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the effect of multiple vectors on arbovirus transmission.many mosquito-borne arboviruses have more than one competent vector. these vectors may or may not overlap in space and time, and may interact differently with vertebrate hosts. the presence of multiple vectors for a particular virus at one location over time will influence the epidemiology of the system, and could be important in the design of intervention strategies to protect particular hosts. a simulation model previously developed for west nile and st. louis encephalitis viruses and culex ni ...023741205
virulence and evolution of west nile virus, australia, 1960-2012.worldwide, west nile virus (wnv) causes encephalitis in humans, horses, and birds. the kunjin strain of wnv (wnvkun) is endemic to northern australia, but infections are usually asymptomatic. in 2011, an unprecedented outbreak of equine encephalitis occurred in southeastern australia; most of the ≈900 reported cases were attributed to a newly emerged wnvkun strain. to investigate the origins of this virus, we performed genetic analysis and in vitro and in vivo studies of 13 wnvkun isolates colle ...027433830
genetic characterization of archived bunyaviruses and their potential for emergence in australia.to better understand the diversity of bunyaviruses and their circulation in australia, we sequenced 5 viruses (gan gan, trubanaman, kowanyama, yacaaba, and taggert) isolated and serologically identified 4 decades ago as members of the family bunyaviridae. gan gan and trubanaman viruses almost perfectly matched 2 recently isolated, purportedly novel viruses, salt ash and murrumbidgee viruses, respectively. kowanyama and yacaaba viruses were identified as being related to members of a large clade ...027088588
climate change impacts on west nile virus transmission in a global context.west nile virus (wnv), the most widely distributed virus of the encephalitic flaviviruses, is a vector-borne pathogen of global importance. the transmission cycle exists in rural and urban areas where the virus infects birds, humans, horses and other mammals. multiple factors impact the transmission and distribution of wnv, related to the dynamics and interactions between pathogen, vector, vertebrate hosts and environment. hence, among other drivers, weather conditions have direct and indirect i ...025688020
characterization of virulent west nile virus kunjin strain, australia, 2011.to determine the cause of an unprecedented outbreak of encephalitis among horses in new south wales, australia, in 2011, we performed genomic sequencing of viruses isolated from affected horses and mosquitoes. results showed that most of the cases were caused by a variant west nile virus (wnv) strain, wnv(nsw2011), that is most closely related to wnv kunjin (wnv(kun)), the indigenous wnv strain in australia. studies in mouse models for wnv pathogenesis showed that wnv(nsw2011) is substantially m ...022516173
species interactions among larval mosquitoes: context dependence across habitat gradients.biotic interactions involving mosquito larvae are context dependent, with effects of interactions on populations altered by ecological conditions. relative impacts of competition and predation change across a gradient of habitat size and permanence. asymmetrical competition is common and ecological context changes competitive advantage, potentially facilitating landscape-level coexistence of competitors. predator effects on mosquito populations sometimes depend on habitat structure and on emerge ...019067629
human and animal dirofilariasis: the emergence of a zoonotic mosaic.dirofilariasis represents a zoonotic mosaic, which includes two main filarial species (dirofilaria immitis and d. repens) that have adapted to canine, feline, and human hosts with distinct biological and clinical implications. at the same time, both d. immitis and d. repens are themselves hosts to symbiotic bacteria of the genus wolbachia, the study of which has resulted in a profound shift in the understanding of filarial biology, the mechanisms of the pathologies that they produce in their hos ...022763636
monitoring temporal abundance and spatial distribution of aedes polynesiensis using bg-sentinel traps in neighboring habitats on raiatea, society archipelago, french polynesia.adult numbers and sizes of mosquitoes were monitored for 2 yr in neighboring habitats on the western coast of raiatea (society archipelago) in anticipation of testing new vector control technologies. aedes polynesiensis marks females comprised the overwhelming majority (approximately 99%) of the three species of mosquitoes captured in biogent sentinel traps placed at fixed sites on three small satellite islands (motus) of the western lagoon and on the shoreline of raiatea. aedes polynesiensis ma ...022308771
the multiplication of queensland and new guinean arboviruses in culex annulirostris skuse and aedes vigilax (skuse) (diptera: culicidae). 19751182050
murray valley encephalitis virus infection in mosquitoes and domestic fowls in queensland, 1974.field studies during an epidemic of murray valley encephalitis (mve) led to the isolation of mve virus from a pool of mosquitoes (culex annulirostris) and a sentinel chicken from charleville, south-west queensland. a high proportion of domestic fowls at charleville had antibody to mve virus at the beginning of february 1974, in advance of the first case recognized in queensland and allowing early warning from health authorities. a survey of antibody in domestic fowls in mid-1974 suggested widesp ...197613773
ord river arboviruses--the study site and mosquitoes.the ord valey of tropical western australia has been studied for arbovirus activity following the development of a man-made lake of considerable size, a diversion dam and an irrigation scheme. kununurra, the largest town in the valley, is the focus for very large populations of birds and mosquitoes. the irrigation areas have not been important as mosquito breeding areas because of the excessive use of insecticides. lake argyle does not support high mosquito a bird population at present. however ...197614612
[a dengue epidemic at futuna].during an outbreak occuring in futuna (horne islands) from october 1976 to january 1977, ii strains quite similar to dengue virus type i were isolated from blood of patients in acute phase. immunitary responses were noted on 8/12 paired sera submitted to ih test; 4/17 serum samples showed antibody titer presumptive of a recent infection. entomological survey gave evidence that virus was transmitted by aedes polynesiensis and confirmed that futuna is free of a.e. aegypti; other species found were ...1978755534
quantitative studies of the vector competence of aedes aegypti, culex annulirostris and other mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) with murray valley encephalitis and other queensland arboviruses. 197942801
seasonal abundance of culex annulirostris and other mosquitoes at kowanyama, north queensland, and charleville, south west queensland.at kowanyama, 104,006 adult female mosquitoes of a probable 47 species were collected on twelve occasions from april, 1972, to april, 1976. at charleville, 71,791 adult females of 20 taxa were taken during thirteen periods from february, 1974, to february, 1976. culex annulirostris was predominant at kowanyama and especially at charleville where it comprised up to 99% of dry season collections. culex fatigans, ae normanensis, an annulipes and, at kowanyama only, an bancroftii were the other majo ...197944839
isolation of virus strains from mosquitoes collected in queensland, 1972-1976.171,348 mosquitoes and 4,353 other arthropods collected at three centres in queensland in 1972-1976 yielded 151 strains of 18 viruses. culex annulirostris was the major source of virus isolation but 42 strains from aedes normanensis indicate it to be a vector of importance. ross river and kokobera viruses were isolated at kowanyama in the dry season, a finding of interest as being compatible with year-round survival in vector-vertebrate cycles. culex fatigans has in part replaced culex annuliros ...197944840
togavirus interference in culex annulirostris mosquitoes.culex annulirostris mosquitoes infected with sfv-s, a temperature-sensitive, small-plaque mutant of semliki forest virus isolated from cultured aedes albopictus cells, could not be infected later with wild-type virus (sfv-w). interference occurred as soon as 24 h after infection with sfv-s. in mosquitoes infected with a mixture of the two viruses, both replicated normally.1979430033
age structure of populations of culex annulirostris (diptera: culicidae) at kowanyama and charleville, queensland. 1979541806
towards prediction and surveillance of murray valley encephalitis activity in australia.current practices for early warning of activity of murray valley encephalitis and other medically-important arboviruses are reviewed with view to improvement. data from previous papers on culex annulirostris populations, environmental factors and virus infection rates were reanalysed and the results considered as a basis for prediction and surveillance. this goal will only be achieved with improved national cooperation, a better epidemiological understanding and greater knowledge of the bionomic ...19806255919
[arboviral diseases in south-west pacific islands (author's transl)].islands of the south-west pacific area belong to the melanesian group, excepted niue, tonga, wallis and futuna which are polynesian. through new guinea, there is a geographic relation to the eastern part of australia, rich of 42 arbovirus types. dengue and ross river fever are the most important arboviral diseases in the region; both affect islanders after introduction of virus by travellers to localities where efficient vectors are present. dengue types 1, 2 and 4 were isolated from man and fro ...19816116150
isolation of murray valley encephalitis virus and other arboviruses in the ord river valley 1972-1976.this paper summarizes the isolation of arboviruses from mosquitoes collected in the ord valley between 1972 and 1976. a total of one hundred and ninety five strains of at least fifteen antigenically distinct viruses have been isolated. seven of these isolates appear to be "new' antigenic types, and several are undergoing further testing. these are three new rhabdoviruses (kununurra [or194], a virus provisionally named kimberley [or250] and or189 [provisionally named parry's creek]), three ungrou ...19816117274
a preliminary investigation of the ecology of arboviruses in the derby area of the kimberley region, western australia.a survey of mosquito populations in the derby area of the kimberley region, western australia, in march/april of 1977 yielded a total of 3,318 adult female mosquitoes. fifteen taxa were represented, seven being new locality records for this area. culex annulirostris was the dominant species, comprising 85.41% of the total catch. all mosquitoes collected were processed for virus isolation and thirteen strains of four (and possibly five) distinct arboviruses were obtained, all from pools of culex ...19816117275
viruses recovered from mosquitoes and wildlife serum collected in the murray valley of south-eastern australia, february 1974, during an epidemic of encephalitis.pools of mosquitoes collected in the murray valley in february, 1974, during an encephalitis epidemic yielded 239 isolates of 11 distinct viruses. these included 39 isolates of mve virus, an incriminated causative agent of encephalitis in man, and 111 isolates of kunjin virus, a probable causative agent. an additional isolate of mve virus was recovered from the serum of a white-faced heron, ardea novaehollandiae. the other 9 viruses comprised the alpha-viruses ross river and sindbis, the flavivi ...19826299258
variation in arbovirus infection rates in species of birds sampled in a serological survey during an encephalitis epidemic in the murray valley of south-eastern australia, february 1974.there was extensive and exuberant breeding of waterbirds before and during an epidemic of arboviral encephalitis in the murray valley of south eastern australia in 1974. as estimated by haemagglutination inhibition tests on 432 bird sera collected between 4th and 13th february, 1974, infection with murray valley encephalitis virus, kunjin virus and possibly other flaviviruses was concentrated in species of the order ciconiiformes (55% positive) and pelecaniformes (41%), compared with only 5% in ...19826299259
species composition of mosquitoes collected in the murray valley of south-eastern australia during an epidemic of arboviral encephalitis.mosquito activity at the height of an epidemic of arboviral encephalitis in the murray valley during the summer of 1974 was almost entirely crepuscular and nocturnal, but anecdotal evidence, indicated that day-biting aedes species were also unusually prevalent during the first 4-5 weeks of the epidemic. ninety-eight percent of the 138,359 mosquitoes captured in miniature light traps and by aspiration between 4th and 13th february, 1974, were culex annulirostris, and 10 other species of 5 genera ...19827165580
[research on viral infections in south pacific mosquitoes under natural conditions].from 1975, epidemiological studies on arboviral diseases, conducted in new caledonia, vanuatu, wallis and horne islands, have shown that 11 species of mosquitoes may harbour viruses in natural conditions. virus isolations were attempted from 1,025 pools of culicidae totalizing 32,182 individuals belonging to 5 genera and 21 species. viral infections have been demonstrated in 76 pools (7.4%). the species harbouring viruses were: aedes aegypti, ae. alternans, ae. notoscriptus, ae. vexans, ae. vigi ...19846151879
isolation of arboviruses from insects collected at beatrice hill, northern territory of australia, 1974-1976.between october 1974 and may 1976, 57 596 mosquitoes, 169 957 culicoides, 5923 lasiohelea and 1043 phlebotomines were collected for virus isolation at beatrice hill (lat. 12 degrees 39's.,long. 131 degrees 20'e.) in the northern territory of australia. a total of 94 viruses belonging to 22 different serological groupings was isolated. the following species of insect yielded viruses which were identified and those viruses marked with an asterisk represent a new record of insect host: culex annuli ...19846152599
some evidence of mechanical transmission of reticuloendotheliosis virus by mosquitoes.the possible role of mosquitoes in the mechanical transmission of reticuloendotheliosis virus (rev) in chickens was examined. a carbon-dioxide-baited trap was used to capture mosquitoes in poultry pens for one year to determine the seasonal occurrence and the species of mosquitoes prevalent in the area. homogenates of captured mosquitoes were used for rev isolation in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures. sera from sentinel chickens were also examined for rev antibodies. population peaks of mosqui ...19846098251
the vector competence of australian culex annulirostris with murray valley encephalitis and kunjin viruses.australian populations of culex annulirostris skuse from 10 localities, brisbane, townsville, cairns, charleville, kowanyama (queensland), darwin (northern territory), mildura (victoria) and port hedland, karratha and mt. tom price (western australia) showed considerable heterogeneity in response to oral infection with low passage level murray valley encephalitis (mve) and kunjin (kun) viruses. however, there was no consistent pattern of either high or low vector efficiency for populations colle ...19846100042
the efficiency of various collection techniques for sampling culex annulirostris in southeastern australia.dry-ice (co2) baited evs (encephalitis virus surveillance) light traps collected significantly more culex annulirostris than unbaited evs or cdc light traps, chicken-, guinea pig- and rabbit-baited evs traps, or cubic foot resting boxes. results from the animal-baited traps indicated a preference for bird versus mammal bait. females sampled by the resting boxes had significantly lower parity rates than females sampled by dry-ice baited evs traps. parity rates were generally similar among females ...19853880265
intermediate host for an amblyospora sp. (microspora) infecting the mosquito, culex annulirostris. 19852863312
host-feeding patterns of culex annulirostris and other mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) at charleville, southwestern queensland, australia. 19852864452
man-mosquito contact at kowanyama, northern queensland, australia.a method employing anova is presented to quantify man-mosquito contact at kowanyama, based on human bait collections indoors in light, indoors in darkness and outdoors in darkness. no shifts in feeding behavior were noted during the transitional, dry or wet seasons of 1974-75. anopheles bancroftii fed in significantly greater numbers indoors in darkness; an. amictus, an. annulipes, an. farauti, an. meraukensis, aedes normanensis, ae. kochi, ae. lineatopennis, ae. vigilax and culex annulirostris ...19852906665
experimental infection with murray valley encephalitis virus. pigs, cattle, sheep, dogs, rabbits, macropods and chickens.a total of 142 young animals including 10 domestic and 14 feral pigs, 12 hereford calves, 12 crossbred and 24 merino lambs, 11 dogs, 8 domestic and 16 feral rabbits, 14 grey kangaroos, 9 agile wallabies and 12 chickens was exposed to infection with 4 strains of murray valley encephalitis virus (mve), mainly using orally infected culex annulirostris mosquitoes. in terms of their viraemic response, the animals were grouped into high (grey kangaroos, rabbits), moderate (pigs, dogs, chickens) and lo ...19852990398
experimental infection with murray valley encephalitis virus: galahs, sulphur-crested cockatoos, corellas, black ducks and wild mice.orally infected culex annulirostris or intravenous injections were used to infect 10 galahs, 15 sulphur-crested cockatoos, 12 corellas, 4 black ducks and 10 wild mice with murray valley encephalitis (mve) virus. the birds produced moderate viraemias of titres of log 10(2.0)-10(6.0) suckling mouse intracerebral (smic) ld50/ml for durations of 1-9 d. however, the wild mice developed low grade viraemia for 1-4 d. recipient cx annulirostris feeding on viraemic birds sustained infection rates of 0-10 ...19853004402
seasonal activity and abundance of the arbovirus vector culex annulirostris skuse near echuca, victoria, in the murray valley of southeastern australia 1979-1985.abundance of culex annulirostris in a state forest near echuca, northern victoria, was sampled with a dry ice-baited evs trap from 1979 to 1985, generally on a fortnightly basis. the species regularly became active from october, the population reached peak abundance in mid summer and then declined to become undetectable from late may. abundance varied between years, related to availability of larval habitats. the results confirm a pattern of seasonal activity in the murray valley that is relevan ...19863964139
vectors of wuchereria bancrofti in the sepik provinces of papua new guinea.the vectors of wuchereria bancrofti were investigated in two areas of the sepik provinces of papua new guinea. at the village of yauatong, indoor-resting anopheles punctulatus had an infection rate of 47.3% and an infective rate of 3.4%. no infections occurred in 382 culex annulirostris obtained in night-landing catches. at the village of yankok only an. koliensis contained infective larvae but an. punctulatus and cx quinquefasciatus were infected. probit values of the cumulative percentages of ...19863523861
population age composition and female longevity of the arbovirus vector culex annulirostris skuse near echuca, victoria, in the murray valley of southeastern australia 1979-1985.a population of cx annulirostris in a state forest near echuca, vic., was sampled with a dry ice-baited encephalitis virus surveillance (evs) trap from 1979 to 1985, generally on a fortnightly basis. these collections were combined for monthly samples which were dissected for parity and population age composition. the proportion parous varied between months and between years; for mid-summer (february) proportion parous ranged from 0.54 to 0.83. there was no evidence that the population was autog ...19863593125
seasonal abundance and age composition of two populations of culex annulirostris (diptera: culicidae) at darwin, northern territory, australia. 19863735331
in-vivo staining of aedes vigilax, aedes aegypti and culex annulirostris larvae with giemsa and other vital dyes.of 11 stains tested in the laboratory with larval aedes aegypti, giemsa at dosages of 6 mg/liter for 24 hr and 21 mg/liter for 3 hr proved most satisfactory for in-vivo staining. at these rates, giemsa caused some mortality especially in first instars of ae. vigilax, ae. aegypti and culex annulirostris but effectively was retained in all adults examined up to 3 days posteclosion. the method was deemed satisfactory for investigations of larval movement of ae. vigilax, cx. sitiens and ae. alternan ...19862466952
autogeny in culex annulirostris from australia.in the laboratory, 8.5% and 5.1% of colonized culex annulirostris from brisbane and mildura, australia respectively were autogenous when reared and maintained on nutrient rich diets. females reared and/or maintained on poor diets mainly had ovaries at christophers' stage i and exhibited from 0 to 0.7% autogeny. all autogenous females had previously mated. insemination rates in the brisbane and mildura colonies respectively, were 72.8% and 78.8%. no autogeny was detected in 997 females reared fro ...19863507464
a mathematical model for the rural amplification of murray valley encephalitis virus in southern australia.the exacerbation of epidemics of murray valley encephalitis in southern australia during 1951 and 1974 was studied retrospectively to determine when viral introduction may have occurred. data from studies spanning over 30 years were utilized 1) to determine the number of infective culex annulirostris necessary to cause one clinical case, based on known host-feeding patterns and the subclinical infection rate in man, and 2), using mathematical modeling, to calculate the likely duration of the rur ...19873826047
the experimental infection of horses with murray valley encephalitis and ross river viruses.eleven weanling horses were inoculated with murray valley encephalitis and ross river viruses either by intravenous injection or by the bite of culex annulirostris or aedes vigilax mosquitoes infected orally. five of the 11 horses circulated trace amounts of mve virus for 1 to 5d and they infected 7/408 cx annulirostris which subsequently fed on them. haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody persisted at detectable levels for the 24-week observation period. with ross river virus, only one of 11 hor ...19873038067
life cycle of amblyospora dyxenoides sp. nov. in the mosquito culex annulirostris and the copepod mesocyclops albicans. 19883351324
[monitoring of mosquito vectors at international airports of the south pacific region].a survey conducted in eight airports of the south pacific, yielded 2,044 larvae and 136 adult forms, belonging to 25 culicidae species. breeding places were found in every airport, either within the perimeter (6 airports) or in the protective zone. some potentially dangerous vectors were identified: aedes aegypti (4 airports), ae. polynesiensis, ae. vigilax, anopheles farauti (2 airports), culex annulirostris, c. p. quinquefasciatus. vector control measures should be strengthened to suppress eve ...19882900080
laboratory experiments on infection rates of amblyospora dyxenoides (microsporida: amblyosporidae) in the mosquito culex annulirostris.laboratory observations were made of the microsporidian parasite amblyospora dyxenoides in its natural mosquito host, culex annulirostris. there were no differences in the numbers of eggs laid and in the proportions which hatched between infected and uninfected females, indicating that the parasite did not affect fecundity. unlike other species of amblyospora which have been studied the development of binucleate spores in adult mosquitoes increase with age of the host in both sexes and in female ...19892915150
bioassay experiments on the dose response of mesocyclops sp. copepods to meiospores of amblyospora dyxenoides produced in culex annulirostris mosquito larvae. 19892915144
larval diet and the vector competence of culex annulirostris (diptera: culicidae) for murray valley encephalitis virus.culex annulirostris skuse larvae were reared on two different amounts of powdered dog chow and yeast, low intake (2.8 micrograms/larva) and high intake (8.4 micrograms/larva), to produce adults with mean wing lengths of 3.25 and 3.7 mm, respectively. the resulting adults were fed different dosages of murray valley encephalitis virus and after 10 d extrinsic incubation at 28 degrees c, the infection rate, transmission rate, salivary gland, and body titers were determined. there were no significan ...19892552121
the vector competence of culex annulirostris, aedes sagax and aedes alboannulatus for murray valley encephalitis virus at different temperatures.culex annulirostris skuse, colonized from brisbane, queensland, and mildura, victoria, australia, were effective vectors of murray valley encephalitis virus at 20, 27 and 32-35 degrees c with full extrinsic incubation periods of 15, 10 and 4 days respectively. at 20 degrees c, 7-11 days post-infection, transmission by the mildura colony (0-20%) was less efficient than the brisbane colony (30-70%) but both were capable of 75-100% transmission after longer extrinsic incubation periods. discriminan ...19892562418
rearing temperature influences flavivirus vector competence of mosquitoes.culex annulirostris skuse mosquitoes (brisbane strain) were reared at 20 degrees c or 27 degrees c and the adult females were experimentally infected by feeding murray valley encephalitis virus (mve). they were then maintained (a) in the insectary at 20 degrees c, after rearing at either 20 degrees c or 27 degrees c; (b) at ambient outdoor temperatures, range 12.2-28.9 degrees c, mean 19.6 degrees c; or (c) at 27 degrees c after rearing at 27 degrees c. there was no significant difference in rat ...19892562419
[the presence of aedes (stegomyia) albopictus in the fiji islands].an entomological survey conducted at the international airports of the fiji islands showed aedes albopictus breeding in the protective area of nadi airport. no aedes aegypti nor anopheles accidentally imported have been seen during the visit. aedes vexans, a. pseudoscutellaris, a. burnetti, a. vigilax, culex annulirostris, c. quinquefasciatus and a species of the pipiens complex have been collected incidentally out of airport areas. due to the presence of aedes albopictus, a new and important ep ...19902208470
survival and development of the immature stages of culex annulirostris (diptera: culicidae) at the ross river dam in tropical eastern australia.immature stages of culex annulirostris skuse from ross river dam were reared in the laboratory at constant temperatures (18.0, 24.5, 28.5 and 35.0 degrees c) and in the field in the presence or absence of predators. in the laboratory, survival from first instar to adult emergence increased from 5.5% at 18 degrees c to 96.5% at 35 degrees c. in the field predators increased mortality by almost 60%. adult wing length increased inversely with constant temperature except at 18 degrees c. in the fiel ...19902231614
pathogenicity, host range and temperature tolerance of crypticola clavulifera (oomycetes: lagenidiales) in the laboratory.the oomycete fungus crypticola clavulifera was pathogenic for laboratory-reared and field-collected larval diptera, including the mosquitoes aedes aegypti, ae. notoscriptus, anopheles farauti no. 1 and 3, culex annulirostris, cx. quinquefasciatus and the chironomid midge chironomus tepperi. zoospores were produced in water held at 15, 20 and 25 degrees c and were pathogenic for ae. aegypti larvae, but at 30 and 35 degrees c zoospores were not produced.19911686451
murray valley encephalitis acquired in western australia.to report a recent fatal case of encephalitis associated with evidence of murray valley encephalitis virus infection, only the second fatality from this infection in western australia.19911645843
comparison of dry ice baited light traps with human bait collections for surveillance of mosquitoes in northern queensland, australia.adult mosquitoes were collected from april 1984 to september 1985, at 3 sites at or adjacent to the ross river dam, north queensland. the numbers attracted to dry ice baited encephalitis virus surveillance (evs) light traps and to human bait were similar. both methods sampled 18 taxa and ranked the abundances of culex annulirostris, anopheles annulipes s.l., aedes vigilax, mansonia uniformis and ma. septempunctata similarly at each locality. significant correlations between the 2 methods were fo ...19911686444
dispersal of adult females of culex annulirostris in griffith, new south wales, australia.the dispersal of culex annulirostris, a major arbovirus vector in australia, was studied in griffith, n.s.w. using a mark-release-recapture technique. from an empirical model of dispersal, fitted to data on recaptured adults, the average distance dispersed was 6.8 km (95% c.l. 4.1-40.9 km), and 50% of the population dispersed 4.8 km or more. maximum recorded dispersal was 8.7 km, and 2 individuals traveled more than 5 km in 1 day. the relevance of the findings to control strategy is discussed.19921331320
the susceptibility of the mosquitoes aedes notoscriptus and culex annulirostris to infection with dog heartworm dirofilaria immitis and their vector efficiency.the mosquitoes aedes notoscriptus (skuse) and culex annulirostris skuse were fed on a dog infected with dirofilaria immitis (leidy) and a blood parasite count of approximately 5000 microfilaria per ml. cx annulirostris ingested almost 4 times as much blood and almost 4 times as many microfilariae as ae.notoscriptus (mean 26.0 compared to 6.6). attrition of the filarial numbers occurred primarily within the midgut during the first 24 h following ingestion and was greater in cx annulirostris than ...19921358267
dispersal of adult female culex annulirostris in griffith, new south wales, australia: a further study.the dispersal of culex annulirostris was studied during february 1986 in griffith, n.s.w. using a mark-release-recapture technique. parity was determined of recaptured females and a sample of the population at release. parity rates of the 2 populations were comparable, and no significant differences were detected between the dispersal characteristics of the nulliparous and parous recaptured females. the maximum flight distance observed was 12 km, the limit of the trapping network. it was estimat ...19921474387
biological control of culicidae with the copepod mesocyclops aspericornis and larvivorous fish (poeciliidae) in a village of french polynesia.the copepod mesocyclops aspericornis daday and the larvivorous fishes gambusia affinis (b. & g.) and poecilia reticulata r. & b., were released into mosquito breeding sites in tuherahera village, tikehau atoll, french polynesia, to control larvae of aedes aegypti (l.), ae.polynesiensis marks, culex annulirostris skuse and cx quinquefasciatus say. treatments were completed within a week, in january 1990. fish quickly eliminated mosquito larvae from the open breeding sites (ponds, wells). the impa ...19921600235
surveillance of mosquitoes and arbovirus infection at the ross river dam (stage 1), australia.this paper describes the temporal and spatial abundance of the mosquito fauna of the ross river dam (stage 1) in northern queensland, australia. culex annulirostris, anopheles annulipes s.l., mansonia uniformis, mansonia septempunctata, and the nondam breeding aedes vigilax were the major species collected by dry ice-supplemented light traps set at various distances from the edge of the reservoir. to estimate the level of arbovirus activity in these different zones, sentinel chicken flocks were ...19937907358
response of mosquitoes to carbon dioxide and 1-octen-3-ol in southeast queensland, australia.encephalitis vector surveillance (evs) traps were used to study the attractant effect of co2 and 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) on mosquitoes at 2 different locations in southeast queensland. octenol alone was only slightly attractive for aedes vigilax. there was a significant increase in the numbers of ae. vigilax and aedes funereus caught when octenol was added to co2, although catches of culex annulirostris and culex sitiens did not change significantly. the size and age compositions of ae. vigilax a ...19938126478
differential responses of aedes and culex mosquitoes to octenol or light in combination with carbon dioxide in queensland, australia.field studies were conducted with evs (encephalitis vector surveillance) traps in south-eastern queensland, australia, to determine the relative response rates of mosquitoes to three levels (0.1, 4.5 and 30 mg/h) of 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) in combination with a standard bait of 2200 g carbon dioxide (co2), compared with co2 alone or co2 with light from a 6v incandescent bulb. compared to co2 alone, aedes vigilax collections increased significantly when co2 was supplemented by all three octenol em ...19948161847
australian x disease, murray valley encephalitis and the french connection.epidemics of a severe encephalitis occurred in eastern australia between 1917 and 1925, in which over 280 cases were reported with a fatality rate of 68%. the disease had not been described previously and was called australian x disease. the next epidemic occurred in south-east australia in the summer of 1950-51. the disease was given its name of murray valley encephalitis as this was the area from which most cases were reported. a virus was isolated by eric french in victoria, and about the sam ...19958545982
changes in mosquito populations with expansion of the ross river reservoir, australia, from stage 1 to stage 2a.female mosquitoes were collected at 4 sites around the ross river reservoir (stage 2a) from 484 carbon dioxide-supplemented light traps. the seasonal abundance from these collections during 1991-93 was compared statistically with that for similar collections done for the stage 1 reservoir in 1984-85. principally due to clearing of the forest prior to the inundation of the stage 2a, several tree hole/plant axil and shaded pool species are no longer present or are rare. due to extensive loss of ma ...19957595448
two possible mechanisms for survival and initiation of murray valley encephalitis virus activity in the kimberley region of western australia.two possible mechanisms are described for the initiation of murray valley encephalitis (mve) virus activity in arid, epizootic regions of tropical australia. virus isolations were made from mosquitoes trapped shortly after the first heavy wet season rains and flooding in the east kimberley, which followed approximately nine months of drought. a number of isolates of mve virus were obtained, including isolates from pools of blood-engorged culex annulirostris mosquitoes and from a single pool of m ...19957625542
an outbreak of japanese encephalitis in the torres strait, australia, 1995.to determine the distribution of virus infection during an outbreak of japanese encephalitis (je) in the torres strait, and to describe the environmental factors facilitating the outbreak.19968816682
culex annulirostris breeding sites in urban areas: using remote sensing and digital image analysis to develop a rapid predictor of potential breeding areas.a rapid technique is being developed and assessed to identify urban breeding sites of culex annulirostris, which is a vector of an arbovirus (ross river virus). field survey and laboratory identification were used to identify breeding sites for the species. ephemeral sites became the focus of the research and other mosquito species were recorded. the sites were located on digitized images of 1: 30,000 color aerial photographs. training sites were used to create "themes" for the main ephemeral br ...19968827612
the influence of microfilarial density of dog heartworm dirofilaria immitis on infection rate and survival of aedes notoscriptus and culex annulirostris from australia.the mosquitoes aedes notoscriptus and culex annulirostris, previously shown to be competent vectors of dirofilaria immitis, were allowed to feed on dogs with densities of microfilariae ranging from 2665 to 33,055 microfilariae/ml. filaria developed in both species at a similar rate independent of the initial microfilarial density. cx annulirostris ingested more microfilariae although the number of developing larvae was consistently greater in ae.notoscriptus; one female ae.notoscriptus carried s ...19968834739
alphavirus infection in mosquitoes at the ross river reservoir, north queensland, 1990-1993.this study addresses the potential problem of alphavirus infection associated with recreational use of the ross river reservoir in north queensland, australia. from 1990 to 1993, 51,497 adult female mosquitoes were collected mainly by co2-supplemented light traps. four localities within the reservoir were considered and compared with mosquitoes collected during 1991 from 2 public localities around townsville city. ten isolates of ross river virus, one of barmah forest virus, and 2 of sindbis vir ...19968887221
[new epidemiological aspects of dengue].since the 1940s, the dengue epidemics occur more and more often in the pacific islands with an increased severity. for example, in new caledonia, outbreaks of dengue-like diseases have been reported since the end of the last century but the first epidemic due to an identified virus occurred in 1942-1943 and was caused by the den-1 type. the next, due to the den-2 type, was reported thirty years later, in 1972-1973. after that, three outbreaks burst between 1975 and 1990, caused successively by d ...19968924778
mosquito seasonality and arboviral disease incidence in murray valley, southeast australia.adult female mosquito populations were monitored at weekly intervals during spring-autumn (november-march) for 4 years (1991-95) using dry-ice-baited light traps at forty sites in the murray valley of victoria, australia. among twenty species of mosquitoes collected, culex annulirostris was the most abundant (66.6 +/- 9.3%) followed by cx australicus (15.3 +/- 7.7%). from a total of 476,682 mosquitoes collected, nearly all were females and only 1295 (0.27%) were males. mosquito population densit ...19968994141
isolation of japanese encephalitis virus from culex annulirostris in australia.mosquitoes were collected using co2 and octenol-baited light traps during an outbreak of japanese encephalitis (je) on badu island in the torres strait, australia in april 1995. a total of 13,300 mosquitoes comprising 12 species were processed for virus isolation. eight isolates of je virus were obtained from culex annulirostris, with a carriage rate of 2.97:1,000; this mosquito also yielded one sindbis virus isolate. a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to sequence the je ...19979063367
ross river virus in mosquitoes (diptera:culicidae) during the 1994 epidemic around brisbane, australia.during the summer 1994 outbreak of epidemic polyarthritis in suburban brisbane, 29,931 adult female mosquitoes were collected by octenol-co2 light traps and tested for virus by species in pools of approximately 20 using an in situ enzyme-linked immunoassay. overall, 63 isolations of ross river (rr) virus were made from 7 different mosquito species, including 23 from freshwater-breeding culex annulirostris skuse, 13 from peridomestic aedes notoscriptus (skuse), 4 from aedes procax (skuse), 12 fro ...19979103757
acute and sublethal effects of (s)-methoprene on some australian mosquitoes.laboratory bioassays were used to determine the efficacy of (s)-methoprene against 7 species of australian mosquitoes. the 90% lethal concentration (lc90) ranged from 0.17 ppb for aedes vigilax to 6.54 ppb for culex sitiens. the survival of adults exposed as larvae to 2 sublethal dosages of (s)-methoprene was compared to a control group. little effect was noted for cx. sitiens and culex annulirostris. however, survival of male and female ae. vigilax was significantly reduced and appeared to be d ...19979249653
importance of hydrilla verticillata (hydrocharitaceae) as habitat for immature mosquitoes at the ross river reservoir, australia.from november 1990 to november 1992, immature mosquitoes were sampled from the shoreline and from emergent beds of the submerged aquatic plant hydrilla verticillata at the ross river reservoir, northern australia. aerial mapping of hydrilla beds was done in conjunction with sampling to estimate total immature mosquito numbers. larvae of 7 species were found. culex annulirostris. anopheles annulipes s.l., and anopheles amictus comprised 80.4% of the total. peak larval densities occurred in the la ...19979249656
development and survival of immature culex annulirostris mosquitoes in southeast queensland.the rates of development and survival of the immature stages of culex annulirostris were studied in three different breeding sites in the brisbane area of southeast queensland: a temporary rain-filled pool (tp), a semi-permanent pool (spp), and an area of flooded grassland (fg) arising from the overflow of a permanent pond. parallel observations were made on larvae and pupae either exposed to predation or in predator-free cages of 12 and 15 consecutive days respectively. development was fastest ...19979226650
the gecko: an environmentally friendly biological agent for mosquito control.laboratory experiments with aedes aegypti mosquitoes investigated the effects of light, mosquito density and physiological state on predation rates by the australian gecko gehydra dubia and the exotic asian house gecko hemidactylus frenatus. for both gecko species a positive correlation was demonstrated between prey density and the predation rate. using ae.aegypti males and unfed females as prey in a terrarium (0.054 m3), consumption rates reached 76-108/day for g.dubia and 63-109/day for h.fren ...19979430109
susceptibility of selected strains of australian mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) to rift valley fever virus.we evaluated the ability of selected strains of the australian mosquitoes, aedes notoscriptus (skuse), ae. vigilax (skuse), culex annulirostris skuse, and cx. quinquefasciatus say, to function as potential vectors of rift valley fever (rvf) virus, should that virus be introduced accidentally into australia. after feeding on a hamster with a viremia of 10(7) plaque-forming units/ml of blood, ae. notoscriptus and cx. annulirostris were the most susceptible, with infection rates of 86 and 55%, resp ...19989538572
an overview of remote sensing and gis for surveillance of mosquito vector habitats and risk assessment.this paper provides a brief nontechnical overview of the use of remote sensing to achieve multiple objectives, focusing on mosquito management. it also shows how geographic information systems, combined with remote sensing analysis, have the potential to assist in minimizing disease risk. examples are used from subtropical queensland, australia, where the salt marsh mosquito, aedes vigilax, and the freshwater species, culex annulirostris, are vectors of human arbovirus diseases such as ross rive ...19989673930
japanese encephalitis in north queensland, australia, 1998.to describe the circumstances of two cases of japanese encephalitis (je) in north queensland in 1998, including one acquired on the australian mainland.199910397044
spatial and temporal analysis of ross river virus disease patterns at maroochy shire, australia: association between human morbidity and mosquito (diptera: culicidae) abundance.notifications of ross river (rr) virus disease in maroochy shire were mapped according to the patient's place of residence, and standardized morbidity ratios were calculated for each of 11 census districts, with 4 areas having higher than average overall rates of rr virus disease notification. temporal analysis of rr virus disease notifications from each of the 11 areas indicated that epidemics of rr virus disease either were widespread, resulting in higher than average numbers of cases from the ...199910467782
vector competence of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) from maroochy shire, australia, for barmah forest virus.mosquitoes were collected in light traps from maroochy shire and fed on blood containing the sympatric bf1611 strain of barmah forest virus (bf). saltmarsh aedes vigilax (skuse) and freshwater aedes procax (skuse) were highly susceptible to infection, with id50s of 10(1.7) and 10(1.5) african green monkey kidney (vero) cell culture infectious dose, 50% endpoint (ccid50) per mosquito, respectively, followed by aedes multiplex (theobald) and aedes funereus (theobald) with 10(2.5) and 10(3.2) ccid5 ...199910593091
chimeric yellow fever virus 17d-japanese encephalitis virus vaccine: dose-response effectiveness and extended safety testing in rhesus monkeys.chimerivax-je is a live, attenuated recombinant virus prepared by replacing the genes encoding two structural proteins (prm and e) of yellow fever 17d virus with the corresponding genes of an attenuated strain of japanese encephalitis virus (je), sa14-14-2 (t. j. chambers et al., j. virol. 73:3095-3101, 1999). since the prm and e proteins contain antigens conferring protective humoral and cellular immunity, the immune response to vaccination is directed principally at je. the prm-e genome sequen ...200010644345
toxicity of insecticides for control of freshwater culex annulirostris (diptera: culicidae) to the nontarget shrimp, caradina indistincta (decapoda: atyidae).laboratory evaluations were conducted in southeastern queensland, australia, to determine the toxicities of two organophosphate compounds (temephos and pirimiphos-methyl), an insect growth regulator (s-methoprene), and an entomopathogenic bacterium (bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis de barjac [b.t.i.]) to culex annulirostris (skuse), an australian freshwater mosquito vector of arboviruses, and to caradina indistincta calman, a co-habiting nontarget shrimp species. s-methoprene and b.t.i ...200010902314
earth observation, geographic information systems and plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-saharan africa.this review highlights the progress and current status of remote sensing (rs) and geographical information systems (gis) as currently applied to the problem of plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-saharan africa (ssa). the burden of p. falciparum malaria in ssa is first summarized and then contrasted with the paucity of accurate and recent information on the nature and extent of the disease. this provides perspective on both the global importance of the pathogen and the potential for contributio ...200010997207
vector competence of aedes aegypti, culex sitiens, culex annulirostris, and culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae) for barmah forest virus.aedes aegypti (l.), culex sitiens weidemann, culex annulirostris skuse, and culex quinquefasciatus say mosquitoes colonized at the queensland institute of medical research, brisbane australia, were fed on blood containing barmah forest virus (bf). only cx. annulirostris was susceptible to infection, with a median cell culture infectious dose (ccid50) of 10(3.36) per mosquito. ae. aegypti and cx. quinquefasciatus were infected experimentally, but at rates of < 9%. cx. sitiens did not become infec ...200011004776
definition of species in the culex sitiens subgroup (diptera: culicidae) from papua new guinea and australia.japanese encephalitis is a disease of major importance in asia, which from 1995 has extended its range into the north of australia. culex annulirostris skuse of the culex sitiens subgroup of culex was incriminated as the most likely mosquito vector. because misidentifications previously have occurred within this subgroup, our paper defines electrophoretic methods to identify culex specimens from queensland and the northern territory in australia and from western province in papua new guinea. in ...200011004787
mosquito (diptera: culicidae) dispersal: implications for the epidemiology of japanese and murray valley encephalitis viruses in australia.one hypothesis to explain the southern extension of japanese encephalitis (je) virus from papua new guinea into the torres strait islands in 1995 and to mainland australia in 1998 is the dispersal of infected mosquitoes, particularly culex annulirostris skuse from which je virus has been isolated repeatedly. to investigate whether this species disperses in this manner, mosquitoes were identified from 368 aerial kite trap collections operated at 50-310 m (altitude) at inland new south wales betwe ...200011126532
mosquito isolates of ross river virus from cairns, queensland, australia.during 1996-1998 60,619 mosquitoes were collected around cairns, australia and processed for alphavirus isolation. thirty-three isolates of ross river (rr) virus were made from 9 species, aedes imprimens, aedes kochi, aedes notoscriptus, aedes vigilax, culex annulirostris, culex gelidus, mansonia septempunctata, verrallina (formerly aedes) carmenti, and verrallina lineatus. attempts to isolate rr virus from 121 aedes aegypti were unsuccessful. twenty-six (79%) of the isolates came from within 1 ...200011289664
definition of ross river virus vectors at maroochy shire, australia.evidence of ross river (rr) virus infection in field-collected mosquitoes and data from laboratory vector competence experiments incriminated a range of mosquito species as important vectors of rr virus in maroochy shire, queensland, australia. nine rr and 2 barmah forest virus isolates were recovered from 27,529 mosquitoes collected in light traps from maroochy shire during 1996. nine of the 10 most abundant mosquito species collected in light traps were fed on blood containing the b94/20 strai ...200015218919
flaviviruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during the first recorded outbreak of japanese encephalitis virus on cape york peninsula, australia.in response to an outbreak of japanese encephalitis (je) virus on cape york peninsula, australia, in 1998, mosquitoes were collected using co2 and octenol-baited centers for disease control and prevention light traps. a total of 35,235 adult mosquitoes, comprising 31 species, were processed for virus isolation. no isolates of je virus were recovered from these mosquitoes. however, 18 isolates of kokobera virus, another flavivirus were obtained from culex annulirostris. twelve isolates were from ...200111442206
ross river virus transmission, infection, and disease: a cross-disciplinary review.ross river virus (rrv) is a fascinating, important arbovirus that is endemic and enzootic in australia and papua new guinea and was epidemic in the south pacific in 1979 and 1980. infection with rrv may cause disease in humans, typically presenting as peripheral polyarthralgia or arthritis, sometimes with fever and rash. rrv disease notifications in australia average 5,000 per year. the first well-described outbreak occurred in 1928. during world war ii there were more outbreaks, and the name ep ...200111585790
kunjin virus: an australian variant of west nile?kunjin (kun) is a flavivirus in the japanese encephalitis antigenic complex that was first isolated from culex annulirostris mosquitoes captured in northern australia in 1960. it is the etiological agent of a human disease characterized by febrile illness with rash or mild encephalitis and, occasionally, of a neurological disease in horses. kun virus shares a similar epidemiology and ecology with the closely related murray valley encephalitis (mve) virus, the major causative agent of arboviral e ...200111797773
isolation of arboviruses from mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) collected from the gulf plains region of northwest queensland, australia.as part of investigations into japanese encephalitis (je) virus and related flaviviruses in northern australia, 153,529 mosquitoes were collected and processed for virus isolation from the gulf plains region of northwest queensland. collections from within 30 km of each of the townships of croydon, normanton and karumba yielded 3,087 (2.0%), 66,009 (43.0%), and 84,433 (55.0%) mosquitoes, respectively, from which 16 viruses were isolated. four isolates of murray valley encephalitis (mve), two of ...200212349863
ross river virus: ecology and distribution.ross river virus is the most common mosquito-borne pathogen in australia, and approximately 5000 human cases are reported annually. the infection is not fatal, but there is considerable morbidity associated with a debilitating polyarthritis that is the major symptom. the virus is annually active in most regions of australia, but exists as strains that vary in virulence. native macropods are thought to be the natural vertebrate hosts, although horses and humans may be involved during epidemic act ...200211729067
vector competence of australian mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) for japanese encephalitis virus.australian mosquitoes were evaluated for their ability to become infected with and transmit a torres strait strain of japanese encephalitis virus. mosquitoes, which were obtained from either laboratory colonies and collected using centers for disease control and prevention light traps baited with co2 and octenol or reared from larvae, were infected by feeding on a blood/sucrose solution containing 10(4.5 +/- 0.1) porcine stable-equine kidney (ps-ek) tissue culture infectious dose50/mosquito of t ...200312597658
population structure and dispersal of the freshwater mosquitoes culex annulirostris and culex palpalis (diptera: culicidae) in papua new guinea and northern australia.in 1995 and 1998, outbreaks of japanese encephalitis (je) virus occurred for the first time in australia. virus isolation from pools of mosquitoes indicated culex annulirostris skuse was the most likely vector. it was hypothesized that wind-blown mosquitoes introduced je from papua new guinea to the torres strait and cape york, northern australia. this study used levels of genetic differentiation, as indirect evidence of dispersal of mosquitoes between the two continents. the results have demons ...200312693844
field evaluation of a sentinel mosquito (diptera: culicidae) trap system to detect japanese encephalitis in remote australia.incursions of japanese encephalitis (je) virus into northern queensland are currently monitored using sentinel pigs. however, the maintenance of these pigs is expensive, and because pigs are the major amplifying hosts of the virus, they may contribute to je transmission. therefore, we evaluated a mosquito-based detection system to potentially replace the sentinel pigs. single, inactivated je-infected culex annulirostris skuse and c. sitiens wiedemann were placed into pools of uninfected mosquito ...200312943100
intraspecific variation in odor-mediated host preference of the mosquito culex annulirostris.the preference of two allopatric populations of culex annulirostris mosquitoes in south australia (sa) for guinea pigs and chickens was investigated using host-baited traps in the field and in a flight tunnel for laboratory assays. mosquitoes from the riverland of sa preferred guinea pigs, those from northeast sa preferred chickens. in the field, 2184 cx. annulirostris were captured during four experiments in each region. the proportion choosing chicken was 0.5393 in northeast sa and 0.4348 in t ...200312956513
epizootic activity of murray valley encephalitis and kunjin viruses in an aboriginal community in the southeast kimberley region of western australia: results of mosquito fauna and virus isolation studies.we undertook annual surveys of flavivirus activity in the community of billiluna in the southeast kimberley region of western australia between 1989 and 2001 [corrected]. culex annulirostris was the dominant mosquito species, particularly in years of above average rains and flooding. murray valley encephalitis (mve) virus was isolated in 8 of the 13 years of the study from seven mosquito species, but more than 90% of the isolates were from cx. annulirostris. the results suggest that mve virus is ...200314628944
mosquito host-feeding patterns and implications for japanese encephalitis virus transmission in northern australia and papua new guinea.japanese encephalitis (je) virus spread to northern australia during the 1990s, transmitted by culex annulirostris skuse and other mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae). to determine the relative importance of various hosts for potential vectors of je virus, we investigated the host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes in northern australia and western province of papua new guinea, with particular attention to pigs, sus scrofa l. - the main amplifying host of je virus in south-east asia. mosquitoes were col ...200314651654
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