thermal effects on development and adult longevity of endoparasitoid chelonus murakatae munakata (hymenoptera: braconidae).the effects of temperature on the development duration and longevity of adult of chelonus murakatae were studied under five constant temperatures including 22.5, 25, 27.5, 30 and 32.5 ± 0.5 °c under laboratory conditions. it was observed that the development time was inversely proportional to the temperature within the range of 22.5 to 32.5 °c. the results indicated that the optimum temperature for development ranged from 25 to 30 °c. thermal threshold was estimated by a linear model which was r ...201727988903
combined transcriptome and metabolome analyses to understand the dynamic responses of rice plants to attack by the rice stem borer chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae).rice (oryza sativa l.), which is a staple food for more than half of the world's population, is frequently attacked by herbivorous insects, including the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis. c. suppressalis substantially reduces rice yields in temperate regions of asia, but little is known about how rice plants defend themselves against this herbivore at molecular and biochemical level.201627923345
the overexpression of insect endogenous small rnas in transgenic rice inhibits growth and delays pupation of striped stem borer (chilo suppressalis).the striped stem borer (ssb), chilo suppressalis walker, is a major rice insect pest worldwide. rna interference (rnai) has become a promising strategy for developing insect-resistant crops. in a previous study, five double-stranded rnas (dsrnas) targeting important ssb housekeeping genes were overexpressed in rice, but none of the acquired dsrna-transgenic rice plants showed significant effects on ssb.201627862861
sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on development, reproduction and vitellogenin gene (csvg) expression in the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis.the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker), is one of the most damaging rice pests in the world. the sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on development,reproduction and mrna expression levels of vitellogenin gene (csvg) in c. suppressalis were investigated.201626939546
variability in development of the striped rice borer, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), due to instar number and last instar duration.the striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker), is an important insect pest of rice which shows substantial variation in developmental duration among individuals. this variation is currently poorly characterized but it is important from a control perspective because pesticides can only target early sensitive instars. it is unclear whether there are key stages that determine the length of developmental duration of individuals and/or whether variation in instar number contributes to this vari ...201627731388
life-history responses of the rice stem borer chilo suppressalis to temperature change: breaking the temperature-size rule.temperature is a key environmental factor for ectotherms and affects a large number of life history traits. in the present study, development time from hatching to pupation and adult eclosion, pupal and adult weights of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis were examined at 22, 25, 28 and 31°c under l18:d 6. larval and pupal times were significantly decreased with increasing rearing temperature and growth rate was positively correlated with temperature. larval and pupal developmental times wer ...201627712652
human health risk assessment of organophosphorus pesticide in rice crop from selected districts of anzali international wetland basin, iran.low fertility in rice caused by chilo suppressalis has led to the use of diazinon to control this pest. residue of pesticide could penetrate products and also food which can affect public health. the aim of this research was to determine health risk assessment of organophosphorus (op) pesticide in rice, a strategic crop in iran. ninety rice samples were collected from 30 points during harvesting seasons from rasht area, guilan province, iran from which 30 samples were prepared. the concentration ...201627417637
do differences in life-history traits and the timing of peak mating activity between host-associated populations of chilo suppressalis have a genetic basis?the development of host races, genetically distinct populations of the same species with different hosts, is considered to be the initial stage of ecological speciation. ecological and biological differences consistent with host race formation have been reported between water-oat and rice-associated populations of chilo suppressalis. in order to confirm whether these differences have a genetic basis, we conducted experiments to determine the extent to which various life-history traits and the ti ...201627386090
identification of novel odorant binding protein genes and functional characterization of obp8 in chilo suppressalis (walker).at the peripheral level of the insect olfaction, odorant binding proteins (obps) are thought to bind and transport exogenous hydrophobic volatiles to the odorant receptors (ors) located on the dendrite membrane of the olfactory neurons. in this study, cdna sequences of 29 obp genes from chilo suppressalis, a notorious rice pest, were identified, with 15 of them being newly reported. the tissue and temporal expression patterns of these csupobps were determined by rt-pcr, revealing that csupobp8, ...201627374155
identification and expression profiles of neuropeptides and their g protein-coupled receptors in the rice stem borer chilo insects, neuropeptides play important roles in the regulation of multiple physiological processes by binding to their corresponding receptors, which are primarily g protein-coupled receptors (gpcrs). the genes encoding neuropeptides and their associated gpcrs in the rice stem borer chilo suppressalis were identified by a transcriptomic analysis and were used to identify potential targets for the disruption of physiological processes and the protection of crops. forty-three candidate genes wer ...201627353701
the effect of silencing 20e biosynthesis relative genes by feeding bacterially expressed dsrna on the larval development of chilo suppressalis.rna interference (rnai) is a robust tool to study gene functions as well as potential for insect pest control. finding suitable target genes is the key step in the development of an efficient rnai-mediated pest control technique. based on the transcriptome of chilo suppressalis, 24 unigenes which putatively associated with insect hormone biosynthesis were identified. amongst these, four genes involved in ecdysteroidogenesis i.e., ptth, torso, spook and nm-g were evaluated as candidate targets fo ...201627352880
genome-wide analysis of chitinase genes and their varied functions in larval moult, pupation and eclosion in the rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis.some insect chitinases are required to degrade chitin and ensure successful metamorphosis. although chitinase genes have been well characterized in several model insects, no reports exist for the rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis, a highly destructive pest that causes huge yield losses in rice production. here, we conducted a genome-level analysis of chitinase genes in c. suppressalis. after amplification of full-length transcripts with rapid amplification of cdna ends, we identified 1 ...201627080989
oswrky53, a versatile switch in regulating herbivore-induced defense responses in rice.wrky proteins, which belong to a large family of plant-specific transcription factors, play important roles in plant defenses against pathogens and herbivores by regulating defense-related signaling pathways. recently, a rice wrky transcription factor oswrky53 has been reported to function as a negative feedback modulator of osmpk3/osmpk6 and thereby to control the size of the investment a rice plant makes to defend against a chewing herbivore, the striped stem borer chilo suppressalis. we inves ...201627031005
molecular characterization and expression profiles of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae).nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nachrs) are members of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel (cyslgic) superfamily, mediating fast synaptic cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system in insects. insect nachrs are the molecular targets of economically important insecticides, such as neonicotinoids and spinosad. identification and characterization of the nachr gene family in the rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis, could provide beneficial information about this important re ...201626847606
parasitism and suitability of fertilized and nonfertilized eggs of the rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae), for trichogramma parasitoids.parasitoids can utilize the nutrition of host eggs to culture their own offsprings. host qualities, including size, age, and species, influence parasitism preference and fitness of the parasitoid offsprings. however, an interesting question here is whether the parasitoids have the ability of recognizing fertilized and nonfertilized host eggs. in this study, we investigated the performance of three indigenous trichogramma species (trichogramma japonicum ashmead, trichogramma dendrolimi matsumura, ...201626802170
effects of the endoparasitoid cotesia chilonis (hymenoptera: braconidae) parasitism, venom, and calyx fluid on cellular and humoral immunity of its host chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae) larvae.the larval endoparasitoid cotesia chilonis injects venom and bracoviruses into its host chilo suppressalis during oviposition. here we study the effects of the polydnavirus (pdv)-carrying endoparasitoid c. chilonis (hymenoptera: braconidae) parasitism, venom and calyx fluid on host cellular and humoral immunity, specifically hemocyte composition, cellular spreading, encapsulation and melanization. total hemocyte counts (thcs) were higher in parasitized larvae than in unparasitized larvae in the ...201626685058
cloning of two acetylcholinesterase genes and analysis of point mutations putatively associated with triazophos resistance in chilo auricilius (lepidoptera: pyralidae).acetylcholinesterase (ache) is the target of organophosphate (op) and carbamate insecticides. mutations in the ache gene (ace) leading to decreased insecticide susceptibility is the main resistance mechanism in insects. in this study, two chilo auricilius acetylcholinesterase genes, designated as caace1 and caace2, were cloned using rt-pcr and race. caace1 cdna is 2534 bp, with orf of 2082 bp, and it encodes an acetylcholinesterase 1 (caache1) protein comprising a calculated 693 amino acid (aa) ...201526470257
bt rice does not disrupt the host-searching behavior of the parasitoid cotesia chilonis.we determined whether plant volatiles help explain why cotesia chilonis (a parasitoid of the target pest chilo suppressalis) is less abundant in bt than in non-bt rice fields. olfactometer studies revealed that c. chilonis females responded similarly to undamaged bt and non-bt rice plants. parasitoids preferred rice plants damaged by 3(rd)-instar larvae of c. suppressalis, but did not differentiate between caterpillar-infested bt and non-bt plants. according to gc-ms analyses of rice plant volat ...201526470012
the rice transcription factor wrky53 suppresses herbivore-induced defenses by acting as a negative feedback modulator of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity.the mechanisms by which herbivore-attacked plants activate their defenses are well studied. by contrast, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms that allow them to control their defensive investment and avoid a defensive overshoot. we characterized a rice (oryza sativa) wrky gene, oswrky53, whose expression is rapidly induced upon wounding and induced in a delayed fashion upon attack by the striped stem borer (ssb) chilo suppressalis. the transcript levels of oswrky53 are independent of ...201526453434
distinct contributions of a314s and novel r667q substitutions of acetylcholinesterase 1 to carbofuran resistance of chilo suppressalis the striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis, a314s, r667q and h669p substitutions in acetylcholinesterase 1 (csache1) have been associated with >1000-fold resistance against carbofuran. in this study, eight variants of csache1 carrying different combinations of these substitutions were cloned and expressed using the bac-to-bac expression system to verify their contributions.201626446949
pheromone binding proteins enhance the sensitivity of olfactory receptors to sex pheromones in chilo suppressalis.sexual communication in moths offers a simplified scenario to model and investigate insect sensory perception. both pbps (pheromone-binding proteins) and prs (pheromone receptors) are involved in the detection of sex pheromones, but the interplay between them still remains largely unknown. in this study, we have measured the binding affinities of the four recombinant pbps of chilo suppressalis (csuppbps) to pheromone components and analogs and characterized the six prs using the xenopus oocytes ...201526310773
mating disruption or mass trapping, compared with chemical insecticides, for suppression of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae) in northeastern china.asiatic rice borer, chilo suppressalis (walker), larvae cause extensive crop losses worldwide. because chemical control is problematic, and sex pheromone applications are a valuable management tactic in china, judicious timing of a minimal density of pheromone dispensers is important in developing a cost-effective c. suppressalis ipm program. during june-october in 2011, 20, 30, 40, and 50 dispensers per hectare for mass trapping, and 200, 300, 400, and 500 dispensers per hectare for mating disr ...201426309273
loss of genetic variation in laboratory colonies of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae) revealed by mitochondrial and microsatellite dna markers.the asiatic rice borer, chilo suppressalis (walker), is an important insect pest of rice in china. the genetic variation of a set of laboratory colonies of c. suppressalis was compared with their source populations in the wild (laboratory colonies bjck, bj1ab, and bj1ac versus wild population bjw; laboratory colonies fzck and fz1ca versus wild population fzw) and was analyzed using eight microsatellite markers and two partial mitochondrial dna (mtdna) regions (coi and coii). results from both an ...201526308808
genome-wide analysis of esterase-like genes in the striped rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis.the striped rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis, a destructive pest of rice, has developed high levels of resistance to certain insecticides. esterases are reported to be involved in insecticide resistance in several insects. therefore, this study systematically analyzed esterase-like genes in c. suppressalis. fifty-one esterase-like genes were identified in the draft genomic sequences of the species, and 20 cdna sequences were derived which encoded full- or nearly full-length proteins. the puta ...201526285093
de novo assembly and characterization of central nervous system transcriptome reveals neurotransmitter signaling systems in the rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis.neurotransmitter signaling systems play crucial roles in multiple physiological and behavioral processes in insects. genome wide analyses of de novo transcriptome sequencing and gene specific expression profiling provide rich resources for studying neurotransmitter signaling pathways. the rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis is a destructive rice pest in china and other asian countries. the characterization of genes involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis and transport could identify po ...201526173787
prioritizing plant defence over growth through wrky regulation facilitates infestation by non-target herbivores.plants generally respond to herbivore attack by increasing resistance and decreasing growth. this prioritization is achieved through the regulation of phytohormonal signaling networks. however, it remains unknown how this prioritization affects resistance against non-target herbivores. in this study, we identify wrky70 as a specific herbivore-induced, mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated rice transcription factor that physically interacts with w-box motives and prioritizes defence over gro ...201526083713
characterization of competitive interactions in the coexistence of bt-transgenic and conventional rice.transgene flow through pollen and seeds leads to transgenic volunteers and feral populations in the nature, and consumer choice and economic incentives determine whether transgenic crops will be cultivated in the field. transgenic and non-transgenic plants are likely to coexist in the field and natural habitats, but their competitive interactions are not well understood.201525928331
chilo suppressalis and sesamia inferens display different susceptibility responses to cry1a insecticidal proteins.chilo suppressalis and sesamia inferens are important lepidopteran rice pests that occur concurrently in rice-growing areas of china. the development of transgenic rice expressing cry1a insecticidal proteins has provided a useful strategy for controlling these pests.201525469810
knockdown of cs-spook induces delayed larval molting in rice striped stem borer chilo suppressalis.spook has essential roles in the biogenesis of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-e). the function of spook in the rice striped stem borer (ssb) chilo suppressalis remains unclear, prompting our hypothesis that it exerts actions similar to those reported for other insect species. here we amplified the full-length transcript of spook (cs-spook) in ssb by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cdna ends. cs-spook has conserved p450 motifs such as helix-c, helix-i, helix-k, and perf motif (pxxfxp ...201525354095
transcriptome analysis of an endoparasitoid wasp cotesia chilonis (hymenoptera: braconidae) reveals genes involved in successful parasitism.for successful parasitization, parasitiods usually depend on the chemosensory cues for the selection of hosts, as well as a variety of virulence factors introduced into their hosts to overcome host immunity and prevent rejection of progeny development. in bracovirus-carrying wasps, the symbiotic polydnaviruses act in manipulating development and immunity of hosts. the endoparasitoid cotesia chilonis carrying bracovirus as a key host immunosuppressive factor is a superior endoparasitoid of rice s ...201525336406
comparison of three transgenic bt rice lines for insecticidal protein expression and resistance against a target pest, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae).two transgenic rice lines (t2a-1 and t1c-19b) expressing cry2a and cry1c genes, respectively, were developed in china, targeting lepidopteran pests including chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae). the seasonal expression of cry proteins in different tissues of the rice lines and their resistance to c. suppressalis were assessed in comparison to a bt rice line expressing a cry1ab/ac fusion gene, huahui 1, which has been granted a biosafety certificate. in general, levels of cry pro ...201625284137
spatial distribution and minimum sample size for overwintering larvae of the rice stem borer chilo suppressalis (walker) in paddy fields.the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker), feeds almost exclusively in paddy fields in most regions of the world. the study of its spatial distribution is fundamental for designing correct control strategies, improving sampling procedures, and adopting precise agricultural techniques. field experiments were conducted during 2011 and 2012 to estimate the spatial distribution pattern of the overwintering larvae. data were analyzed using five distribution indices and two regression models (t ...201427193951
new ideas about genetic differentiation of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae) populations in china based on the mtdna cytochrome b gene.the striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker), is an important pest of rice in china and other parts of the world. to further explore the population genetic structure and genetic differentiation of c. suppressalis populations found on rice in china, we amplified 432 bp fragments of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene for 44 c. suppressalis populations. nineteen variable sites in the mtdna gene were observed, and 16 haplotypes were identified. nucleotide diversity (π) and haplotype diversity (h) ...201625211083
identification of candidate olfactory genes in chilo suppressalis by antennal transcriptome analysis.antennal olfaction, which is extremely important for insect survival, mediates key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. in insects, odor detection is mediated by multiple proteins in the antenna, especially the odorant receptors (ors) and ionotropic receptors (irs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. in this study, we identified the olfactory gene repertoire of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis, an economically ...201425076861
characterization of a tyramine receptor type 2 from hemocytes of rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis.calcium acts as a second messenger in many cell types, including insect hemocytes. intracellular calcium level has a definite role in innate and adaptive immune signaling. biogenic amines such as octopamine (oa), tyramine (ta), dopamine (da) and serotonin (5-ht) play various important physiological roles in insects by activating distinct g-protein-coupled receptors (gpcrs) that share a putative seven transmembrane domain structure. oa and 5-ht have been shown that can mediate insect hemocytic im ...201525772095
large number of putative chemoreception and pheromone biosynthesis genes revealed by analyzing transcriptome from ovipositor-pheromone glands of chilo suppressalis.the chemoreception role of moth ovipositor has long been suggested, but its molecular mechanism is mostly unknown. by transcriptomic analysis of the female ovipositor-pheromone glands (ov-pg) of chilo suppressalis, we obtained 31 putative chemoreception genes (9 obps, 10 csps, 2 ors, 1 snmp, 8 cxes and 1 aox), in addition to 32 genes related to sex pheromone biosynthesis (1 fas, 6 dess, 10 fars, 2 acos, 1 acc, 4 fatps, 3 acbps and 5 elos). tissue expression profiles further revealed that csupcsp ...201525601555
prediction of pirnas using transposon interaction and a support vector machine.piwi-interacting rnas (pirnas) are a class of small non-coding rna primarily expressed in germ cells that can silence transposons at the post-transcriptional level. accurate prediction of pirnas remains a significant challenge.201425547961
genome-wide analysis reveals the expansion of cytochrome p450 genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism in rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis.the cytochrome p450 (cyp) superfamily is a large group of ancient proteins with enzymatic activities involved in various physiological processes. the rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis, is an important insect pest in rice production. here, we report the identification and characterization of 77 cyp genes from rice striped stem borer (ssb) through genome and transcriptome sequence analyses. all these cyp genes were confirmed by rt-pcr and direct sequencing. twenty-eight cyp transcripts h ...201424361403
molecular cloning and pharmacological characterisation of a tyramine receptor from the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker).tyramine (ta) and octopamine (oa) are considered to be the invertebrate counterparts of the vertebrate adrenergic transmitters. because these two phenolamines are the only biogenic amines whose physiological significance is presumably restricted to invertebrates, the attention of pharmacologists has been focused on the corresponding receptors, which are believed to represent promising targets for novel insecticides. for example, the formamidine pesticides, such as chlordimeform and amitraz, have ...201323129510
two splicing variants of a novel family of octopamine receptors with different signaling properties.the octopamine and tyramine, as the invertebrate counterparts of the vertebrate adrenergic transmitters, control and modulate many physiological and behavioral processes. both molecules mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors belonging to the superfamily of g-protein-coupled receptors. so far, four families of octopamine and tyramine receptors have been reported. here, we described the functional characterization of one putative octopamine/tyramine receptor gene from the rice stem ...201424279508
diapause, signal and molecular characteristics of overwintering chilo suppressalis (insecta: lepidoptera: pyralidae).diapause is a complex and dynamic process. chilo suppressalis, an important rice pest in asia enters facultative diapause as larvae. our results demonstrated in yangzhou, china, diapause was initiated between september 4 and 12, 2010. after diapause termination, c. suppressalis remained in quiescence in the field for as long as three months. the average time between collection of field larvae of c. suppressalis and their pupation decreased as the season progressed from fall to next spring. unexp ...201324226906
susceptibility baseline and chlorantraniliprole resistance monitoring in chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae).chlorantraniliprole, a new anthranilic diamide insecticide, has been commercialized in china since 2008 for controlling of several lepidopterans, including rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker. chemical control of this pest has become difficult because of its resistance development to many conventional insecticides. to facilitate chlorantraniliprole-resistance monitoring, seedling dip bioassays were conducted in 2011 and 2012 to assess the susceptibility of 30 populations of c. suppressali ...201324224264
bt rice expressing cry2aa does not cause direct detrimental effects on larvae of chrysoperla assess the potential effects of cry2aa-expressing insect-resistant bt rice on chrysoperla sinica larvae, we conducted two tritrophic bioassays using a non-target (laodelphax striatellus) and a target herbivore (chilo suppressalis) as prey. none of the tested life-table parameters of c. sinica did differ when fed with l. striatellus nymphs reared on either bt or control rice plants. similarly, c. sinica larval survival and development were not affected when fed c. suppressalis larvae that were ...201324057602
geographic susceptibility of chilo suppressalis walker (lepidoptera: crambidae), to chlorantraniliprole in china.chilo suppressalis walker, the rice striped stem borer (rssb) is one of the most serious lepidopteron insect pests of rice in asia. the registration of chlorantraniliprole added an option for the chemical control of rssbs.201424038844
the chloroplast-localized phospholipases d α4 and α5 regulate herbivore-induced direct and indirect defenses in rice.the oxylipin pathway is of central importance for plant defensive responses. yet, the first step of the pathway, the liberation of linolenic acid following induction, is poorly understood. phospholipases d (plds) have been hypothesized to mediate this process, but data from arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana) regarding the role of plds in plant resistance have remained controversial. here, we cloned two chloroplast-localized pld genes from rice (oryza sativa), ospldα4 and ospldα5, both of which w ...201121984727
contrasting effects of ethylene biosynthesis on induced plant resistance against a chewing and a piercing-sucking herbivore in rice.ethylene is a stress hormone with contrasting effects on herbivore resistance. however, it remains unknown whether these differences are plant- or herbivore-specific. we cloned a rice 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (acc) synthase gene, osacs2, whose transcripts were rapidly up-regulated in response to mechanical wounding and infestation by two important pests: the striped stem borer (ssb) chilo suppressalis and the brown planthopper (bph) nilaparvata lugens. antisense expression of osacs2 ...201425064847
characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of chilo auricilius and comparison with three other rice stem borers.the mitogenome of chilo auricilius (lepidoptera: pyraloidea: crambidae) was a circular molecule made up of 15,367 bp. sesamia inferens, chilo suppressalis, tryporyza incertulas, and c. auricilius, are closely related, well known rice stem borers that are widely distributed in the main rice-growing regions of china. the gene order and orientation of all four stem borers were similar to that of other insect mitogenomes. among the four stem borers, all at contents were below 83%, while all at conte ...201425042162
susceptibility of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae), to flubendiamide in china.the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker), is an important rice pest in china, and has evolved resistance to several classes of insecticides. flubendiamide is a phthalic diamide insecticide that shows selective insecticidal activity against lepidopterous insects. the susceptibility of 40 field populations of c. suppressalis, collected in 2011 and 2012 in seven provinces of south-eastern china, to flubendiamide was determined through rice seedling dipping bioassay method. of these 40 popul ...201425026690
evaluation for potential trichogramma (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae) strains for control of the striped stem borer (lepidoptera: crambidae) in the greater mekong subregion.trichogramma species and strains differ significantly in host specificity and performance. nine trichogramma strains, six of them collected from paddy fields in the greater mekong subregion, were evaluated for performance on eggs of the striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker), in both laboratory and field tests to determine potential trichogramma strains that can be used in an inundative release in an integrated pest management program. in the laboratory glass vial tests, all strains sho ...201425026653
chilodb: a genomic and transcriptome database for an important rice insect pest chilo suppressalis.chilodb is an integrated resource that will be of use to the rice stem borer research community. the rice striped stem borer (ssb), chilo suppressalis walker, is a major rice pest that causes severe yield losses in most rice-producing countries. a draft genome of this insect is available. the aims of chilodb are (i) to store recently acquired genomic sequence and transcriptome data and integrate them with protein-coding genes, micrornas, piwi-interacting rnas (pirnas) and rna sequencing (rna-seq ...201424997141
effect of synergists on susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole in field populations of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae).the asiatice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker), an important rice insect pest in china, has developed resistances to several classes of insecticides. to control c. suppressalis, chlorantraniliprole has been introduced as a novel insecticide in rice field since 2008. it is an anthranilic diamide insecticide that binds and activates ryanodine receptors (ryr). the susceptibility of field populations of c. suppressalis to chlorantraniliprole was determined in this study. the hypotheses of equa ...201424772562
characterization of cysteine protease-like genes in the striped rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis.the striped rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker), is a major pest for rice production in china and the rest of southeast asia. chemical control is the main means to alleviate losses due to this pest, which causes serious environmental pollution. an effective and environmentally friendly approach is needed for the management of the striped rice stem borer. cysteine proteases in insects could be useful targets for pest management either through engineering plant protease inhibitors, target ...201424702065
[detection and analysis of symbiotic bacteria, arsenophonus and wolbachia, in striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae)].in this study, 23s rdna from arsenophonus and wsp gene from wolbachia were amplified by pcr method using specific primers to study their symbiosis in chilo suppressalis from 20 locations of china. the results indicated that arsenophonus and wolbachia infection rates differed widely in c. suppressalis populations. the infection rates of arsenophonus ranged from 5.0% to 50.0% in five geographical populations from harbin, huishui, jilin, nanyang, and yangzhou. wolbachia ranged from 25.0% to 40.0% i ...201324697073
changes in insecticide resistance of the rice striped stem borer (lepidoptera: crambidae).application of insecticides is the most important method to control chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae), and continuous use of individual insecticides has driven the rapid development of insecticide resistance in c. suppressalis during the past 30 yr. monitoring insecticide resistance provides information essential for integrated pest management. insecticide resistance of field populations to monosultap, triazophos, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin in china was examined in 2010 and 2 ...201424665718
amino acid substitutions of acetylcholinesterase associated with carbofuran resistance in chilo suppressalis.over 1000-fold carbofuran resistance has been observed in chilo suppressalis (walker) collected from the changhua (ch) and chiayi (cy) prefectures of taiwan. an understanding of the pertinent mechanisms will benefit effective insecticide resistance management of c. suppressalis.201424616070
omiga: optimized maker-based insect genome annotation.insects are one of the largest classes of animals on earth and constitute more than half of all living species. the i5k initiative has begun sequencing of more than 5,000 insect genomes, which should greatly help in exploring insect resource and pest control. insect genome annotation remains challenging because many insects have high levels of heterozygosity. to improve the quality of insect genome annotation, we developed a pipeline, named optimized maker-based insect genome annotation (omiga), ...201424609470
expression of cry1ab protein in a marker-free transgenic bt rice line and its efficacy in controlling a target pest, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae).a marker-free bt transgenic rice line, mfb-mh86, was recently developed in china, which contains a cry1ab gene driven by a ubiquitin promoter. this bt gene confers resistance to a range of lepidopteran species, including the striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker). the expression of cry1ab protein in mfb-mh86 leaves, stems and leaf sheaths (hereinafter referred to as stems), and roots was evaluated throughout the rice-growing season using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. in addition ...201424495566
the 9-lipoxygenase osr9-lox1 interacts with the 13-lipoxygenase-mediated pathway to regulate resistance to chewing and piercing-sucking herbivores in rice.oxylipins produced by the 13-lipoxygenase (lox) have been reported to play an important role in plant defense responses to herbivores. yet, the role of oxylipins produced by the 9-lox pathway in this process remains largely unknown. here we cloned a gene encoding a chloroplast-localized 9-lox, osr9-lox1, from rice. transcriptional analysis revealed that herbivore infestation, mechanical wounding and jasmonic acid (ja) treatment either repressed or did not enhance the level of osr9-lox1 transcrip ...201424410960
development and characterization of microsatellite markers for rice leaffolder, cnaphalocrocis medinalis (guenée) and cross-species amplification in other pyralididae.rice leaffolder, cnaphalocrocis medinalis (guenée), is a destructive and widespread pest on rice. in this study, 20 microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized from c. medinalis partial genomic libraries using the method of fast isolation by aflp of sequence containing repeats. of these markers, 18 markers displayed polymorphisms. polymorphisms were evaluated in 48 individuals from two natural populations. the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 15, and the expected and obser ...201424381106
role of proteases in extra-oral digestion of a predatory bug, andrallus spinidens.roles of salivary proteases in the extra-oral digestion of the predatory bug, andrallus spinidens fabricius (hemiptera: pentatomidae) were studied by using 2% azocasein as a general substrate and specific protease substrates, as well as synthetic and endogenous inhibitors. it was found that salivary glands of a. spinidens have two anterior, two lateral, and two posterior lobes. azocasein was used to measure the activity of general proteases in the salivary glands using different buffer solutions ...201222954419
[effects of temperature stress on physiological indices of chilo suppressalis walker (lepidoptera: pyralidae) diapause larvae].to understand the physiological mechanisms of temperature stress on the diapause larvae of rice stem borer chilo suppressalis walker at physiological and biochemical levels, determinations were made on the contents of water, lipid, total sugar and low molecular mass carbohydrates and the activities of sod, pod, cat in the larvae after series temperature stress (sts) and gradient temperature stress (gts). with the decrease of temperature, the water content in the larvae decreased, and the decreme ...201222919850
characterization of a β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor from the rice stem borer (chilo suppressalis).octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of adrenaline and noradrenaline, plays a key role in regulation of many physiological and behavioral processes in insects. it modulates these functions through binding to specific octopamine receptors, which are typical rhodopsin-like g-protein coupled receptors. a cdna encoding a seven-transmembrane receptor was cloned from the nerve cord of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis, viz. csoa2b2, which shares high sequence similarity to cg6989, a drosophi ...201222786641
osnpr1 negatively regulates herbivore-induced ja and ethylene signaling and plant resistance to a chewing herbivore in rice.npr1 (a non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes1) has been reported to play an important role in plant defense by regulating signaling pathways. however, little to nothing is known about its function in herbivore-induced defense in monocot plants. here, using suppressive substrate hybridization, we identified a npr1 gene from rice, osnpr1, and found that its expression levels were upregulated in response to infestation by the rice striped stem borer (ssb) chilo suppressalis and rice leaf fol ...201322694163
regression analysis of dynamics of insecticide resistance in field populations of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae) during 2002-2011 in understand the evolution of insecticide resistance in the asiatic rice borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae), in field, regression analysis based on a linear or nonlinear model was adopted for analyzing resistance dynamics to six insecticides of two field populations of the lianyungang (lyg) and ruian (ra) populations during 2002-2011. for the low-level resistance population, lyg population, sustained susceptibilities to abamectin and fipronil were seen for 10 yr; a poly ...201324020300
cloning and characterization of serpin-like genes from the striped rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis.serpins, also called serine proteinase inhibitors, are widely distributed in eukaryotes. in insects, serpins play important roles in regulating immune responses, gut physiology, and other processes. here, we report the cloning and characterization of 12 serpin-like cdnas from the striped rice stem borer (chilo suppressalis), a major rice pest. the putative proteins share significant sequence similarity with known insect serpins, especially those from lepidopterons. analysis of functional domains ...201323957676
mechanism and capacities of reducing ecological cost through rice-duck cultivation.rice-duck cultivation is the essence of chinese traditional agriculture. a scientific assessment of the mechanism and its capacity is of theoretical significance and practical value in improving modern agricultural technology.201323703299
osmpk3 positively regulates the ja signaling pathway and plant resistance to a chewing herbivore in rice.key message : silencing osmpk3 decreased elicited ja levels, which subsequently reduced levels of herbivore-induced trypsin protease inhibitors (tryppis) and improved the performance of ssb larvae, but did not influence bph. mitogen-activated protein kinases (mpks) are known to play an important role in plant defense by transferring biotic and abiotic signals into programmed cellular responses. however, their functions in the herbivore-induced defense response in rice remain largely unknown. her ...201323344857
induction of serotonin accumulation by feeding of rice striped stem borer in rice leaves.tryptophan (trp)-related secondary metabolism has been implicated in the defense against pathogen infection and insect feeding in various gramineous species. recently, we also reported that rice plant accumulated serotonin and tryptamine as well as their amide compounds coupled with phenolic acids in response to the infection by fungal pathogen. these compounds were likely to play an important role in the formation of physical barrier to the invading pathogens. to extend our study to elucidate t ...200819704837
silencing oshi-lox makes rice more susceptible to chewing herbivores, but enhances resistance to a phloem feeder.the jasmonic acid (ja) pathway plays a central role in plant defense responses against insects. some phloem-feeding insects also induce the salicylic acid (sa) pathway, thereby suppressing the plant's ja response. these phenomena have been well studied in dicotyledonous plants, but little is known about them in monocotyledons. we cloned a chloroplast-localized type 2 13-lipoxygenase gene of rice, oshi-lox, whose transcripts were up-regulated in response to feeding by the rice striped stem borer ...200919656341
study on the optimum pheromone release rate for attraction of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae).traditional chemical control against chilo suppressalis walker is currently being replaced in spain by new methods based on pheromones. a key step to improve the efficacy of these methods is the determination of the optimum pheromone release rate, which is still uncertain for this pest. in this work, the pheromone release profile and the field performance of a new mesoporous dispenser was compared with a standard commercial dispenser. for this purpose, pheromone loads were extracted from field-a ...200919610424
distribution of imidacloprid residues in different parts of rice plants and its effect on larvae and adult females of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae).the distribution of imidacloprid residue in different parts of rice, oryza sativa l. (graminales: poaceae), plants was investigated for three rice varieties. changes in larval hormones in chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae) that fed on imidacloprid-treated plant sources and the fecundity of resultant adult females (moths) also were determined. no significant differences in imidacloprid residue were detected in rice stem, leaves, and the unexpanded new leaf 7 d after treatment ex ...200717461061
enzymatic properties of alpha- and beta-glocusidases extracted from midgut and salivary glands of rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker (lepidoptera: pyralidae).the study of digestive enzymes, especially in important pests like chilo suppressalis walker (lepidoptera: pyralidae), which are a key constraint on rice production in a wide area of the globe and also in iran, could be a successful procedure in the development of a safe and useful control strategy. glycosidase are a type of digestive enzymes which have a critical role in the final stages of carbohydrate digestion; they hydrolyze alpha-d-(1,4)-glucose linkage such as p-nitrophenyl-alpha-d-glucos ...200919523603
the characterization of a concentration-sensitive α-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor found on insect immune cells and its possible role in mediating stress hormone effects on immune function.octopamine (oa), the insect equivalent of norepinephrine, links the nervous system and immune system in insects. this study examines the underlying molecular mechanisms (i.e. second messenger systems) mediating oa effects on insect immune cells. at low concentrations (<1μm), oa stimulatedhemocyte spreading and phagocytosis in the larval lepidopteran (caterpillar) chilo suppressalis, whereas at high concentrations (>10 μm), oa inhibited hemocyte spreading and phagocytosis. similarly, oa concentra ...201222561607
characterization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of cnaphalocrocis medinalis and chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae).the complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of cnaphalocrocis medinalis and chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae) were determined and analyzed. the circular genomes were 15,388 bp long for c. medinalis and 15,395 bp long for c. suppressalis. both mitogenomes contained 37 genes, with gene order similar to that of other lepidopterans. notably, 12 protein-coding genes (pcgs) utilized the standard atn, but the cox1 gene used cga as the initiation codon; the cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes in t ...201222532789
expression of the maize proteinase inhibitor (mpi) gene in rice plants enhances resistance against the striped stem borer (chilo suppressalis): effects on larval growth and insect gut proteinases.the maize proteinase inhibitor (mpi) gene was introduced into two elite japonica rice varieties. both constitutive expression of the mpi gene driven by the maize ubiquitin 1 promoter and wound-inducible expression of the mpi gene driven by its own promoter resulted in the accumulation of mpi protein in the transgenic plants. no effect on plant phenotype was observed in mpi-expressing lines. the stability of transgene expression through successive generations of mpi rice lines (up to the t(4) gen ...200517173619
twelve nuclear microsatellite loci for rice stem borer (chilo suppressalis w.).we developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the rice stem borer chilo suppressalis (walker). these loci were screened for 96 individuals from eight populations across china. the total number of alleles ranged from 3 to 33 and the expected heterozygosity at these loci ranged from 0.131 to 0.671. these molecular markers will be useful for fully investigating the population structure and host preference of c. suppressalis at fine spatial scales.200921564596
cloning and characterization of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like genes in the striped rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis.serine proteinases including trypsins and chymotrypsins play various important roles in insects, including food digestion, immune defense, and zymogen activation. studies on insect serine proteinases could reveal their feeding preference (polyphagous and monophagous) and facilitate identification of protease inhibitors, which can be engineered for pest management. in this paper, 11 transcripts encoding trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteins were cloned from the striped rice stem borer, chilo su ...201222432944
the broad-leaf herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid turns rice into a living trap for a major insect pest and a parasitic wasp.synthetic chemical elicitors of plant defense have been touted as a powerful means for sustainable crop protection. yet, they have never been successfully applied to control insect pests in the field. we developed a high-throughput chemical genetics screening system based on a herbivore-induced linalool synthase promoter fused to a β-glucuronidase (gus) reporter construct to test synthetic compounds for their potential to induce rice defenses. we identified 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d) ...201222313362
seasonal expression of bt proteins in transgenic rice lines and the resistance against asiatic rice borer chilo suppressalis (walker).laboratory bioassays and field surveys were carried out to compare the resistance of three transgenic rice (oryza sativa l.) lines including bt-dl expressing a single gene cry1ab, bt-kf6 expressing stacked genes cry1ac and cpti genes and bt-sy63 expressing a fusion gene cry1ab/cry1ac, respectively, to an important rice pest chilo suppressalis (walker). in addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) were conducted to monitor the bt protein expressions in rice leaves and stems at differen ...201122251743
host status of wheat and corn for chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae).host plant specificity depends on recognition of the host and the ability to discriminate it from nonhost plants. chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae), an important insect pest of rice, is considered to be polyphagous, although few papers have ever reported infestation of c. suppressalis on most of the recorded hosts. the present investigation was designed to test whether two important gramineous crops, wheat and corn, are host plants of c. suppressalis based on the host-plant fi ...201022182559
complete mitochondrial genome of chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae).the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the rice stem borer chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae) was determined to be 15,465 bp. it contains 13 protein-coding genes (pcgs), 22 trna genes, the large and small rrna genes, and an a+t-rich region. the nucleotide composition of the mitogenome of c. suppressalis is highly a+t biased, accounting for 79.70% in whole mitogenome, 77.74% in pcgs, 84.70% in trnas, 81.20% in rrnas and 94.19% in a+t-rich region, respe ...201121864029
an ear-motif-containing erf transcription factor affects herbivore-induced signaling, defense and resistance in rice.ethylene responsive factors (erfs) are a large family of plant-specific transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of plant development and stress responses. however, little to nothing is known about their role in herbivore-induced defense. we discovered a nucleus-localized erf gene in rice (oryza sativa), oserf3, that was rapidly up-regulated in response to feeding by the rice striped stem borer (ssb) chilo suppressalis. antisense and over-expression of oserf3 revealed that it po ...201121831212
genome-wide transcriptional changes and defence-related chemical profiling of rice in response to infestation by the rice striped stem borer chilo rice defends itself against pathogen infection is well documented, but little is known about how it defends itself against herbivore attack. we measured changes in the transcriptome and chemical profile of rice when the plant is infested by the striped stem borer (ssb) chilo suppressalis. infestation by ssbs resulted in changes in the expression levels of 4545 rice genes; this number accounts for about 8% of the genome and is made up of 18 functional groups with broad functions. the largest ...201121534978
rna interference of ace1 and ace2 in chilo suppressalis reveals their different contributions to motor ability and larval growth.acetylcholinesterase (ache, ec is a key enzyme in terminating synaptic transmission. we knocked down the expression of csace1 or csace2 using chemically synthesized small interfering rnas (sirnas) designed from divergent regions. the mrna abundance of the two ace genes was reduced to 50-70% of control levels. the enzyme activities were decreased to 40-70%. silencing of csace1 or csace2 resulted in a ~25% mortality rate. knockdown of csace1 had major effects on larval growth inhibition a ...201121518395
activity of ecdysone analogs in enhancing n-acetylglucosamine incorporation into the cultured integument of chilo suppressalis.ecdysone analogs with various side chains at the 17-position of the steroid structure enhanced the incorporation of n-acetylglucosamine as 20-hydroxyecdysone into the cultured integument prepared from chilo suppressalis. their activity in terms of the concentration required to give 50% of the maximum response varied with the structure. piperonyl butoxide, an inhibitor of oxidation metabolism, did not enhance the in vitro effect of the compounds. the order of potency was ponasterone a > 20-hydrox ...19957570713
relationships between body weight of overwintering larvae and supercooling capacity; diapause intensity and post-diapause reproductive potential in chilo suppressalis walker.the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker, overwinters in china as a larva in facultative diapause. the instars and body weights of overwintering larvae vary widely. in this paper, the relationships between body weight and supercooling capacity, diapause intensity and post-diapause reproductive potential of overwintering larvae collected in late-stage rice field were examined. there was a significant positive correlation between body weight, instar, and head capsule width, thus the overwint ...201121192945
synergistic and antagonistic effects of piperonyl butoxide in fipronil-susceptible and resistant rice stem borrers, chilo suppressalis.using the phenylpyrazole insecticide, fipronil for selection in the laboratory, a resistant wenzhou strain of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae) had an ld(50) at least 45.3 times greater than the susceptible anhui strain. the realized resistant heritability (h(2)) of 0.213 showed that the tolerant phenotype was moderately heritable and had potential to develop higher tolerance to fipronil. piperonyl butoxide decreased the effects of fipronil on the mortalit ...201021062143
silicon-mediated rice plant resistance to the asiatic rice borer (lepidoptera: crambidae): effects of silicon amendment and rice varietal resistance.the asiatic rice borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae), is one of the most destructive pests in rice, oryza sativa l., throughout asian countries. the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of applied silicon in mediating rice plant resistance to c. suppressalis in a susceptible (shanyou63) and a moderately resistant (yanfeng47) rice cultivar. silicon-treated plants showed significant increases in silicon content compared with the control. silicon addition signi ...201020857756
[control efficacy of trichogramma japonicum against chilo suppressalis and chilaraea auricilia].in order to understand the relationships of the population increase capacities between egg parasitoid trichogramma japonicum ashmead (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae) and two rice borers chilo suppressalis walker and chilaraea auricilia dudgeon (lepidoptera: pyralidae), and to evaluate the control efficacy of t. japonicum against c. suppressalis and c. auricilia, life table method was adopted to establish the experimental population life tables of the two rice borers and the population fecundity ...201020560333
diapause induction, maintenance and termination in the rice stem borer chilo suppressalis (walker).the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis, enters facultative diapause as fully grown larvae in response to short-day conditions during the autumn. our results showed that the critical night length for diapause induction in c. suppressalis was between 10 h 22 min and 10h 45 min at 22, 25 and 28 degrees c, 11 h 18 min at 31 degrees c, and between 10 h 5 min and 10 h 20 min under field conditions (average temperature ranged from 27.2 to 30.7 degrees c). the diapause incidence declined in ultra-long ...201020546744
responses of striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), from taiwan to a range of insecticides.information on the insecticide susceptibility of striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker), is essential for an effective pest management programme. an early detection of resistance development can prompt the modification of current control methods and increase the lifespan of insecticides through the rotation of chemicals with different modes of action. in this study, the susceptibility of this pest in taiwan to four classes of insecticides has been examined.201020232286
changes of cold hardiness, supercooling capacity, and major cryoprotectants in overwintering larvae of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae).the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker, which is a key rice pest in northern parts of iran, overwinters in rice stubble and weeds as mature larvae. diapause of this pest is initiated between october to november and terminates in march. seasonal variations in the supercooling point, survival at low temperatures, and sugar contents were studied in field-collected larvae during different phases of diapause. ambient temperature was lowest in january and february when larvae were at the highe ...200919791622
mutation in acetylcholinesterase1 associated with triazophos resistance in rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae).two full-length genes encoding different acetylcholinesterases (aches), designated as ch-ace1 and ch-ace2, were cloned from strains of the rice stem borer (chilo suppressalis) susceptible and resistant to the organophosphate insecticide triazophos. sequence analysis found an amino acid mutation a314s in ch-ace1 (corresponding to a201 in torpedo californica ache) that was consistently associated with the occurrence of resistance. this mutation removed an mspa1 i restriction site from the wild typ ...200919028456
differential fipronil susceptibility and metabolism in two rice stem borers from china.the susceptibilities of larvae of two rice stem borers, namely, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae) and sesamia inferens (walker) (lepidoptera: nocutidae) to fipronil and its metabolites were investigated, and then the activities of microsomal o-demethylase, and glutathione transferase (gst) in two species were measured. the metabolism of fipronil in both stem borers was determined in vivo and in vitro. the ld50 value of fipronil to s. inferens was 118.5-fold higher than that of ...200818767755
[dynamic changes of cold-resistant substances of overwintering chilo suppressalis (walker) larvae].aimed to understand the mechanisms of cold-resistance of overwintering chilo suppressalis (walker) larvae at physiological and biochemical levels, the supercooling point (scp) and the contents of water, ash, elements, fat, fatty acid, glycrol, total sugar, and protein in the larvae samples collected at different time were determined. the results showed that the scp and the contents of free water, dissociated fat, total sugar, and protein in the overwintering larvae decreased first and increased ...200818533532
changes in levels of juvenile hormone and molting hormone in larvae and adult females of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae) after imidacloprid applications to rice.insect hormones regulate growth and development and fecundity of insects. the current study investigated changes in juvenile hormone (jh) and molting hormone (mh) levels in fourth instars and adult females of chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae) after imidacloprid application to rice, oryza sativa l. the results showed that jh level in fourth instars that developed feeding on fengyouxiangzhan rice plants sprayed with 15, 30, and 60 ppm imidacloprid was significantly higher than t ...200717849869
effects of diapause and cold-acclimation on the avoidance of freezing injury in fat body tissue of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker.overwintering freeze-tolerant larvae of chilo suppressalis can survive at -25 degrees c, but non-diapausing larvae cannot. we reported earlier that to prevent intracellular freezing, which causes death in overwintering larvae of the saigoku ecotype distributed in southwestern japan, water leaves and glycerol enters fat body cells through water channels during freezing. however, it is still unclear how diapause and low-temperature exposure are related to the acquisition of freeze tolerance. we co ...200717543330
qsar and mode of action studies of insecticidal ecdysone agonists.a series of our sar and qsar studies of synthetic moulting hormone agonists, dibenzoylhydrazines (dbh), exhibiting insecticidal/larvicidal activity are reviewed in this article. we prepared a number of analogues where various substituents are introduced into the two benzene rings of dbh and measured their biological activity using various biological systems. larvicidal activity was against larvae of the rice stem borer chilo suppressalis and the moulting hormone activity was in terms of the stim ...201317365960
seasonal changes in glycerol content and cold hardiness in two ecotypes of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis, exposed to the environment in the shonai district, japan.the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis, is divided into at least two ecotypes in japan, the shonai ecotype (sn) which is distributed in the northern part of japan, and the saigoku ecotype (sg) which is distributed in the southwestern region. cold hardiness is positively correlated with the level of glycerol in both ecotypes. to investigate whether ecological distribution affects glycerol accumulation and cold hardiness development in these two ecotypes, overwintering larvae of the sn and sg eco ...200717336324
methionine-rich storage protein gene in the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis, is expressed during diapause in response to cold acclimation.gene expressions of acclimatized and non-acclimatized diapausing larvae were examined in chilo suppressalis using a subtraction technique. a gene encoding a methionine-rich storage protein, cssp1, was cloned and its complete cdna sequence was determined. potentially, cssp1 encoded a 758-amino acid protein, with a calculated molecular weight of 88.8 kda. the expression level of cssp1 was higher in nondiapausing larvae than in diapausing ones. the cssp1 expression was up-regulated in diapausing la ...200617201777
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