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listeria monocytogenes infection in inflammatory bowel disease patients: case series and review of the literature.listeria monocytogenes (lm) is a gram-positive intracellular bacillus that in immunodeficient patients, children, geriatric patients, pregnant women, and even in healthy individuals can cause central nervous system infection, bacteremia, and other clinical manifestations, becoming a relevant pathogen.201425171025
differentiation of meloidogyne incognita and m. arenaria novel resistance phenotypes in lycopersicon peruvianum and derived bridge-lines.lycopersicon peruvianum pi 270435 clone 2r2 and pi 126443 clone 1mh were crossed reciprocally with three l. esculentum-l. peruvianum bridge-lines. the incongruity barrier between the two plant species was overcome; f1 progeny were obtained from crosses between four parental combinations without embryo-rescue culture. hybridity was confirmed by leaf and flower morphology and by the production of nematode-resistant f1 progeny on homozygous susceptible parents. clones of the five f1 bridgeline hybr ...199624162431
evidence of rabies virus exposure among humans in the peruvian amazon.in may of 2010, two communities (truenococha and santa marta) reported to be at risk of vampire bat depredation were surveyed in the province datem del marañón in the loreto department of perú. risk factors for bat exposure included age less than or equal to 25 years and owning animals that had been bitten by bats. rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rvnas) were detected in 11% (7 of 63) of human sera tested. rabies virus ribonucleoprotein (rnp) immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies were detected ...201222855749
effects of poly-bioactive compounds on lipid profile and body weight in a moderately hypercholesterolemic population with low cardiovascular disease risk: a multicenter randomized trial.a dietary supplement (ap, armolipid plus) that combines red yeast rice extract, policosanol, berberine, folic acid, coenzyme q10 and asthaxantine can have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (cvd) biomarkers. the aim of this study was to assess whether the intake of ap, in combination with dietary recommendations, reduces serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (ldl-c) concentrations and other cvd biomarkers in patients with hypercholesterolemia. eligible patients were recruited from ...201425084280
schistosomicidal activity of alkyl-phenols from the cashew anacardium occidentale against schistosoma mansoni adult worms.bioassay-guided study of the ethanol extract from the cashew anacardium occidentale furnished cardol triene (1), cardol diene (2), anacardic acid triene (3), cardol monoene (4), anacardic acid diene (5), 2-methylcardol triene (6), and 2-methylcardol diene (7). 1d- and 2d-nmr experiments and hrms analysis confirmed the structures of compounds 1-7. compounds 2 and 7 were active against schistosoma mansoni adult worms in vitro, with lc50 values of 32.2 and 14.5 μm and selectivity indices of 6.1 and ...201627934289
protective effects of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid against cardol-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species generation in staphylococcus aureus.cardol (c₁₅:₃), isolated from cashew (anacardium occidentale l.) nut shell liquid, has been shown to exhibit bactericidal activity against various strains of staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains. the maximum level of reactive oxygen species generation was detected at around the minimum bactericidal concentration of cardol, while reactive oxygen species production drastically decreased at doses above the minimum bactericidal concentration. the primary response for bacter ...201323670625
plant species used in dental diseases: ethnopharmacology aspects and antimicrobial activity evaluation.ethnopharmacological surveys show that several plant species are used empirically by the population, in oral diseases. however, it is necessary to check the properties of these plant species.201425046828
computational studies on sirtuins from trypanosoma cruzi: structures, conformations and interactions with phytochemicals.the silent-information regulator 2 proteins, otherwise called sirtuins, are currently considered as emerging anti-parasitic targets. nicotinamide, a pan-sirtuin inhibitor, is known to cause kinetoplast alterations and the arrested growth of t. cruzi, the protozoan responsible for chagas disease. these observations suggested that sirtuins from this parasite (tcsir2rp1 and tcsir2rp3) could play an important role in the regulation of the parasitic cell cycle. thus, their inhibition could be exploit ...201424551254
new focus of active transmission of chagas disease in indigenous populations in the peruvian amazon basin.several cases of acute chagas disease (acd) have been reported in the peruvian amazon basin.201323856870
first report of lecanodiaspis dendrobii douglas, 1892 (hemiptera: lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid cephaleta sp. (hymenoptera: pteromalidae) in brazil.lecanodiaspis dendrobii douglas, 1892 (hemiptera: coccoidea: lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid cephaleta sp. (hymenoptera: pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in brazil. specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of acacia mangium willd., leucaena leucocephala (lam.) de wit (fabaceae), morus nigra l. (moraceae), citrus reticulata blanco (rutaceae), tectona grandis l. f. (verbenaceae), anacardium occidentale (anacardiaceae), annona squamosa l. and ...201626871743
characterization and bioassay for larvicidal activity of anacardium occidentale (cashew) shell waste fractions against dengue vector aedes aegypti.recent studies regarding the harmful effects of synthetic larvicides initiated the need to investigate for unconventional measures that are environmentally safe and target-specific against aedes aegypti larvae. thus, the main objectives of the study are to evaluate the larvicidal toxicity of the solvent fractions of anacardium occidentale shell wastes against the third and fourth instar larvae of a. aegypti and to compare the results with the commercial larvicide product. the shell wastes were e ...201526099240
the mosquitocidal activity of methanolic extracts of lantana cramera root and anacardium occidentale leaf: role of glutathione s-transferase in insecticide resistance.larvicidal activity of methanolic plant extracts of lantana cramera (p1) root and anacardium occidentale (p2) leaf was investigated against the larvae of the three mosquito species (culex quinquefasciatus, anopheles stephensi, and aedes aegypti reared in the laboratory), and the respective glutathione s-transferase (gst) activity was analyzed as an index of protection against the extracts. the lc50 (extract concentration that shows 50% mortality) values of p1 extract for an. stephensi, ae. aegyp ...201121485364
mass attenuation coefficients of x-rays in different medicinal plants.the mass attenuation coefficients of specific parts of several plants, (fruits, leaves, stem and seeds) often used as medicines in the indian herbal system, have been measured employing nai (ti)) detector. the electronic setup used is a nai (ti) detector, which is coupled to mca for analysis of the spectrum. a source of (241)am is used to get x-rays in the energy range 8-32kev from cu, rb, mo, ag and ba targets. in the present study, the measured mass attenuation coefficient of ocimum sanctum, c ...201019910203
[effect of several extracts derived from plants on the survival of larvae of aedes fluviatilis (lutz) (diptera: culicidae) in the laboratory].the larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against aedes fluviatilis (lutz) (diptera: culicidae) larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26.6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (alpha = 0.05) at 100 ppm (anacardium occidentale, agave americana, allium sativum, coriandrum sativum, nerium oleander, spatodea campanulata, tibouchina scrobiculata and vernonia salzmanni). anacardic acid (a. occidentale) was effective at 10 ppm and a. sativum (crude extract) at 1 ppm.20063249563
alpha-amylase inhibition and antioxidative capacity of some antidiabetic plants used by the traditional healers in southeastern nigeria.oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (dm). the inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. the present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of dm by the traditional healers in isiala mbano and ikwuano regions of southeastern nigeria. antiox ...201728367491
oecophylla longinoda (hymenoptera: formicidae) lead to increased cashew kernel size and kernel quality.weaver ants, oecophylla spp., are known to positively affect cashew, anacardium occidentale l., raw nut yield, but their effects on the kernels have not been reported. we compared nut size and the proportion of marketable kernels between raw nuts collected from trees with and without ants. raw nuts collected from trees with weaver ants were 2.9% larger than nuts from control trees (i.e., without weaver ants), leading to 14% higher proportion of marketable kernels. on trees with ants, the kernel: ...201728334289
evaluation of administered dose using portal images in craniospinal irradiation of pediatric patients.this study aimed to assess the administered dose based on portal imaging in craniospinal pediatric irradiation by evaluating cases in which portal images did or did not account for the total administered dose. we also intended to calculate the mean increase in total administered dose. data were collected from general university hospital gregorio marañón; we evaluated the total dose administered, total dose planned, number of portal images per treatment and corresponding monitor units of two diff ...201728324390
anacardic acid constituents from cashew nut shell liquid: nmr characterization and the effect of unsaturation on its biological activities.anacardic acids are the main constituents of natural cashew nut shell liquid (cnsl), obtained via the extraction of cashew shells with hexane at room temperature. this raw material presents high technological potential due to its various biological properties. the main components of cnsl are the anacardic acids, salicylic acid derivatives presenting a side chain of fifteen carbon atoms with different degrees of unsaturation (monoene-15:1, diene-15:2, and triene-15:3). each constituent was isolat ...201728300791
identification of compounds with cytotoxic activity from the leaf of the nigerian medicinal plant, anacardium occidentale l. (anacardiaceae).cancer is now the second-leading cause of mortality and morbidity, behind only heart disease, necessitating urgent development of (chemo)therapeutic interventions to stem the growing burden of cancer cases and cancer death. plants represent a credible source of promising drug leads in this regard, with a long history of proven use in the indigenous treatment of cancer. this study therefore investigated anacardium occidentale, one of the plants in a nigerian traditional medicine formulation commo ...201728291684
uplc-qtof-ms/ms-based phenolic profile and their biosynthetic enzyme activity used to discriminate between cashew apple (anacardium occidentale l.) maturation stages.cashew immature and ripe peduncles (anacardium occidentale l.) from orange- and red-colored clones ccp 76 and brs 189, respectively, were prepared as juice or fibrous fraction and submitted to uplc-ms analyses, while the soluble fraction was also submitted to enzymatic evaluation. cinnamoyl glucoside was present in ripe juice samples from both cashew clones, while monogalloyl diglucoside and digalloyl glucoside were present in immature juice samples from both cashew clones. four compounds were f ...201728285020
preventing facial pressure ulcers in patients under non-invasive mechanical ventilation: a randomised control trial.to comparatively assess the efficacy of four different therapeutic strategies to prevent the development of facial pressure ulcers (fpus) related to the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (niv) with oro-nasal masks in critically ill hospitalised patients.201728277990
threats to intact tropical peatlands and opportunities for their conservation.large, intact areas of tropical peatland are highly threatened at a global scale by the expansion of commercial agriculture and other forms of economic development. conserving peatlands on a landscape scale, with their hydrology intact, is of international conservation importance to preserve their distinctive biodiversity and ecosystem services, and maintain their resilience to future environmental change. here, we explore the threats and opportunities for conserving remaining intact tropical pe ...201728272753
[deep versus moderate neuromuscular block during one-lung ventilation in lung resection surgery].neuromuscular relaxants are essential during general anesthesia for several procedures. classical anesthesiology literature indicates that the use of neuromuscular blockade in thoracic surgery may be deleterious in patients in lateral decubitus position in one-lung ventilation. the primary objective of our study was to compare respiratory function according to the degree of patient neuromuscular relaxation. secondary, we wanted to check that neuromuscular blockade during one-lung ventilation is ...201728256331
a revision of the cis-andean species of the genus <i>brycon</i> müller &amp; troschel (characiformes: characidae).a revision of the cis-andean species of brycon, with the exception of the brycon pesu species-complex, is presented. twenty-one brycon species (including b. pesu) are recognized from cis-andean river systems: brycon stolzmanni steindachner, from the upper río marañon basin, peru; brycon coxeyi fowler, from the río marañon basin, ecuador and peru; brycon polylepis moscó morales, from the lago de maracaibo, río orinoco, upper rio amazonas, and rio tocantins basins, venezuela, colombia, peru, and b ...201728187640
isolation with asymmetric gene flow during the nonsynchronous divergence of dry forest birds.dry forest bird communities in south america are often fragmented by intervening mountains and rainforests, generating high local endemism. the historical assembly of dry forest communities likely results from dynamic processes linked to numerous population histories among codistributed species. nevertheless, species may diversify in the same way through time if landscape and environmental features, or species ecologies, similarly structure populations. here we tested whether six co-distributed ...201728100029
a large and unusually colored new snake species of the genus tantilla (squamata; colubridae) from the peruvian andes.a new colubrid species of the genus tantilla from the dry forest of the northern peruvian andes is described on the basis of two specimens, which exhibit a conspicuous sexual dimorphism. tantilla tjiasmantoi sp. nov. represents the third species of the genus in peru. the new species is easily distinguished from its congeners by the combination of scalation characteristics and the unusual transversely-banded color pattern on the dorsum. a detailed description of the skull morphology of the new sp ...201627994975
thermochemical properties of hydrophilic polymers from cashew and khaya exudates and their implications on drug delivery.characterization of a polymer is essential for determining its suitability for a particular purpose. thermochemical properties of cashew gum (csg) extracted from exudates of anacardium occidentale l. and khaya gum (kyg) extracted from exudates of khaya senegalensis were determined and compared with those of acacia gum bp (acg). the polymers were subjected to different thermal and chemical analyses. exudates of csg contained higher amount of hydrophilic polymer. the ph of 2% w/v gum dispersions w ...201627990303
a new species of iguanid lizard, genus <i>stenocercus</i> (squamata, iguania), from the central andes in peru.we describe a new species of stenocercus from the montane forest of the right margin of the marañón river in the northern portion of the central andes in northern peru (amazonas and la libertad departments), at elevations ranging from 2300 to 3035 m. stenocercus omari sp. nov. differs from other stenocercus species, with the exception of s. amydrorhytus, s. chrysopygus, s. cupreus, s. johaberfellneri, s. latebrosus, s. melanopygus, s. modestus, s. ornatissimus, s. orientalis, and s. stigmosus, b ...201627988595
methotrexate-treated ectopic pregnancy: beta human chorionic gonadotropin serum changes as a success predictor using a mathematical model validation.surgical rescue of methotrexate-treated ectopic pregnancy is necessary when tubal rupture or medical therapy failure is detected during post-therapeutic monitoring. it is known that an increased beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hcg) concentration is the most important factor associated with treatment failure. therefore, we suggested that relative changes in serum β-hcg could predict a successful result of medical treatment, leading to facilitation of the decision to forgo the prospect of pos ...201627936449
charcoal anatomy of brazilian species. i. anacardiaceae.anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. the theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. this work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven anacardiaceae species fr ...201627901191
combined therapy using low level laser and chitosan-policaju hydrogel for wound healing.we have evaluated the effect of poli-chi hydrogel based on policaju (poli) from cashew tree (anacardium occidentale l.) gum and chitosan (chi), associated or not with low level laser therapy (lllt), in wound healing. sixty male wistar rats were assigned into four groups: poli-chi hydrogel (h); lllt (l); poli-chi with lllt (hl) and saline control (c). macroscopic evaluations were carried out using clinical observations and area measurements, as well as microscopic analysis by histological criteri ...201727851931
clinical effect of a mouthwash containing anacardium occidentale linn. on plaque and gingivitis control: a randomized controlled trial.plaque-associated gingivitis is a prevalent disease and research in its treatment using herbal agents must be encouraged to verify which would be a useful addition to the current range or chemotherapeutic treatment options.201627723631
applying n-dimensional hypervolumes for species delimitation: unexpected molecular, morphological, and ecological diversity in the leaf-toed gecko phyllodactylus reissii peters, 1862 (squamata: phyllodactylidae) from northern peru.an integrative taxonomic approach based on morphology, molecular analyses, and climatic niche modeling was used to uncover cryptic diversity in the phyllodactylid gecko species phyllodactylus reissii. at least three distinct species could be identified among the examined specimens from southern ecuador and northern peru. phyllodactylus magister, described by noble (1924) from arid andean valleys of the chinchipe and marañón rivers in the peruvian department of cajamarca and synonymized with p. r ...201627615910
cashew nut allergy: clinical relevance and allergen characterisation.cashew plant (anacardium occidentale l.) is the most relevant species of the anacardium genus. it presents high economic value since it is widely used in human nutrition and in several industrial applications. cashew nut is a well-appreciated food (belongs to the tree nut group), being widely consumed as snacks and in processed foods by the majority of world's population. however, cashew nut is also classified as a potent allergenic food known to be responsible for triggering severe and systemic ...201627585580
assessment of phenolic compounds and anti-inflammatory activity of ethyl acetate phase of anacardium occidentale l. bark.the bark of a. occidentale l. is rich in tannins. studies have described various biological activities of the plant, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory actions. the objective of this study was to assess the activity of the ethyl acetate phase (etoac) of a. occidentale on acute inflammation and to identify and quantify its phenolic compounds by hplc. the method was validated and shown to be linear, precise and accurate for catechin, epicatechin, epigallocat ...201627548136
multiobserver reliability of ultrasound assessment of salivary glands in patients with established primary sjögren syndrome.to evaluate the multiobserver reliability of salivary gland ultrasonography (sgus) for scoring greyscale (gs) parenchymal inhomogeneity and parenchymal color doppler (cd) signal in patients with established primary sjögren syndrome (pss).201627528574
reductive-degradation of carcinogenic azo dyes using anacardium occidentale testa derived silver nanoparticles.in the present work, reductive-degradation of azo dyes such as congo red (cr) and methyl orange (mo) was manifested using anacardium occidentale testa derived silver nanoparticles (agnps) as a catalyst. the formation of highly stable agnps were visually confirmed by the appearance of yellow color and further substantiated by the existence of surface plasmon resonance (spr) peak around 425nm. the effect of a. occidentale concentration, reaction time and ph in the formations of agnps was corrobora ...201627479841
matrix effect on the spray drying nanoencapsulation of lippia sidoides essential oil in chitosan-native gum blends.essential oils have many applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and food fields, however, their use is limited to the fact that they are very labile, requiring their a priori encapsulation, aiming to preserve their properties.this work reports on the preparation of chitosan-gum nanoparticles loaded with thymol containing lippia sidoides essential oil, using exudates of anacardium occidentale (cashew gum), sterculia striata (chichá gum), and anadenanthera macrocarpa trees (angico gum). nan ...201727224269
scope and frequency of fluconazole trailing assessed using eucast in invasive candida spp. isolates.trailing is a well-known phenomenon that is defined as reduced but persistent visible growth of candida spp. at fluconazole concentrations above the mic. trailing is commonly detected using the clsi m27-a3 method, although little is known about its frequency when investigated with eucast. we assessed the frequency and scope of fluconazole trailing after using eucast edef 7.2. against a large number of candida spp. isolates from patients with candidemia. we studied 639 fluconazole-susceptible non ...201627161788
prevalence of hyponatraemia in patients over the age of 65 who have an in-hospital fall.hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte disorder. some studies have found that it increases morbidity and mortality. there are new lines of research that are investigating the link between hyponatraemia and patient falls.201727161308
impact of an influenza vaccine educational programme on healthcare personnel.influenza vaccination has been shown to be the most effective preventive strategy to reduce influenza-related morbidity and mortality in high-risk groups. despite healthcare personnel (hcp) being considered part of such high-risk groups, their vaccination coverage is low in europe. in january 2012, we distributed an 18-question survey regarding influenza vaccination to hcp at gregorio marañon paediatric hospital, in madrid, spain. after we documented that only ~30% of hcp were vaccinated an educ ...201627053135
nutritional composition of raw fresh cashew (anacardium occidentale l.) kernels from different origin.the total dietary fiber, sugar, protein, lipid profile, sodium, and energy contents of 11 raw cashew kernel (anacardium occidentale l.) samples from india, brazil, ivory coast, kenya, mozambique, and vietnam were determined. total fat was the major component accounting for 48.3% of the total weight, of which 79.7% were unsaturated fa (fatty acids), 20.1% saturated fa, and 0.2% trans fa. proteins, with 21.3 g/100 g, were ranked second followed by carbohydrates (20.5 g/100 g). the average sodium c ...201627004123
preeclampsia: long-term effects on pediatric disability.preeclampsia affects up to 10% of pregnancies worldwide and is one of the main causes of fetal morbidity and mortality. although it has been linked to developmental delay, its long-term effects on neurologic development in children have yet to be sufficiently quantified.201627002269
medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in central america: a review.globally 387 million people currently have diabetes and it is projected that this condition will be the 7th leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. as of 2012, its total prevalence in central america (8.5%) was greater than the prevalence in most latin american countries and the population of this region widely use herbal medicine. the aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used to treat diabetes and its sequelae in seven central american countries: belize, costa rica, el salvador ...201626924564
combinatorial treatment with anacardic acid followed by trail augments induction of apoptosis in trail resistant cancer cells by the regulation of p53, mapk and nfκβ pathways.trail, an apoptosis inducing cytokine currently in phase ii clinical trial, was investigated for its capability to induce apoptosis in six different human tumor cell lines out of which three cell lines showed resistance to trail induced apoptosis. to investigate whether anacardic acid (a1) an active component of anacardium occidentale can sensitize the resistant cell lines to trail induced apoptosis, we treated the resistant cells with suboptimal concentration of a1 and showed that it is a poten ...201626921178
demographic differences between funerary caves and megalithic graves of northern spanish late neolithic/early chalcolithic.the study focuses on the estimation of demographic parameters of late neolithic/early chalcolithic (mid 4th-early 3rd millenniums cal. bc) burial sites from the la rioja region (ebro valley, northern spain) to identify demographic characteristics.201626888123
carotenoids, carotenoid esters, and anthocyanins of yellow-, orange-, and red-peeled cashew apples (anacardium occidentale l.).pigment profiles of yellow-, orange-, and red-peeled cashew (anacardium occidentale l.) apples were investigated. among 15 identified carotenoids and carotenoid esters, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin palmitate were the most abundant in peels and pulp of all samples. total carotenoid concentrations in the pulp of yellow- and red-peeled cashew apples were low (0.69-0.73 mg/100g fw) compared to that of orange-peeled samples (2.2mg/100g fw). the color difference between the equally carotenoid-rich ...201626830589
purification and characterization of anacardium occidentale (cashew) allergens ana o 1, ana o 2, and ana o 3.in this study a fast and simple purification procedure for the three known allergens from cashew (7s globulin ana o 1, 11s globulin ana o 2, and 2s albumin ana o 3) is described. the purified allergens are characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page), western blot, glycoprotein stain, and protein identification. the purified proteins still bind ige, and this ige binding varied between different pools of patient serum. ana o 1 was found to be a glycoprotei ...201626769082
juvenile, adult and late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a long term follow-up study from a geographic and ethnically homogeneous population.this paper aims to identify clinical and serological differences, damage accrual and mortality, in juvenile, adult and late-onset sle.201726575830
amazon river dissolved load: temporal dynamics and annual budget from the andes to the ocean.the aim of the present study is to estimate the export fluxes of major dissolved species at the scale of the amazon basin, to identify the main parameters controlling their spatial distribution and to identify the role of discharge variability in the variability of the total dissolved solid (tds) flux through the hydrological cycle. data are compiled from the monthly hydrochemistry and daily discharge database of the "programa climatologico y hidrologico de la cuenca amazonica de bolivia" (phica ...201626490914
studies on the ultrastructure in anacardium occidentale l. leaves from amazon in northern brazil by scanning microscopy.leaves surfaces have various structures with specific functions and contribute to the relationship with the environment. on morphological studies are analyzed various parameters, ranging from macro scale through the micro scale to the nanometer scale, which contribute to the study of taxonomy, pharmacognosy, and ecology, among others. functional structures found in leaves are responsible for the wide variety of surfaces and some behaviors are given in terms of cellular adaptation and the presenc ...201626422599
we need to "ikarar the kutipados": intercultural understanding and health care in the peruvian amazon.the scope of this qualitative research was to describe and analyze how the kukamas kukamirias indigenous population from the peruvian amazon perceives and evaluates the healthcare offered by health workers at the local san regis health post. an ethnographic-based study was conducted among the san regis community on the marañon river in the loreto district of peru, including interviews and participative observations with female and male patients as well as with traditional healers and professiona ...201526331515
clastogenic and toxicological assessment of cashew (anacardium occidentale) nut bark extracts in wistar rats.occupational exposures to environmental toxicants have been associated with the onset of skin lesions-including cancers. identification and reduction of exposure to such compounds is an important public health goal. we examined the effect of cashew shell oil (cso), used in skin tattooing for its potential to induce skin transformation in rats. corn oil and cso (25, 50, and 100%) were topically applied to depilated sections of wistar' rat skin (groups: i-iv) for six weeks. effect of treatments on ...201526328276
antidiarrheal activity of cashew gum, a complex heteropolysaccharide extracted from exudate of anacardium occidentale l. in rodents.anacardium occidentale l. (anacardiaceae) is commonly known as the cashew tree. it is native to tropical america and extracts of the leaves, bark, roots, chestnut net and exudate have been traditionally used in northeast brazil for the treatment of various diseases. the exudate of the cashew tree (cashew gum) has been exploited by locals since ancient times for multiple applications, including the treatment of diarrheal diseases.201526297843
an ambient intelligence framework for end-user service provisioning in a hospital pharmacy: a case study.end-user development is a new trend to provide tailored services to dynamic environments such as hospitals. these services not only facilitate daily work for pharmacy personnel but also improve self-care in elder people that are still related to hospital, such as discharged patients. this paper presents an ambient intelligence (ami) environment for end-user service provisioning in the pharmacy department of gregorio marañón hospital in madrid, composed of a drug traceability infrastructure (dp-t ...201526286317
three new endemic species of epictia gray, 1845 (serpentes: leptotyphlopidae) from the dry forest of northwestern peru.three new blind snake species of the genus epictia are described based on material collected in the peruvian regions amazonas, cajamarca and la libertad. all three species are well differentiated from all congeners based on characteristics of their morphology and coloration. they share 10 scale rows around the middle of the tail and possess two supralabials with the anterior one in broad contact with the supraocular. epictia septemlineata sp. nov. has 16 subcaudal scales, 257 mid-dorsal scale ro ...201526249433
acute renal failure induced by chinese herbal medication in nigeria.traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. these herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30-35% of all cases of acute renal failure in africa. most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some ...201526199625
tracking cashew economically important diseases in the west african region using metagenomics.during the last decades, agricultural land-uses in west africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. nowadays, cashew (anacardium occidentale l.) is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in guinea-bissau. relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems toward commercial production. emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptat ...201526175748
thermal properties of tannin extracted from anacardium occidentale l. using tga and ft-ir spectroscopy.the chemical nature of the polyphenols of cashew kernel testa has been determined. testa contains tannins, which present large molecular complexity and has an ancient use as tanning agents. the use of tannins extracted from cashew testa, considered in many places as a waste, grants an extra value to the cashew. in this work we have analysed through high performance liquid chromatography, infrared spectroscopy (ft-ir) and thermo gravimetric analysis the average molecular weight, main functional g ...201626119693
ethnopharmacological study of plants sold for therapeutic purposes in public markets in northeast brazil.studies of ethnobiological nature favor the rescue of popular culture, preventing important cultural and biological information from being lost over time. another interesting point is that it can support bioprospecting studies focusing on the discovery of new drugs.201526099635
effect of dynamic high pressure on technological properties of cashew tree gum (anacardium occidentale l.).dynamic high pressure (dhp) appears to be an alternative approach to physical modification of polysaccharides aimed improving their technological properties. therefore, its effect on the functional properties of polysaccharides (i.e., oil absorption capacity, emulsifier, and rheology) needs to be investigated. cashew tree gum (cg) is a biological macromolecule that has been proposed to be used as an emulsifier in beverage emulsions. to the best of our knowledge, none of the articles in the liter ...201526050904
modeling occupancy of hosts by mistletoe seeds after accounting for imperfect detectability.the detection of an organism in a given site is widely used as a state variable in many metapopulation and epidemiological studies. however, failure to detect the species does not necessarily mean that it is absent. assessing detectability is important for occupancy (presence-absence) surveys; and identifying the factors reducing detectability may help improve survey precision and efficiency. a method was used to estimate the occupancy status of host trees colonized by mistletoe seeds of psittac ...201525973754
[complications associated to central venous catheters in hematology patients].to discover the incidence of central venous catheters (tunnelled, subcutaneous and picc) in patients with onco-hematological conditions, hospitalized in the hematology or transplantations of hematopoietic stem cells units, in two tertiary care hospitals.201525959637
gastroprotective properties of cashew gum, a complex heteropolysaccharide of anacardium occidentale, in naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage in rats.long-term use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug is associated with gastrointestinal (gi) lesion formation. the aim of this study was to investigate the protective activity of cashew gum (cg), a complex heteropolysaccharide extracted from anacardium occidentale on naproxen (nap)-induced gi damage. male wistar rats were pretreated with vehicle or cg (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) twice daily for 2 days; after 1 h, nap (80 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered. the rats were euthanized on the 2nd day of ...201525959135
hb cervantes, hb marañón, hb la mancha and hb goya: description of 4 new haemoglobinopathies.α-thalassemias are caused by a deficiency in or absence of synthesis of the α-chain of haemoglobin (hb). in contrast, structural haemoglobinopathies are due to mutations that change the amino acid sequence of the protein chain. we report 4 newly identified α-chain hb variants. two variants were hyper-unstable, whereas the other 2 were structural variants with an altered electrophoretic mobility.201525943047
synthesis and characterization of 4-aryl-4h-chromenes from h-cardanol.we have synthesized and characterized a variety of fat-soluble, low-melting and medicinally useful 4-aryl-4h-chromenes from h-cardanol (side-chain perhydrogenated cardanol, 3-pentadecylphenol), a renewable and low-cost product from locally grown cashew nut trees (anacardium occidentale l.). we incorporated h-cardanol into the aromatic rings of either 4h-chromene or phenol, or both. substitution of c4sme in n-methyl-4-(methylthio)-3-nitro-4h-chromene-2-amines with h-cardanol was regio-specific at ...201425918806
the thy-box for sonographic assessment of the fetal thymus: nomogram and review of the literature.to assess the feasibility and reproducibility of fetal thy-box visualization and to set normative data for the fetal thymus using this technique.201525911720
effect of the native polysaccharide of cashew-nut tree gum exudate on murine peritoneal macrophage modulatory activities.the native polysaccharide of cashew-nut tree gum exudate (cntg) and its arabinogalactan-protein component (cntg-agp) were tested by using immuno-stimulant and anti-inflammatory in vitro assays of murine peritoneal macrophage activities. in the assay for immuno-stimulant activity (without previous treatment with lipopolysaccharide; lps), cntg increased the production of interleukin (il)-10 and both cntg and cntg-agp decreased the concentrations of il6. when the macrophages were incubated in the p ...201525857980
anti-inflammatory and wound healing potential of cashew apple juice (anacardium occidentale l.) in mice.cashew apple is a tropical pseudofruit consumed as juice due to its excellent nutritional and sensory properties. in spite of being well known for its important antioxidant properties, the cashew apple has not been thoroughly investigated for its therapeutic potential. thereby, this study evaluated the antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing activities of cashew apple juice. juices from ripe and immature cashew apples were analyzed for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound ...201525819683
anti-metastatic action of anacardic acid targets vegf-induced signalling pathways in epithelial to mesenchymal transition.anacardic acid is a major constituent of nutshell of cashew. in this study, we have isolated it from the leaves of anacardium occidentale l. using polarity-based fractionation and confirmed the structure using gc-ms, nmr and ft-ir. the main focus of this study is to harness the molecular mechanism of anti-metastatic action of anacardic acid (a1). we have used mcf-7, a weak metastatic and u-87, a highly metastatic, breast and glioma cell lines respectively, for our study. we have shown that vegf ...201525788052
the tempo of trait divergence in geographic isolation: avian speciation across the marañon valley of peru.geographic isolation is considered essential to most speciation events, but our understanding of what controls the pace and degree of phenotypic divergence among allopatric populations remains poor. why do some taxa exhibit phenotypic differentiation across barriers to dispersal, whereas others do not? to test factors controlling phenotypic divergence in allopatry, we employed a comparative phylogeographic approach consisting of replicates of ecologically similar andean bird species isolated acr ...201525611790
comparative effects of some medicinal plants: anacardium occidentale, eucalyptus globulus, psidium guajava, and xylopia aethiopica extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic male wistar albino rats.insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. this research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male wistar rats using named plants that are best a ...201425525518
nutrients value and antioxidant content of indigenous vegetables from southern thailand.evidence from epidemiological studies has strongly suggested that diets rich in fruits and vegetables play a vital role in disease prevention. the aim of this study was to determine nutrient and antioxidant content for 15 varieties of indigenous vegetables and fruits collected from southern thailand. the data indicated that indigenous vegetables provided small to moderate amounts of macronutrients and minerals. the highest content of β-carotene was found in indian lettuce (lactuca indica; 3575.5 ...201525466097
insect fauna associated with anacardium occidentale (sapindales: anacardiaceae) in benin, west africa.cashew, anacardium occidentale l. (sapindales: anacardiaceae), is an important cash crop in benin. however, its production is threatened by several biotic factors, especially insects. in benin, very few studies have focused on insects and just listed species commonly found on cashew worldwide. the present investigation fills this gap by presenting an exhaustive inventory of insect species associated with this crop in the country. the survey was carried out from september 2009 to august 2010 in 2 ...201425434033
weaver ant role in cashew orchards in vietnam.cashew (anacardium occidentale l.) is a very important source of income for more than 200,000 farmer households in vietnam. the present cashew productivity in vietnam is low and unstable, and pest damage is partly responsible for this. cashew farmers rely on pesticides to minimize the damage, resulting in adverse impacts on farm environment and farmers' health. weaver ants (oecophylla spp) are effective biocontrol agents of a range of cashew insect pests in several cashew-growing countries, and ...201425195419
plant food resources exploited by blue-and-yellow macaws (ara ararauna, linnaeus 1758) at an urban area in central brazil.in this study, we described the food plants available to blue-and-yellow macaws (ara ararauna), its feeding habits and the relationship between these parameters with feeding niche breadth. we established four transects, each one 12 km long, to sample fruiting plants and the feeding habits of this macaw (monthly 40 h, of observations), at the urban areas of três lagoas (mato grosso do sul, brazil). during all studied months, macaws foraged for palm fruits, mainly syagrus oleracea and acrocomia ac ...201425166327
[validation of genetic polymorphisms associated to the toxicity of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients].to validate the associations previously found in three cohorts of patients from the general university hospital gregorio marañón, between the polymorphisms rs1128503, rs2032582 and rs1045642 of the abcb1 gene and the hand-foot syndrome and diarrhea in colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy regimes containing capecitabine and 5-fluorouracil, respectively, and between the polymorphisms rs2297595 of the dpyd gene and nausea/vomiting, rs11615 of ercc1 and neutropenia, and rs28399433 cy ...201425137161
abdominal blast injuries: different patterns, severity, management, and prognosis according to the main mechanism of injury.to review the frequency, different patterns, anatomic severity, management, and prognosis of abdominal injuries in survivors of explosions, according to the main mechanism of injury.201426816240
intraoperative radiation therapy, opportunities for clinical practice normalization: medting, a scientific platform.to use a platform to analyze a subgroup specialized in evaluation of patients candidates to ioert.201425061518
antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and phenolic content in peel from three tropical fruits from yucatan, mexico.the aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and content of individual phenolic compounds of freeze-dried peel from three tropical fruits grown in yucatan, méxico: purple star apple (chrysophyllum cainito l.), yellow cashew and red cashew (anacardium occidentale). the freeze-dried peels were good source of antioxidant compounds. abts and dpph values in the peel from each fruit were 3050.95-3322.31 μm trolox/100g dry weight (dw) or 890.19-970.01 mg of vit ...201525053022
salt-induced delay in cotyledonary globulin mobilization is abolished by induction of proteases and leaf growth sink strength at late seedling establishment in cashew.seedling establishment in saline conditions is crucial for plant survival and productivity. this study was performed to elucidate the biochemical and physiological mechanisms involved with the recovery and establishment of cashew seedlings subjected to salinity. the changes in the na+ levels and k/na ratios, associated with relative water content, indicated that osmotic effects were more important than salt toxicity in the inhibition of seedling growth and cotyledonary protein mobilization. sali ...201425046757
genetic structure in the amazonian catfish brachyplatystoma rousseauxii: influence of life history strategies.the dorado or plateado (gilded catfish) brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (pimelodidae, siluriformes) is a commercially valuable migratory catfish performing the largest migration in freshwaters: from the amazonian headwaters in the andean foothills (breeding area) to the amazon estuary (nursery area). in spite of its importance to inform management and conservation efforts, the genetic variability of this species has only recently begun to be studied. the aim of the present work was to determine the ...201425038864
in vitro bioaccessibility of copper, iron, zinc and antioxidant compounds of whole cashew apple juice and cashew apple fibre (anacardium occidentale l.) following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.considering the lack of research studies about nutrients' bioaccessibility in cashew apple, in this study the whole cashew apple juice and the cashew apple fibre were submitted to simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. the samples were analysed before and after digestion and had their copper, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total extractable phenols and total antioxidant activity assessed. as a result, for the whole cashew apple juice, the content of copper and iron minerals bioaccessible fra ...201424837932
phenolic lipids affect the activity and conformation of acetylcholinesterase from electrophorus electricus (electric eel).phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (cnsl) from anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. the observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. all of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. the degree of inhibition varied, sho ...201424787269
the association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in brazil: an application of chemometrics.a total of 19 brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (euterpe oleracea), blackberry (rubus sp.), cajá (spondias mombin), cashew (anacardium occidentale), cocoa (theobroma cacao), coconut (cocos nucifera), grape (vitis sp.), graviola (annona muricata), guava (psidium guajava), papaya (carica papaya), peach (prunus persica), pineapple (ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (a. comosus and mentha spicata), red fruits (rubus sp. and fragaria sp.), seriguela (spondias purpurea), strawbe ...201424547813
implementation of smart pump technology in a paediatric intensive care unit.patient safety is a matter of major concern that involves every health professional. nowadays, emerging technologies such as smart pumps can diminish medication errors as well as standardise and improve clinical practice with the subsequent benefits for patients. the aim of this paper was to describe the smart pump implementation process in a paediatric intensive care unit (picu) and to present the most relevant infusion-related programming errors that were prevented. this was a comparative stud ...201524496443
extraction and characterization of highly gelling low methoxy pectin from cashew apple pomace.investigation on the pectic substances of cashew (anacardium occidentale l.) apple under different acid-extraction conditions (ph 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) showed that more than 10%-25% of a. occidentale pectins (aop) could be extracted, depending on the extractant strength. the extracted aop contained high amounts of galacturonic acid (gala: 69.9%-84.5%) with some neutral sugars of which rhamnose (rha: 1.3%-2.5%), arabinose (ara: 2.6%-5.4%), and galactose (gal: 4.7%-8.6%) were the main constituents. t ...201328234301
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations, mutagenicity, and microtox® acute toxicity testing of peruvian crude oil and oil-contaminated water and sediment.the oil industry is a major source of contamination in peru, and wastewater and sediments containing oil include harmful substances that may have acute and chronic effects. this study determined polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) concentrations by gc/ms, mutagenicity using ta98 and ta100 bacterial strains with and without metabolic activation in the muta-chromoplate™ test, and microtox® 5-min ec50 values of peruvian crude oil, and water and sediment pore water from the vicinity of san josé de ...201424292871
botanical briefs: cashew apple (anacardium occidentale). 201324195089
evaluation of antioxidant and mutagenic activities of honey-sweetened cashew apple nectar.in vitro chemical properties and antioxidant potential and in vivo mutagenic activity of honey-sweetened cashew apple nectar (hscan), a beverage produced from the cashew pseudo-fruit (anacardium occidentale l.) and of its constituents were assessed. analytical procedures were carried out to investigate the honey used in the hscan preparation, and the results observed are in accordance with brazilian legal regulations, except for diastase number. hscan and pulp were investigated for ascorbic acid ...201323973191
workload of on-call emergency room neurologists in a spanish tertiary care centre. a one-year prospective study.population ageing, the rising demand for healthcare, and the establishment of acute stroke treatment programs have given rise to increases in the number and complexity of neurological emergency cases. nevertheless, many centres in spain still lack on-call emergency neurologists.201423969294
taiwanascus samuelsii sp. nov., an addition to niessliaceae from the western ghats, kerala, india.a new species of taiwanascus, t. samuelsii, was collected from southern parts of western ghats on dead branches of anacardium occidentale and is described. the new cleistothecial ascomycete is different from the type and only species in taiwanascus, t. tetrasporus, in cleistothecial size, setae, and ascospore characteristics.201323898407
synthesis of platinum nanoparticles using dried anacardium occidentale leaf and its catalytic and thermal applications.an environment friendly approach for the synthesis of pt nanoparticles (nps) using dried leaf powder of anacardium occidentale is reported. the formation of pt nps is monitored using uv-vis spectrophotometer. ftir spectra reveal that proteins are bound to pt nanoparticles. tem images show irregular rod shaped particles which are crystalline. the quantity of leaf powder plays a vital role in determining the size of particles. synthesized nps exhibit good catalytic activity in the reduction of aro ...201323786970
development and antibacterial activity of cashew gum-based silver nanoparticles.the present study describes the development of a green synthesis of silver nanoparticles reduced and stabilized by exuded gum from anacardium occidentale l. and evaluates in vitro their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. characterization of cashew gum-based silver nanoparticles (agnps) was carried out based on uv-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis which revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape, measuring ...201323455467
[literature memories about diphtheria: mark twain, w.g. sebald and stendhal syndrome].memories of w.g. sebald from the diphtheria he suffered as a child, gave rise to a discussion about the origin of classic clinical descriptions and the traps memory tends. good examples of the latter are some experiences of stendhal, who must also be distrusted given his hypersensitivity, which gave name to a psychosomatic syndrome. mark twain, a more practical man, brings us back to reality with a funny story about the terror the disease caused in the late nineteenth century. this leads us to r ...201323450420
[spleen injuries in spain: at what point are we?].management of spleen trauma has changed over last decades, although there is no data on its treatment in spain. the aim of this study is to determine the characteristics of spleen injuries in adults with severe abdominal injuries and how we manage them.201323312699
cashew apple (anacardium occidentale l.) extract from by-product of juice processing: a focus on carotenoids.cashew apple fibrous residue is a by-product of the cashew juice industry. after pressing using a helical type continuous press followed by crossflow microfiltration, an aqueous extract was obtained from these cashew apple fibres. it was characterised by an intense yellow colour due to carotenoid pigments. carotenoids were identified and quantified in the cashew apple before extraction, in its aqueous extract and in the concentrate obtained by microfiltration. cashew apple aqueous extract and it ...201323265451
efficacy of the african weaver ant oecophylla longinoda (hymenoptera: formicidae) in the control of helopeltis spp. (hemiptera: miridae) and pseudotheraptus wayi (hemiptera: coreidae) in cashew crop in tanzania.cashew, anacardium occidentale, is an economically important cash crop for more than 300 000 rural households in tanzania. its production is, however, severely constrained by infestation by sap-sucking insects such as helopeltis anacardii, h. schoutedeni and pseudotheraptus wayi. the african weaver ant, oecophylla longinoda, is an effective biocontrol agent of hemipteran pests in coconuts in tanzania, but its efficacy in the control of helopeltis spp. and p. wayi in tanzanian cashew has not been ...201323239649
mechanisms of anti-inflammatory property of anacardium occidentale stem bark: inhibition of nf-κb and mapk signalling in the microglia.anacardium occidentale is used in traditional african medicine for the treatment of arthritis, fever, aches, pains, and inflammation of the extremities.201323142196
recent advances in cardanol chemistry in a nutshell: from a nut to nanomaterials.this tutorial review could serve as an introduction of cardanol into the world of soft nanomaterials; it is a biobased lipid-mixture obtained from the plant anacardium occidentale l. cardanol is a renewable raw material derived from a byproduct of cashew nut processing industry: cashew nut shell liquid (cnsl). cardanol is a rich mixture of non-isoprenoic phenolic compounds that is a valuable raw material for generating a variety of soft nanomaterials such as nanotubes, nanofibers, gels and surfa ...201323114456
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