transferability and characterization of simple sequence repeat markers from anacardium occidentale to a. humile (anacardiaceae).use of molecular markers can be limited by the high cost and extensive time required for their development. transfer of simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers reduces the cost and time limitations and has allowed the use of these markers in a larger number of species. we tested 11 ssr markers previously developed for anacardium occidentale on a. humile. the 11 loci were successfully amplified in a. humile. all loci were polymorphic and generated a mean of 5.4 alleles per locus. the observed hetero ...201223096925
management of diabetes in guinean traditional medicine: an ethnobotanical investigation in the coastal lowlands.this survey was carried out in the coastal lowlands of guinea-conakry in order to make an inventory of plants used by traditional healers, herbalists and diabetic patients for the management of diabetes mellitus.201223006605
epidemiological changes in cutaneous melanoma: retrospective study of 969 cases (1996-2010).the incidence of malignant melanoma has increased over recent decades all over the world; however, we are not aware if this also occurs in madrid. our objective was to analyze epidemiological changes in cutaneous malignant melanomas diagnosed over a 15-year period.201322874464
contribution of the cashew gum (anacardium occidentale l.) for development of layer-by-layer films with potential application in nanobiomedical devices.the search for bioactive molecules to be employed as recognition elements in biosensors has stimulated researchers to pore over the rich brazilian biodiversity. in this sense, we introduce the use of natural cashew gum (anacardium occidentale l.) as an active biomaterial to be used in the form of layer-by-layer films, in conjunction with phthalocyanines, which were tested as electrochemical sensors for dopamine detection. we investigated the effects of chemical composition of cashew gum from two ...201224364964
hyaluronic acid depolymerization by ascorbate-redox effects on solid state cultivation of streptococcus zooepidemicus in cashew apple fruit bagasse.the cashew fruit (anacardium occidentale l.) has been used as a promising agricultural resource for the production of low-molecular weight (m(w)) hyaluronic acid (ha) (10(4)-10(5) da). the cashew juice is a rich source of vitamin c containing, 1.2-2.0 g l(-1). this work explores the effects of the initial concentration of the ascorbate on the solid fermentation of the juice-moisturized bagasse from the cashew apple fruit. the results show that the m(w) reduction of ha is proportional to the init ...201222806044
anacardium occidentale bark lectin: purification, immobilization as an affinity model and influence in the uptake of technetium-99m by rat adipocytes.lectins, proteins that recognize carbohydrates, have been immobilized on inert supports and used in the screening or purification of glycoproteins. anacardium occidentale bark infusion has been used as a hypoglycemic agent in brazil. the toxicity of natural products may be evaluated determining their capability to alter the biodistribution of technetium-99m ((99m)tc). this work reports the isolation and characterization of a lectin from a. occidentale bark (anocbl), its evaluation as an affinity ...201222798188
synthesis characterization and catalytic action of hexagonal gold nanoparticles using essential oils extracted from anacardium occidentale.a new phytochemical method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is reported. the essential oils extracted from the fresh leaves of anacardium occidentale are used for the reduction of auric acid to au nanoparticles (nps). the formation and morphology of synthesized nps are investigated with the help of uv-visible, tem and ftir spectroscopy. the nps synthesized at room temperature are mono-dispersed and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 36 nm while those prepared at higher temperature ...201222771566
[use of fibrin based biological adhesives in the prevention of anastomotic leaks in the high risk digestive tract: preliminary results of the multicentre, prospective, randomised, controlled, and simple blind phase iv clinical trial: protissucol001].a multicentre, prospective, randomised, controlled, and simple blind clinical trial was started in january 2007, with the aim of demonstrating the efficacy of fibrin-based biological adhesives in the prevention of anastomotic leaks in the high risk digestive tract.201222748849
[hospitalized children's parents' anxiety in critical care units].child hospitalization is a potentially stressful process that affects both patients and family members.201222670384
[surgical complications in drug body-packers: an uncommon but potentially lethal emergency].drug trafficking by means of introducing packets of illegal substances in body cavities carries a risk of suffering from a gastrointestinal obstruction and/or severe poisoning in the person who transports them. spain is considered as the port of entry to europe for drugs, and some spanish hospitals have experience in managing these types of patients. two hospitals in madrid, including the gregorio marañón university general hospital (hgugm), received these potential patients from the madrid bara ...201222572170
multilayer films electrodes consisted of cashew gum and polyaniline assembled by the layer-by-layer technique: electrochemical characterization and its use for dopamine determination.we take advantage of polyelectrolyte feature exhibited by natural cashew gum (anacardium occidentale l.) (cg), found in northeast brazil, to employ it in the formation of electroactive nanocomposites prepared by layer-by-layer (lbl) technique. we used polyaniline unmodified (pani) or modified with phosphonic acid (pa), pani-pa as cationic polyelectrolyte. on the other hand, the cg or polyvinyl sulfonic (pvs) acids were used as anionic polyelectrolytes. the films were prepared with pani or pani-p ...201222505924
phenotypic and histologic characteristics of cutaneous melanoma in patients with melanocortin-1 receptor polymorphisms.the melanocortin-1 receptor (mc1r) is an important risk factor for melanoma due to its role in the production of melanin in response to sun exposure.201222464597
volatile profile of cashews (anacardium occidentale l.) from different geographical origins during roasting.volatile compounds were quantified in the headspace of indian, vietnamese, and brazilian cashews, both raw and during roasting by selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry. the optimum roasting times based on color measurements were also determined. raw cashews were oil roasted for 3 to 9 min at 143 °c and color and volatiles measured. an excellent correlation, following a pseudo 1st-order reaction, was found between l* value and roasting time; darkness increases as roasting time increases. the o ...201422417425
[social-sanitary situation in marañón's work in the context of the fight against infectious diseases].gregorio marañón y posadillo (1887-1960), played a leading role in the birth of endocrinology in spain as is well known. however, his medical work included other important and significant fields. thus, it was especially in the 1910s and 1920s, when marañón dealt with the social-sanitary situation in madrid probably due to his professional attachment to the treatment of several infectious diseases and epidemic outbreaks. actually, since 1911 onwards, he was in charge of the wards of infectious di ...201122372009
rapid green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles using the dried leaf of anacardium occidentale.a rapid, one pot and biogenic fabrication of pd nanoparticles is reported. pd nanoparticles of size below 5 nm size are synthesized using the dried leaf powder of anacardium occidentale. rapid reduction results in the formation of spherical particles. the nanoparticles are characterized by xrd, tem, uv-visible and ftir analysis. the absorption spectra have continua which are characteristic of pd nanoparticles. the broad nature of the xrd pattern arising due to reflections from the (111), (200), ...201222349890
[incidence and prognostic factors for biochemical recurrence after radical radiotherapy].the aim of this study is to analyze the outcomes obtained after external-beam radiotherapy (3d ebrt)in patients with prostate cancer.201222318187
[development of mixed beverages made of caja (spondias mombin l.) and cashew apple (anacardium occidentale) added of fructooligosaccharides and inulin].the purpose of this work was to develop three mixed drinks based on caja (spondias mombin l.) and cashew apple (anacardium occidentale) pulps, added prebiotic ingredients and to evaluate their chemical, physicochemical and sensory properties. four formulations with combinations of two pulp fruit, sucrose and prebiotic ingredients (standard inulin, inulin high performance-hp-and fructooligosaccharides fos) were developed. the mixed drinks were submitted the following analysis ph, acidity, soluble ...201122308948
a new bush anole (iguanidae, polychrotinae, polychrus) from the upper marañon basin, peru, with a redescription of polychrus peruvianus (noble, 1924) and additional information on polychrus gutturosus berthold, 1845.we herein describe a new colorful species of polychrus with a conspicuous sexual dimorphism from the dry forest of the northern portion of región de la libertad, peru. the new species differs from all other polychrus species, in that this species has very small dorsal scales and thus a higher number of scales around midbody and in the middorsal line from behind the occipital scales to the level of the posterior edge of the thigh. furthermore, we redescribe polychrus peruvianus whose original des ...201122287882
selective termination in dichorionic twins discordant for congenital evaluate the perinatal outcome of selective termination in dichorionic twins discordant for congenital defect, performed at the hospital general universitario gregorio marañon.201222177832
emerging roles of anacardic acid and its derivatives: a pharmacological overview.anacardic acid (aa) is a bioactive phytochemical found in nutshell of anacardium occidentale. chemically, it is a mixture of several closely related organic compounds, each consisting of salicylic acid substituted with an alkyl chain. the traditional ayurveda depicts nutshell oil as a medicinal remedy for alexeritic, amebicidal, gingivitis, malaria and syphilitic ulcers. however, the enduring research and emerging evidence suggests that aa could be a potent target molecule with bactericide, fung ...201222103711
[impact of a pet/ct facility in its community environment].the pet/ct (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) technique is currently expanding, with new facilities and indications appearing every year. being mostly an outpatient technique, patients leave the facility when the study has been performed, although they still retain a certain amount of radiopharmaceutical. therefore, setting up a pet/ct facility might involve a risk increase for the population. this study aims at estimating this risk.201121892554
[phenotypic and histologic characteristics of cutaneous melanoma in patients with melanocortin-1 receptor polymorphisms].the melanocortin-1 receptor (mc1r) is an important risk factor for melanoma due to its role in the production of melanin in response to sun exposure.201221737053
phenolic lipid ingredients from cashew nuts.five new phenolic lipids, 2-(8"z-eicosenoyl)-6-(8'z-pentadecenyl) salicylic acid (3), 2-(9"z-hexadecenoyl)-6-(8'z, 11'z-pentadecadienyl) methyl salicylate (5), 2-(10"z, 13"z-nonadecadienoyl)-6-(8'z, 11'z-pentadecadienyl) salicylic acid (6), 2-(16"z-pentacosenoyl)-6-(8'z-pentadecenyl) salicylic acid (7) and 2-(9"z-octadecenoyl)-6-(8'z, 11'z-pentadecadienyl) methyl salicylate (8), and three known compounds, cardols (1), anacardic acid (2) and cardanols (4), were isolated from the nuts of the cashe ...201221735238
[anxiety of nursing staff in the face of death in critical care units and its relationship with the patients' age].death is a biological and psychosocial process, in which many of the vital events extinguish in a gradual and silent sequence, this escaping simple observation. people live with the fear of death, however health care professionals are constantly faced with the death of other people and in continuous contact with this. this may negatively or positively affect their attitudes.201621719334
sodium metabisulfite-induced polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants (anacardium occidentale, psidium guajava, and terminalia catappa).the exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyhbs) molecules.201121716622
membrane stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in extracts of three medicinal plants: anacardium occidentale, psidium guajava, and terminalia catappa.many reports showed that medicinal plant extracts cause alterations on the shape and physiology of erythrocytes.201121716621
aroma volatiles recovered in the water phase of cashew apple (anacardium occidentale l.) juice during concentration.there is a considerable loss of volatile compounds during the thermal concentration of cashew apple juice, damaging product quality, and as yet there is little research on the subject. thus the purpose of this research was to identify the aroma volatiles evaporated off from cashew apple juice and recovered in the water phase during concentration of this beverage in an industrial plant. water phase volatiles were extracted using dichloromethane, concentrated under a nitrogen flow, separated by ga ...201121681760
thrombolytic potential of ocimum sanctum l., curcuma longa l., azadirachta indica l. and anacardium occidentale l.atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction are serious consequences of the thrombus formed xin blood vessels. thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs have certain limitations which cause serious and sometimes fatal consequences. herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases. the aim of this study was to investigate whether herbal preparations possess thromb ...201124826011
[gregorio marañón, a pioneer of endocrinology, 50 years after his death].gregorio maranon born and dead in madrid (1887-1960), was a spanish physician, scientist, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer, considered one of the most brilliant spanish intellectuals of the 20th century. he was also a republican and fought the primo de rivera dictatorship, though later expressed his disagreement with communism. maranon participated closely with the process of exile of alfonso xiii. from a very early age he learned several foreign languages and was an avid reader, hen ...201121527976
phytosynthesis of au, ag and au-ag bimetallic nanoparticles using aqueous extract and dried leaf of anacardium occidentale.present study reports a green chemistry approach for the biosynthesis of au, ag, au-ag alloy and au core-ag shell nanoparticles using the aqueous extract and dried powder of anacardium occidentale leaf. the effects of quantity of extract/powder, temperature and ph on the formation of nanoparticles are studied. the nanoparticles are characterized using uv-vis and ftir spectroscopies, xrd, hrtem and saed analyses. xrd studies show that the particles are crystalline in the cubic phase. the formatio ...201121458366
[assessing the impact of kangaroo care on preterm infant stress].to assess the efficacy of kangaroo care (kc) in decreasing stress in newborns of 29-34 weeks' post-menstrual age (pma).201121458343
radical prostatectomy versus external-beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: long-term effect on biochemical control-in search of the optimal treatment.the optimal management of patients with clinically localized prostate carcinoma remains undefined due in part to the absence of well-designed, randomized trials.201121431406
[dermatomyositis: assessment and follow-up of 20 patients].dermatomyositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy that mainly affects the skin and skeletal muscle. an estimated 15% to 25% of patients have underlying tumors and some forms are exclusively cutaneous. the factors that predict disease course and prognosis in these patients have not been clearly identified. here we report our experience through the description and analysis of a series of patients.201421411047
biodosimetry and assessment of radiation dose.when investigating radiation accidents, it is very important to determine the exposition dose to the individuals. in the case of exposures over 1 gy, clinicians may expect deterministic effects arising the following weeks and months, in these cases dose estimation will help physicians in the planning of therapy. nevertheless, for doses below 1 gy, biodosimetry data are important due to the risk of developing late stochastic effects. finally, some accidental overexposures are lack of physical mea ...201124376970
[history and poetry in women's biological twilight: menopause and old age].this is a poetical and historical approach to the last biological stages of the evolutive development of women, namely menopause and old age. it starts with the passages found in egyptian papirii such as ebers or smith, dated 1500-2000 bc, which describe, among other symptoms, the sweating and hig body temperatures caused by the diminishing hormon secretion of the ovaries. other important works on the subject, some of them written in the 20th century and some others composed before that date, ar ...201123350338
anacardium occidentale linn. (anacardiaceae) stem bark extract induces hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in experimental animal models.anacardium occidentale linn. (anacardiaceae) is a plant largely used in africa for the treatment of different diseases. in côte d'ivoire it's commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. the present study was carried out in order to assess the effects of anacardium occidentale extract (anoe) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. a mercury manometer kymograph of ludwig was used to measure the blood pressure of normotensive rabbits in control conditions (normal physiological solution) ...201122654226
larvicidal properties of cashew nut shell liquid (anacardium occidentale l) on immature stages of two mosquito species. 201021178220
irreversible competitive inhibitory kinetics of cardol triene on mushroom tyrosinase.cardol triene was first purified from cashew (anacardium occidentale l.) nut shell liquid and identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. the effects of this compound on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase were studied. the results of the kinetic study showed that cardol triene was a potent irreversible competitive inhibitor and the inactivation was of the complexing type. two molecules of cardol triene could bind to one molecule of tyrosinase an ...201021121650
chromatographic techniques for the determination of alkyl-phenols, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds in raw and roasted cold pressed cashew nut oils.anacardium occidentale belongs to the family anacardiaceae and is principally grown in tropical america (mexico, peru, brazil, etc.) and india. cashew nuts contain low amounts of hydroxy alkyl phenols that come from an oily liquid present in their shell and that is known as cashew-nut shell liquid. this paper reports the alkyl phenols composition of cold pressed raw and roasted cashew nut oil. first of all, cashew nut shell liquid was used for a basic fractionation of the alkyl phenol classes by ...201020961547
development and validation of a questionnaire to assess satisfaction with hospital emergency develop and validate a questionnaire to determine satisfaction with the hospital emergency department.201120870663
[a program to protocolize nursing care].to decrease variability in clinical practice and to standardise and develop a systematic care programusing nursing care protocols.201520675170
multifunctional cytotoxic agents from anacardium occidentale.the effects of anacardic acids and cardols isolated from the cashew nut and apple anacardium occidentale (anacardiaceae) on murine b16-f10 melanoma cells were tested. although anacardic acids and cardols were found to inhibit tyrosinase, a key enzyme in melanin synthesis, melanogenesis in melanocytes was not suppressed in cultured cells but rather enhanced. both anacardic acids and cardols exhibited moderate cytotoxicity.201120623613
antioxidants from tropical herbs.plants that contain high amounts of polyphenolic compounds are potential candidates for natural antioxidant sources. studies are on going in the search for new sources of antioxidants. not much data are available on the antioxidant capacity of tropical herbs. with this in mind, 19 commonly consumed malaysian herbs were analyzed for their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities. a majority of these plants have never been studied before with regards to their polyphenolic content and antiox ...201020420325
episodes of overtreatment during the first six months in children with congenital hypothyroidism and their relationships with sustained attention and inhibitory control at school age.contradictory results regarding the optimal initial dose of levothyroxine in children with congenital hypothyroidism (ch) hamper the clinical management of these children during their early infancy. we explore the relationships between the initial dose of levothyroxine and endocrine control during the first 6 months and cognition at school age.201020395659
bioactive compounds in cashew nut (anacardium occidentale l.) kernels: effect of different shelling the present study, the effects of various conventional shelling methods (oil-bath roasting, direct steam roasting, drying, and open pan roasting) as well as a novel "flores" hand-cracking method on the levels of bioactive compounds of cashew nut kernels were investigated. the raw cashew nut kernels were found to possess appreciable levels of certain bioactive compounds such as beta-carotene (9.57 microg/100 g of dm), lutein (30.29 microg/100 g of dm), zeaxanthin (0.56 microg/100 g of dm), alp ...201020387832
[une-en-iso-9001 internal audit program performed by our own personnel: a knowledge management tool].the need to maintain a quality management system based on the une-en-iso 9001:2000 standards in 12 departments of the "hospital general universitario gregorio marañón" (hgugm), led us to make the decision to establish an internal audit program using our own personnel as a useful tool for knowledge management and continuous improvement. the department of "medicina preventiva y gestión de calidad" developed an audit program, which has been implemented in our hospital during the last three years.201020347374
short-term effect of concentrations of fine particulate matter on hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes among the over-75 age group in madrid, spain.this study sought to analyse the effect of daily mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (diameter <2.5 microm; pm(2.5)) on hospital admissions due to circulatory and respiratory causes among an elderly population (>75 years) in madrid between 2003 and 2005.201020060145
hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of anacardium occidentale leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.anacardium occidentale leave (anacardiaceae), a plant natively grown in wastelands in africa is used as a folk remedy for diabetes mellitus. previous studies, reported the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous leaf extract of a. occidentale in diabetic rats and its prophylactic activity against the diabetogenic action of streptozotocin this study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of a methanolic extract of streptozotocin leaves and its fractions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats in comparison to tol ...201022314909
antihyperglycemic effect of ethanolic extract and fractions of anacardium occidentale l. stem bark in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.the numbers of adults with diabetes in the world is estimated to rise 300 millions in the year 2025 and this leads to increasing search for better anti-diabetic drug. the effects of the ethanol extract (1.25 g/kg) and fractions (ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol in the dose of 1 g/kg) of anacardium occidentale stem bark on the blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced types 1 and 2 diabetic rats at different prandial states were studied. the ethanol extract of a. occidentale had no ...200925206248
the anti-ophidian properties of anacardium occidentale bark extract.snakebites in rural areas of tropical and subtropical regions are commonly treated with medicinal plants. in this report, we have studied the ability of anacardium occidentale bark extract to neutralize enzymatic as well as pharmacological effects induced by vipera russelii venom. the extract neutralized the viper venom hydrolytic enzymes such as phospholipase, protease, and hyaluronidase in a dose dependent manner. these enzymes are responsible for both local effects of envenomation such as loc ...200919874230
[sentinel node biopsy as a prognostic factor in cutaneous melanoma].the aim of sentinel node biopsy (snb) is to identify subclinical lymph node metastases using a procedure with minimal morbidity, establish more accurate staging in patients with melanoma, determine prognosis, and chose the most suitable treatment in each patient.200919709553
digestive enzyme activities and gastrointestinal fermentation in wood-eating determine what capabilities wood-eating and detritivorous catfishes have for the digestion of refractory polysaccharides with the aid of an endosymbiotic microbial community, the ph, redox potentials, concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (scfas), and the activity levels of 14 digestive enzymes were measured along the gastrointestinal (gi) tracts of three wood-eating taxa (panaque cf. nigrolineatus "marañon", panaque nocturnus, and hypostomus pyrineusi) and one detritivorous species (pter ...200919568757
inside the guts of wood-eating catfishes: can they digest wood?to better understand the structure and function of the gastrointestinal (gi) tracts of wood-eating catfishes, the gross morphology, length, and microvilli surface area (mvsa) of the intestines of wild-caught panaque nocturnus, p. cf. nigrolineatus "marañon", and hypostomus pyrineusi were measured, and contrasted against these same metrics of a closely related detritivore, pterygoplichthys disjunctivus. all four species had anatomically unspecialized intestines with no kinks, valves, or ceca of a ...200919562350
[gastrointestinal and mesenteric injuries in the trauma patient: incidence, diagnosis delay and prognosis].gastrointestinal and mesenteric injuries (gimi) are uncommon in trauma patients, and their diagnosis are often delayed. our aims were to determine the reliability of ct scan in our centre, and to assess the clinical significance of a delayed diagnosis.200919481199
new potential ache inhibitor candidates.we have theoretically studied new potential candidates of acetylcholinesterase (ache) inhibitors designed from cardanol, a non-isoprenoid phenolic lipid of cashew anacardium occidentale nut-shell liquid. the electronic structure calculations of fifteen molecule derivatives from cardanol were performed using b3lyp level with 6-31g, 6-31g(d), and 6-311+g(2d,p) basis functions. for this study we used the following groups: methyl, acetyl, n,n-dimethylcarbamoyl, n,n-dimethylamine, n,n-diethylamine, p ...200919446931
[predictive factors of mortality in severe ischaemic colitis: post-operative analysis of 101 patients].ischaemic colitis (ic) is the most common form of bowel ischaemia and is often under-diagnosed.200919342010
[impact of particulate matter with diameter of less than 2.5 microns [pm2.5] on daily hospital admissions in 0-10-year-olds in madrid. spain [2003-2005]].the last report of world health organization's air quality guidelines establishes a value of 10 microg/m3 as the annual mean particulate pm2.5 concentration. however, in large cities such as madrid, this value is doubled and consequently an association between pm2.5 values and effects on morbidity and mortality is to be expected.201619269716
genetic analysis and historical perspective of cashew (anacardium occidentale l.) introduction into india.cashew (anacardium occidentale l.), introduced into india about 400 years ago, is distributed widely in the coastal regions as spontaneous populations as well as in cultivation. despite the plant's commercial exploitation, little is known about its actual introduction and diversification. we attempted to construct these events by investigating the level of genetic variation and genetic structure of cashew populations collected from different geographical regions of india. a total of 91 individua ...200919234550
isolation, characterization, and determination of 1-o-trans-cinnamoyl-beta-d-glucopyranose in the epidermis and flesh of developing cashew apple (anacardium occidentale l.) and four of its genotypes.1-o-trans-cinnamoyl-beta-d-glucopyranose was purified from cashew apple (anacardium occidentale l.) juice and unambiguously characterized. absent at the immature green stage, its concentration bursts at the turning and even more at the mature ripe stage, reaching 6.2 mg/100 g of fresh weight. whatever the considered cashew apple genotype, this cinnamoyl glucoside ester was preferentially concentrated in the epidermis, which was 4-5 times richer than flesh, reaching 85 mg/100 g of fresh weight fo ...200919199591
[roberto nóvoa santos, 75 years later 1885-1993].in the first quarter of the twentieth century, a period known as "the silver age of spanish culture," prof. d. roberto nóvoa santos (la coruña, 1885 -santiago de compostela, 1933) stands out as a key figure in the so-called "generation marañón" (granjel, 1986, gracia (1987). chairman professor of general pathology at the university of santiago (1912) and later at the central university of madrid (1927), dr. nóvoa santos exercised the mastery and dedication to teaching until his untimely death at ...200818924358
[cultural strategies for coping with infant death in a pediatric intensive care unit].to analyze what is the conceptualization the nurses have of child death in a pediatric intensive care unit (picu) and identify sociocultural strategies for coping with it.201618840326
evaluation of lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of anacardic acids.6-alkylsalicylic acids inhibit the linoleic acid peroxidation catalyzed by soybean lipoxygenase-1 (ec, type 1) competitively and without pro-oxidant effects. this activity is largely dependent on the nature of their alkyl side chains. inhibitory activities of anacardic acids, viz. 6-pentadec(en)ylsalicylic acids, isolated from the cashew anacardium occidentale, were initially used for comparison because their aromatic head portions are the same. consequently, the data should be interp ...200918810998
lqas usefulness in an emergency department.this paper aims to explore lot quality assurance sampling (lqas) applicability and usefulness in the evaluation of quality indicators in a hospital emergency department (ed) and to determine the degree of compliance with quality standards according to this sampling method.200818785348
inhibition of in vivo angiogenesis by anacardium occidentale l. involves repression of the cytokine vegf gene expression.lethal tumor growth and progression cannot occur without angiogenesis, which facilitates cancer cell proliferation, survival, and dissemination. among the many growth factors and cytokines engaged in angiogenesis, the cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) is regarded as the most potent and specific. angiogenesis inhibitors are recognized as potentially useful agents for treating angiogenesis-associated diseases and vegf represents a promising and well-studied target for antiangiogen ...200822504635
immunoglobulin e-reactive proteins in cashew (anacardium occidentale) apple juice concentrate.cashew apple juice has the potential to be a natural source of vitamin c and sugar in processed foods. the juice of the cashew apple is obtained by pressing the fleshy peduncle or receptacle, which forms a rounded apple that sits above the true fruit, the cashew nut. cashew nut allergy is the second most commonly reported tree nut allergy in the united states. to determine if cashew apple juice contains cashew nut allergens, immunoblotting was performed using a cashew apple juice 6x concentrate ...200818558706
inhibitory effect of some natural and semisynthetic phenolic lipids upon acetylcholinesterase activity.the effect of phenolic lipids isolated from rye grains and cashew nut shell liquid (cnsl) from anacardium occidentale and their semisynthetic derivatives on erythrocyte ghost's acetylcholinesterase activity was studied. it has been shown that all tested compounds decreased the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase. this effect depends on the type of studied compounds. three of them completely inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity at the micromolar concentration.200826065763
the importance of chemosensory clues in aguaruna tree classification and identification.the ethnobotanical literature still contains few detailed descriptions of the sensory criteria people use for judging membership in taxonomic categories. olfactory criteria in particular have been explored very little. this paper will describe the importance of odor for woody plant taxonomy and identification among the aguaruna jívaro of the northern peruvian amazon, focusing on the aguaruna category númi (trees excluding palms). aguaruna informants almost always place trees that they consider t ...200818454871
source-sink regulation of cotyledonary reserve mobilization during cashew (anacardium occidentale) seedling establishment under nacl salinity.seedling establishment is a critical process to crop productivity, especially under saline conditions. this work was carried out to investigate the hypothesis that reserve mobilization is coordinated with salt-induced inhibition of seedling growth due to changes in source-sink relations. to test this hypothesis, cashew nuts (anacardium occidentale) were sown in vermiculite irrigated daily with distilled water (control) or 50mm nacl and they were evaluated at discrete developmental stages from th ...200918448194
[design and validation of a questionnaire of the hospital outpatient clinics in madrid, spain, 2006].in order to improve the quality of health care it is necessary to know the point of view of the patients through satisfaction surveys. satisfaction surveys need some psychometric properties to guarantee its reliability and validity. the aim of this paper is to design and to validate a questionnaire to determine the satisfaction of patients of the hospital outpatient clinics.201518347747
control of erysiphe pisi causing powdery mildew of pea (pisum sativum) by cashewnut (anacardium occidentale) shell extract.the effect of methanolic extract of cashewnut (anacardium occidentale) shell extract was seen on conidial germination of erysiphe pisi and powdery mildew development in pea (pisum sativum). maximum conidial germination inhibition of e. pisi on glass slides was observed at 300 ppm. similar effect on floated pea leaves was observed after 48 h at the same concentration. conidial germination on intact untreated pea leaves was also assessed on ii and iv nodal leaves while iv and ii nodal leaves were ...200823997610
[oral anticoagulation excess: analysis from an emergency department].to analyze the environmental factors associated to anticoagulation excess in adult patients who come to an emergency department of a tertiary hospital. to describe the characteristics of anticoagulant therapy, their diseases and associated drugs, clinical presentation and treatment received.200818261392
cashew gum microencapsulation protects the aroma of coffee extracts.microencapsulation of materials rich in volatile compounds by spray drying presents the challenge of removing water by vapourization without loss of odour and/or flavour components. crioconcentrated coffee extracts rich in odour components were used as a substrate core to evaluate microencapsulation with cashew gum from anacardium occidentale l. in brazil, cashew gum is a low cost alternative to the traditional arabic gum. a suspension containing coffee extract and the wall material was dissolve ...200818188728
[historian gregorio marañón].the aim of this study is to offer a critical opinion of an important chapter in the bibliography of gregorio marańon, the key figure of spanish medicine in the period between the wars. the biography of the philosopher amiel, of the emperor romano tiberio and of the castilian king enrique iv are carefully studied. in the research the interpretative criteria offered by medicine and psychology have been used. his more important works rebuild the political labor of el conde-duque de olivares, "valid ...200819496529
[the endocrinology of marañón].the own d. gregorio judgeg his work, 25 years after researcher as "more extensive than deep", because in that epoch "we were in robinson crusoe's situation". his modesty could with the objectivity, because there is impressive the vision that he had on this part of the medicine, which he turned into speciality. he was the first professor of endocrinology and he founded the spanish society of endocrinology and nutrition and he was its first president. his legacy, impressive, has been the base of t ...200819496528
anacardic acids and ferric ion chelation.6-pentadeca(e)nylsalicylic acids isolated from the cashew anacardium occidentale l. (anacardiaceae), commonly known as anacardic acids, inhibited the linoleic acid peroxidation catalyzed by soybean lipoxygenase-1 (ec, type 1) competitively without prooxidant effects. their parent compound, salicylic acid, did not have this inhibitory activity up to 800 pm, indicating that the pentadeca(e)nyl group is an essential element to elicit the activity. the inhibition is attributed to its abil ...200918069245
impact of high temperatures on hospital admissions: comparative analysis with previous studies about mortality (madrid).heat wave prevention plans are traditionally implemented according to a temperature limit above which mortality begins to rise. although these prevention plans are obviously designed to avoid deaths, it is also necessary to establish the impact of extreme temperatures on hospital admissions in order to put hospital alert plans into action for dealing with people affected by heat wave victims.200818045814
preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers using anacardic acid monomers derived from cashew nut shell liquid.the objective of this work was to use monomers from cashew ( anacardium occidentale l.) nut shells to develop molecularly imprinted polymers. cashew nut shell liquid (cnsl) is a cheap and renewable agro byproduct consisting of versatile monomers. solvent-extracted cnsl contains over 80% anacardic acid (anac) with more than 90% degree of unsaturation in its c 15 side chain. from anac monomer, anacardanyl acrylate (anacr) and anacardanyl methacrylate (anmcr) monomers were synthesized and their che ...200717927136
[splenic irradiation: apropos of 8 cases. clinical indications and literature review].clinical indications of splenic irradiation in haematological disorders include the irradiation in lymphoproliferative disorders with spleen infiltration, palliative treatment of splenomegaly in malignant diseases like chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or myeloproliferative disorders, with the purpose of relief from abdominal pain associated with capsular enlargement size and decrease cytopenias secundaries to hypersplenism.this paper reports our experience with spleen irradiation in the hospital ge ...200717907888
marañón, intersexuality and the biological construction of gender in 1920s spain. 200517907364
evaluation of mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of cashew stem bark methanolic extract in vitro.plants remain to be a great source of medicines for humanity. among them is the anacardium occidentale l. species, popularly known as the cashew, which has several therapeutic indications, such as cicatrizing, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic and antitumoral properties. the objective of the present work was to assess the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of cashew stem bark methanolic extract (csbme) on cell cultures of chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (v79). the cultures were treated with differe ...200717889467
[therapeutic guidelines fulfillment in clinical practice in patients with chronic kidney disease (ckd)].the present study was designed to determine the degree of fulfillment of the therapeutic objectives recommended in the clinical guidelines in patients with chronic kidney disease (ckd) in a nephrology outpatient clinic and the treatment that the patients were receiving to control these objectives.200717725451
genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of cashew (anacardium occidentale l.) in v79 cells.the use of plants for the treatment of diseases continues to rise although there are few studies providing proof of these effects. one of these plants is the anacardium occidentale, popularly known as the cashew. the present study evaluated the possible genotoxic and protective activities of cashew stem bark methanolic extract, in vitro, using methyl methanesulfonate (mms) as a positive control, to compare possible mechanisms of dna damage induction in the comet assay. the antigenotoxicity proto ...200717706911
adsorptive separation of fructose and glucose from an agroindustrial waste of cashew industry.nearly all agroindustrial wastes have appreciable sugar content including cashew apples (anacardium occidentale, l.), which are an important sub-utilized biomass source in northeastern brazil. adsorption in fixed bed, both in batch and continuous modes, is a low-cost separation technique, which has been widely used in the concentration, separation and purification of bioproducts, such as sugars. the present work is an experimental study aimed at measuring responses in fixed bed, needed for desig ...200817600702
amino acid composition of two masticatory nuts (cola acuminata and garcinia kola) and a snack nut (anacardium occidentale).the amino acid compositions of cola acuminata, garcinia kola and anacardium occidentale were evaluated by ion-exchange chromatography. glutamic acid was the most concentrated acid in the samples. in all the amino acids determined, a. occidentale had the most concentrated acid on a pairwise basis. the total amino acids were 356.24 mg/g protein, 112.90 mg/g protein and 659.17 mg/g protein for c. acuminata, g. kola and a. occidentale, respectively. the percentage total essential amino acids were 38 ...200717566886
[allergy to cashew nuts and peanuts].anaphylaxis due to the ingestion of peanuts is a serious, common condition, known to both the general public and physicians. recently, an increasing number ofpatients with an anaphylactic reaction after eating small amounts of cashew nuts have been reported. in three children, a boy aged 7 and two girls aged 9 and 10 years, respectively, with heterogeneous case histories involving allergic upper airway and conjunctival symptoms and constitutional eczema, allergy for cashew nuts was diagnosed in ...200717508681
[neurological disorders in the narrative works of benito pérez galdós].benito pérez galdós was a realistic writer. as such, he was devoted to displaying reality in its full complexity. he shared the traits of experimental medicine of claude bernard (introduction à l'étude de la médecine expérimentale). the writer was a close friend of famous contemporary doctors (gregorio marañón, manuel tolosa latour), had textbooks with neurological content, and was familiar with charcot.200717508303
[importance of hepatology in the current spanish health environment].to find out the impact of hepatic diseases on care activity at national and autonomous region level, and in a tertiary hospital with a hepatology department.200717493433
[clinical management of terrorist bomb explosions].at 07:39 on 11 march 2004 terrorist bomb explosions ocurred in 4 trains in madrid killing 177 people instantly and 14 more later in the hospital. this report describes the organization, clinical management and patterns of injuries in casualties who were taken to our chil-patients were taken to the gregorio marañon hospital and 12 to the children's one. the mean age was 16 years (14-21), two of them were critically ill and needed intensive care (itp 5). tympanic perforations occurred in 81% victi ...200617240947
determination of the flavonoid components of cashew apple (anacardium occidentale) by lc-dad-esi/ms.liquid chromatography, with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (lc-dad-esi/ms), was used to identify and quantify flavonoids in cashew apple. one anthocyanin and thirteen glycosylated flavonols were detected in a methanol-water extract. among them, the 3-o-galactoside, 3-o-glucoside, 3-o-rhamnoside, 3-o-xylopyranoside, 3-o-arabinopyranoside and 3-o-arabinofuranoside of quercetin and myricetin, as well as kaempferol 3-o-glucoside were identified by direct comparis ...200725544795
hypertension and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease patients.this supplement of the journal of american society of nephrology contains some of the proceedings of the fifth international conference on hypertension and the kidney. the conference, held in madrid, spain, in february 2006, was organized by the department of nephrology of the hospital general, universitario gregorio marañón, under the sponsorship of the universidad complutense de madrid, spanish society of nephrology, spanish society of hypertension, and european renal association-european dial ...200617130254
[epidemiology and survival of cutaneous melanoma in spain: a report of 552 cases (1994-2003)].studies on epidemiology and survival of patients diagnosed of cutaneous melanoma in our country are few. we described epidemiological, clinical, histopathologic and survival characteristics of patients diagnosed of cutaneous melanoma at hospital gregorio marañón of madrid during ten years (1994-2003). the incidence of melanoma has doubled in the last decade. an important proportion of melanomas continues to be diagnosed in advanced stages (iii-iv; 14.5%). the following factors were associated wi ...200616831378
[prognosis for cutaneous melanoma according to surgical department: comparative study at a tertiary care hospital].surgical treatment of melanoma is performed by dermatologists and general or plastic surgeons. it is not known whether the type of specialist treating the melanoma results in a different prognosis for these patients.200616801017
[psychiatric patients in the pediatric emergency department of a tertiary care center: review of a 6-month period].in the last few years, a marked increase in the number of psychiatric emergencies treated at pediatric emergency departments has been observed. the aim of the present study was to characterize these patients.200616792961
alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of some malaysian plants used to treat diabetes; with particular reference to phyllanthus amarus.extracts of six selected malaysian plants with a reputation of usefulness in treating diabetes were examined for alpha-amylase inhibition using an in vitro model. inhibitory activity studied by two different protocols (with and without pre-incubation) showed that phyllanthus amarus hexane extract had alpha-amylase inhibitory properties. hexane and dichloromethane extracts of anacardium occidentale, lagerstroemia speciosa, averrhoa bilimbipithecellobium jiringa and parkia speciosa were not active ...200616678367
[validity of digital rectal examination in the era of prostate specific antigen].to determine the presence of a possible correlation between prostate specific antigen (psa) and the findings from digital rectal examination (dre) in patients with prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia.200616545295
[brain abscess in children].brain abscess is a rare infection in infants. morbidity and mortality are high but have decreased due to advances in neuroimaging studies and the use of new antibiotics. we describe six cases of brain abscess diagnosed at the gregorio marañón children's hospital between january 1996 and september 2003.200516219280
the allometry of leaf form in early plant ontogeny.a general allometric model between metabolic rate and body size has been derived for early plant ontogeny. the scaling exponent is (2+n/6)/3, where n is the cell's degree of freedom of motion. for early plant ontogeny n=2, our prediction agrees well with sack et al.'s observation [sack, l., maranon, t., grubb, p.j., 2002. science 295, 1923].200516154626
characterization of alkyl phenols in cashew (anacardium occidentale) products and assay of their antioxidant this study the content of anacardic acids, cardanols and cardols in cashew apple, nut (raw and roasted) and cashew nut shell liquid (cnsl) were analysed. the higher amounts (353.6 g/kg) of the major alkyl phenols, anacardic acids were detected in cnsl followed by cashew fibre 6.1 g/kg) while the lowest (0.65 g/kg) amounts were detected in roasted cashew nut. cashew apple and fibre contained anacardic acids exclusively, whereas cnsl also contained an abundance of cardanols and cardols. cashew ...200616095792
illicit crops and armed conflict as constraints on biodiversity conservation in the andes region.coca, once grown for local consumption in the andes, is now produced for external markets, often in areas with armed conflict. internationally financed eradication campaigns force traffickers and growers to constantly relocate, making drug-related activities a principal cause of forest loss. the impact on biodiversity is known only in general terms, and this article presents the first regional analysis to identify areas of special concern, using bird data as proxy. the aim of conserving all spec ...200516042278
[management's problems in the extremely low birth weight assistance].due to the advances of the perinatology, the hope of premature life of the big premature has been increased considerably in these last years. but for new factors that impact in their prevalence, this has increased, and mainly those that are born weighing less than 1.000 gr. in this work we present the results obtained in the service of obstetrics of the university general hospital gregorio marañón. the prevalence has oscilated between 6 and 19/1000 of the attended childbirths that add 34.364 bet ...200415997593
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