evaluation of traps and lures for mosquito vectors and xenomonitoring of wuchereria bancrofti infection in a high prevalence samoan village.elimination of lymphatic filariasis (lf) in samoa continues to be challenging despite multiple annual mass drug campaigns aimed at stopping transmission by reducing the prevalence and density of microfilaraemia. the persistence of transmission may be partly related to the highly efficient aedes vectors. the assessment of pathogen transmission by mosquito vectors and of vector control relies on the ability to capture mosquitoes efficiently. the aims of this study are to compare trapping methods t ...201526016830
plant essential oils synergize and antagonize toxicity of different conventional insecticides against myzus persicae (hemiptera: aphididae).plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. essential oils from lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, myzus persicae (sulzer) (hemiptera: aphididae). the essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were e ...201526010088
environmental and genetic factors determine whether the mosquito aedes aegypti lays eggs without a blood meal.some mosquito strains or species are able to lay eggs without taking a blood meal, a trait named autogeny. this may allow populations to persist through times or places where vertebrate hosts are scarce. autogenous egg production is highly dependent on the environment in some species, but the ideal conditions for its expression in aedes aegypti mosquitoes are unknown. we found that 3.2% of females in a population of ae. aegypti from kenya were autogenous. autogeny was strongly influenced by temp ...201525646251
koolpinyah and yata viruses: two newly recognised ephemeroviruses from tropical regions of australia and africa.koolpinyah virus (koolv) isolated from healthy australian cattle and yata virus (yatv) isolated from a pool of mansonia uniformis mosquitoes in the central african republic have been tentatively identified as rhabdoviruses. koolv was shown previously to be related antigenically to kotonkon virus, an ephemerovirus that has caused an ephemeral fever-like illness in cattle in nigeria, but yatv failed to react antigenically with any other virus tested. here we report the complete genome sequences of ...201425457369
gene duplication and phylogeography of north american members of the hart park serogroup of avian rhabdoviruses.flanders virus (flav) and hart park virus (hpv) are rhabdoviruses that circulate in mosquito-bird cycles in the eastern and western united states, respectively, and constitute the only two north american representatives of the hart park serogroup. previously, it was suggested that flav is unique among the rhabdoviruses in that it contains two pseudogenes located between the p and m genes, while the cognate sequence for hpv has been lacking. herein, we demonstrate that flav and hpv do not contain ...201324314659
full genome sequencing and genetic characterization of eubenangee viruses identify pata virus as a distinct species within the genus orbivirus.eubenangee virus has previously been identified as the cause of tammar sudden death syndrome (tsds). eubenangee virus (eubv), tilligery virus (tilv), pata virus (patav) and ngoupe virus (ngov) are currently all classified within the eubenangee virus species of the genus orbivirus, family reoviridae. full genome sequencing confirmed that eubv and tilv (both of which are from australia) show high levels of aa sequence identity (>92%) in the conserved polymerase vp1(pol), sub-core vp3(t2) and outer ...201222438872
monitoring temporal abundance and spatial distribution of aedes polynesiensis using bg-sentinel traps in neighboring habitats on raiatea, society archipelago, french numbers and sizes of mosquitoes were monitored for 2 yr in neighboring habitats on the western coast of raiatea (society archipelago) in anticipation of testing new vector control technologies. aedes polynesiensis marks females comprised the overwhelming majority (approximately 99%) of the three species of mosquitoes captured in biogent sentinel traps placed at fixed sites on three small satellite islands (motus) of the western lagoon and on the shoreline of raiatea. aedes polynesiensis ma ...022308771
microsporidia evolved from ancestral sexual fungi.microsporidia are obligate, intracellular eukaryotic pathogens that infect animal cells, including humans [1]. previous studies suggested microsporidia share a common ancestor with fungi [2-7]. however, the exact nature of this phylogenetic relationship is unclear because of unusual features of microsporidial genomes, which are compact with fewer and highly divergent genes [8]. as a consequence, it is unclear whether microsporidia evolved from a specific fungal lineage, or whether microsporidia ...200818976912
malakal virus from africa and kimberley virus from australia are geographic variants of a widely distributed ephemerovirus.kimberley virus (kimv) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that was isolated in 1973 and on several subsequent occasions from healthy cattle, mosquitoes (culex annulirostris) and biting midges (culicoides brevitarsis) in australia. malakal virus (malv) is an antigenically related rhabdovirus isolated in 1963 from mosquitoes (mansonia uniformis) in sudan. we report here the complete genome sequences of kimv (15442 nt) and malv (15444 nt). the genomes have a similar organisation (3'-l-n-p-m-g-g(ns)- ...201222925335
a newly discovered flavivirus in the yellow fever virus group displays restricted replication in vertebrates.a novel flavivirus, provisionally named bamaga virus (bgv), was isolated from culex annulirostris mosquitoes collected from northern australia. phylogenetic analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of the bgv genome revealed it clustered with the yellow fever virus (yfv) group, and was most closely related to edge hill virus (ehv), another australian flavivirus, with 61.9% nucleotide and 63.7% amino acid sequence identity. antigenic analysis of the envelope and pre-membrane proteins of bgv f ...201626878841
ross river virus (rrv) infection in horses and humans: a review.a fascinating and important arbovirus is ross river virus (rrv) which is endemic and epizootic in nature in certain parts of the world. rrv is a member of the genus alphavirus within the semliki forest complex of the family togaviridae, which also includes the getah virus. the virus is responsible for causing disease both in humans as well as horses. mosquito species (aedes camptorhynchus and aedes vigilax; culex annulirostris) are the most important vector for this virus. in places of low tempe ...201426035950
culex annulirostris (diptera: culicidae) host feeding patterns and japanese encephalitis virus ecology in northern australia.japanese encephalitis virus (jev) transmission in northern australia has, in the past, been facilitated by culex annulirostris skuse feeding on domestic pigs, the primary amplifying hosts of the virus. to further characterize mosquito feeding behavior in northern australia, 1,128 bloodmeals from cx. annulirostris were analyzed using a double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. overall, cx. annulirostris obtained > 94% of blood meals from mammals, comprising marsupials (37%), pigs (20%), ...201222493857
murray valley encephalitis: a review of clinical features, diagnosis and treatment.murray valley encephalitis virus (mvev) is a mosquito-borne virus that is found across australia, papua new guinea and irian jaya. mvev is endemic to northern australia and causes occasional outbreaks across south-eastern australia. 2011 saw a dramatic increase in mvev activity in endemic regions and the re-emergence of mvev in south-eastern australia. this followed significant regional flooding and increased numbers of the main mosquito vector, culex annulirostris, and was evident from the wide ...201222432670
predictive modelling of ross river virus notifications in southeastern australia.ross river virus (rrv) is a mosquito-borne virus endemic to australia. the disease, marked by arthritis, myalgia and rash, has a complex epidemiology involving several mosquito species and wildlife reservoirs. outbreak years coincide with climatic conditions conducive to mosquito population growth. we developed regression models for human rrv notifications in the mildura local government area, victoria, australia with the objective of increasing understanding of the relationships in this complex ...201727866492
determining culex annulirostris larval densities and control efforts across a coastal wetland, northern territory, australia.the darwin coastal wetlands provide suitable breeding conditions for culex annulirostris, which is abundant between december and august each year. this species is the principal vector for arboviruses, including ross river virus and murray valley encephalitis, and is an appreciable pest species. aerial control is conducted when routine larval surveys for this species predict high numbers of emergent adults. we sought to determine the most productive vegetation categories and seasonal aspects asso ...201627860005
efficacy of residual insecticide biflex aquamax applied as barrier treatments for managing mosquito populations in suburban residential properties in southeast queensland.the pyrethroid insecticide biflex aquamax (bifenthrin) was evaluated for its ability to suppress coastal mosquito populations in a controlled suburban backyard study in mango hill, queensland, australia. the insecticide was applied to perimeter vegetation, fencing in selected backyards, or both, and mosquito populations were monitored weekly from 3 wk before to 8 wk after treatment (11 wk total) by using cdc miniature light traps and human bait landing rates. in addition, bioassays were conducte ...201223025182
productivity of natural and artificial containers for aedes polynesiensis and aedes aegypti in four american samoan villages.six mosquito species were identified in a survey of containers associated with 347 households in four villages in american samoa. aedes polynesiensis marks (diptera: culicidae) and aedes aegypti (l) were the most abundant species, representing 57% and 29% of the mosquitoes identified. culex quinquefasciatus (say), culex annulirostris (skuse), aedes oceanicus (belkin) and toxorhynchites amboinensis (doleschall) were also found. aedes aegypti and ae. polynesiensis showed distinct differences in th ...200717373943
efficacy of botanical extracts from callitris glaucophylla, against aedes aegypti and culex annulirostris mosquitoes.using standard who methodology, this study investigated the susceptibility of 4(th) instar aedes aegypti (l) and culex annulirostris (skuse) larvae to three extracts from callitris glaucophylla (j. thompson & l. johnson) (1: steam distillation extract, 2: liquefied refrigerant gas extract, and 3: methanol reflux extract), lambda-cyhalothrin (a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide) and fenitrothion (an organophosphorous insecticide). cx. annulirostris was significantly more susceptible than ae. aegyp ...200617322820
synergistic efficacy of botanical blends with and without synthetic insecticides against aedes aegypti and culex annulirostris mosquitoes.increasing insecticide resistance requires strategies to prolong the use of highly effective vector control compounds. the use of combinations of insecticides with other insecticides and phytochemicals is one such strategy that is suitable for mosquito control. in bioassays with aedes aegypti and culex annulirostris mosquitoes, binary mixtures of phytochemicals with or without synthetic insecticides produced promising results when each was applied at a lc25 dose. all mixtures resulted in 100% mo ...200516599164
the gecko: an environmentally friendly biological agent for mosquito control.laboratory experiments with aedes aegypti mosquitoes investigated the effects of light, mosquito density and physiological state on predation rates by the australian gecko gehydra dubia and the exotic asian house gecko hemidactylus frenatus. for both gecko species a positive correlation was demonstrated between prey density and the predation rate. using ae.aegypti males and unfed females as prey in a terrarium (0.054 m3), consumption rates reached 76-108/day for g.dubia and 63-109/day for h.fren ...19979430109
pathogenicity, host range and temperature tolerance of crypticola clavulifera (oomycetes: lagenidiales) in the laboratory.the oomycete fungus crypticola clavulifera was pathogenic for laboratory-reared and field-collected larval diptera, including the mosquitoes aedes aegypti, ae. notoscriptus, anopheles farauti no. 1 and 3, culex annulirostris, cx. quinquefasciatus and the chironomid midge chironomus tepperi. zoospores were produced in water held at 15, 20 and 25 degrees c and were pathogenic for ae. aegypti larvae, but at 30 and 35 degrees c zoospores were not produced.19911686451
[monitoring of mosquito vectors at international airports of the south pacific region].a survey conducted in eight airports of the south pacific, yielded 2,044 larvae and 136 adult forms, belonging to 25 culicidae species. breeding places were found in every airport, either within the perimeter (6 airports) or in the protective zone. some potentially dangerous vectors were identified: aedes aegypti (4 airports), ae. polynesiensis, ae. vigilax, anopheles farauti (2 airports), culex annulirostris, c. p. quinquefasciatus. vector control measures should be strengthened to suppress eve ...19882900080
in-vivo staining of aedes vigilax, aedes aegypti and culex annulirostris larvae with giemsa and other vital dyes.of 11 stains tested in the laboratory with larval aedes aegypti, giemsa at dosages of 6 mg/liter for 24 hr and 21 mg/liter for 3 hr proved most satisfactory for in-vivo staining. at these rates, giemsa caused some mortality especially in first instars of ae. vigilax, ae. aegypti and culex annulirostris but effectively was retained in all adults examined up to 3 days posteclosion. the method was deemed satisfactory for investigations of larval movement of ae. vigilax, cx. sitiens and ae. alternan ...19862466952
melanotaenia duboulayi influence oviposition site selection by culex annulirostris (diptera: culicidae) and aedes notoscriptus (diptera: culicidae) but not culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae).some species of mosquito can detect the presence of larvivorous fish and select against ovipositing in pools supporting them. the effect of kairomones released by the crimson-spotted rainbowfish melanotaenia duboulayi (castelnau) on the oviposition behavior of the freshwater mosquitoes culex annulirostris skuse, culex quinquefasciatus say, and aedes notoscriptus skuse was evaluated in both laboratory and outdoor artificial pool experiments. in the laboratory, colony-reared cx. annulirostris sele ...201020388286
evaluation of three traps for sampling aedes polynesiensis and other mosquito species in american samoa.the efficacy of the recently developed bg-sentinel mosquito trap baited with bg-lure (a combination of lactic acid, ammonia, and caproic acid) was evaluated in american samoa against the omnidirectional fay-prince trap and the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) light trap, both baited with carbon dioxide. the bg-sentinel trap captured the greatest number of the important filariasis and dengue vector aedes (stegomyia) polynesiensis at all 3 collection locations; however, its catch r ...200818666543
field evaluation of repellent formulations containing deet and picaridin against mosquitoes in northern territory, australia.field efficacy of repellent formulations containing picaridin (1-methyl-propyl 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylate) or deet (n,n,-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) against mosquitoes in northern territory, australia, was evaluated. the following repellent treatments were evaluated: 19.2% picaridin (autan repel army 20), a solution of 20% deet in ethanol, and 35% deet in a gel (australian defense force [adf]). the predominant mosquito species were culex annulirostris skuse (57.8%), anopheles mera ...200415185943
laboratory evaluation of methylated coconut oil as a larvicide for anopheles farauti and culex annulirostris.the toxicity of methylated coconut oil (mco) was compared with a commercially available oil larvicide (golden bear oil gb-1111) in laboratory bioassays of 4th-stage larvae of anopheles farauti laveran and culex annulirostris skuse. both larvicides were more toxic to cx. annulirostris than to an. farauti and the ld50 (dose lethal to 50% of the test organisms) after 24 h exposure indicated that mco was more toxic than gb-1111 for both an. farauti (ld50 = 8.6 microl versus 13.0 microl/156 cm2) and ...200516506579
field evaluation of commercial repellent formulations against mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in northern territory, australia.field trials comparing commercially available repellent formulations containing picaridin (1-piperidinecarboxylate acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-methylpropylester) and deet (n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) against mosquitoes in northern territory, australia, were conducted. three repellents were compared: autan repel containing 9.3% picaridin, rid containing 10% deet, and bushman ultra containing 80% deet in a gel. the predominant mosquito species collected were culex annulirostris skuse (63.2%), oc ...200516506580
spatial statistical analysis of adult mosquito (diptera: culicidae) counts: an example using light trap data, in redland shire, southeastern queensland, australia.many mosquito control agencies use carbon dioxide-baited traps as surveillance tools for adult vector populations. however, decisions regarding the number and location of trap sites and the frequency of collections are often based on logistical issues, and not on the bionomics or spatial distribution of the target species. therefore, with the aim of providing practical information for adult mosquito surveillance programs, we used an array of 81 carbon dioxide- and octenol-baited lights traps to ...200415605654
field comparison of cyclopentanone versus carbon dioxide as an attractant for adult mosquitoes in southeast queensland, australia.cyclopentanone is a saturated monoketone typically used as an intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, biologicals, insecticides, and rubber chemicals. recently, it has been demonstrated that cyclopentanone activates the cpa co2 receptor neuron on the maxillary palp of mosquitoes, suggesting that it may be a viable alternative to co2 as an attractant for mosquitoes. furthermore, semifield experiments showed that traps baited with cyclopentanone attract culex quinquefasciatus say at a ...201526334825
a comparison of adult mosquito trapping regimes across seasons and ecosystems in darwin, australia.mosquitoes are problematic as vectors and pests in many tropical cities, including darwin, the principal city in the northern territory of australia. to monitor peaks in mosquito populations, the medical entomology unit of the health department sets overnight co(2) -baited traps weekly. trap setting and retrieving, followed by mosquito counting and identification, are labor intensive. aiming to reduce this workload, we tested the hypothesis that fortnightly trapping is as effective as weekly tra ...201223181850
effects of landscape disturbance on mosquito community composition in tropical australia.emerging infectious diseases are considered to be a growing threat to human and wildlife health. such diseases might be facilitated by anthropogenic land-use changes that cause novel juxtapositions of different habitats and species and result in new interchanges of vectors, diseases, and hosts. to search for such effects in tropical australia, we sampled mosquito populations across anthropogenic disturbance gradients of grassland, artificial rainforest edge, and rainforest interior. from >15,000 ...201222548538
quantifying the drivers of larval density patterns in two tropical mosquito species to maximize control efficiency.understanding the contributions of environmental variation and density feedbacks to changes in vector populations is essential for designing effective vector control. we analyzed monitoring datasets describing larval densities over 7 yr of the two dominant mosquito species, aedes vigilax (skuse) and culex annulirostris (skuse), of the greater darwin area (northern territory, australia). using generalized linear and linear mixed-effects models, we tested hypotheses regarding the environmental det ...200919689879
evaluation of bistar 80sc (bifenthrin) as a tent treatment for protection against mosquitoes in northern territory, australia.a field trial to assess the efficacy of bistar 80 sc as a barrier treatment of australian military tents was conducted over 10 d at mount bundey military training area, northern territory, australia, in march 2003. four pairs of standard eight-person tents were erected, with a single tent in each pair treated with 0.1% bistar 80 sc as a course spray, and the remainder left as untreated control tents. carbon dioxide-baited traps were operated in each tent nightly, and biting collections conducted ...200819058633
evaluations of mosquito age grading techniques based on morphological changes.evaluations were made of the accuracy and practicality of mosquito age grading methods based on changes to mosquito morphology; including the detinova ovarian tracheation, midgut meconium, polovodova ovariole dilatation, ovarian injection, and daily growth line methods. laboratory maintained aedes vigilax (skuse) and culex annulirostris (skuse) females of known chronological and physiological ages were used for these assessments. application of the detinova technique to laboratory reared ae. vig ...200818533427
efficacy of eight larvicidal botanical extracts from khaya senegalensis and daucus carota against culex annulirostris.the failure to discover a significant new class of insecticides has led many researchers back to biodiscovery studies in the search for new and economically viable alternatives. after a preliminary screening of botanical extracts using descending series of concentrations (1,000, 500, 100, 50, and 5 mg/liter), 8 extracts from 2 potential botanical agents, khaya senegalensis (desrousseaux) and daucus carota l., were tested against 4th instars of culex annulirostris (skuse) following the standard w ...200617067042
oviposition response of chironomus tepperi to nitrogenous compounds and bioextracts in two-choice laboratory tests.two-choice laboratory tests were used to investigate the oviposition response of chironomus tepperi to a range of nitrogenous compounds and crude bioextracts. responses to nitrogenous compounds varied in response to concentration. ammonium nitrate did not influence oviposition at concentrations from 2 to 12 mg/liter. hydroxylamine hydrochloride increased oviposition at 6 mg/liter, but had no effect at either 2 or 12 mg/liter. sodium nitrate reduced oviposition at 2 mg/liter relative to the contr ...200312775151
development and survival of immature culex annulirostris mosquitoes in southeast queensland.the rates of development and survival of the immature stages of culex annulirostris were studied in three different breeding sites in the brisbane area of southeast queensland: a temporary rain-filled pool (tp), a semi-permanent pool (spp), and an area of flooded grassland (fg) arising from the overflow of a permanent pond. parallel observations were made on larvae and pupae either exposed to predation or in predator-free cages of 12 and 15 consecutive days respectively. development was fastest ...19979226650
differential responses of aedes and culex mosquitoes to octenol or light in combination with carbon dioxide in queensland, australia.field studies were conducted with evs (encephalitis vector surveillance) traps in south-eastern queensland, australia, to determine the relative response rates of mosquitoes to three levels (0.1, 4.5 and 30 mg/h) of 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) in combination with a standard bait of 2200 g carbon dioxide (co2), compared with co2 alone or co2 with light from a 6v incandescent bulb. compared to co2 alone, aedes vigilax collections increased significantly when co2 was supplemented by all three octenol em ...19948161847
response of mosquitoes to carbon dioxide and 1-octen-3-ol in southeast queensland, australia.encephalitis vector surveillance (evs) traps were used to study the attractant effect of co2 and 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) on mosquitoes at 2 different locations in southeast queensland. octenol alone was only slightly attractive for aedes vigilax. there was a significant increase in the numbers of ae. vigilax and aedes funereus caught when octenol was added to co2, although catches of culex annulirostris and culex sitiens did not change significantly. the size and age compositions of ae. vigilax a ...19938126478
survival and development of the immature stages of culex annulirostris (diptera: culicidae) at the ross river dam in tropical eastern australia.immature stages of culex annulirostris skuse from ross river dam were reared in the laboratory at constant temperatures (18.0, 24.5, 28.5 and 35.0 degrees c) and in the field in the presence or absence of predators. in the laboratory, survival from first instar to adult emergence increased from 5.5% at 18 degrees c to 96.5% at 35 degrees c. in the field predators increased mortality by almost 60%. adult wing length increased inversely with constant temperature except at 18 degrees c. in the fiel ...19902231614
laboratory experiments on infection rates of amblyospora dyxenoides (microsporida: amblyosporidae) in the mosquito culex annulirostris.laboratory observations were made of the microsporidian parasite amblyospora dyxenoides in its natural mosquito host, culex annulirostris. there were no differences in the numbers of eggs laid and in the proportions which hatched between infected and uninfected females, indicating that the parasite did not affect fecundity. unlike other species of amblyospora which have been studied the development of binucleate spores in adult mosquitoes increase with age of the host in both sexes and in female ...19892915150
bioassay experiments on the dose response of mesocyclops sp. copepods to meiospores of amblyospora dyxenoides produced in culex annulirostris mosquito larvae. 19892915144
life cycle of amblyospora dyxenoides sp. nov. in the mosquito culex annulirostris and the copepod mesocyclops albicans. 19883351324
autogeny in culex annulirostris from the laboratory, 8.5% and 5.1% of colonized culex annulirostris from brisbane and mildura, australia respectively were autogenous when reared and maintained on nutrient rich diets. females reared and/or maintained on poor diets mainly had ovaries at christophers' stage i and exhibited from 0 to 0.7% autogeny. all autogenous females had previously mated. insemination rates in the brisbane and mildura colonies respectively, were 72.8% and 78.8%. no autogeny was detected in 997 females reared fro ...19863507464
identification of very small open reading frames in the genomes of holmes jungle virus, ord river virus, and wongabel virus of the genus hapavirus, family rhabdoviridae.viruses of the family rhabdoviridae infect a broad range of hosts from a variety of ecological and geographical niches, including vertebrates, arthropods, and plants. the arthropod-transmitted members of this family display considerable genetic diversity and remarkable genomic flexibility that enable coding for various accessory proteins in different locations of the genome. here, we describe the genome of holmes jungle virus, isolated from culex annulirostris mosquitoes collected in northern au ...201728747815
Displaying items 201 - 246 of 246