TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
cloning of the heat shock protein 60 gene from the stem borer, chilo suppressalis, and analysis of expression characteristics under heat stress.heat shock protein 60 is an important chaperonin. in this paper, hsp60 of the stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae), was cloned by rt-pcr and rapid amplification of cdna end (race) reactions. the full length cdna of hsp6 degrees consisted of 2142 bp, with an orf of 1719 bp, encoding 572 amino acid residues, with a 5'utr of 158 bp and a 3'utr of 265 bp. cluster analysis confirmed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity with the reported sequences from ...020673188
cloning, expression analysis, and molecular modeling of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor alpha2 subunit gene from the common cutworm, spodoptera litura.intensive research on the molecule structures of the gamma-nminobutyric acid (gaba) receptor in agricultural pests has great significance to the mechanism investigation, resistance prevention, and molecular design of novel pesticides. the gaba receptor a2 (slgabarα2) subunit gene in spodoptera litura (fabricius) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) was cloned using the technologies of reverse transcription pcr and rapid amplification of cdna ends. the gemonic dna sequence of slgabarα2 has 5164 bp with 8 exo ...023909412
serial passage of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of the silkworm, bombyx mori, in larvae of rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis. 19751089731
[study of the structural polypeptides of chilo suppressalis iridescent virus (iridovirus type 6)].we report a procedure for the purification of chilo iridescent virus (iridovirus type 6), an evaluation of the purification procedure, and the results of analyses of the virion proteins by acrylamide gel electrophoresis. purity was evaluated in three ways, i.e., by analysis of purified virions from artificial mixtures of infected and labeled uninfected larvae, electrophoresis at neutral ph, and electron-microscopic examination. analysis of the polypeptides of purified civ gave the following resu ...1979476558
a comparison of the structural polypeptides of three iridescent viruses (types 6, 9, and 16) and the mapping of the dna region coding for their major capsid polypeptides.the iridoviruses from wiseana cervinata (wiv, type 9), costelytra zealandica (cziv, type 16) and chilo suppressalis (civ, type 6) were compared by sds-page and western protein blotting for antigenic determinants. the major capsid proteins were isolated and oligonucleotide probes were synthesized from the partial amino acid sequences. the dna regions coding for the major capsid proteins of wiv (vp52), cziv (vp53) and civ (vp50) were located by hybridization of the oligonucleotide probes to blots ...19921550496
insect resistant rice generated by introduction of a modified delta-endotoxin gene of bacillus a first step towards development of insect resistant rice we have introduced a truncated delta-endotoxin gene, cryia(b) of bacillus thuringiensis (b.t.) which has specific biological activity against lepidopteran insects into a japonica rice. to highly express the cryia(b) gene in rice the coding sequence was extensively modified based on the codon usage of rice genes. transgenic plants efficiently expressed the modified cryia(b) gene at both mrna and protein levels. bioassays using r2 genera ...19937764096
activity of ecdysone analogs in enhancing n-acetylglucosamine incorporation into the cultured integument of chilo suppressalis.ecdysone analogs with various side chains at the 17-position of the steroid structure enhanced the incorporation of n-acetylglucosamine as 20-hydroxyecdysone into the cultured integument prepared from chilo suppressalis. their activity in terms of the concentration required to give 50% of the maximum response varied with the structure. piperonyl butoxide, an inhibitor of oxidation metabolism, did not enhance the in vitro effect of the compounds. the order of potency was ponasterone a > 20-hydrox ...19957570713
ice nucleus production of fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans in relation to its growth characteristics.the effects of culture conditions on the ice nucleus production of fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans isolated from the gut of larvae of the rice stem borer (chilo suppressalis walker) were examined. the ice nucleus production was only affected by cultivation temperature and ph: the optimum temperature and ph were 15 degrees c to 20 degrees c and 4.0 to 6.0, respectively.19968987607
transgenic indica rice breeding line ir58 expressing a synthetic cryia(b) gene from bacillus thuringiensis provides effective insect pest control.the indica rice breeding line ir58 was transformed by particle bombardment with a truncated version of a synthetic cryia(b) gene from bacillus thuringiensis. this gene is expressed under control of the camv 35s promoter and allows efficient production of the lepidopteran specific delta-endotoxin. r0, r1 and r2 generation plants displayed a significant insecticidal effect on several lepidopterous insect pests. feeding studies showed mortality rates of up to 100% for two of the most destructive in ...19969636319
binding of bacillus thuringiensis cry1 toxins to the midgut brush border membrane vesicles of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae): evidence of shared binding sites.binding and competition among cry1aa, cry1ac, and cry1ba toxins were analyzed quantitatively in vitro by using (sup125)i-labeled activated toxins and brush border membrane vesicles isolated from chilo suppressalis larval midguts. the three toxins bound specifically to the midgut brush border membrane vesicles. direct binding experiments showed that cry1aa and cry1ba recognized a single class of binding sites with different affinities, whereas cry1aa recognized two classes of binding sites, one w ...199616535306
binding of bacillus thuringiensis cry1 toxins to the midgut brush border membrane vesicles of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae): evidence of shared binding sites.volume 62, no. 5, p. 1544, abstract, line 4: "cry1aa" should read "cry1ac." [this corrects the article on p. 1544 in vol. 62.].199616535392
molting hormonal and larvicidal activities of aliphatic acyl analogs of dibenzoylhydrazine insecticides.dibenzoylhydrazines are the nonsteroidal ecdysone agonists. using comparative molecular field analysis, we previously found that the alkyl side chain of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20e) is three-dimensionally superposable with one of their two aryl moieties. to identify the aryl moiety that is better superposable on the alkyl chain, we synthesized compounds in which one of the two aryl groups of tebufenozide (n-t-butyl-n-3,5-dimethylbenzoyl-n'-4-ethylbenzoylhydrazine) is replaced by alkyl groups such as ...19979381509
agrobacterium-transformed rice plants expressing synthetic cryia(b) and cryia(c) genes are highly toxic to striped stem borer and yellow stem borer.over 2,600 transgenic rice plants in nine strains were regenerated from >500 independently selected hygromycin-resistant calli after agrobacterium-mediated transformation. the plants were transformed with fully modified (plant codon optimized) versions of two synthetic cryia(b) and cryia(c) coding sequences from bacillus thuringiensis as well as the hph and gus genes, coding for hygromycin phosphotransferase and beta-glucuronidase, respectively. these sequences were placed under control of the m ...19989501164
heritability of tolerance to the cry1ab toxin of bacillus thuringiensis in chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae).heritability of chilo suppressalis (walker) tolerance to the cry1ab toxin of bacillus thuringiensis berliner was estimated using a half-sibling design. artificial diet with and without cry1ab was infested with progenies of 20 males, each mated with 2 females, and mortality was scored 5 d after infestation. the progeny of each female was reared and scored separately. mean mortality of the 20 families on the cry1ab diet was 46.5%. the effects of both male parent and of female parent within male pa ...200014658505
effect of plant age, larval age, and fertilizer treatment on resistance of a cry1ab-transformed aromatic rice to lepidopterous stem borers and foliage feeders.the resistance of vegetative, booting, and flowering stage plants of a variety of an aromatic rice, oryza sativa l., transformed with a bacillus thuringiensis berliner cry1ab gene under control of the maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepc) promoter was evaluated against four lepidopterous rice pests--the stem borers chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae) and scirpophaga incertulas (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae), and the foliage feeders cnaphalocrocis medinalis guenée (lepi ...200010826204
inhibition of [(3)h]ponasterone a binding by ecdysone agonists in the intact sf-9 cell line.ecdysone agonists, including dibenzoylhydrazines, significantly inhibited the binding of [(3)h]ponasterone a ([(3)h]poa) in intact sf-9 cells (spodoptera frugiperda). the amount of [(3)h]poa binding varied in a concentration-dependent manner. according to the ic(50), concentration at which there is 50% inhibition, the order of potency of typical ecdysone agonists is tebufenozide (rh-5992) > methoxyfenozide (rh-2485) > poa > 20-hydroxyecdysone > cyasterone > rh-5849, makisterone a > or = inokoste ...200010978733
relationships between structure and molting hormonal activity of tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide, and their analogs in cultured integument system of chilo suppressalis walker.the molting hormonal activity of methoxyfenozide (rh-2485), tebufenozide (rh-5992), five analogs with various alkyl groups, and 18 acyl analogs was measured by using cultured integument of rice stem borers, chilo suppressalis walker. the hormonal activity of methoxyfenozide was remarkably high (ec(50) = 1.1 x 10(-9) m), being equivalent to that of tebufenozide (rh-5992). the hormonal activity of several tebufenozide analogs with varying alkyl groups such as ch(3), n-c(3)h(7), i-c(3)h(7), n-c(4)h ...200010699589
quantitative structure-activity studies of insect growth regulators: xviii. effects of substituents on the aromatic moiety of dibenzoylhydrazines on larvicidal activity against the colorado potato beetle leptinotarsa decemlineata.larvicidal activity against the colorado potato beetle leptinotarsa decemlineata (say) was measured for a series of n-tert-butyl-dibenzoylhydrazines having various substituents on the benzoyl (a-ring) moiety nearer to the tert-butyl group, with the other benzoyl (b-ring) moiety being unsubstituted. the effects of these substituent on the larvicidal activity were analyzed using classical quantitative structure-activity relationship (qsar) procedures. the effects of substituents on the a-ring moie ...200111561414
field evaluation of resistance of transgenic rice containing a synthetic cry1ab gene from bacillus thuringiensis berliner to two stem borers.two transgenic rice (oryza sativa l.) lines, kmd1 and kmd2 at the r4 generation, transformed with a synthetic cry1ab gene from bacillus thuringiensis berliner, were first evaluated for stem borer resistance in the field during the rice growing season of 1998 in two areas of zhejiang province, china. both kmd1 and kmd2 were highly resistant to the stem borers chilo suppressalis (walker) and scirpophaga incertulas (walker), and were completely undamaged during the whole rice growing season. in con ...200111233125
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of rice with the spider insecticidal gene conferring resistance to leaffolder and striped stem borer.immature embryos of rice varieties "xiushuill" and "chunjiang 11" precultured for 4d were infected and transformed by agrobacterium tumefaciens strain eha101/pext7 (containing the spider insecticidal gene). the resistant calli were transferred onto the differentiation medium and plants were regenerated. the transformation frequency reached 56% approximately 72% measured as numbers of geneticin (g418)-resistant calli produced and 36% approximately 60% measured as numbers of transgenic plants rege ...200111453547
a comparison of techniques for detecting invertebrate iridescent virus 6.the aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and precision of various methods for the detection and quantification of invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (iiv-6) (iridoviridae) isolated from a the stem-boring moth chilo suppressalis, and to apply these techniques to the detection of covert infections in the wax moth, galleria mellonella. the relationship between the virus concentration and absorbance at 260 nm was linear over the range of 1.6 x 10(9)-5.6 x 10(10) particles/ml. tcid(50) assay ...200111576637
field survey and greenhouse evaluation of non-rice host plants of the striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), as refuges for resistance management of rice transformed with bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes. 200212088543
[obtaining stem borer-resistant homozygous transgenic lines of minghui 81 harboring novel cry1ac gene via particle bombardment].a modified cry1ac gene was generated by fusing with lys-asp-glu-lue (kdel), an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal at the 3'-ends, with signal peptide coding sequence of soybean kunitz trypsin inhibitor (skti) at the 5'-ends. vector containing the modified cry1ac gene coding region flanked by the corn ubiquitin 1 promoter and the nopaline synthase gene (nos) terminator with hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene as a plant selection marker was constructed. the modified cry1ac gene in which ...200212096630
monitoring of the pesticide diazinon in soil, stem and surface water of rice fields.diazinon is an organophosphorus insecticide (opp) that is used as a pesticide for chilo suppressalis (wlk) (lep., pyralidae) in rice fields. the extraction of diazinon from soil and the stems of rice plants has been carried out by microwave-assisted extraction (mae) and the results compared with ultrasonic extraction (use). the best parameters for mae are hexane-acetone (8:2 v/v) as a solvent, a 2.5 min extraction time, and 20 ml of the solvent volume. also, surface-water samples of the rice fie ...200212137373
[anther culture generated stem borer-resistance dh lines of minghui 81(oryza sativa l. subsp. indica) expressing modified cry1ac gene].2600 anthers from t0 modified cry1 ac-transgenic rice lines of minghui 81, an elite restoring line of commercial cms indica hybrid rice, were cultured on sk3 media. 83 green plantlets were recovered, 43 double haploid (dh) and 40 haploid among them. results of pcr analyzes indicated that 55 plants of 83 were harbored the cry1ac gene, and the ratio of cry1ac-positive against cry1ac-negative was 2:1 (55/28). 36 putative transgenic dh plants were further confirmed by southern blot. elisa detection ...200212385240
quantitative structure-activity studies of insect growth regulators: xix. effects of substituents on the aromatic moiety of dibenzoylhydrazines on larvicidal activity against the beet armyworm spodoptera exigua.larvicidal activity against the beet armyworm, spodoptera exigua (hübner), was measured after topical treatment for a series of n-tert-butyl-dibenzoylhydrazines having various substituents in the benzoyl (a-ring) moiety closer to the tert-butyl group, the other benzoyl (b-ring) moiety being unsubstituted. the effects of substituents on the larvicidal activity were analyzed using the classical quantitative structure-activity relationship (qsar) procedure. introduction of hydrophobic substituents ...200211852637
molecular cloning, expression analysis and functional confirmation of two ecdysone receptor isoforms from the rice stem borer chilo suppressalis.pcr techniques were used to clone and identify cdnas for ecdysone receptor a and b1 (ecr-a and ecr-b1) isoforms from the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis. they differ only in the n-terminal a/b regions and show high sequence identities to other insects' ecrs. at the wandering stage, ecr-b1 mrna was expressed more abundantly in the midgut than in the epidermis and fat body, whereas expression levels of ecr-a mrna were similar in the three tissues. in the epidermis of the last instar larvae, th ...200212213236
diapause development and acclimation regulating enzymes associated with glycerol synthesis in the shonai ecotype of the rice stem borer larva, chilo suppressalis walker.overwintering larvae of the shonai ecotype of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis, enter diapause in early september and terminate diapause at the end of october. cold acclimation at 0 degrees c did not influence glycerol, trehalose or glycogen content in larvae collected on 22 september. acclimation at 0 degrees c increased the glycerol content and reduced the glycogen content significantly in larvae collected on 2 october and 22 november compared with acclimation at 15 degrees c. these res ...200212770104
seasonal changes in glycerol content and enzyme activities in overwintering larvae of the shonai ecotype of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker.enzymes associated with glycogen metabolism and glycerol synthesis in larvae of the shonai ecotype of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis, were investigated over the winter in 2000-2001. glycerol content was scarcely detected in september and october, rapidly increased in november and december, peaked in january, and then decreased. glycogen was converted to glycerol over the winter until february, and glycerol was reconverted to glycogen in march. the trehalose content remained constant ove ...200212173290
binding affinity of nonsteroidal ecdysone agonists against the ecdysone receptor complex determines the strength of their molting hormonal activity.n-tert-butyl-n,n'-dibenzoylhydrazine and its analogs are nonsteroidal ecdysone agonists that exhibit insect molting hormonal and larvicidal activities. the interaction mode of those ecdysone agonists with the heterodimer of the ecdysone receptor and ultraspiracle has not been fully elucidated. we expressed the ecdysone receptor b1 and the ultraspiracle of the lepidopteran, chilo suppressalis, using an in vitro transcription/translation system and confirmed, using gel-shift assays, that the prote ...200314519121
molecular cloning and expression analysis of ultraspiracle (usp) from the rice stem borer chilo suppressalis.cdna for ultraspiracle (usp) from the lepidopteran rice stem borer chilo suppressalis was cloned using pcr techniques. the deduced amino acid sequence of c. suppressalis usp (csusp) was very similar to those of other lepidopteran usps, especially to the manduca sexta usp-2 isoform. northern hybridization analysis detected a 6.5-kb message in the epidermis, fat body, and midgut of wandering larvae. csusp mrna expression in the epidermis varied little during the last larval instar. gel mobility sh ...200312459199
geographic variation in susceptibility of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae) to bacillus thuringiensis toxins in china.geographic variation in the susceptibility of the striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae), in china to bacillus thuringiensis (bt) insecticidal crystal proteins cry1ac and cry1ab was studied to establish baseline information for comparing the future response of populations with increased exposure to bt products. rice is the major host of c. suppressalis, and bt rice ma) be released in china in the near future. twelve populations of the pest were collected from th ...200314977124
bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin binding to brush border membrane vesicles of rice stem borers.the receptor binding step in the molecular mode of action of five delta-endotoxins (cry1ab, cry1ac, cry1c, cry2a, and cry9c) from bacillus thuringiensis was examined to find toxins with different receptor sites in the midgut of the striped stem borer (ssb) chilo suppressalis (walker) and yellow stem borer (ysb) scirpophaga incertulas (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae). homologous competition assays were used to estimate binding affinities (k(com)) of (125)i-labelled toxins to brush border membran ...200415027071
[techniques of diseases, insect pests and weeds control and their efficacy in bio-rational rice production].studies on the efficacy of bio-rational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases, insect pests and weeds of rice showed that the efficacy of the mixtures of jingangmycin and bacillus-cereus, and jingangmycin and polyoxin against rice sheath blight were 75.16%-94.27% after sprayed once at the tiller and boot end stages of rice, respectively, and better than that of chemical fungicide triadimefon. the efficacy of kasugamycin and blasticidin was 50.54%-72.67% on rice leaf blas ...200415139200
[krigle estimation and its simulated sampling of chilo suppressalis population density].in order to draw up a rational sampling plan for the larvae population of chilo suppressalis, an original population and its two derivative populations, random population and sequence population, were sampled and compared with random sampling, gap-range-random sampling, and a new systematic sampling integrated krigle interpolation and random original position. as for the original population whose distribution was up to aggregative and dependence range in line direction was 115 cm (6.9 units), ga ...200415506091
bt rice harbouring cry genes controlled by a constitutive or wound-inducible promoter: protection and transgene expression under mediterranean field homozygous transgenic lines of two european commercial cultivars of rice (ariete (a) and senia (s)), harbouring the cry1b or cry1aa bacillus thuringiensis (bt) delta-endotoxin genes, were field evaluated for protection from striped stem borer (ssb) (chilo suppressalis) damage during the 2001 and 2002 summer crop seasons in the delta de l'ebre region, spain. the plant codon-optimized toxin gene was placed under the control of the promoter of either the constitutive ubi1 gene or the wound-in ...200417168888
[spatial distribution pattern of chilo suppressalis analyzed by classical method and geostatistics].two original samples of chilo suppressalis and their grid, random and sequence samples were analyzed by classical method and geostatistics to characterize the spatial distribution pattern of c. suppressalis. the limitations of spatial distribution analysis with classical method, especially influenced by the original position of grid, were summarized rather completely. on the contrary, geostatistics characterized well the spatial distribution pattern, congregation intensity and spatial heterogene ...200415334955
stereoselective synthesis of (22r)- and (22s)-castasterone/ponasterone a hybrid compounds and evaluation of their molting hormone activity.two stereoisomers of a castasterone/ponasterone a hybrid compound, the (20r,22r) and (20r,22s)-isomers of 2alpha,3alpha,20,22-tetrahydroxy-5alpha-cholestan-6-one, were synthesized stereoselectively and their binding activity to the ecdysteroid receptor was determined. from the concentration-response curve for the inhibition of the incorporation of tritiated ponasterone a into ecdysteroid receptor containing insect cells, the concentration (ic50) required to inhibit 50% of the incorporation of ra ...200415246778
expression of the maize proteinase inhibitor (mpi) gene in rice plants enhances resistance against the striped stem borer (chilo suppressalis): effects on larval growth and insect gut proteinases.the maize proteinase inhibitor (mpi) gene was introduced into two elite japonica rice varieties. both constitutive expression of the mpi gene driven by the maize ubiquitin 1 promoter and wound-inducible expression of the mpi gene driven by its own promoter resulted in the accumulation of mpi protein in the transgenic plants. no effect on plant phenotype was observed in mpi-expressing lines. the stability of transgene expression through successive generations of mpi rice lines (up to the t(4) gen ...200517173619
[study on identification, colonization and reorganization of rice endophytic bacteria].endophytic sr-15, sr-25 and sl-37 strains screened from rice hybrid d you 527 in sichuan were analyzed. through penetration and microscopic test, the strains were found be mainly located in the cell gap, vacuole and cytoplasm. puc18 transferring and eric-pcr showed that the recombination strain sr-15 could grow in the plant stably. the strain was identified as bacillus halmapalus based on its chemical components of cell wall, physiological and biochemical characters. it was also shown that the s ...200516416963
[geostatistical analysis on temporal patterns of chilo suppressalis population].the geostatistical analysis on the temporal patterns of chilo suppressalis population in the dingcheng district of changde city, hunan province from 1960 to 2001 indicated that the data series of the total number and the numbers of 1st generation, 2nd generation, and over-wintering larvae from year to year displayed better autocorrelation and prediction, especially for the total number, whose autocorrelation range and degree were 10.3 years and 91.1%, respectively. the data series of generation ...200616836100
cloning of heat shock protein genes (hsp90 and hsc70) and their expression during larval diapause and cold tolerance acquisition in the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker.the complete cdna sequences of heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and of heat shock cognate protein 70 (hsc70) were cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker. they potentially encode a 717-amino-acids (hsp90) and a 652-amino-acids (hsc70) protein, with calculated molecular weight of 82.5 and 71.3 kda, respectively. the deduced amino acid sequence of hsp90 showed the highest homology of 97.2% to spodoptera frugiperda hsp90. the closes ...200616921518
high-throughput screening of ecdysone agonists using a reporter gene assay followed by 3-d qsar analysis of the molting hormonal this study, 172 diacylhydrazine analogs were examined for their ability to activate an ecdysone (molting hormone)-dependent reporter gene in a silkworm (bombyx mori) cell-based high-throughput screening assay. the measured ec(50) values (concentration required to cause an effect in 50% of the cells) were used to construct a 3-d qsar model that describes the ecdysone agonist activities of the diacylhydrazine analogs. of these compounds, 14 exhibited no activity and were excluded from the 3-d q ...200616249087
role of membrane transport of water and glycerol in the freeze tolerance of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker (lepidoptera: pyralidae).overwintering larvae of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis accumulate glycerol and are freezing tolerant to about -25 degrees c. however, non-diapausing larvae cannot accumulate glycerol and are killed by freezing. we compared the extent of tissue damage, the effects of glycerol concentration, and the transport of glycerol and water in fat body tissues from these larvae at selected freezing temperatures. tissues from overwintering larvae, but not non-diapausing larvae, survive when frozen a ...200616359699
methionine-rich storage protein gene in the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis, is expressed during diapause in response to cold acclimation.gene expressions of acclimatized and non-acclimatized diapausing larvae were examined in chilo suppressalis using a subtraction technique. a gene encoding a methionine-rich storage protein, cssp1, was cloned and its complete cdna sequence was determined. potentially, cssp1 encoded a 758-amino acid protein, with a calculated molecular weight of 88.8 kda. the expression level of cssp1 was higher in nondiapausing larvae than in diapausing ones. the cssp1 expression was up-regulated in diapausing la ...200617201777
seasonal changes in glycerol content and cold hardiness in two ecotypes of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis, exposed to the environment in the shonai district, japan.the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis, is divided into at least two ecotypes in japan, the shonai ecotype (sn) which is distributed in the northern part of japan, and the saigoku ecotype (sg) which is distributed in the southwestern region. cold hardiness is positively correlated with the level of glycerol in both ecotypes. to investigate whether ecological distribution affects glycerol accumulation and cold hardiness development in these two ecotypes, overwintering larvae of the sn and sg eco ...200717336324
changes in levels of juvenile hormone and molting hormone in larvae and adult females of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae) after imidacloprid applications to rice.insect hormones regulate growth and development and fecundity of insects. the current study investigated changes in juvenile hormone (jh) and molting hormone (mh) levels in fourth instars and adult females of chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae) after imidacloprid application to rice, oryza sativa l. the results showed that jh level in fourth instars that developed feeding on fengyouxiangzhan rice plants sprayed with 15, 30, and 60 ppm imidacloprid was significantly higher than t ...200717849869
effects of diapause and cold-acclimation on the avoidance of freezing injury in fat body tissue of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker.overwintering freeze-tolerant larvae of chilo suppressalis can survive at -25 degrees c, but non-diapausing larvae cannot. we reported earlier that to prevent intracellular freezing, which causes death in overwintering larvae of the saigoku ecotype distributed in southwestern japan, water leaves and glycerol enters fat body cells through water channels during freezing. however, it is still unclear how diapause and low-temperature exposure are related to the acquisition of freeze tolerance. we co ...200717543330
distribution of imidacloprid residues in different parts of rice plants and its effect on larvae and adult females of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae).the distribution of imidacloprid residue in different parts of rice, oryza sativa l. (graminales: poaceae), plants was investigated for three rice varieties. changes in larval hormones in chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae) that fed on imidacloprid-treated plant sources and the fecundity of resultant adult females (moths) also were determined. no significant differences in imidacloprid residue were detected in rice stem, leaves, and the unexpanded new leaf 7 d after treatment ex ...200717461061
analysis of rice genes induced by striped stemborer (chilo suppressalis) attack identified a promoter fragment highly specifically responsive to insect feeding.the objective of this study was to identify rice gene promoters that are specifically induced by feeding of the striped stemborer (chilo suppressalis). two pcr-selected cdna subtractive libraries were constructed from the rice variety minghui 63. up- and down-regulated cdnas induced by c. suppressalis feeding were arrayed on nylon membranes. after array hybridization and northern blot analysis, a cdna (b1-a04) encoding a putative subtilisin/chymotrypsin inhibitor was found to be rapidly and high ...200717522952
a potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor gene provides pathogen resistance in transgenic rice.a defensive role against insect attack has been traditionally attributed to plant protease inhibitors. here, evidence is described of the potential of a plant protease inhibitor, the potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (pci), to provide resistance to fungal pathogens when expressed in rice as a heterologous protein. it is shown that rice plants constitutively expressing the pci gene exhibit resistance against the economically important pathogens magnaporthe oryzae and fusarium verticillioides. a m ...200717547659
[expression and insecticidal activity of a novel gene cry2ab4 from bacillus thuringiensis strain b-pr-88].the full length cry2ab gene was cloned by pcr-rflp method from bt strain b-pr-88, which was isolated in china with high toxicity to the lepidopteran insect pests. nucleic acid sequence analysis showed that this gene was 1902 base pairs encoding 633 amino acids. this cry gene was named cry2ab4 as a novel gene by bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxin nomenclature committee. the full open reading frame sequence of the cry2ab4 gene was amplified with a pair of pcr primers l2ab5/l2ab3 designed accor ...200717822035
survey of susceptibilities to monosultap, triazophos, fipronil, and abamectin in chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae).to provide a foundation for national resistance management of the asiatic rice borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae), a study was carried out to determine dose-response and susceptibility changes over a 5-yr period in the insect from representative rice, oryza sativa l., production regions. in total, 11 populations were collected from 2002 to 2006 in seven rice-growing provinces in china, and they were used to examine their susceptibility levels to monosultap, triazophos, f ...200718232403
cloning and characterization of a novel cry1a toxin from bacillus thuringiensis with high toxicity to the asian corn borer and other lepidopteran insects.a novel cry1a was cloned from bacillus thuringiensis strain bt8 and expressed in the b. thuringiensis acrystalliferous mutant hd73(-). the gene, designated cry1ah1, encoded a protein with a molecular weight of 134 kda. reverse transcriptase-pcr and western blotting showed that cry1ah was expressed in the host strain bt8. the toxin expressed in hd73(-) exhibited high toxicity against lepidopteran larvae of ostrinia furnacalis, helicoverpa armigera, chilo suppressalis, and plutella xylostella. the ...200818248430
effect of transgenic bacillus thuringiensis rice lines on mortality and feeding behavior of rice stem borers (lepidoptera: crambidae).ten transgenic bacillus thuringiensis bt rice, oryza sativa l., lines with different bt genes (two cry1ac lines, three cry2a lines, and five cry9c lines) derived from the same variety minghui 63 were evaluated in both the laboratory and the field. bioassays were conducted by using the first instars of two main rice lepidopteran insect species: yellow stem borer, scirpophaga incertulas (walker) and asiatic rice borer, chilo suppressalis (walker). all transgenic lines exhibited high toxicity to th ...200818330134
population genetic structure of chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae): strong subdivision in china inferred from microsatellite markers and mtdna gene sequences.chilo suppressalis (walker) displays significant geographical differences in ecological preference that may be congruent with patterns of molecular variation. to test this, we collected and analysed 381 individuals of this species from cultivated rice at 18 localities in china during the rice-growing season of 2005-2006. we used four microsatellite dna markers and four mitochondrial dna gene fragments. we found that this species is highly differentiated, coupled with an estimated population expa ...200818482260
do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?the rice water weevil (rww) lissorhoptrus oryzophilus kuschel (coleoptera: curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice oryza sativa l. in china. little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. in the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae) and pink stem borer sesamia inferens (walker) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status ...200818600788
evaluation of bt (bacillus thuringiensis) rice varieties against stem borer (chilo suppressalis).three transgenic rice varieties namely khazar, neda and nemat, all containing a cry1ab gene, were evaluated through pcr analysis and field examinations for their resistance at natural infestation of insect pests during 2007. the results showed that all transgenic varieties produced 1.2 kb pcr product derived from application of cry1ab gene. in field conditions, transgenic varieties exhibited high levels of resistance against natural infestation of stem borer and the damaged plants based on dead ...200818817142
population dynamics of sesamia inferens on transgenic rice expressing cry1ac and cpti in southern china.genetically modified insect-resistant rice lines containing the cry1ac gene from bacillus thuringiensis (bt) or the cpti (cowpea trypsin inhibitor) gene developed for the management of lepidopterous pests are highly resistant to the major target pests, chilo suppressalis (walker), cnaphalocrocis medinalis (guenée), and scirpophaga incertulas (walker), in the main rice-growing areas of china. however, the effects of these transgenic lines on sesamia inferens (walker), an important lepidopterous r ...200819036217
comparison of dose responses and resistance ratios in four populations of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), to 20 insecticides.chemical control is a major strategy for suppressing the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker). owing to their high toxicity and increasing resistance development in the target insect, many insecticides will be phased out entirely in 2007 in china. alternatives with relatively low toxicity are urgently needed to replace traditional chemicals for rice stem borer control. in this study, the authors examined four field populations of c. suppressalis for their toxicological responses to more ...200818172878
induction of serotonin accumulation by feeding of rice striped stem borer in rice leaves.tryptophan (trp)-related secondary metabolism has been implicated in the defense against pathogen infection and insect feeding in various gramineous species. recently, we also reported that rice plant accumulated serotonin and tryptamine as well as their amide compounds coupled with phenolic acids in response to the infection by fungal pathogen. these compounds were likely to play an important role in the formation of physical barrier to the invading pathogens. to extend our study to elucidate t ...200819704837
differential fipronil susceptibility and metabolism in two rice stem borers from china.the susceptibilities of larvae of two rice stem borers, namely, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae) and sesamia inferens (walker) (lepidoptera: nocutidae) to fipronil and its metabolites were investigated, and then the activities of microsomal o-demethylase, and glutathione transferase (gst) in two species were measured. the metabolism of fipronil in both stem borers was determined in vivo and in vitro. the ld50 value of fipronil to s. inferens was 118.5-fold higher than that of ...200818767755
[dynamic changes of cold-resistant substances of overwintering chilo suppressalis (walker) larvae].aimed to understand the mechanisms of cold-resistance of overwintering chilo suppressalis (walker) larvae at physiological and biochemical levels, the supercooling point (scp) and the contents of water, ash, elements, fat, fatty acid, glycrol, total sugar, and protein in the larvae samples collected at different time were determined. the results showed that the scp and the contents of free water, dissociated fat, total sugar, and protein in the overwintering larvae decreased first and increased ...200818533532
silencing oshi-lox makes rice more susceptible to chewing herbivores, but enhances resistance to a phloem feeder.the jasmonic acid (ja) pathway plays a central role in plant defense responses against insects. some phloem-feeding insects also induce the salicylic acid (sa) pathway, thereby suppressing the plant's ja response. these phenomena have been well studied in dicotyledonous plants, but little is known about them in monocotyledons. we cloned a chloroplast-localized type 2 13-lipoxygenase gene of rice, oshi-lox, whose transcripts were up-regulated in response to feeding by the rice striped stem borer ...200919656341
study on the optimum pheromone release rate for attraction of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae).traditional chemical control against chilo suppressalis walker is currently being replaced in spain by new methods based on pheromones. a key step to improve the efficacy of these methods is the determination of the optimum pheromone release rate, which is still uncertain for this pest. in this work, the pheromone release profile and the field performance of a new mesoporous dispenser was compared with a standard commercial dispenser. for this purpose, pheromone loads were extracted from field-a ...200919610424
enzymatic properties of alpha- and beta-glocusidases extracted from midgut and salivary glands of rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker (lepidoptera: pyralidae).the study of digestive enzymes, especially in important pests like chilo suppressalis walker (lepidoptera: pyralidae), which are a key constraint on rice production in a wide area of the globe and also in iran, could be a successful procedure in the development of a safe and useful control strategy. glycosidase are a type of digestive enzymes which have a critical role in the final stages of carbohydrate digestion; they hydrolyze alpha-d-(1,4)-glucose linkage such as p-nitrophenyl-alpha-d-glucos ...200919523603
twelve nuclear microsatellite loci for rice stem borer (chilo suppressalis w.).we developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the rice stem borer chilo suppressalis (walker). these loci were screened for 96 individuals from eight populations across china. the total number of alleles ranged from 3 to 33 and the expected heterozygosity at these loci ranged from 0.131 to 0.671. these molecular markers will be useful for fully investigating the population structure and host preference of c. suppressalis at fine spatial scales.200921564596
mutation in acetylcholinesterase1 associated with triazophos resistance in rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae).two full-length genes encoding different acetylcholinesterases (aches), designated as ch-ace1 and ch-ace2, were cloned from strains of the rice stem borer (chilo suppressalis) susceptible and resistant to the organophosphate insecticide triazophos. sequence analysis found an amino acid mutation a314s in ch-ace1 (corresponding to a201 in torpedo californica ache) that was consistently associated with the occurrence of resistance. this mutation removed an mspa1 i restriction site from the wild typ ...200919028456
changes of cold hardiness, supercooling capacity, and major cryoprotectants in overwintering larvae of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae).the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker, which is a key rice pest in northern parts of iran, overwinters in rice stubble and weeds as mature larvae. diapause of this pest is initiated between october to november and terminates in march. seasonal variations in the supercooling point, survival at low temperatures, and sugar contents were studied in field-collected larvae during different phases of diapause. ambient temperature was lowest in january and february when larvae were at the highe ...200919791622
development of insect-resistant transgenic rice with cry1c*-free endosperm.yellow stem borer (tryporyza incertulas walker), striped stem borer (chilo suppressalis walker) and leaf folder (cnaphalocrocis medinalis guenec) are three lepidopteran pests that cause severe damage to rice in many areas of the world. in this study, novel insect-resistant transgenic rice was developed in which bt protein expression was nearly absent in the endosperm. the resistant gene, cry1c*, driven by the rice rbcs promoter (small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), ...200919479952
cloning, expression and functional analysis of a general odorant-binding protein 2 gene of the rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae).a full-length cdna encoding a general odorant binding protein 2 (gobp2) was cloned from the antennae of the rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), by the combination of reverse transcription pcr (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna ends pcr (race-pcr). the cdna contains a 489 bp open reading frame, which encodes a 162 amino acid protein, termed as ch. suppressalis gobp2 (csupgobp2). csupgobp2 is similar in the number of amino acids and protein sequence to gobp2 ...200919523072
diazinon resistance in different selected strains of chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae) in northern iran.asiatic rice borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae), is a cosmopolitan and destructive pest in rice fields of the world. this pest was reported in 1973 in iran, and it has since spread widely in rice, oryza sativa l., fields throughout the country. in this study, we tried to evaluate comparative toxicity of diazinon in five colonies of c. suppressalis, collected from babol (ba), amol (am) of mazandaran province and rasht (ra), sheikhmahale (sh), and gourabzarmikh (go) of gui ...200919610437
seasonal changes in supercooling points and glycerol content in overwintering larvae of the asiatic rice borer from rice and water-oat plants.the asiatic rice borer chilo suppressalis (walker) occurs mainly on rice oryza sativa l. and water-oat zizania latifolia (turcz). certain ecological and physiological differentiations between rice and water-oat populations have been shown. to determine whether there is host-associated differentiation in supercooling capacity, seasonal changes in supercooling points, glycerol content, and other physiological parameters of naturally occurring c. suppressalis larvae overwintering in rice and water- ...200919689898
transgenic rice plants expressing a modified cry1ca1 gene are resistant to spodoptera litura and chilo suppressalis.nucleotide sequence encoding the truncated insecticidal cry1ca1 protein from bacillus thuringiensis was extensively modified based on the codon usage of rice genes. the overall g + c contents of the synthetic cry1ca1 coding sequence were raised to 65% with an additional bias of enriching for g and c ending codons as preferred by monocots. the synthetic gene was introduced into the chinese japonica variety, xiushui 11, by agrobacterium-mediated transformation. transgenic rice plants harboring thi ...200919760523
insecticidal activity of camptothecin against nilaparvata lugens, brevicoryne brassicae, and chilo suppressalis.greenhouse tests showed that 0.2% camptothecin emulsifiable concentrate (ec) has strong contact toxicity to three agricultural pests, with lc50 and lc90 values of 0.1-0.6 and 0.4-5.0 mg liter(-1), respectively. the descending order of susceptibility was nilaparvata lugens (ståhl) > brevicoryne brassicae (l.) > chilo suppressalis (walker). field tests showed that the corrected mortality of b. brassicae and n. lugens was 94.6 and 69.1%, respectively, which was not significantly different from that ...201020429466
screen of bacillus thuringiensis toxins for transgenic rice to control sesamia inferens and chilo suppressalis.transgenic rice to control stem borer damage is under development in china. to assess the potential of bacillus thuringiensis (bt) transgenes in stem borer control, the toxicity of five bt protoxins (cry1aa, cry1ab, cry1ac, cry1ba and cry1ca) against two rice stem borers, sesamia inferens (pink stem borer) and chilo suppressalis (striped stem borer), was evaluated in the laboratory by feeding neonate larvae on artificial diets containing bt protoxins. the results indicated that cry1ca exhibited ...201020452358
transgenic rice plants expressing a fused protein of cry1ab/vip3h has resistance to rice stem borers under laboratory and field conditions.six transgenic rice, oryza sativa l., lines (g6h1, g6h2, g6h3, g6h4, g6h5, and g6h6) expressing a fused cry1ab/vip3h protein, were evaluated for resistance against the asiatic rice borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae), and the stem borer sesamia inferens (walker) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) in the laboratory and field. the bioassay results indicated that the mortality of asiatic rice borer and s. inferens neonate larvae on six transgenic lines from seedling to filling stage w ...201020857760
characterization of vegetative insecticidal protein vip genes of bacillus thuringiensis from sichuan basin in china.vegetative insecticidal proteins (vip), the second generation of insecticides, are produced during the vegetative growth stage of bacillus thuringiensis (bt). to perform a systematic study of vip genes in bt strains from different ecological regions of sichuan basin, 1,789 soil samples were collected from this basin, which is situated in the western region of china. the basin has a complicated geomorphology and contains mountains, forests, highlands, hursts, and plains. a total of 2,134 bt strai ...201020963416
synergistic and antagonistic effects of piperonyl butoxide in fipronil-susceptible and resistant rice stem borrers, chilo suppressalis.using the phenylpyrazole insecticide, fipronil for selection in the laboratory, a resistant wenzhou strain of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae) had an ld(50) at least 45.3 times greater than the susceptible anhui strain. the realized resistant heritability (h(2)) of 0.213 showed that the tolerant phenotype was moderately heritable and had potential to develop higher tolerance to fipronil. piperonyl butoxide decreased the effects of fipronil on the mortalit ...201021062143
silicon-mediated rice plant resistance to the asiatic rice borer (lepidoptera: crambidae): effects of silicon amendment and rice varietal resistance.the asiatic rice borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae), is one of the most destructive pests in rice, oryza sativa l., throughout asian countries. the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of applied silicon in mediating rice plant resistance to c. suppressalis in a susceptible (shanyou63) and a moderately resistant (yanfeng47) rice cultivar. silicon-treated plants showed significant increases in silicon content compared with the control. silicon addition signi ...201020857756
[control efficacy of trichogramma japonicum against chilo suppressalis and chilaraea auricilia].in order to understand the relationships of the population increase capacities between egg parasitoid trichogramma japonicum ashmead (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae) and two rice borers chilo suppressalis walker and chilaraea auricilia dudgeon (lepidoptera: pyralidae), and to evaluate the control efficacy of t. japonicum against c. suppressalis and c. auricilia, life table method was adopted to establish the experimental population life tables of the two rice borers and the population fecundity ...201020560333
diapause induction, maintenance and termination in the rice stem borer chilo suppressalis (walker).the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis, enters facultative diapause as fully grown larvae in response to short-day conditions during the autumn. our results showed that the critical night length for diapause induction in c. suppressalis was between 10 h 22 min and 10h 45 min at 22, 25 and 28 degrees c, 11 h 18 min at 31 degrees c, and between 10 h 5 min and 10 h 20 min under field conditions (average temperature ranged from 27.2 to 30.7 degrees c). the diapause incidence declined in ultra-long ...201020546744
responses of striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), from taiwan to a range of insecticides.information on the insecticide susceptibility of striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker), is essential for an effective pest management programme. an early detection of resistance development can prompt the modification of current control methods and increase the lifespan of insecticides through the rotation of chemicals with different modes of action. in this study, the susceptibility of this pest in taiwan to four classes of insecticides has been examined.201020232286
host status of wheat and corn for chilo suppressalis (lepidoptera: crambidae).host plant specificity depends on recognition of the host and the ability to discriminate it from nonhost plants. chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae), an important insect pest of rice, is considered to be polyphagous, although few papers have ever reported infestation of c. suppressalis on most of the recorded hosts. the present investigation was designed to test whether two important gramineous crops, wheat and corn, are host plants of c. suppressalis based on the host-plant fi ...201022182559
complete mitochondrial genome of chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae).the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the rice stem borer chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: crambidae) was determined to be 15,465 bp. it contains 13 protein-coding genes (pcgs), 22 trna genes, the large and small rrna genes, and an a+t-rich region. the nucleotide composition of the mitogenome of c. suppressalis is highly a+t biased, accounting for 79.70% in whole mitogenome, 77.74% in pcgs, 84.70% in trnas, 81.20% in rrnas and 94.19% in a+t-rich region, respe ...201121864029
an ear-motif-containing erf transcription factor affects herbivore-induced signaling, defense and resistance in rice.ethylene responsive factors (erfs) are a large family of plant-specific transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of plant development and stress responses. however, little to nothing is known about their role in herbivore-induced defense. we discovered a nucleus-localized erf gene in rice (oryza sativa), oserf3, that was rapidly up-regulated in response to feeding by the rice striped stem borer (ssb) chilo suppressalis. antisense and over-expression of oserf3 revealed that it po ...201121831212
genome-wide transcriptional changes and defence-related chemical profiling of rice in response to infestation by the rice striped stem borer chilo rice defends itself against pathogen infection is well documented, but little is known about how it defends itself against herbivore attack. we measured changes in the transcriptome and chemical profile of rice when the plant is infested by the striped stem borer (ssb) chilo suppressalis. infestation by ssbs resulted in changes in the expression levels of 4545 rice genes; this number accounts for about 8% of the genome and is made up of 18 functional groups with broad functions. the largest ...201121534978
rna interference of ace1 and ace2 in chilo suppressalis reveals their different contributions to motor ability and larval growth.acetylcholinesterase (ache, ec is a key enzyme in terminating synaptic transmission. we knocked down the expression of csace1 or csace2 using chemically synthesized small interfering rnas (sirnas) designed from divergent regions. the mrna abundance of the two ace genes was reduced to 50-70% of control levels. the enzyme activities were decreased to 40-70%. silencing of csace1 or csace2 resulted in a ~25% mortality rate. knockdown of csace1 had major effects on larval growth inhibition a ...201121518395
relationships between body weight of overwintering larvae and supercooling capacity; diapause intensity and post-diapause reproductive potential in chilo suppressalis walker.the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker, overwinters in china as a larva in facultative diapause. the instars and body weights of overwintering larvae vary widely. in this paper, the relationships between body weight and supercooling capacity, diapause intensity and post-diapause reproductive potential of overwintering larvae collected in late-stage rice field were examined. there was a significant positive correlation between body weight, instar, and head capsule width, thus the overwint ...201121192945
seasonal expression of bt proteins in transgenic rice lines and the resistance against asiatic rice borer chilo suppressalis (walker).laboratory bioassays and field surveys were carried out to compare the resistance of three transgenic rice (oryza sativa l.) lines including bt-dl expressing a single gene cry1ab, bt-kf6 expressing stacked genes cry1ac and cpti genes and bt-sy63 expressing a fusion gene cry1ab/cry1ac, respectively, to an important rice pest chilo suppressalis (walker). in addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) were conducted to monitor the bt protein expressions in rice leaves and stems at differen ...201122251743
relationships between exogenous-toxin quantity and increased biomass of transgenic bt crops under elevated carbon dioxide.field-otc experiments were conducted with the goals of ascertaining if increased biomass in bt transgenic cotton and rice grown under elevated co(2) results in diminished exogenous-bt toxin, and assessing the effectiveness of bt transgenes against lepidopteran pests. bt cotton responded differently, in terms of bt-toxin quantity, than bt rice, and both indicated differences among developmental stages. dramatic biomass increase significantly diluted bt-toxin content in 45-das ("days after seedlin ...201121349582
development and characterisation of transgenic rice expressing two bacillus thuringiensis genes.transgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins from the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis berliner (bt) were first commercialised in 1996. the risk that pests have the potential to evolve resistance to bt toxins is one of the most serious challenges to this technology. gene stacking, pyramiding two bt genes into one variety, is considered to be an effective insect resistance management (irm) strategy. in this study, insect-resistant rice expressing two bt genes was developed by sexual crossing ...201121394874
Rapid detection of vip1-type genes from Bacillus cereus and characterization of a novel vip binary toxin gene.A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for identifying vegetative insecticidal protein (vip) 1-type genes from Bacillus cereus was developed by designing specific primers based on the conserved regions of the genes to amplify vip1-type gene fragments. PCR products were digested with endonuclease AciI, and four known vip1-type genes were identified. Vip1Ac and vip1Aa-type genes appeared in 17 of 26 B. cereus strains. A novel vip1-type gene, vip1Ac1, was identified from B ...201122092859
the chloroplast-localized phospholipases d α4 and α5 regulate herbivore-induced direct and indirect defenses in rice.the oxylipin pathway is of central importance for plant defensive responses. yet, the first step of the pathway, the liberation of linolenic acid following induction, is poorly understood. phospholipases d (plds) have been hypothesized to mediate this process, but data from arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana) regarding the role of plds in plant resistance have remained controversial. here, we cloned two chloroplast-localized pld genes from rice (oryza sativa), ospldα4 and ospldα5, both of which w ...201121984727
molecular characterization of the sigma class gutathione s-transferase from chilo suppressalis and expression analysis upon bacterial and insecticidal challenge.the insect glutathione s-transferases (gsts) play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotic compounds and are related to insecticides resistance. the full-length cdna sequences encoding the sigma class gst protein (csgstsigma) was cloned from the asiatic rice borer, chilo suppressalis (walker), one of the most important rice pests in asia. the comparison of amino acid sequences showed that csgstsigma is highly similar to the sigma gst isolated from the domestic silkworm, bombyx mori ...201122299369
molecular characterization of ephestia kuehniella (lepidoptera: pyralidae) transferrin and its response to parasitoid venturia canescens (hymenoptera: ichneumonidae gravenhorst).in the present study, we characterized a full-length cdna encoding a putative iron-binding protein transferrin from the lepidopteran mediterranean flour moth (ektrf, 2397 bp). the putative ektrf is 683 amino acids with a molecular mass of approximately 76 kda. the deduced amino acid sequence showed significant homology with other insect transferrins from chilo suppressalis (76%), galleria mellonella (75%), plutella xylostella (72%), manduca sexta (74%), bombyx mori (73%), spodoptera litura and ( ...201222229520
the rice hydroperoxide lyase oshpl3 functions in defense responses by modulating the oxylipin important signal molecules, jasmonates (jas) and green leaf volatiles (glvs) play diverse roles in plant defense responses against insect pests and pathogens. however, how plants employ their specific defense responses by modulating the levels of ja and glvs remains unclear. here, we describe identification of a role for the rice hpl3 gene, which encodes a hydroperoxide lyase (hpl), oshpl3/cyp74b2, in mediating plant-specific defense responses. the loss-of-function mutant hpl3-1 produced dise ...201222519706
validation of reference genes for quantitative expression analysis by real-time rt-pcr in four lepidopteran insects.quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) is an efficient and widely used technique to monitor gene expression. housekeeping genes (hkgs) are often empirically selected as the reference genes for data normalization. however, the suitability of hkgs used as the reference genes has been seldom validated. here, six hkgs were chosen (actin a3, actin a1, gapdh, g3pdh, e2f, rp49) in four lepidopteran insects bombyx mori l. (lepidoptera: bombycidae), plutella xylostella l. (plutellidae), ...201222938136
co-expression and synergism analysis of vip3aa29 and cyt2aa3 insecticidal proteins from bacillus thuringiensis.vegetative insecticidal protein (vip3) from bacillus thuringiensis shows high activity against lepidopteran insects. cytolytic δ-endotoxin (cyt) also has high toxicity to dipteran larvae and synergism with other crystal proteins (cry), but synergism between cyt and vip3 proteins has not been tested. we analyzed for synergism between cyt2aa3 and vip3aa29. both cyt2aa3 and vip3aa29 genes were co-expressed in escherichia coli strain bl21 carried on vector pcoladuet-1. vip3aa29 showed insecticidal a ...201222218570
exploring the midgut transcriptome and brush border membrane vesicle proteome of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker).the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. the use of bacillus thuringiensis (bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for c. suppressalis to develop resistance to bt toxins makes this approach problematic. few c. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem ...201222666467
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