oleate. for 6 days, male rats were fed a diet containing cholesteryl oleate (0.5 g/100 g of body weight) either with or without the arec ...200011111132
m1 receptor activation is a requirement for arecoline analgesia.arecoline. a drug obtained from the areca catechu l., induced a dose-dependent antinociception (0.3-1 mg kg(-1) i.p.) which was prevented by the muscarinic antagonists pirenzepine (0.1 microg per mouse i.c.v.) and s-(-)-et-126 (0.01 microg per mouse i.c.v.). a dose-dependent inhibition of the antinociception induced by arecoline was observed after inactivation of the m1 gene by an antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide (aodn). this effect was detected 24 h after the last i.c.v. injection of aodn. th ...200111482763
metabolic effects of the consumption of areca catechu.betel nut (areca catechu) is chewed regularly by at least 10% of the world population, imported by immigrant users wherever they settle, and is the fourth most widely used addictive substance. it is thought, by users, to soothe the digestion and to be a stimulant and its use has a major role in social situations. specific arecal alkaloids act as competitive inhibitors of gaba receptors and have widespread effects in the body, including actions on the brain, cardiovascular system, lungs, gut and ...200211900629
socio-economic aspects of areca nut use.the socio-economic aspects of areca nut consumption have been overlooked. a narrative review was conducted to establish some of these features of areca nut consumption. medline, pubmed and the world wide web were searched using the terms: areca nut, betel nut, areca catechu and pan masala. further analysis was conducted of datasets describing aspects of united kingdom areca nut sales and consumption. south asian economies at different stages of development have varying areca nut cultivation prac ...200211900634
biological monitoring of environment exposure to safrole and the taiwanese betel quid chewing.a rapid and sensitive biological monitoring (bm) method for assessing exposure to the environmental carcinogen safrole has been developed. the method is an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic (hplc) analysis of urinary dihydroxychavicol (dhab) and eugenol, the urinary metabolites of safrole. good linearity, precision, and accuracy were demonstrated. a recovery of 98.8 +/- 5.4% (sd, n = 3) was found for dhab and 84.1 +/- 3.4% (n = 3) for eugenol. the quantitation limits of the metho ...200212399914
[the in vitro study of the effects of 11 kinds of traditional chinese medicine on the growth and acid production of actinomyces viscosus].to assess the effects of different natural medicines on the growth and acid production of actinomyces viscosus, thus making preparations for screening an effective agent to mediate the balance of oral microflora.200212575200
comparative antioxidant activity of individual herbal components used in ayurvedic medicine.four aqueous extracts from different parts of medicinal plants used in ayurveda (an ancient indian medicine) viz., momardica charantia linn (ap1), glycyrrhiza glabra (ap2), acacia catechu (ap3), and terminalia chebula (ap4) were examined for their potential as antioxidants. the antioxidant activity of these extracts was tested by studying the inhibition of radiation induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes at different doses in the range of 100-600 gy as estimated by thiobarbituric aci ...200312657303
effective medicinal plants against enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7.the stimulating effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the production of verocytotoxin (vt) by enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) o157:h7 has been claimed. the purpose of this study was to find an alternative, but bioactive medicine for the treatment of this organism. fifty-eight preparations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 38 medicinal plant species commonly used in thailand to cure gastrointestinal infections were tested for their antibacterial activity against d ...200415261962
cheilitis granulomatosa associated with allergic contact dermatitis to betel quid.cheilitis granulomatosa (cg) is a rare disorder of unknown origin, which is characterized clinically by painless, recurrent or persistent swelling of 1 or both lips. betel quids, composed of betel nuts (seeds of the areca catechu), slake lime, and piper betel leaf/or piper betel inflorescence, are widely used in asia and strongly associated with oral mucosal disease. it has also been found to be a cause of contact leukomelanosis because of its ingredients of various chemicals. we describe a case ...200818353040
presence of cholinomimetic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory constituents in betel this investigation, we report the presence of cholinomimetic and acetylcholinesterase (ache) inhibitory constituents in betel nut, the most commonly used drug in the world after tobacco, ethanol and caffeine. the crude extract of betel nuts or areca catechu ( caused a dose-dependent (0.3-300 microg/ml) spasmogenic effect in the isolated rabbit jejunum. the spasmogenic effect was blocked by atropine, similar to that of acetylcholine (ach), suggestive of muscarinic receptor mediated effec ...200415350815
preparation and characterization of herbal creams for improvement of skin viscoelastic properties.the aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate herbal cosmetic creams for their improvement of skin viscoelastic and hydration properties. the cosmetic cream formulations were designed by using ethanolic extracts of glycyrriza glabra, curcuma longa (roots), seeds of psorolea corlifolia, cassia tora, areca catechu, punica granatum, fruits of embelica officinale, leaves of centella asiatica, dried bark of cinnamon zeylanicum and fresh gel of aloe vera in varied concentrations (0.12-0.9%w/w) a ...200818452435
effects of aqueous extracts of "betel quid" and its constituents on testosterone production by dispersed mouse interstitial cells.betel quid (bq) is a favorite chewing item among many communities in different parts of asia where it is popular by different names. bq is a unique combination of nut or fruit from the areca catechu linn. (an) tree, leaf from the piper betle linn. (bl) vine, slaked lime, paste of bark from the acacia catechu tree and other spices. an has been used successfully in various traditional medicines by different civilizations over several ages. initially condemned by the medical communities for its hea ...200415633806
inhibition of naja kaouthia venom activities by plant polyphenols.plant polyphenols from the aqueous extracts of pentace burmanica, pithecellobium dulce, areca catechu and quercus infectoria were tested for their inhibitory activities against naja kaouthia (nk) venom by in vitro neutralization method. the first three extracts could completely inhibit the lethality of the venom at 4 ld50 concentration and the venom necrotizing activity at the minimum necrotizing dose while also inhibited up to 90% of the acetylcholinesterase activity of nk venom at much lower t ...200515740891
the effects of extracts from anti-diarrheic thai medicinal plants on the in vitro growth of the intestinal protozoa parasite: blastocystis hominis.the activities of n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from five anti-diarrheic thai medicinal plants, acacia catechu (fabaceae) resin, amaranthus spinosus (amaranthaceae) whole plant, brucea javanica (simaroubaceae) seed, piper longum (piperaceae) fruit and quercus infectoria (fagaceae) nut gall were tested against the in vitro growth of fresh isolates of the intestinal protozoan parasite, blastocystis hominis. the extracts at concentrations that ranged from 62.5 to 2000 microg/ml, w ...200515763365
inhibitory effects of 150 plant extracts on elastase activity, and their anti-inflammatory effects.the inhibitory effects of 150 medicinal plants on elastase activity were investigated. among the 150 plants, six plant extracts (final concentration 1 mg/ml in methanol) exhibited more than 65% of inhibition of elastase activity. the inhibitory effects of six active plants, including areca catechu (ic50, 42.4 mug/ml), cinnamonum cassia (ic50, 208.7 mug/ml), myristica fragrans (ic50, 284.1 mug/ml), curcuma longa (ic50, 398.4 mug/ml), alpinia katsumadai (ic50, 465.7 mug/ml) and dryopteris cassirrh ...199918505532
species composition surveys of synanthropic fly populations in northern peninsular malaysia.three species composition surveys were conducted in a rural location in kedah and an urban location in pulau pinang. two of the surveys were conducted in november 2003, the first was at the kedah site and the second was at the pulau pinang site. the third survey was conducted at the pulau pinang site again on the last week of april 2004. all these surveys were conducted one week prior to field evaluations of commercial chemical fly baits. the predominant species recovered from the surveys was th ...200818948886
on the parasitic fauna of two species of anurans collected from sungai pinang, penang island, malaysia.a total of fifty anurans, comprising of rana limnocharis and bufo melanostictus were collected from sungai pinang, balik pulau, penang. the prevalence, mean intensity and distribution of parasite species along the digestive tract were reported. seven species of parasites were recorded. blood parasites recovered were trypansomes and microfilariae.200818948888
arecoline inhibits catecholamine release from perfused rat adrenal study the effect of arecoline, an alkaloid isolated from areca catechu, on the secretion of catecholamines (ca) evoked by cholinergic agonists and the membrane depolarizer from isolated perfused rat adrenal gland.200616364213
antinematodal activity of some tropical rainforest plants against the pinewood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus.sixty five methanolic extracts of sumatran rainforest plants representing 63 species of 21 families were assayed in vivo for antinematodal activity against bursaphelenchus xylophilus using our cotton ball-fungal mat method. extracts of 27 plants species from 14 families exhibited antinematodal activity, while 37 species were inactive. among them, three extracts of bischofia javanica, knema hookeriana and areca catechu exhibited very strong activity at minimum effective dose (med) of 0.7 mg/cotto ...200010817223
consumption of guava (psidium guajava l) and noni (morinda citrifolia l) may protect betel quid-chewing papua new guineans against diabetes.rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (dm2) in papua new guinea, coupled with compelling epidemiological evidence supporting a diabetogenic association with betel quid (bq) chewing has lead us to investigate dietary strategies that might offer protection from developing dm2. we investigated the dietary habits of kalo residents from coastal central province who are avid bq chewers yet have a relatively low incidence of dm2 compared to the ethnically similar and adjacent wanigelans wh ...200819114402
clinico-immunochemical studies on airborne areca catechu l. pollen, a probable risk factor in emergency asthma hospitalization from eastern india.the pollen grain of the areca catechu l. tree is airborne and allergenic. this study aimed to know the role of this pollen as a source of aeroallergen with effect on emergency asthma hospitalization, to isolate its important allergic fraction and to check its cross-reaction with betel nut.200919295234
aeroallergens in clinical practice of allergy in india- aria asia pacific workshop report.allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are dramatically increasing all over the world including developing countries like india. today, more than 30% of the population is known to suffer from one or other allergic ailment. major causative agents implicated are pollen grains, fungal spores, dust mites, insect debris, animal epithelia, etc. several aerobiological studies have been conducted in different parts of the country to ascertain aerial concentra ...200819317344
[oral submucous fibrosis in a 31-year-old indian women: first case report from germany].oral submucous fibrosis (osf) is a chronic disease characterized by subepithelial collagen deposition with formation of bands involving the oral cavity and adjacent structures. oral submucous fibrosis is a precancerous condition. it is caused by chewing of betel quid (areca catechu l., piper betle, lime and tobacco) and ready-made products like pan masala and gutka which also contain areca nut. these products are available all over south asia. the hallmark of osf is extremely restricted mouth op ...200616568335
[inhibitory effects of natural plant extracts on verticillium albo-atrum].this paper studied the inhibitory effects of 54 kinds of ethanol-extracted plant solutions on verticillium albo-atrum. the results showed that 15 kinds of these extracts could inhibit the growth of verticillium albo-atrum mycelium, with an inhibitory rate more than 50%, among which, the inhibitory rate of asarum sieboldii, coptis chinensis, magnolia officinalis, acacia catechu, sophora flavescens, glycyrrhiza uralensis, cnidium monnieri, platycodon grandiflorum and allium. cepa. extracts was hig ...200616964957
medicinal plant extracts as anti-escherichia coli o157:h7 agents and their effects on bacterial cell aggregation.ethanolic extracts of eight thai medicinal plants (representing five families) that are used as traditional remedies for treating diarrhea were examined with a salt aggregation test for their ability to modulate cell surface hydrophobicity of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli strains, including e. coli o157:h7. four of these medicinal plants, acacia catechu, peltophorum pterocarpum, punica granatum, and quercus infectoria, have high bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities. the ethanolic extr ...200617066910
cardio-selective inhibitory effect of the betel nut extract: possible explanation.chewing of betel nut, the seed of areca catechu, is associated with a host of physical and psychological effects while it is also traditionally used in constipation and hypertension. in this study, we report the cardio-selective cholinomimetic activity of the betel nut crude extract (, that tested positive for saponins, tannins, phenols, alkaloids and terpenes, exhibited dose-dependent atropine-sensitive inhibition of isolated guinea-pig atrial contractility with an ec50 value of 0. ...200717294817
carotenoids suppress proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin d1 expression in oral carcinogenic models.the purpose of this study was to investigate the chemopreventive effect of carotenoids on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna) and cyclin d(1) expression in betel (areca catechu) quid extract (bqe)-induced hamster oral cancer and human kb cell models, respectively. in the in vivo animal study, 41 hamsters were divided into six groups and treated with 0.3 ml of 0.5% 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]-anthracene, bqe, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein and mixed carotenoids for 12 weeks ...200717369034
absorption of intestinal free cholesterol is lowered by supplementation of areca catechu l. extract in rats.areca extracts exhibiting a strong inhibitory activity against pancreatic cholesterol esterase (pcease) in vitro were previously found to lower the absorption of dietary cholesteryl ester. therefore, to determine whether a combined areca extract also affects the absorption of intestinal free cholesterol, male rats were fed a diet containing free cholesterol (1%, w/w) either with or without an areca nut extract supplement (0.5%, w/w). the areca extract supplement significantly lowered the plasma ...200212005171
alert for an epidemic of oral cancer due to use of the betel quid substitutes gutkha and pan masala: a review of agents and causative south-east asia, taiwan and papua new guinea, smoking, alcohol consumption and chewing of betel quid with or without tobacco or areca nut with or without tobacco are the predominant causes of oral cancer. in most areas, betel quid consists of a mixture of areca nut, slaked lime, catechu and several condiments according to taste, wrapped in a betel leaf. almost all habitual chewers use tobacco with or without the betel quid. in the last few decades, small, attractive and inexpensive sachets of ...200415215323
low concentration of condensed tannins from catechu significantly inhibits fatty acid synthase and growth of mcf-7 cells.tannins exist widely in plants, but because they precipitate proteins, scientists frequently ignore them in search of bioactive components. catechu, a traditional astringent, is rich in tannins. in this study, we found that condensed tannins from catechu potently inhibited animal fatty acid synthase (fas). among them, trimeric condensed tannin showed the most potent inhibition with ic(50) of 0.47 microg/ml and it also exhibited strong time-dependent inhibition. its inhibitory kinetics and reacti ...200818435908
antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant salmonella typhi.screening was done of some plants of importance in the ayurvedic system of traditional medicine used in india to treat enteric diseases. fifty four plant extracts (methanol and aqueous) were assayed for their activity against multi-drug resistant salmonella typhi. strong antibacterial activity was shown by the methanol extracts of aegle marmelos, salmalia malabarica, punica granatum, myristica fragrans, holarrhena antidysenterica, terminalia arjuna and triphal (mixture of emblica of fi cinalis, ...200415476301
ultrastructural and hormonal modulations of the thyroid gland following arecoline treatment in albino mice.arecoline is a plant alkaloid of betel nut areca catechu. arecoline has immunosuppressive, hepatotoxic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects, and disturbs some endocrine organs in rats. the objective is to investigate the untoward effects of arecoline on the thyroid gland in mice. intraperitoneal injection of arecoline (10 mg/kg body weight only once) increased the serum t(3) and t(4) levels and decreased the serum tsh 20, 40 or 60 min after the treatment, with maximum effect at 40 min. chronic are ...201020085799
awareness of school students on sexually transmitted infections (stis) and their sexual behavior: a cross-sectional study conducted in pulau pinang, malaysia.sexually transmitted infections (stis) rank among the most important health issues for the people especially the young adults worldwide. young people tend to engage in sexual activity at younger ages in the past decade than in the 1970s, and 1980s. knowledge is an essential precursor of sexual risk reduction. a cross-sectional study was conducted in pulau pinang, malaysia, to produce the baseline information about school students' awareness and perception about sexually transmitted infections (s ...201020113511
arecoline excites the colonic smooth muscle motility via m3 receptor in rabbits.arecoline is an effective component of areca (betel nuts, a chinese medicine named pinang or binglang). the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of arecoline on the motility of distal colon in rabbits and its mechanisms involved. strips of colonic smooth muscle were suspended in organ baths containing krebs solution, and their isometric contractions were examined. the response of smooth muscle to arecoline in colonic strips was recorded. the effects of atropine, gallamine and 1,1- ...200415481791
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