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evaluation of a real-time two-step rt-pcr assay for quantitation of chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) genome in experimentally-infected bee tissues and in life stages of a symptomatic colony.a two-step real-time rt-pcr assay, based on taqman technology using a fluorescent probe (fam-tamra) was developed to quantify chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) genome in bee samples. standard curves obtained from a cbpv control rna and from a plasmid containing a partial sequence of cbpv showed that this assay provided linear detection over a 7-log range (r(2)>0.99) with a limit of detection of 100 copies, and reliable inter-assay and intra-assay reproducibility. standardisation including rna p ...200717166598
in situ hybridization assays for localization of the chronic bee paralysis virus in the honey bee (apis mellifera) brain.chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) is a common single-stranded rna virus which may cause significant losses in honey bee colonies. as this virus seems to exhibit neurotropism, an in situ hybridization based method was developed to localize the genomic and antigenomic cbpv rnas in infected honey bee brains. double-stranded cdna probes as well as genomic and antigenomic-specific single-stranded cdna probes were prepared, using the polymerase chain reaction in presence of labelled d-utp with non-ra ...200818674566
chronic bee paralysis virus in the nerve ganglia of the adult honey bee. 19655827553
survey of six bee viruses using rt-pcr in northern thailand.six honey bee viruses were surveyed using rt-pcr in northern thailand where about 80% of thai apiaries are located. tested samples were found to be positive for deformed wing virus (dwv), acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), sacbrood virus (sbv) and kashmir bee virus (kbv). in the collected samples, neither chronic bee paralysis virus nor black queen cell virus nucleic acids could be detected. it was found that dwv was the most widespread and abpv was the second most prevalent. kashmir bee virus wa ...200919105966
molecular characterisation and phylogenetic analysis of chronic bee paralysis virus, a honey bee virus.the complete sequences of the two major rnas of chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) have been determined. rna 1 (3674nt long) and rna 2 (2305nt long) are positive single-stranded rnas that are capped but not polyadenylated. the 3' ends of both rnas are unreactive to polymerisation or ligation even in denaturing conditions, a feature already observed in alphanodavirus rnas. the three previously described smaller rnas [overton, h.a., buck, k.w., bailey, l., et al., 1982. relationships between the r ...200818079012
polar tube protein gene diversity among nosema ceranae strains derived from a greek honey bee health study.honey bee samples from 54 apiaries originating from 37 geographic locations of greece were screened for nosema apis and nosema ceranae. furthermore 15 samples coming from 12 geographic locations were screened also for paenibacilluslarvae and melissococcus plutonius and seven honey bee virus species, for the first time on a nation-wide level. there was a tendency in finding proportionally higher spore counts in samples from apiaries that suffered important colony losses. p. larvae bacteria were i ...201121802424
prevalence of nosema and virus in honey bee (apis mellifera l.) colonies on flowering period of acacia in korea.honey production from approximately 1.6 million colonies owned by about 199,000 korean beekeepers was almost 23,000 metric tons in 2009. nosema causes significant losses in honey production and the virus decreases population size. we initiated a survey of honey bee colonies on the blooming period of acacia to determine the prevalence of nosema and virus in 2011. most korean beekeepers have moved from the south to north of korea to get acacia nectar for 2 mon. this provided a valuable opportunity ...201122783125
phylogenetic analysis of the rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) and a predicted structural protein (psp) of the chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) isolated from various geographic regions.chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) is responsible for chronic paralysis, an infectious and contagious disease of adult honey bees (apis mellifera l.). the full-length nucleotide sequences of the two major rnas of cbpv have previously been characterized. the orf3 of rna1 has shown significant similarities to the rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) of positive single-stranded rna viruses, whereas the orf3 of rna2 encodes a putative structural protein (psp). in the present study, honey bees origina ...200919427340
powerful sequence similarity search methods and in-depth manual analyses can identify remote homologs in many apparently "orphan" viral proteins.the genome sequences of new viruses often contain many "orphan" or "taxon-specific" proteins apparently lacking homologs. however, because viral proteins evolve very fast, commonly used sequence similarity detection methods such as blast may overlook homologs. we analyzed a data set of proteins from rna viruses characterized as "genus specific" by blast. more powerful methods developed recently, such as hhblits or hhpred (available through web-based, user-friendly interfaces), could detect dista ...201324155369
detection of chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) genome and its replicative rna form in various hosts and possible ways of spread.detection of chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) is reported for the first time in two species of ants (camponotus vagus and formica rufa) and in varroa destructor. a quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) method was used to detect and quantify cbpv in infected bees, ants and mites. a minus-strand-specific rt-pcr was used to assess viral replication. these results suggest a new way by which the infection may be spread and other sites of viral persistence in the close apiary environment.200818243390
prevalence and transmission of honeybee viruses.transmission mechanisms of six honeybee viruses, including acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), black queen cell virus (bqcv), chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv), deformed wing virus (dwv), kashmir bee virus (kbv), and sacbrood bee virus (sbv), in honey bee colonies were investigated by reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr) methods. the virus status of individual queens was evaluated by examining the presence of viruses in the queens' feces and tissues, including hemolymph, gut, ovaries, spermatheca, ...200616391097
prevalence and seasonal variations of six bee viruses in apis mellifera l. and varroa destructor mite populations in france.a survey of six bee viruses on a large geographic scale was undertaken by using seemingly healthy bee colonies and the pcr technique. samples of adult bees and pupae were collected from 36 apiaries in the spring, summer, and autumn during 2002. varroa destructor samples were collected at the end of summer following acaricide treatment. in adult bees, during the year deformed wing virus (dwv) was found at least once in 97% of the apiaries, sacbrood virus (sbv) was found in 86% of the apiaries, ch ...200415574916
red cell pulmonary transit times through the healthy human lung.it has previously been postulated that rapid red cell capillary transit through the human lung plays a role in the mechanism of diffusion limitation in some endurance athletes. methodological limitations currently prevent researchers from directly measuring pulmonary capillary transit times in humans during exercise; however, first pass radionuclide cardiography allows direct measurement of red blood cell (rbc) transit times through the whole lung at various exercise intensities. we examined the ...200312621524
Occurrence and prevalence of seven bee viruses in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana apiaries in China.Populations of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana in China were surveyed for seven bee viruses: acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and Isreal acute paralysis virus (IAPV). No KBV was detected from any samples of the two species. In A. mellifera, DWV was the most prevalent virus, but in A. cerana, SBV was the dominant. Simultaneous multiple infections of viruses ...201222062807
detection of honey bee (apis mellifera) viruses with an oligonucleotide microarray.in recent years, declines in honey bee (apis mellifera l.) colonies have been observed to varying degrees worldwide with the worst losses in the usa being termed colony collapse disorder (ccd). pathogen load and the prevalence of honey bee viruses have been implicated in these losses and many diseased hives have multiple viruses present. we have designed and tested an oligonucleotide microarray which enables the simultaneous detection of nine honey bee viruses: acute bee paralysis virus, black q ...201121419132
molecular and phylogenetic characterization of honey bee viruses, nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and parasitic mites in china.china has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies, which produce the highest quantity of honey and royal jelly in the world; however, the presence of honey bee pathogens and parasites has never been rigorously identified in chinese apiaries. we thus conducted a molecular survey of honey bee rna viruses, nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and tracheal mites associated with nonnative apis mellifera ligustica and native apis cerana cerana colonies in china. we found the presence of ...201323467539
novel virus discovery and genome reconstruction from field rna samples reveals highly divergent viruses in dipteran hosts.we investigated whether small rna (srna) sequenced from field-collected mosquitoes and chironomids (diptera) can be used as a proxy signature of viral prevalence within a range of species and viral groups, using srnas sequenced from wild-caught specimens, to inform total rna deep sequencing of samples of particular interest. using this strategy, we sequenced from adult anopheles maculipennis s.l. mosquitoes the apparently nearly complete genome of one previously undescribed virus related to chro ...201324260463
the honey bee pathosphere of mongolia: european viruses in central asia.parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed european honey bee subspecies, apis mellifera. apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. this imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. here, we co ...201626959221
occurrence of deformed wing virus, chronic bee paralysis virus and mtdna variants in haplotype k of varroa destructor mites in syrian apiaries.a small-scale survey was conducted on 64 beehives located in four governorates of syria in order to assess for the first time the presence of honeybee-infecting viruses and of varroa destructor mites in the country. rt-pcr assays conducted on 192 honeybees (apis mellifera l.) using virus-specific primers showed that deformed wing virus (dwv) was present in 49 (25.5%) of the tested samples and chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) in 2 (1.04%), whereas acute bee paralysis virus, sacbrood virus, blac ...201626914360
prevalence and distribution of six bee viruses in korean apis cerana populations.the prevalence and distribution of six bee viruses was investigated in 527 apis cerana samples which were collected from five provinces in south korea. the most prevalent virus, black queen cell virus (bqcv), was present in 75.11% of 446 adult bee samples, followed by sacbrood virus (sbv) in 30.71%. deformed wing virus (dwv), kashmir bee virus (kbv), and chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) were present at lower levels of 8.07%, 1.56%, and 0.44%, respectively. the most prevalent virus in 81 larvae ...201222273697
first molecular detection of a viral pathogen in ugandan honey bees.ugandan honey bees (apis mellifera l.) produce honey, and are key pollinators within commercial crops and natural ecosystems. real-time rt-pcr was used to screen immature and adult bees collected from 63 beekeeping sites across uganda for seven viral pathogens. no samples tested positive for chronic bee paralysis virus, sacbrood virus, deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, apis iridescent virus or israeli acute paralysis virus. however, black queen cell virus (bqcv) was found in 35.6% ...201020219470
prevalence of honeybee viruses in different regions of china and argentina.honeybees are threatened by various pathogens and parasites. more than 18 viruses have been described in honeybees and many of them have been detected in china and argentina. in china, both apis cerana and apis mellifera are raised. in argentina, beekeepers raise different ecotypes of a. mellifera: european honeybees (in both temperate and subtropical regions) and africanised honeybees (in subtropical areas only). a thorough study was carried out in both china and argentina to analyse the curren ...201628332647
virus infections of honeybees apis mellifera.the health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as varroa destructor and nosema spp.) and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and well-being of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. to tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effectiv ...201527800411
prevalence of honey bee (apis mellifera) viruses in temperate and subtropical regions from argentina.in argentina, bee virus studies are still incipient, and there are no studies regarding the climatic effect. the aim of this study was to assess and compare the presence of honeybee viruses in different climatic regions from argentina. a total of 385 colonies distributed in five argentinean eco-regions were examined to evaluate the percentage of infestation with varroa destructor and the presence of seven virus species (deformed wing virus, dwv; acute bee paralysis virus, abpv; chronic bee paral ...201728449942
vertical transmission of honey bee viruses in a belgian queen breeding program.the member states of european union are encouraged to improve the general conditions for the production and marketing of apicultural products. in belgium, programmes on the restocking of honey bee hives have run for many years. overall, the success ratio of this queen breeding programme has been only around 50%. to tackle this low efficacy, we organized sanitary controls of the breeding queens in 2012 and 2014.201525889959
chronic bee paralysis: a disease and a virus like no other?chronic bee paralysis which was called paralysis is a rather unusual disease caused by a rather unusual virus. in this review, we explore current knowledge of the disease and its etiological agent. paralysis is the only common viral disease of adult bees whose symptoms include both behavioural and physiological modifications: trembling and hair loss. the disease often affects the strong colonies of an apiary and thousands of dead individuals are then observed in front of the hives. two sets of s ...201019909978
intra-laboratory validation of chronic bee paralysis virus quantitation using an accredited standardised real-time quantitative rt-pcr method.chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) is responsible for chronic bee paralysis, an infectious and contagious disease in adult honey bees (apis mellifera l.). a real-time rt-pcr assay to quantitate the cbpv load is now available. to propose this assay as a reference method, it was characterised further in an intra-laboratory study during which the reliability and the repeatability of results and the performance of the assay were confirmed. the qpcr assay alone and the whole quantitation method (from ...201122207079
sequence analysis reveals a conserved extension in the capping enzyme of the alphavirus supergroup, and a homologous domain in nodaviruses.members of the alphavirus supergroup include human pathogens such as chikungunya virus, hepatitis e virus and rubella virus. they encode a capping enzyme with methyltransferase-guanylyltransferase (mtase-gtase) activity, which is an attractive drug target owing to its unique mechanism. however, its experimental study has proven very difficult.201525886938
honeybee viruses in uruguay.mortality of honeybees is a serious problem that beekeepers have to face periodically in uruguay and worldwide. the presence of rna viruses, in addition to other pathogens may be one of its possible causes. in this work, we detected chronic bee paralysis virus, acute bee paralysis virus, black queen cell virus, sacbrood virus and deformed wing virus in samples of uruguayan honeybees with or without varroa destructor and nosema apis. the detection of viruses in different provinces, simultaneous c ...200616843485
occurrence of six honeybee viruses in diseased austrian apiaries.the occurrence, prevalence, and distribution patterns of acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), black queen cell virus (bqcv), chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv), deformed wing virus (dwv), kashmir bee virus (kbv), and sacbrood virus (sbv) were investigated in 90 austrian honeybee colonies suffering from symptoms of depopulation, sudden collapse, paralysis, or dark coloring by employing reverse transcription-pcr. infestation with parasites was also recorded. the samples originated from all parts of a ...200616597939
Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability.ABSTRACT:201122108527
experimental infection of the honeybee (apis mellifera l.) with the chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv): infectivity of naked cbpv rnas.chronic paralysis is an infectious and contagious disease of the honeybee (apis mellifera l.) and is caused by the chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv). this disease leads to death in adult bees and is therefore a serious threat for colony health. cbpv is a positive single-stranded rna virus and its genome is composed of two rna segments, rna 1 and rna 2, 3674 nt and 2305 nt, respectively. although cbpv shares some characteristics with viruses classified into families nodaviridae and tombusviridae ...201222583665
trueness and precision of the real-time rt-pcr method for quantifying the chronic bee paralysis virus genome in bee homogenates evaluated by a comparative inter-laboratory study.the chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) is the aetiological agent of chronic bee paralysis, a contagious disease associated with nervous disorders in adult honeybees leading to massive mortalities in front of the hives. some of the clinical signs frequently reported, such as trembling, may be confused with intoxication syndromes. therefore, laboratory diagnosis using real-time pcr to quantify cbpv loads is used to confirm disease. clinical signs of chronic paralysis are usually associated with vi ...201728757385
spread of infectious chronic bee paralysis virus by honeybee (apis mellifera l.) feces.knowledge of the spreading mechanism of honeybee pathogens within the hive is crucial to our understanding of bee disease dynamics. the aim of this study was to assess the presence of infectious chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) in bee excreta and evaluate its possible role as an indirect route of infection. samples of paralyzed bees were (i) produced by experimental inoculation with purified virus and (ii) collected from hives exhibiting chronic paralysis. cbpv in bee heads or feces (crude or ...200717933946
complete genome of chronic bee paralysis virus strain slo/m92/2010, detected from apis mellifera carnica.chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) causes an infectious and contagious disease of adult honeybees. here, we report the complete genome sequence of cbpv strain slo/m92/2010. this is the first published complete genome of cbpv in apis mellifera carnica, which provides important additional knowledge about the divergence of the cbpv genome.201728663300
detection of multiple viruses in queens of the honey bee apis mellifera l.individual honey bee apis mellifera l. queens were examined for the presence of six honey bee viruses including acute bee paralysis virus, chronic bee paralysis virus, black queen cell virus, deformed wing virus, kashmir bee virus, and sacbrood virus. all viruses, except abpv, were detected in the samples. among queens examined for virus infections, 93% had multiple virus infections. the detection of viruses in queens raises the possibility of a vertical transmission pathway wherein infected que ...200516214161
risk factors for the presence of deformed wing virus and acute bee paralysis virus under temperate and subtropical climate in argentinian bee colonies.beekeepers all across the world are suffering important losses of their colonies, and the parasitic mites varroa destructor and nosema sp, as well as several bee viruses, are being pointed out as the possible causes of these losses, generally associated with environmental and management factors. the objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of seven virus species (deformed wing virus -dwv-, acute bee paralysis virus -abpv-, chronic bee paralysis virus -cbpv-, black queen cell v ...201728460743
complete sequences of the rna 1 and rna 2 segments of chronic bee paralysis virus strain cbpv-bj detected in china.chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) is an important viral pathogen that affects adult bees. although several cbpv strains have been reported, little information has been obtained from china. in this study, two major segments of the cbpv chinese isolate cbpv-bj, rna 1 and rna 2, were determined to be 3657 and 2267 nucleotides (nt) in length, respectively. rna 1 and rna 2 contained three and four open reading frames (orfs), respectively, which agreed with known reference strains (eu122229 and eu122 ...201728432563
the first comprehensive molecular detection of six honey bee viruses in iran in 2015-2016.at least 18 viruses have been reported in the honey bee (apis mellifera l.). however, severe diseases in honey bees are mainly caused by six viruses, and these are the most important in beekeeping. these viruses include: deformed wing virus (dwv), acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv), sacbrood virus (sbv), kashmir bee virus (kbv), and black queen cell virus (bqcv). in this study, we evaluated 89 iranian honey bee apiaries (during the period 2015-2016) suffering fr ...201728429131
sudden deaths and colony population decline in greek honey bee colonies.during june and july of 2009, sudden deaths, tremulous movements and population declines of adult honey bees were reported by the beekeepers in the region of peloponnesus (mt. mainalo), greece. a preliminary study was carried out to investigate these unexplained phenomena in this region. in total, 37 bee samples, two brood frames containing honey bee brood of various ages, eight sugar samples and four sugar patties were collected from the affected colonies. the samples were tested for a range of ...201020804765
viruses of managed alfalfa leafcutting bees (megachille rotundata fabricus) and honey bees (apis mellifera l.) in western canada: incidence, impacts, and prospects of cross-species viral transmission.we examined whether alfalfa leafcutting bees (alcb, megachille rotundata) experienced a higher incidence of seven viruses commonly found honey bees (apis mellifera) when placed alongside honey bees for hybrid canola seed pollination. although two viruses - sacbrood virus (sbv) and deformed wing virus (dwv) - were detected in alcb adults, their presence appeared independent of whether honey bees were present in the same field or not. a further survey of viruses among alcb adults in three differen ...201728400199
improvement of rt-pcr detection of chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) required by the description of genomic variability in french cbpv isolates.a new rt-pcr test has been developed to diagnose chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) that is able to detect genetically variable viral isolates. in fact, up to 8.7% divergence between partial nucleotide sequences from viral isolates from french honey bees was highlighted in a preliminary variability study. the previously-described rt-pcr was unable to detect all these viral isolates and rt-pcr diagnosis needed improvement. the new rt-pcr test can detect up to 40% more cbpv isolates.200817949741
cardiovascular risk escalation with caloric excess: a prospective demonstration of the mechanics in healthy adults.the link between weight gain and cardiovascular risk characterized with circadian blood pressure variability [cbpv] and endothelial function [ef] is unexplored.201323347533
abnormalities in circadian blood pressure variability and endothelial function: pragmatic markers for adverse cardiometabolic profiles in asymptomatic obese adults.cardiovascular disease (cvd) risk, although perceived to be high, is often difficult to demonstrate in disease free (healthy) obese adults.201020868493
detection of chronic bee paralysis virus and acute bee paralysis virus in uruguayan honeybees.chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) causes a disease characterized by trembling, flightless, and crawling bees, while acute bee paralysis virus (abpv) is commonly detected in apparently healthy colonies, usually associated to varroa destructor. both viruses had been detected in most regions of the world, except in south america. in this work, we detected cbpv and abpv in samples of uruguayan honeybees by rt-pcr. the detection of both viruses in different provinces and the fact that most of the an ...200516169006
replication of honey bee-associated rna viruses across multiple bee species in apple orchards of georgia, germany and kyrgyzstan.the essential ecosystem service of pollination is provided largely by insects, which are considered threatened by diverse biotic and abiotic global change pressures. rna viruses are one such pressure, and have risen in prominence as a major threat for honey bees (apis mellifera) and global apiculture, as well as a risk factor for other bee species through pathogen spill-over between managed honey bees and sympatric wild pollinator communities. yet despite their potential role in global bee decli ...201728392285
quantification of peripheral and central blood pressure variability using a time-frequency method.systolic blood pressure variability (bpv) is associated with cardiovascular events. as the beat-to-beat variation of blood pressure is due to interaction of several cardiovascular control systems operating with different response times, assessment of bpv by spectral analysis using the continuous measurement of arterial pressure in the finger is used to differentiate the contribution of these systems in regulating blood pressure. however, as baroreceptors are centrally located, this study conside ...201628324975
unbiased rna shotgun metagenomics in social and solitary wild bees detects associations with eukaryote parasites and new viruses.the diversity of eukaryote organisms and viruses associated with wild bees remains poorly characterized in contrast to the well-documented pathosphere of the western honey bee, apis mellifera. using a deliberate rna shotgun metagenomic sequencing strategy in combination with a dedicated bioinformatics workflow, we identified the (micro-)organisms and viruses associated with two bumble bee hosts, bombus terrestris and bombus pascuorum, and two solitary bee hosts, osmia cornuta and andrena vaga. i ...201628006002
chronic bee paralysis virus and nosema ceranae experimental co-infection of winter honey bee workers (apis mellifera l.).chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) is an important viral disease of adult bees which induces significant losses in honey bee colonies. despite comprehensive research, only limited data is available from experimental infection for this virus. in the present study winter worker bees were experimentally infected in three different experiments. bees were first inoculated per os (p/o) or per cuticle (p/c) with cbpv field strain m92/2010 in order to evaluate the virus replication in individual bees. i ...201324056674
first report of viral infections that affect argentine honeybees.honey is one of the most important agricultural products for export in argentina. in fact, more than 3.5 million beehives and 50 000 beekeepers are related with this production, mainly located in buenos aires province. honeybee mortality is a serious problem that beekeepers in argentina have had to face during the last 3 years. it is known that the consequence of the complex interactions between environmental and beekeeping parameters added to the effect of different disease agents such as virus ...201023766280
rna 1 and rna 2 genomic segments of chronic bee paralysis virus are infectious and induce chronic bee paralysis disease.chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) causes an infectious and contagious disease of adult honeybees. its segmented genome is composed of two major positive single-stranded rnas, rna 1 (3,674 nt) and rna 2 (2,305 nt). three minor rnas (about 1,000 nt each) have been described earlier but they were not detected by sequencing of cbpv genome. in this study, the results of in vivo inoculation of the two purified cbpv major rnas are presented and demonstrate that rna 1 and rna 2 are infectious. honeybee ...201526583154
characterisation of structural proteins from chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) using mass spectrometry.chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) is the etiological agent of chronic paralysis, an infectious and contagious disease in adult honeybees. cbpv is a positive single-stranded rna virus which contains two major viral rna fragments. rna 1 (3674 nt) and rna 2 (2305 nt) encode three and four putative open reading frames (orfs), respectively. rna 1 is thought to encode the viral rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) since the amino acid sequence derived from orf 3 shares similarities with the rdrp of fa ...201526110588
chronic bee paralysis virus in honeybee queens: evaluating susceptibility and infection routes.chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) is known as a disease of worker honey bees. to investigate pathogenesis of the cbpv on the queen, the sole reproductive individual in a colony, we conducted experiments regarding the susceptibility of queens to cbpv. results from susceptibility experiment showed a similar disease progress in the queens compared to worker bees after infection. infected queens exhibit symptoms by day 6 post infection and virus levels reach 10¹¹ copies per head. in a transmission ...201424618857
effects of wintering environment and parasite-pathogen interactions on honey bee colony loss in north temperate regions.extreme winter losses of honey bee colonies are a major threat to beekeeping but the combinations of factors underlying colony loss remain debatable. we monitored colonies in two environments (colonies wintered indoors or outdoors) and characterized the effects of two parasitic mites, seven viruses, and nosema on honey bee colony mortality and population loss over winter. samples were collected from two locations within hives in fall, mid-winter and spring of 2009/2010. although fall parasite an ...201627448049
molecular identification of chronic bee paralysis virus infection in apis mellifera colonies in japan.chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) infection causes chronic paralysis and loss of workers in honey bee colonies around the world. although cbpv shows a worldwide distribution, it had not been molecularly detected in japan. our investigation of apis mellifera and apis cerana japonica colonies with rt-pcr has revealed cbpv infection in a. mellifera but not a. c. japonica colonies in japan. the prevalence of cbpv is low compared with that of other viruses: deformed wing virus (dwv), black queen cel ...201222852042
first complete genome sequence of chronic bee paralysis virus isolated from honey bees (apis mellifera) in china.chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) is a serious viral disease affecting adult bees. we report here the complete genome sequence of cbpv, which was isolated from a honey bee colony with the symptom of severe crawling. the genome of cbpv consists of two segments, rna 1 and rna 2, containing respective overlapping fragments.201627491983
ribosomal frameshifting used in influenza a virus expression occurs within the sequence ucc_uuu_cgu and is in the +1 direction.programmed ribosomal frameshifting is used in the expression of many virus genes and some cellular genes. in eukaryotic systems, the most well-characterized mechanism involves -1 tandem trna slippage on an x_xxy_yyz motif. by contrast, the mechanisms involved in programmed +1 (or -2) slippage are more varied and often poorly characterized. recently, a novel gene, pa-x, was discovered in influenza a virus and found to be expressed via a shift to the +1 reading frame. here, we identify, by mass sp ...201223155484
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