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antifertility effect of citrus hystrix dc.an alcohol and chloroform extract of citrus hystrix dc. fruit peel was investigated for antifertility activity in pregnant rats by oral administration at different periods of gestation. the extracts were found to effectively inhibit implantation, produce abortion and slightly hasten labor time when it was given from day 2 to 5, day 8 to 12 and day 15 until labor, respectively. at the same dose level which interrupted pregnancy, the extract did not affect the estrous cycle. neither uterotrophic e ...19853990315
phytophotodermatitis due to the application of citrus hystrix as a folk remedy.we report a case of extensive phytophotodermatitis in a hiker. this was caused by the application of the juice of a member of the rutaceae family, citrus hystrix, as a folk remedy to ward off biting insects. besides the rutaceae, plants belonging to the families umbelliferae, moraceae and leguminosae also contain psoralens and can cause phytophotodermatitis. in temperate countries, cases are often seen among children playing outdoors during summer, when psoralens are most abundant in wild and ga ...199910233333
identification of coumarins from the fruit of citrus hystrix dc as inhibitors of nitric oxide generation in mouse macrophage raw 264.7 cells.three known coumarins have been isolated from citrus hystrix dc as inhibitors of both lipopolysaccharide (lps) and interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma)-induced nitric oxide (no) generation in raw 264.7 cells. the inhibitory activity of bergamottin (ic(50) = 14 microm) was comparable to that of n-(iminoethyl)-l-ornithine (l-nio) (ic(50) = 7. 9 microm), whereas oxypeucedanin and 5-[(6',7'-dihydroxy-3', 7'-dimethyl-2-octenyl)oxy]psoralen, structurally different from bergamottin only in their side-chain moi ...199910563895
enhancing effects of thai edible plants on 2-amino-3, 8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoxaline-hepatocarcinogenesis in a rat medium-term bioassay.boesenbergia pandurata (zingiberaceae), languas galanga (zingiberaceae) and citrus hystrix (rutaceae) are edible plants that are commonly used as flavors or condiments in various thai food dishes. they are known to exert strong anti-promoting activity in a test of tumor promoter-induced epstein-barr virus (ebv) activation. in the present study their effects on hepatocarcinogenesis were investigated in a medium-term bioassay using f344 male rats. c. hystrix significantly enhanced 2-amino-3,8-dime ...200010960770
alpha-tocopherol content in 62 edible tropical plants.vitamin e was determined by the high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) method. all the plants tested showed differences in their alpha-tocopherol content and the differences were significant (p < 0.05). the highest alpha-tocopherol content was in sauropus androgynus leaves (426.8 mg/kg edible portion), followed by citrus hystrix leaves (398.3 mg/kg), calamus scipronum (193.8 mg/kg), starfruit leaves averrhoa belimbi (168.3 mg/kg), red pepper capsicum annum (155.4 mg/kg), local celery apiu ...200111410015
repellency of volatile oils from plants against three mosquito vectors.volatile oils extracted by steam distillation from four plant species (turmeric (curcuma longa), kaffir lime (citrus hystrix), citronella grass (cymbopogon winterianus) and hairy basil (ocimum americanum)), were evaluated in mosquito cages and in a large room for their repellency effects against three mosquito vectors, aedes aegypti, anopheles dirus and culex quinquefasciatus. the oils from turmeric, citronella grass and hairy basil, especially with the addition of 5% vanillin, repelled the thre ...200111469188
repellent activity of essential oils against cockroaches (dictyoptera: blattidae, blattellidae, and blaberidae) in thailand.seven commercial essential oils extracted from the plant species boesenbergia rotunda (l.) mansf., citrus hystrix dc., curcuma longa l., litsea cubeba (lour.) pers., piper nigrum l., psidium guajava l. and zingiber officinale roscoe, and naphthalene as a control, were evaluated for repellent activity against the three cockroach species periplaneta americana (l.), blattella germanica (l.) and neostylopyga rhombifolia (stoll) under laboratory conditions. the essential oil derived from citrus hystr ...200717883004
effect of processing on the flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity of citrus hystrix leaf.the objective of the present study was to compare fresh (f) use and the effects of boiling (b) and deep-fat frying (df) on the leaf of citrus hystrix on total phenolic content, the types and amounts of flavonoids and their total antioxidant capacities (tac), as measured by three different assays: oxygen radical absorption capacity, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and scavenging effect on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical. boiling decreased tac values on the three assays. the amou ...200919572229
systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in peninsula malaysia for photodynamic therapy.one hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in peninsula malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line hl60. these plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. of these, 29 plants, namely three from each ...200919647445
a comparison of citrus blossom volatiles.the objective of this study was to identify the major volatiles and their relative concentrations in intact grapefruit, sweet orange, sour orange, mandarin, lemon, lime and pummelo blossoms. volatiles from freshly picked blossoms were collected and concentrated using static headspace solid-phase microextraction and then separated and identified using gc-ms. seventy volatiles were detected, 66 identified, of which 29 were identified for the first time in citrus blossoms. major volatiles consisted ...200919747702
chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from new caledonian citrus macroptera and citrus hystrix.the essential oils from the leaves of citrus macroptera and c. hystrix, collected in new caledonia, have been analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (gc/ms) and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. a total of 35 and 38 constituents were identified, representing 99.1 and 89.0% of the essential oils, respectively. both essential oils were rich in monoterpenes (96.1 and 87.0%, resp.), with beta-pinene as major component (33.3 and 10.9%, resp.), and poor in limonene (2.4 and 4.7%, r ...201020397222
chemical composition and larvicidal activity of edible plant-derived essential oils against the pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the chemical compositions and larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors of selected essential oils obtained from five edible plants were investigated in this study. using a gc/ms, 24, 17, 20, 21, and 12 compounds were determined from essential oils of citrus hystrix, citrus reticulata, zingiber zerumbet, kaempferia galanga, and syzygium aromaticum, respectively. the principal constituents found in peel oil of c. hystrix were beta-pinene (22.54%) and d-limonene (22.03%), followed by terpinene ...201020618656
characterization of potent anticholinesterase plant oil based microemulsion.in the present study, essential oils of three edible thai plants, cymbopogon citratus (gramineae), citrus hystrix (rutaceae) and zingiber cassumunar (zingiberaceae) were comparatively tested for acetylcholinesterase (ache) and butyrylcholinesterase (bche) inhibitory activities using ellman's colorimetric method. c. citratus oil exhibited the highest activity with ic(50) values of 0.34±0.07μl/ml and 2.14±0.18μl/ml against bche and ache activity, respectively. it was further investigated whether m ...201020837121
citrusosides a-d and furanocoumarins with cholinesterase inhibitory activity from the fruit peels of citrus hystrix.four new compounds, citrusosides a-d (1-4), and 15 known compounds were isolated from the hexanes and ch(2)cl(2) extracts of the peels of citrus hystrix fruits. compound 1 is a 1-o-isopropyl-6-o-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester of 5'',9''-dimethyl-2'',8''-decadienoic acid. compounds 2-4 possess a 1-o-isopropyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl and a dihydroxyprenylfuranocoumarin moiety conjugated to the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid as diesters. several furanocoumarins were evaluated for their cholinesterase inhibit ...201020964319
thin layer modeling of tom yum herbs in vacuum heat pump dryer.thin layer vacuum heat pump drying experiments were conducted to determine drying models for tom yum herbs (chili, lemon grass, kaffir lime leaf and galangal slice). the drying experiments were conducted in a vacuum heat pump dryer at a constant drying pressure of 0.2 bars and drying temperatures ranging from 50 °c to 65 °c. the experimental results were fitted to a number of well-known thin layer drying models and it was found, for the range of drying temperature tested, that the midilli model ...201021339129
flavonoids in tropical citrus species.hplc with pda and ms(2) detection was used to identify and quantify flavonoids in the tropical citrus species citrus microcarpa , citrus hystrix , citrus medica var. 1 and 2, and citrus suhuiensis . most of these species contained high amounts of flavones, flavanones, and dihydrochalcone c- and/or o-glycosides, which were identified on the basis of hplc retention times, cochromatography with available authentic standards, absorbance spectra, and mass spectral fragmentation patterns. among the ma ...201121978223
benzene, coumarin and quinolinone derivatives from roots of citrus hystrix.two coumarins, hystrixarin (1) and (+)-hopeyhopin (2); a benzenoid derivative, hystroxene-i (3) and a quinolinone alkaloid, hystrolinone (4), along with 33 known compounds were isolated from the crude acetone extract of the roots of citrus hystrix. their structures were determined by analysis of 1d and 2d nmr spectroscopic data. the antioxidant, anti-hiv and antibacterial activities of the isolated compounds were also evaluated.201323352239
cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects of citrus hystrix peels extract on rats model.to observe the combination effect of doxorubicin and citrus hystrix (kaffir lime's) peel ethanolic extract (chee) on blood serum alanine aminotransferase (alt) and aspartate aminotransferase (ast) activity and cardio-hepato-histopathology of female sprague dawley rats.201323646300
synergistic interaction and mode of action of citrus hystrix essential oil against bacteria causing periodontal diseases.citrus hystrix de candolle (rutaceae), an edible plant regularly used as a food ingredient, possesses antibacterial activity, but there is no current data on the activity against bacteria causing periodontal diseases.201424102651
an ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in silent valley of kerala, india.medicinal plants are treating and preventing a variety disease. there is urgency in recording such data. this is the first ethno botanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are done by icf method. the present study was aimed to identify plants collected for medicinal purposes by the traditional healers of silent valley, located in palakad district of kerala, india and to document the traditional names, preparation and uses of these plants.201424832113
properties and antioxidant activity of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with citrus essential oils.properties of protein-based film from fish skin gelatin incorporated with different citrus essential oils, including bergamot, kaffir lime, lemon and lime (50% based on protein) in the presence of 20% and 30% glycerol were investigated. films containing 20% glycerol had higher tensile strength (ts) but lower elongation at break (eab), compared with those prepared with 30% glycerol, regardless of essential oils incorporated (p<0.05). films incorporated with essential oils, especially from lime, a ...201225005982
kaffir lime leaves extract inhibits biofilm formation by streptococcus mutans.although kaffir lime has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antileukemic activity, little is known about the antimicrobial effect of kaffir lime extract. because streptococcus mutans has been known to cause biofilm formation, it has been considered the most important causative pathogen of dental caries. thus, the effective control of its effects on the oral biofilm is the key to the prevention of dental caries. the aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of kaffir lime lea ...201626743975
prenylfuranocoumarin-hmga-flavonol glucoside conjugates and other constituents of the fruit peels of citrus hystrix and their anticholinesterase activity.sixteen compounds including dihydroxy prenylfuranocoumarins/3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid conjugates and dihydroxy prenylfuranocoumarins/3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid/1-o-flavonyl-β-d-glucopyranoside conjugates, together with other dihydroxyprenylfuranocoumarins conjugates, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruit peels of citrus hystrix. some of the isolates were evaluated for their cholinesterase inhibitory activity, but only one compound possessing a 3-o-β-d-glucopyranosy ...201626995149
effects of packaging materials on the aroma stability of thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder as determined by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.changes in the aroma characteristics of thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder, containing lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf, as affected by different packaging materials were assessed using quantitative descriptive analysis (qda) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). the descriptive aroma attributes for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf powders were developed by the qda panel. the mixed herb and spice seasoning powder was kept in glass jars closed with different packaging m ...201727507120
excito-repellency of citrus hystrix dc leaf and peel essential oils against aedes aegypti and anopheles minimus (diptera: culicidae), vectors of human pathogens.the essential oils of kaffir lime (citrus hystrix dc.) at four different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0% v/v) were studied for their repellency, excitation, and knockdown properties against laboratory strains of aedes aegypti (l.) and anopheles minimus theobald using an excito-repellency test system. both contact and noncontact escape responses to leaf- and peel-derived kaffir lime oils were observed. comparing unadjusted escape responses for an. minimus, leaf oil had strong combined irr ...201627694144
excito-repellency of citrus hystrix dc leaf and peel essential oils against aedes aegypti and anopheles minimus (diptera: culicidae), vectors of human pathogens.the essential oils of kaffir lime (citrus hystrix dc.) at four different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0% v/v) were studied for their repellency, excitation, and knockdown properties against laboratory strains of aedes aegypti (l.) and anopheles minimus theobald using an excito-repellency test system. both contact and noncontact escape responses to leaf- and peel-derived kaffir lime oils were observed. comparing unadjusted escape responses for an. minimus, leaf oil had strong combined irr ...201728082646
bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant acinetobacter baumannii.the aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (alpinia galanga linn.), ginger (zingiber officinale), plai (zingiber cassumunar roxb.), lime (citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (citrus hystrix dc.), sweet basil (ocimum basilicum linn.), tree basil (ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (cymbopogon citratus dc.), clove (syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of staphylo ...201728512603
properties of macerated herbal oil.introduction: the addition of herbs into hot sesame oil could increase the oil-pulling efficiency of sesame oil. the aim of present study was to modify the proportion of herbs and sesame oil with the addition of other ingredients including menthol, camphor, and borneol and improve the medicinal properties and the scent of the oil. methods: macerated herbal oil was prepared by heat extraction of five species of herbs (zingiber cassumunar, zingiber zerumbet, plantago major linn, citrus hystrix, an ...201728546949
nanopriming technology for enhancing germination and starch metabolism of aged rice seeds using phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles.application of nanomaterials for agriculture is relatively new as compared to their use in biomedical and industrial sectors. in order to promote sustainable nanoagriculture, biocompatible silver nanoparticles (agnps) have been synthesized through green route using kaffir lime leaf extract for use as nanopriming agent for enhancing seed germination of rice aged seeds. results of various characterization techniques showed the successful formation of agnps which were capped with phytochemicals pre ...201728811584
phytochemical constituents from dietary plant citrus hystrix.chemical investigation of the fruit peel of dietary plant citrus hystrix offered two new flavones 5,6,4'-trihydroxypyranoflavone i and 5,4'-dimethyl-6-prenylpyranoflavone xiii besides 11 known compounds. the structures of all compounds were elucidated with the aid of suitable analytical methods like 1d, 2d-nmr, mass and single crystal x-ray analysis. an x-ray crystal study of compound ii was done for the first time and the compounds i-vi, xi and xii are hitherto not reported from this plant. bio ...201729117732
profiling study of the major and minor components of kaffir lime oil (citrus hystrix dc.) in the fractional distillation process.essential oil is consisting of complex component. it is divided into major and minor component. therefore, this study aims to examine the distribution of major and minor components on kaffir lime oil by using fractional distillation. fractional distillation and distributional analysis of components within fractions have been performed on kaffir lime oil (citrus hystrix dc.).201729187951
in vitro anti-cariogenic plaque effects of essential oils extracted from culinary herbs.cariogenic bacteria including mutans streptococci and lactobacilli are partly but significantly involved in dental caries development. an effective prevention strategy against dental caries is to decrease the accumulation of this microbiota either in planktonic or in biofilm form.201729207708
comparative transcriptome analysis unveils the tolerance mechanisms of citrus hystrix in response to 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' infection.citrus huanglongbing (hlb), a highly devastating citrus disease, is associated with 'candidatus liberibacter asiacitus' (clas), a member of phloem-inhabiting α-proteobacteria. hlb can affect all cultivated citrus and no cure is currently available. previous studies showed that kaffir lime (citrus hystrix), primarily grown in south asia and southeast asia, was tolerant to hlb but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. in this study, gene expression profiling experiments were performed on hlb-to ...201729232716
anti-biofilm and anti-virulence potential of 3,7-dimethyloct-6-enal derived from citrus hystrix against bacterial blight of rice caused by xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.the present investigation for the first time explains the anti biofilm and anti virulence potential of kaffir lime oil (klo) and its major constituent, citronellal (3,7-dimethyloct-6-enal) against xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, causal organism of bacterial blight disease of rice. klo at 500 ppm showed potential activity against x. oryzae pv. oryzae. among the major components identified, citronellal (cit) at 75 μm concentration was found to significantly inhibit biofilm along with the swimming a ...201729273511
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