sequence analysis of the influenza virus strain a/shearwater/australia/1/72 (h6n5).analysis of the ns and m genes of the archetype h6n5 influenza virus strain a/shearwater/australia/1/72 shows it to be a typical example of the avian host reservoir, containing old world/eurasian internal proteins with divergent surface proteins, which is a potential source of new pandemic strains.19979251063
characterization of the influenza a virus gene pool in avian species in southern china: was h6n1 a derivative or a precursor of h5n1?in 1997, an h5n1 influenza virus outbreak occurred in chickens in hong kong, and the virus was transmitted directly to humans. because there is limited information about the avian influenza virus reservoir in that region, we genetically characterized virus strains isolated in hong kong during the 1997 outbreak. we sequenced the gene segments of a heterogeneous group of viruses of seven different serotypes (h3n8, h4n8, h6n1, h6n9, h11n1, h11n9, and h11n8) isolated from various bird species. the p ...200010864640
Emergence of mammalian species-infectious and -pathogenic avian influenza H6N5 virus with no evidence of adaptation.The migratory waterfowl of the world are considered to be the natural reservoir of influenza A viruses. Of the 16 hemagglutinin subtypes of avian influenza viruses, the H6 subtype is commonly perpetuated in its natural hosts and is of concern due to its potential to be a precursor of highly pathogenic influenza viruses by reassortment. During routine influenza surveillance, we isolated an unconventional H6N5 subtype of avian influenza virus. Experimental infection of mice revealed that this isol ...201121994462
molecular evolution of the h6 subtype influenza a viruses from poultry in eastern china from 2002 to 2010.although extensive data demonstrates that the majority of h6 duck isolates belonged to a single h6n2 virus lineage with a single gene constellation in southern china from 2000 to 2005, the prevalence of h6n2 virus in poultry in eastern china is largely unknown.201121999472
surveillance of avian influenza virus in migratory water birds in eastern hokkaido, japan.the epidemiological information has obtained on avian influenza virus (aiv) in eastern hokkaido, japan, where aiv surveillance has not been performed. cloacal or fecal samples obtained from migratory water birds were screened for aiv both by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to detect the influenza a virus matrix (m) gene and by egg inoculation. between 2007 and 2009, a total of 2,488 samples were collected from various avian species in abashiri, kushiro, nemuro and tokac ...201020948168
surveillance of avian influenza viruses in northern pintails (anas acuta) in tohoku district, japan.among winter migratory waterfowl, northern pintails (anas acuta), in one of the largest flocks in tohoku district, northeast japan, were surveyed for influenza a viruses at five wintering sites in three prefectures, viz., aomori, akita, and miyagi. a total of 38 influenza a viruses were isolated from 2066 fecal samples collected during november 2006 through march 2007. the overall isolation rate was 1.84%. eleven different subtypes were isolated, including nine h5n2, seven h6n8, seven h10n1, fou ...200818459295
emerging multiple reassortant h5n5 avian influenza viruses in ducks, china, 2008.three highly pathogenic h5n5 avian influenza viruses (hpai), a/duck/guangdong/wy11/2008 (wy11), a/duck/guangdong/wy19/2008 (wy19), and a/duck/guangdong/wy24/2008 (wy24) were isolated from ducks in southern china in april 2008. here, we characterized these viruses by performing sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of their viral genes, assessing their virulence in ducks and mice, and performing cross-protection experiments in chickens. sequence analysis revealed that the ha genes of these h5n5 vi ...201324080350
epidemiological surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (lpaiv) from poultry in guangxi province, southern china.low pathogenic avian influenza virus (lpaiv) usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. however, some lpaiv strains can be transmitted to humans and cause severe infection. genetic rearrangement and recombination of even low pathogenic influenza may generate a novel virus with increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to public health. southern china is regarded as the world "influenza epicenter", due to a rash of outbreaks of influenza in recent years. in this study, ...201324204754
vaccinia virus expression and sequence of an avian influenza nucleoprotein gene: potential use in diagnosis.the nucleoprotein (np) gene from avian influenza strain a/shearwater/aust/1/72 (h6n5) was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in vaccinia virus for the production of potent sera in immunised rabbits. the np gene is 1565 bp and shares greater than 95% amino acid sequence identity with other nps of the avian subtype. the recombinant np expressed by vaccinia virus comigrated with endogenous a/shearwater/aust/1/72 np by western blot analysis. polyclonal rabbit sera raised against recombinant np was eva ...19902386434
prevalence of avian influenza viruses, borrelia garinii, mycobacterium avium, and mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in waterfowl and terrestrial birds in slovakia, 2006.the prevalence of borrelia, mycobacteria and avian influenza virus (aiv) infections, together with the distribution of different aiv subtypes, was studied in migratory waterfowl and terrestrial birds trapped in three localities in slovakia during 2006. samples obtained from waterfowl captured in the senianske ponds area of eastern slovakia showed the highest diversity of aiv isolates. a total of 13 different subtypes were detected in 19 samples from this location (h1n2, h2n2, h3n2, h6n6, h7n6, h ...200818798030
pre-exposing canada geese (branta canadensis) to a low-pathogenic h1n1 avian influenza virus protects them against h5n1 hpai virus previous studies we examined the role of canada geese (branta canadensis) in the epidemiology of eurasian highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1. to expand on this and better understand how pre-exposure to heterosubtypic low-pathogenic avian influenza (lpai) viruses might influence the outcome of h5n1 hpai infection, we pre-exposed naïve juvenile canada geese to different north american wild-bird-origin lpai viruses. we selected h1, h2, and h6 hemagglutinin subtype viruses based on the ...201424171557
sensitization of mice with wild-type and cold-adapted influenza virus variants: immune response to two h1n1 and h3n2 viruses.two a strain influenza viruses, a/hong kong/123/77 (a/hk/123/77) (h1n1) and a/queensland/6/72 (a/qld/6/72) (h3n2), and the two cold-adapted reassortants which possess the surface antigens of these strains (cr35 and cr6, respectively) were tested for their ability both to induce primary cytotoxic t-cell (tc cell) responses in mice and to sensitize mice for a second tc cell response when challenged with a distantly related a strain virus, a/shearwater/72 (h6n5). after intranasal inoculation, a/qld ...19853871484
is there a relation between genetic or social groups of mallard ducks and the circulation of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses?we investigated the circulation dynamics of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (lpaivs) in the mallard (anas platyrhynchos) reservoir in italy. in particular, we evaluated the temporal distribution of virologic findings by combining virus isolation data with a new population genetic-based study approach. thus, during 11 consecutive sampling periods (wintering periods between 1993/94 and 2003/04), categorised into 40 sampling sub-periods, cloacal swab samples were collected from 996 wild and ...201424690373
complete genome sequence of a mammalian species-infectious and -pathogenic h6n5 avian influenza virus without evidence of h6n5 avian influenza virus (aiv) strain, designated a/aquatic bird/korea/cn5/2009 (h6n5), was isolated from fecal swabs of aquatic birds in 2009, and surprisingly, it showed infectivity and pathogenicity in mammalian species without evidence of adaptation. in this study, we report the first complete genome sequence containing 3' and 5' noncoding regions (ncrs) of a mammalian species-infectious and pathogenic h6n5 aiv, which will help provide important insights into the molecular basis of path ...201223087119
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