TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
the echinocandin b producer fungus aspergillus nidulans var. roseus atcc 58397 does not possess innate resistance against its lipopeptide antimycotic.aspergillus nidulans var. roseus atcc 58397 is an echinocandin b (ecb) producer ascomycete with great industrial importance. as demonstrated by ecb/caspofungin sensitivity assays, a. nidulans var. roseus does not possess any inherent resistance to echinocandins, and its tolerance to these lipopeptide antimycotics are even lower than those of the non-producer a. nidulans fgsc a4 strain. under ecb producing conditions or ecb exposures, a. nidulans var. roseus induced its ecb tolerance via up-regul ...201222555909
mrna 3' tagging is induced by nonsense-mediated decay and promotes ribosome dissociation.for a range of eukaryote transcripts, the initiation of degradation is coincident with the addition of a short pyrimidine tag at the 3' end. previously, cytoplasmic mrna tagging has been observed for human and fungal transcripts. we now report that arabidopsis thaliana mrna is subject to 3' tagging with u and c nucleotides, as in aspergillus nidulans. mutations that disrupt tagging, including a. nidulans cuta and a newly characterized gene, cutb, retard transcript degradation. importantly, nonse ...201222547684
involvement of a natural fusion of a cytochrome p450 and a hydrolase in mycophenolic acid biosynthesis.mycophenolic acid (mpa) is a fungal secondary metabolite and the active component in several immunosuppressive pharmaceuticals. the gene cluster coding for the mpa biosynthetic pathway has recently been discovered in penicillium brevicompactum, demonstrating that the first step is catalyzed by mpac, a polyketide synthase producing 5-methylorsellinic acid (5-moa). however, the biochemical role of the enzymes encoded by the remaining genes in the mpa gene cluster is still unknown. based on bioinfo ...201222544261
γ-heptalactone is an endogenously produced quorum-sensing molecule regulating growth and secondary metabolite production by aspergillus nidulans.microbes monitor their population density through a mechanism termed quorum sensing. it is believed that quorum-sensing molecules diffuse from the microbial cells and circulate in the surrounding environment as a function of cell density. when these molecules reach a threshold concentration, the gene expression of the entire population is altered in a coordinated manner. this work provides evidence that aspergillus nidulans produces at least one small diffusible molecule during its growth cycle ...201222543352
α-glucosylated 6-gingerol: chemoenzymatic synthesis using α-glucosidase from halomonas sp. h11, and its physical properties.6-gingerol [(s)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decan-3-one] is a biologically active compound and is abundant in the rhizomes of ginger (zingiber officinale). it has some beneficial functions in healthcare, but its use is limited because of its insolubility in water and its heat-instability. to improve these physical properties, the glucosylation of 6-gingerol was investigated using α-glucosidases (ec. from aspergillus niger, aspergillus nidulans abpu1, acremonium strictum, hal ...201222537860
deletion of the ustilago maydis ortholog of the aspergillus sporulation regulator meda affects mating and virulence through pheromone response.mating of compatible haploid cells of ustilago maydis is essential for infection and disease development in the host. for mating and subsequent filamentous growth and pathogenicity, the transcription factor, prf1 is necessary. prf1 is in turn regulated by the camp and mapk pathways and other regulators like rop1 and hap1. here we describe the identification of another putative prf1 regulator, med1, the ortholog of the aspergillus nidulans medusa (meda) transcription factor and show that it is re ...201222537792
conserved and essential transcription factors for cellulase gene expression in ascomycete fungi.rational engineering of filamentous fungi for improved cellulase production is hampered by our incomplete knowledge of transcriptional regulatory networks. we therefore used the model filamentous fungus neurospora crassa to search for uncharacterized transcription factors associated with cellulose deconstruction. a screen of a n. crassa transcription factor deletion collection identified two uncharacterized zinc binuclear cluster transcription factors (clr-1 and clr-2) that were required for gro ...201222532664
illuminating the diversity of aromatic polyketide synthases in aspergillus nidulans.genome sequencing has revealed that fungi have the ability to synthesize many more natural products (nps) than are currently known, but methods for obtaining suitable expression of nps have been inadequate. we have developed a successful strategy that bypasses normal regulatory mechanisms. by efficient gene targeting, we have replaced, en masse, the promoters of nonreducing polyketide synthase (nr-pks) genes, key genes in np biosynthetic pathways, and other genes necessary for nr-pks product for ...201222510154
identification and characterization of a novel diterpene gene cluster in aspergillus nidulans.fungal secondary metabolites are a rich source of medically useful compounds due to their pharmaceutical and toxic properties. sequencing of fungal genomes has revealed numerous secondary metabolite gene clusters, yet products of many of these biosynthetic pathways are unknown since the expression of the clustered genes usually remains silent in normal laboratory conditions. therefore, to discover new metabolites, it is important to find ways to induce the expression of genes in these otherwise ...201222506079
reprogramming of carbon metabolism by the transcriptional activators acuk and acum in aspergillus nidulans.the ability of fungi to use carbon sources metabolized via the tca cycle requires gluconeogenesis. in aspergillus nidulans the acuk and acum transcription factors regulate the expression of the gluconeogenic genes acuf, encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and acug, encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. expressed proteins containing the acuk/acum n-terminal dna-binding domains bind together in vitro to motifs containing repeats of cgg separated by seven bases (ccgn7ccg) and the functional ...201222500966
functional and phylogenetic analysis of the aspergillus ochraceoroseus aflq (orda) gene ortholog.within the aspergillus parasiticus and a. flavus aflatoxin (af) biosynthetic gene cluster the aflq (orda) and aflp (omta) genes encode respectively an oxidoreductase and methyltransferase. these genes are required for the final steps in the conversion of sterigmatocystin (st) to aflatoxin b(1) (afb(1)). aspergillus nidulans harbors a gene cluster that produces st, as the aflq and aflp orthologs are either non-functional or absent in the genome. aspergillus ochraceoroseus produces both af and st, ...201222495451
endosomal maturation by rab conversion in aspergillus nidulans is coupled to dynein-mediated basipetal movement.we exploit the ease with which highly motile early endosomes are distinguished from static late endosomes in order to study aspergillus nidulans endosomal traffic. rabs(rab7) mediates homotypic fusion of late endosomes/vacuoles in a homotypic fusion- and vacuole protein sorting/vps41-dependent manner. progression across the endocytic pathway involves endosomal maturation because the end products of the pathway in the absence of rabs(rab7) are minivacuoles that are competent in multivesicular bod ...201222456509
methods for identifying lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates.plate assays for lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates have been developed. both potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were effective for detecting soybean lipoxygenase activity on agar plates. a positive result was also achieved using the β-carotene bleaching method, but the sensitivity of this method was lower than the other two methods. the potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were also applied for detecting lipoxygenase production by ...201222449314
fungal sensitivity to and enzymatic deglycosylation of ginsenosides.a ginseng pathogen, cylindrocarpon destructans, and five nonpathogens were tested for their sensitivity to a total ginsenoside fraction (t-gf), a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside fraction (ppd-gf) and a protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside fraction (ppt-gf) from the roots of panax ginseng c.a. meyer. the results showed that t-gf inhibited growth of the five ginseng nonpathogens, while it promoted growth of the ginseng pathogen c. destructans. ppt-gf and ppd-gf both inhibited the growth of the five ...201222449289
identification of a permease gene involved in lactose utilisation in aspergillus nidulans.lactose is intracellularly hydrolysed by aspergillus nidulans. classical mutation mapping data and the physical characteristics of the previously purified glycosyl hydrolase facilitated identification of the clustered, divergently transcribed intracellular β-galactosidase (bgad) and lactose permease (lacpa) genes. at the transcript level, bgad and lacpa were coordinately expressed in response to d-galactose, lactose or l-arabinose, while no transcription was detectable in the additional presence ...201222445777
transient and multivariate system for transformation of a fungal plant pathogen, rosellinia necatrix, using autonomously replicating vectors.rosellinia necatrix is a fungus that infects a wide range of host plants and ruins a variety of commercially important crops. dna fragments can be introduced into r. necatrix using conventional protoplast-peg transformation and genome-integrating vectors; however, transformation efficiency with this strategy is quite low. therefore, to establish a more effective transformation system for the studies of r. necatrix, an autonomously replicating vector was constructed using ama1 sequences derived f ...201222388868
improved biomass saccharification by trichoderma reesei through heterologous expression of laca gene from trametes sp. ah28-2.the trametes sp. ah28-2 laccase gene laca fused to cellobiohydrolase i signal peptide coding sequence was heterologously expressed in t. reesei. the laca cdna was under the control of the aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. native page analysis indicated that two transformants, l8 and l38, were able to secrete recombinant laccase a, and their laccase activities corresponding to abts oxidation reached 3.62 iuml(-1) and 1.50 iuml(-1) respectively. most of the ch ...201222387233
pali domain proteins of saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida albicans.the rim9/pali groups of proteins are members of the sur7 family, all of which contain a signal sequence and a block of three potential trans-membrane helices. multi-protein sequence comparisons among fungi suggest that there are two classes of rim9/pali proteins; longer proteins like pali that contain a sur7 domain and a c-terminal extension, and shorter proteins like rim9 that contain essentially only the sur7 domain. we have examined possible roles of the longer, pali-like proteins of both sac ...201222381911
physiological characterization of recombinant saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the aspergillus nidulans phosphoketolase pathway: validation of activity through 13c-based metabolic flux analysis.several bacterial species and filamentous fungi utilize the phosphoketolase pathway (phk) for glucose dissimilation as an alternative to the embden-meyerhof-parnas pathway. in aspergillus nidulans, the utilization of this metabolic pathway leads to increased carbon flow towards acetate and acetyl coa. in the first step of the phk, the pentose phosphate pathway intermediate xylulose-5-phosphate is converted into acetylphosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate through the action of xylulose-5-phosp ...201222367611
the aspergillus nidulans kinesin-3 tail is necessary and sufficient to recognize modified microtubules.posttranslational microtubule modifications (ptms) are numerous; however, the biochemical and cell biological roles of those modifications remain mostly an enigma. the aspergillus nidulans kinesin-3 unca uses preferably modified microtubules (mts) as tracks for vesicle transportation. here, we show that a positively charged region in the tail of unca (amino acids 1316 to 1402) is necessary for the recognition of modified mts. chimeric proteins composed of the kinesin-1 motor domain and the unca ...201222363525
the functions of myosin ii and myosin v homologs in tip growth and septation in aspergillus nidulans.because of the industrial and medical importance of members of the fungal genus aspergillus, there is considerable interest in the functions of cytoskeletal components in growth and secretion in these organisms. we have analyzed the genome of aspergillus nidulans and found that there are two previously unstudied myosin genes, a myosin ii homolog, myob (product = myob) and a myosin v homolog, myoe (product = myoe). deletions of either cause significant growth defects. myob localizes in strings th ...201222359575
l-rhamnose induction of aspergillus nidulans α-l-rhamnosidase genes is glucose repressed via a crea-independent mechanism acting at the level of inducer uptake.little is known about the structure and regulation of fungal α-l-rhamnosidase genes despite increasing interest in the biotechnological potential of the enzymes that they encode. whilst the paradigmatic filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans growing on l-rhamnose produces an α-l-rhamnosidase suitable for oenological applications, at least eight genes encoding putative α-l-rhamnosidases have been found in its genome. in the current work we have identified the gene (rhae) encoding the former acti ...201222353731
effects of sterigmatocystin on tnf-α, il-6 and il-12 expression in murine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peritoneal macrophages in vivo.sterigmatocystin (st) is a toxic metabolite mainly produced by the fungi aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus versicolor. st is considered a potent carcinogen, mutagen and teratogen. however, over the past few years, it has been demonstrated that it is less acutely toxic to rodents in vivo. in this study, we evaluated the putative effects of st on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (tnf-α), interleukin (il)-6 and il-12 at mrna levels in murine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (mpbmcs) a ...201222344519
an ordered pathway for the assembly of fungal escrt-containing ambient ph signalling complexes at the plasma membrane.the fungal pal/rim signalling pathway, which regulates gene expression in response to environmental ph involves, in addition to dedicated proteins, several components of escrt complexes, which suggested that ph signalling proteins assemble on endosomal platforms. in aspergillus nidulans, dedicated pal proteins include the plasma membrane receptor palh and its coupled arrestin, palf, which becomes ubiquitylated in alkaline ph conditions, and three potentially endosomal escrt-iii associates, inclu ...201222344261
the cop9 signalosome counteracts the accumulation of cullin scf ubiquitin e3 ring ligases during fungal development.defects in the cop9 signalosome (csn) impair multicellular development, including embryonic plant or animal death or a block in sexual development of the fungus aspergillus nidulans. csn deneddylates cullin-ring ligases (crls), which are activated by covalent linkage to ubiquitin-like nedd8. deneddylation allows crl disassembly for subsequent reassembly. an attractive hypothesis is a consecutive order of crls for development, which demands repeated cycles of neddylation and deneddylation for rea ...201222329854
the role of flotillin floa and stomatin stoa in the maintenance of apical sterol-rich membrane domains and polarity in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.apical sterol-rich plasma membrane domains (srds), which can be viewed using the sterol-binding fluorescent dye filipin, are gaining attention for their important roles in polarized growth of filamentous fungi. the microdomain scaffolding protein flotillin/reggie and related stomatin were thought to be good candidates involved in the formation of srds. here, we show that the flotillin/reggie orthologue floa tagged with gfp localized as stable dots along the plasma membrane except hyphal tips. de ...201222329814
differential expression of silent polyketide biosynthesis gene clusters in chemostat cultures of aspergillus nidulans.the genome of the fungal model organism aspergillus nidulans harbors nearly 30 polyketide synthase genes, yet the majority of these genes remain silent in the absence of particular stimuli. in this study, environmental conditions such as low specific microbial growth rate as well as nitrate, orthophosphate and glucose limitations were simulated under a continuous cultivation regime to induce the expression of silent polyketide synthase genes. in addition to offline and online bioprocess paramete ...201222306112
the gata factors area and areb together with the co-repressor nmra, negatively regulate arginine catabolism in aspergillus nidulans in response to nitrogen and carbon source.the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans can utilize arginine both as a nitrogen and carbon source. analysis of area and areb single and double mutants has shown that the two gata transcription factors area and areb negatively regulate the expression of arginine catabolism genes agaa and otaa under nitrogen repressing conditions. area is necessary for the ammonium repression of agaa and otaa under carbon repressing conditions, while areb is involved under carbon-limiting conditions. the abili ...201222300944
reengineering an azaphilone biosynthesis pathway in aspergillus nidulans to create lipoxygenase inhibitors.sclerotiorin, an azaphilone polyketide, is a bioactive natural product known to inhibit 15-lipoxygenase and many other biological targets. to readily access sclerotiorin and analogs, we developed a 2-3 step semisynthetic route to produce a variety of azaphilones starting from an advanced, putative azaphilone intermediate (5) overproduced by an engineered strain of aspergillus nidulans. the inhibitory activities of the semisynthetic azaphilones against 15-lipoxygenase were evaluated with several ...201222296232
an aspergillus nidulans bzip response pathway hardwired for defensive secondary metabolism operates through aflr.the eukaryotic bzip transcription factors are critical players in organismal response to environmental challenges. in fungi, the production of secondary metabolites (sms) is hypothesized as one of the responses to environmental insults, e.g. attack by fungivorous insects, yet little data to support this hypothesis exists. here we establish a mechanism of bzip regulation of sms through rsma, a recently discovered yap-like bzip protein. rsma greatly increases sm production by binding to two sites ...201222283524
functional analysis of fara transcription factor in the regulation of the genes encoding lipolytic enzymes and hydrophobic surface binding protein for the degradation of biodegradable plastics in aspergillus oryzae.fara is a zn(ii)(2)cys(6) transcription factor which upregulates genes required for growth on fatty acids in filamentous fungi like aspergillus nidulans. fara is also highly similar to the cutinase transcription factor ctf1α of fusarium solani which binds to the cutinase gene promoter in this plant pathogen. this study determines whether fara transcriptional factor also works in the regulation of genes responsible for the production of cutinase for the degradation of a biodegradable plastic, pol ...201222280964
signaling the induction of sporulation involves the interaction of two secondary metabolites in aspergillus nidulans.when growing aspergillus nidulans hyphae encounter the atmosphere, they initiate a morphogenetic program leading to the production of spores. mutants that are defective in the flug gene fail to undergo sporulation because they lack an endogenous diffusible factor that purportedly accumulates on aerial hyphae, thus signaling the initiation of development. in this study, the defect could be reversed by adding culture extracts from a wild-type strain onto a mutant colony. moreover, a bioassay-guide ...201222234162
genetics of polyketide metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. the majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making ...201224957370
molecular genetic characterization of a cluster in a. terreus for biosynthesis of the meroterpenoid terretonin.meroterpenoids are natural products produced from polyketide and terpenoid precursors. a gene targeting system for a. terreus nih2624 was developed, and a gene cluster for terretonin biosynthesis was characterized. the intermediates and shunt products were isolated from the mutant strains, and a pathway for terretonin biosynthesis is proposed. analysis of two meroterpenoid pathways corresponding to terretonin in a. terreus and austinol in a. nidulans reveals that they are closely related evoluti ...201223116177
aspergillus oxylipin signaling and quorum sensing pathways depend on g protein-coupled receptors.oxylipins regulate aspergillus development and mycotoxin production and are also involved in aspergillus quorum sensing mechanisms. despite extensive knowledge of how these oxylipins are synthesized and what processes they regulate, nothing is known about how these signals are detected and transmitted by the fungus. g protein-coupled receptors (gpcr) have been speculated to be involved as they are known oxylipin receptors in mammals, and many putative gpcrs have been identified in the aspergilli ...201223105976
[application of pcr combined with reverse line blot assay in detection and identification of common pathogenic aspergillus in fungal sinusitis].to evaluate the feasibility of pcr/reverse line blot hybridization (rlb) assay in the detection and identification of clinical pathogens in fungal sinusitis (fs).201222455842
xlnr-independent signaling pathway regulates both cellulase and xylanase genes in response to cellobiose in aspergillus aculeatus.the expression levels of the cellulase and xylanase genes between the host strain and an xlnr disruptant were compared by quantitative rt-pcr (qpcr) to identify the genes controlled by xlnr-independent signaling pathway. the cellulose induction of the fi-carboxymethyl cellulase (cmc1) and fib-xylanase (xynib) genes was controlled by xlnr; in contrast, the cellulose induction of the fiii-avicelase (cbhi), fii-carboxymethyl cellulase (cmc2), and fia-xylanase (xynia) genes was controlled by an xlnr ...201222371227
involvement of protein kinase c in the suppression of apoptosis and in polarity establishment in aspergillus nidulans under conditions of heat stress.the pkca gene, which encodes a protein kinase c (pkc) in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, is essential for its viability. however, little is known about its functions. to address this issue, we constructed and characterized temperature-sensitive mutants of pkca. the conidia of these mutants swelled slightly and exhibited apoptotic phenotypes at 42°c. the apoptotic phenotypes were suppressed by an osmotic stabilizer. under these conditions, the conidia swelled extensively and did not ...201223209763
putative calcium channels ccha and mida play the important roles in conidiation, hyphal polarity and cell wall components in aspergillus nidulans.although the high affinity ca(2+) channel, cch1, and its subunit mid1 have been investigated and evaluated in yeast and some of filamentous fungi, little is known about the function of their homologs in the aspergilli. here, we have functionally characterized the yeast homologs, ccha and mida, in aspergillus nidulans using conditional and null deletion mutants. ccha and mida not only have functional benefits of fast growth, which is consistent with cch1 and mid1 in yeast, but also have unique an ...201223071589
investigation of in vivo protein interactions in aspergillus spores.understanding in vivo protein-protein interactions is critical to dissect precise functions of the regulatory proteins of fungal secondary metabolites. as many fungi differentially produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites during their lifecycle, it is important to understand the cell-type specific regulation of secondary metabolism. however, due to the difficulty of sample preparation of biologically active proteins in fungal spores, protein-protein interaction studies have been generall ...201223065622
identification of protein complexes from filamentous fungi with tandem affinity purification.fungal molecular biology has benefited from the enormous advances in understanding protein-protein interactions in prokaryotic or eukaryotic organisms of the past decade. tandem affinity purification (tap) allows the enrichment of native protein complexes from cell extracts under mild conditions. we codon-optimized tags and established tap, previously not applicable to filamentous fungi, for the model organism aspergillus nidulans. we could identify by this method the trimeric velvet complex vel ...201223065618
multi-copy genetic screen in aspergillus nidulans.with the completion of genomes of various aspergillus species, large-scale genome-wide expression studies can be carried out. genomics, however, is more powerful and efficient when combined with genetics. a multi-copy-based gain-of-function screen is a complementary method to loss-of-function genetic screen and can identify novel genes that may not be easily identifiable through loss-of-function-type screens. particularly, gain-of-function genetic screens would identify novel activators or repre ...201223065617
tools for manipulation of secondary metabolism pathways: rapid promoter replacements and gene deletions in aspergillus nidulans.targeted gene deletions and promoter replacements are proving to be a valuable tool for awakening and analyzing silent secondary metabolism gene clusters in aspergillus nidulans and, as molecular genetic methods for manipulating the genomes of other fungi are developed, they will likely be as valuable in those organisms. here we describe procedures for constructing dna fragments by pcr that can be used to replace genes or promoters quickly and on a large scale. we also describe transformation pr ...201223065614
the chemical identification and analysis of aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites.filamentous fungi have long been recognized to be a rich source of secondary metabolites with potential medicinal applications. the recent genomic sequencing of several aspergillus species has revealed that many secondary metabolite gene clusters are apparently silent under standard laboratory conditions. several successful approaches have been utilized to upregulate these genes and unearth the corresponding natural products. a straightforward, reliable method to purify and characterize new meta ...201223065610
galx regulates the d-galactose oxido-reductive pathway in aspergillus niger.galactose catabolism in aspergillus nidulans is regulated by at least two regulators, galr and galx. in aspergillus niger only galx is present, and its role in d-galactose catabolism in this fungus was investigated. phenotypic and gene expression analysis of a wild type and a galx disruptant revealed that galx regulates the d-galactose oxido-reductive pathway, but not the leloir pathway in a. niger.201223063944
the role, interaction and regulation of the velvet regulator velb in aspergillus nidulans.the multifunctional regulator velb physically interacts with other velvet regulators and the resulting complexes govern development and secondary metabolism in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. here, we further characterize velb's role in governing asexual development and conidiogenesis in a. nidulans. in asexual spore formation, velb deletion strains show reduced number of conidia, and decreased and delayed mrna accumulation of the key asexual regulatory genes brla, abaa, and vosa. o ...201223049895
high abundance of serine/threonine-rich regions predicted to be hyper-o-glycosylated in the secretory proteins coded by eight fungal genomes.o-glycosylation of secretory proteins has been found to be an important factor in fungal biology and virulence. it consists in the addition of short glycosidic chains to ser or thr residues in the protein backbone via o-glycosidic bonds. secretory proteins in fungi frequently display ser/thr rich regions that could be sites of extensive o-glycosylation. we have analyzed in silico the complete sets of putatively secretory proteins coded by eight fungal genomes (botrytis cinerea, magnaporthe grise ...201222994653
phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase, as a suppressor of the seph mutation in aspergillus nidulans, is required for the proper timing of septation.timely cytokinesis/septation is essential for hyphal growth and conidiation in aspergillus nidulans. genetic analyses have identified that a. nidulans has components of the septum initiation network (sin) pathway; one of these, seph, is a key player for early events during cytokinesis. however, little is known about how the seph kinase cascade is regulated by other components. here, we demonstrate that the phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase family acts antagonistically against the sin so th ...201222994198
modeling, substrate docking, and mutational analysis identify residues essential for the function and specificity of a eukaryotic purine-cytosine ncs1 transporter.the recent elucidation of crystal structures of a bacterial member of the ncs1 family, the mhp1 benzyl-hydantoin permease from microbacterium liquefaciens, allowed us to construct and validate a three-dimensional model of the aspergillus nidulans purine-cytosine/h(+) fcyb symporter. the model consists of 12 transmembrane α-helical, segments (tmss) and cytoplasmic n- and c-tails. a distinct core of 10 tmss is made of two intertwined inverted repeats (tms1-5 and tms6-10) that are followed by two a ...201222969088
invasive fungal infection in chronic granulomatous disease: insights into pathogenesis and management.invasive fungal infections (ifis) remain a major cause of death in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (cgd). we discuss the new insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and management of invasive fungal infections in patients with cgd.201222964947
ambient ph controls glycogen levels by regulating glycogen synthase gene expression in neurospora crassa. new insights into the ph signaling pathway.glycogen is a polysaccharide widely distributed in microorganisms and animal cells and its metabolism is under intricate regulation. its accumulation in a specific situation results from the balance between glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase activities that control synthesis and degradation, respectively. these enzymes are highly regulated at transcriptional and post-translational levels. the existence of a dna motif for the aspergillus nidulans ph responsive transcription factor pacc ...201222952943
γ-tubulin plays a key role in inactivating apc/c(cdh1) at the g(1)-s boundary.a γ-tubulin mutation in aspergillus nidulans, mipa-d159, causes failure of inactivation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (apc/c) in interphase, resulting in failure of cyclin b (cb) accumulation and removal of nuclei from the cell cycle. we have investigated the role of cdha, the a. nidulans homologue of the apc/c activator protein cdh1, in γ-tubulin-dependent inactivation of the apc/c. cdha was not essential, but it targeted cb for destruction in g(1), and apc/c(cdha) had to be inact ...201222927465
dna minor groove sensing and widening by the ccaat-binding complex.the ccaat box is a frequent element of eukaryotic promoters, and its specific recognition by the conserved heterotrimeric ccaat-binding complex (cbc) constitutes a key step in promoter organization and regulation of transcription. here, we report the crystal structures of the cbc from aspergillus nidulans in the absence and in complex with double-stranded dna at 1.8 å resolution. the histone-like subunits hapc and hape induce nucleosome-like dna bending by interacting with the sugar-phosphate ba ...201222902862
proof-of-principle for sers imaging of aspergillus nidulans hyphae using in vivo synthesis of gold nanoparticles.high spatial resolution methods to assess the physiology of growing cells should permit analysis of fungal biochemical composition. whole colony methods cannot capture the details of physiology and organism-environment interaction, in part because the structure, function and composition of fungal hyphae vary within individual cells depending on their distance from the growing apex. surface enhanced raman scattering (sers) can provide chemical information on materials that are in close contact wi ...201222900260
overexpression of the aspergillus nidulans histone 4 acetyltransferase esaa increases activation of secondary metabolite production.regulation of secondary metabolite (sm) gene clusters in aspergillus nidulans has been shown to occur through cluster-specific transcription factors or through global regulators of chromatin structure such as histone methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, or the putative methyltransferase laea. a multicopy suppressor screen for genes capable of returning sm production to the sm deficient δlaea mutant resulted in identification of the essential histone acetyltransferase esaa, able to complemen ...201222882998
induced mitotic homologous recombination by the babesicide imidocarb dipropionate in aspergillus nidulans diploid cells.imidocarb dipropionate (imd) is a chemotherapeutic agent prescribed for the treatment and control of babesiosis; it is known to be a nucleic acid synthesis inhibitor. although it is an effective babesicide, there are reports of persistent imd residues retained at high levels in edible tissues of cattle, swine and sheep, raising concerns about potential effects on humans. since the carcinogenic potential of a chemical compound can be assessed through its effect on the homologous recombination, we ...201222869537
cis- and trans-acting localization determinants of ph response regulator rim13 in saccharomyces cerevisiae.the rim101/pacc pathway governs adaptation to alkaline ph in many fungi. output of the pathway is mediated by transcription factors of the rim101/pacc family, which are activated by proteolytic cleavage. the proteolytic complex includes scaffold protein rim20 and endosome-associated subunits of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (escrt). we provide here evidence that saccharomyces cerevisiae rim13, the protease that is implicated in rim101 cleavage, is associated with the rim20 ...201222865500
motor-driven motility of fungal nuclear pores organizes chromosomes and fosters nucleocytoplasmic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is controlled by nuclear pore complexes (npcs). in animals, npcs are anchored by the nuclear lamina, which ensures their even distribution and proper organization of chromosomes. fungi do not possess a lamina and how they arrange their chromosomes and npcs is unknown. here, we show that motor-driven motility of npcs organizes the fungal nucleus. in ustilago maydis, aspergillus nidulans, and saccharomyces cerevisiae fluorescently labeled npcs showed ...201222851316
identification of the substrate recognition and transport pathway in a eukaryotic member of the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat) family.using the crystal structure of the uracil transporter uraa of escherichia coli, we constructed a 3d model of the aspergillus nidulans uric acid-xanthine/h(+) symporter uapa, which is a prototype member of the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat) family. the model consists of 14 transmembrane segments (tmss) divided into a core and a gate domain, the later being distinctly different from that of uraa. by implementing molecular mechanics (mm) simulations and quantitative structure-activity relat ...201222848666
identification and molecular genetic analysis of the cichorine gene cluster in aspergillus nidulans.we recently demonstrated that the phytotoxin cichorine is produced by aspergillus nidulans. through a set of targeted deletions, we have found a cluster of seven genes that are required for its biosynthesis. two of the deletions yielded molecules that give information about the biosynthesis of this metabolite.201224244835
vea1 is required for cleistothecial formation and virulence in histoplasma capsulatum.histoplasma capsulatum is a pathogenic fungus dependent on dimorphism for virulence. among the four described velvet family genes, two of them, ryp2 and ryp3, have been shown to be required for dimorphism. it is known that velvet a (vea) is necessary for sexual development and toxin production in aspergillus nidulans. however, the role of the vea ortholog in h. capsulatum has not yet been explored. vea1, h. capsulatum homolog of vea, was studied to determine its role in cleistothecial formation, ...201222841690
the aspergillus nidulans mapk module anste11-ste50-ste7-fus3 controls development and secondary metabolism.the sexual fus3 map kinase module of yeast is highly conserved in eukaryotes and transmits external signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. we show here that the module of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans (an) consists of the anfus3 map kinase, the upstream kinases anste7 and anste11, and the anste50 adaptor. the fungal mapk module controls the coordination of fungal development and secondary metabolite production. it lacks the membrane docking yeast ste5 scaffold homolog; bu ...201222829779
aspergillus nidulans and chronic granulomatous disease: a unique host-pathogen interaction.invasive fungal infections are a major threat for patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease (cgd), a primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nadph)-oxidase. interestingly, aspergillus (emericella) nidulans is the second most encountered mold in cgd patients, causing almost exclusively invasive infections in this specific host, and is characterized by its aggressive behavior. a proper diagnosis is complicated by the often mild cl ...201222829648
multivariate phenotypic divergence due to the fixation of beneficial mutations in experimentally evolved lineages of a filamentous fungus.the potential for evolutionary change is limited by the availability of genetic variation. mutations are the ultimate source of new alleles, yet there have been few experimental investigations of the role of novel mutations in multivariate phenotypic evolution. here, we evaluated the degree of multivariate phenotypic divergence observed in a long-term evolution experiment whereby replicate lineages of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans were derived from a single genotype and allowed to ...201223185601
aspergillus nidulans galactofuranose biosynthesis affects antifungal drug sensitivity.the cell wall is essential for fungal survival in natural environments. many fungal wall carbohydrates are absent from humans, so they are a promising source of antifungal drug targets. galactofuranose (galf) is a sugar that decorates certain carbohydrates and lipids. it comprises about 5% of the aspergillus fumigatus cell wall, and may play a role in systemic aspergillosis. we are studying aspergillus wall formation in the tractable model system, a. nidulans. previously we showed single-gene de ...201223078837
nosa, a transcription factor important in aspergillus fumigatus stress and developmental response, rescues the germination defect of a laea deletion.aspergillus fumigatus is an increasingly serious pathogen of immunocompromised patients, causing the often fatal disease invasive aspergillosis (ia). one a. fumigatus virulence determinant of ia is laea, a conserved virulence factor in pathogenic fungi. to further understand the role of laea in ia, the expression profile of δlaea was compared to wild type, and several transcription factors were found significantly misregulated by laea loss. one of the transcription factors up-regulated over 4-fo ...201223022264
the putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor rica mediates upstream signaling for growth and development in aspergillus.heterotrimeric g proteins (g proteins) govern growth, development, and secondary metabolism in various fungi. here, we characterized rica, which encodes a putative gdp/gtp exchange factor for g proteins in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans and the opportunistic human pathogen aspergillus fumigatus. in both species, rica mrna accumulates during vegetative growth and early developmental phases, but it is not present in spores. the deletion of rica results in severely impaired colony growth and ...201223002107
characterization of the velvet regulators in aspergillus fumigatus.fungal development and secondary metabolism is intimately associated via activities of the fungi-specific velvet family proteins. here we characterize the four velvet regulators in the opportunistic human pathogen aspergillus fumigatus. the deletion of afuvosa, afuvea and afuvelb causes hyperactive asexual development (conidiation) and precocious and elevated accumulation of afubrla during developmental progression. moreover, the absence of afuvosa, afuvea or afuvelb results in the abundant form ...201222970834
comparative genome analysis between aspergillus oryzae strains reveals close relationship between sites of mutation localization and regions of highly divergent genes among aspergillus species.aspergillus oryzae has been utilized for over 1000 years in japan for the production of various traditional foods, and a large number of a. oryzae strains have been isolated and/or selected for the effective fermentation of food ingredients. characteristics of genetic alterations among the strains used are of particular interest in studies of a. oryzae. here, we have sequenced the whole genome of an industrial fungal isolate, a. oryzae rib326, by using a next-generation sequencing system and com ...201222912434
aspergillus tanneri sp. nov., a new pathogen that causes invasive disease refractory to antifungal therapy.the most common cause of invasive aspergillosis (ia) in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) is aspergillus fumigatus followed by a. nidulans; other aspergilli rarely cause the disease. here we review two clinical cases of fatal ia in cgd patients and describe a new etiologic agent of ia refractory to antifungal therapy. unlike typical ia caused by a. fumigatus, the disease caused by the new species was chronic and spread from the lung to multiple adjacent organs. mycological charac ...201222855513
protein phosphatase z modulates oxidative stress response in fungi.the genome of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans harbors the gene ppza that codes for the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase z (ppz), and the closely related opportunistic pathogen aspergillus fumigatus encompasses a highly similar ppz gene (phza). when ppza and phza were expressed in saccharomyces cerevisiae or schizosaccharomyces pombe they partially complemented the deleted phosphatases in the ppz1 or the pzh1 mutants, and they also mimicked the effect of ppz1 overexpression in ...201222750657
persistence versus escape: aspergillus terreus and aspergillus fumigatus employ different strategies during interactions with macrophages.invasive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ibpa) is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. although aspergillus terreus is frequently found in the environment, a. fumigatus is by far the main cause of ibpa. however, once a. terreus establishes infection in the host, disease is as fatal as a. fumigatus infections. thus, we hypothesized that the initial steps of disease establishment might be fundamentally different between these two species. since alveolar macrophages represent o ...201222319619
deletion of the aspergillus flavus orthologue of a. nidulans flug reduces conidiation and promotes production of sclerotia but does not abolish aflatoxin biosynthesis.the flug gene is a member of a family of genes required for conidiation and sterigmatocystin production in aspergillus nidulans. we examined the role of the aspergillus flavus flug orthologue in asexual development and aflatoxin biosynthesis. deletion of flug in a. flavus yielded strains with an approximately 3-fold reduction in conidiation but a 30-fold increase in sclerotial formation when grown on potato dextrose agar in the dark. the concurrent developmental changes suggest that a. flavus fl ...201222904054
nsdc and nsdd affect aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production.the transcription factors nsdc and nsdd are required for sexual development in aspergillus nidulans. we now show these proteins also play a role in asexual development in the agriculturally important aflatoxin (af)-producing fungus aspergillus flavus. we found that both nsdc and nsdd are required for production of asexual sclerotia, normal aflatoxin biosynthesis, and conidiophore development. conidiophores in nsdc and nsdd deletion mutants had shortened stipes and altered conidial heads compared ...201222798394
pcr detection of aflatoxin producing fungi and its limitations.unlike bacterial toxins that are primarily peptides and are therefore encoded by a single gene, fungal toxins such as the aflatoxins are multi-ring structures and therefore require a sequence of structural genes for their biological synthesis. there is therefore no specific pcr for any one of the four biologically produced aflatoxins. unfortunately, the structural genes presently in use for pcr detection of aflatoxin producing fungi are also involved in the synthesis of other fungal toxins such ...201222445201
gliotoxin effects on fungal growth: mechanisms and exploitation.although initially investigated for its antifungal properties, little is actually known about the effect of gliotoxin on aspergillus fumigatus and other fungi. we have observed that exposure of a. fumigatus to exogenous gliotoxin (14 μg/ml), under gliotoxin-limited growth conditions, results in significant alteration of the expression of 27 proteins (up- and down-regulated >1.9-fold; p<0.05) including de novo expression of cu, zn superoxide dismutase, up-regulated allergen asp f3 expression and ...201222405895
aspergillus nidulans ckia is an essential casein kinase i required for delivery of amino acid transporters to the plasma membrane.type i casein kinases are highly conserved among eukaryotes. of the two aspergillus nidulans casein kinases i, ckia is related to the δ/ε mammalian kinases and to saccharomyces cerevisiae hrr25p. ckia is essential. three recessive ckia mutations leading to single residue substitutions, and downregulation using a repressible promoter, result in partial loss-of-function, which leads to a pleiotropic defect in amino acid utilization and resistance to toxic amino acid analogues. these phenotypes cor ...201222489878
genomic characteristics comparisons of 12 food-related filamentous fungi in trna gene set, codon usage and amino acid composition.filamentous fungi are widely exploited in food industry due to their abilities to secrete large amounts of enzymes and metabolites. the recent availability of fungal genome sequences has provided an opportunity to explore the genomic characteristics of these food-related filamentous fungi. in this paper, we selected 12 representative filamentous fungi in the areas of food processing and safety, which were aspergillus clavatus, a. flavus, a. fumigatus, a. nidulans, a. niger, a. oryzae, a. terreus ...201222305983
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation for investigating pathogenicity genes of the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum sansevieriae.agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) has become a common technique for dna transformation of yeast and filamentous fungi. in this study, we first established a protocol of atmt for the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum sansevieriae. binary t-dna vector containing the hygromycin b phosphotransferase gene controlled by the aspergillus nidulans gpda promoter and the trpc terminator was constructed with pcambia0380 and used with three different strains lba4404, gv3101, and gv ...201222585286
a time course analysis of the extracellular proteome of aspergillus nidulans growing on sorghum stover.fungi are important players in the turnover of plant biomass because they produce a broad range of degradative enzymes. aspergillus nidulans, a well-studied saprophyte and close homologue to industrially important species such as a. niger and a. oryzae, was selected for this study.201222835028
gmca is a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase required for the induction of asexual development in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans asexual differentiation is induced by upstream developmental activators (udas) that include the bzip-type transcription factor (tf) flbb. a 2d-page/ms-ms-coupled screen for proteins differentially expressed in the presence and absence of flbb identified 18 candidates. most candidates belong to go term classes involved in osmotic and/or oxidative stress response. among these, we focused on gmca, a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase which is upregulated in a δflb ...201222792266
soil metaproteomics - comparative evaluation of protein extraction protocols.metaproteomics and its potential applications are very promising to study microbial activity in environmental samples and to obtain a deeper understanding of microbial interactions. however, due to the complexity of soil samples the exhaustive extraction of proteins is a major challenge. we compared soil protein extraction protocols in terms of their protein extraction efficiency for two different soil types. four different protein extraction procedures were applied based on (a) sds extraction w ...201223125465
molecular genetic analysis reveals that a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like (nrps-like) gene in aspergillus nidulans is responsible for microperfuranone biosynthesis.genome sequencing of aspergillus species including aspergillus nidulans has revealed that there are far more secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters than secondary metabolites isolated from these organisms. this implies that these organisms can produce additional secondary metabolites, which have not yet been elucidated. the a. nidulans genome contains 12 nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps), one hybrid polyketide synthase/nrps, and 14 nrps-like genes. the only nrps-like gene in a. nid ...201222627757
two separate gene clusters encode the biosynthetic pathway for the meroterpenoids austinol and dehydroaustinol in aspergillus nidulans.meroterpenoids are a class of fungal natural products that are produced from polyketide and terpenoid precursors. an understanding of meroterpenoid biosynthesis at the genetic level should facilitate engineering of second-generation molecules and increasing production of first-generation compounds. the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans has previously been found to produce two meroterpenoids, austinol and dehydroaustinol. using targeted deletions that we created, we have determined that, su ...201222329759
volatile organic compounds produced by the phytopathogenic bacterium xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10.xanthomonas campestris is a phytopathogenic bacterium and causes many diseases of agricultural relevance. volatiles were shown to be important in inter- and intraorganismic attraction and defense reactions. recently it became apparent that also bacteria emit a plethora of volatiles, which influence other organisms such as invertebrates, plants and fungi. as a first step to study volatile-based bacterial-plant interactions, the emission profile of xanthomonas c. pv. vesicatoria 85-10 was determin ...201222563356
breaking the silence: protein stabilization uncovers silenced biosynthetic gene clusters in the fungus aspergillus nidulans.the genomes of filamentous fungi comprise numerous putative gene clusters coding for the biosynthesis of chemically and structurally diverse secondary metabolites (sms), which are rarely expressed under laboratory conditions. previous approaches to activate these genes were based primarily on artificially targeting the cellular protein synthesis apparatus. here, we applied an alternative approach of genetically impairing the protein degradation apparatus of the model fungus aspergillus nidulans ...201223001671
molecular analysis and anticancer properties of two identified isolates, fusarium solani and emericella nidulans isolated from wady el-natron soil in egypt against caco-2 (atcc) cell characterize, identify and investigate the anticancer properties of two new soil fungal isolates, emericella nidulans and fusarium solani isolated from wady el-natron in egypt against colon cancer caco-2 (atcc) cell line.201223569862
two rare cases of central nervous system opportunistic mycoses.this article presents two cases of opportunistic mycoses (oms) of the central nervous system (cns) caused by cryptococcus neoformans and aspergillus nidulans, respectively. the patients were hospitalised in local hospitals between 2009 and 2011 because of unspecific symptoms (fever, headache, and/or weight lost). duration of symptoms varied from 4 days to over 2 weeks. the patients were treated with antibiotics and symptomatically. om was not suspected in any of them. the patients became critica ...201223334046
sudden atelectasis and respiratory failure in a neutropenic patient: atypical presentation of pseudomembranous necrotizing bronchial aspergillosis.pseudomembranous necrotizing bronchial aspergillosis (pnba) is a rare form of invasive aspergillosis with a very poor prognosis. the symptoms are non-specific, and the necrotizing plugs cause airway obstruction. atelectasis and respiratory failure can be the initial manifestations. recently, we treated an immunocompromised patient with pnba, who presented with a sudden onset of atelectasis and acute respiratory failure. there were no preceding signs except for a mild cough and one febrile episod ...201223269890
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of penicillium expansum pe-12 and its application in molecular breeding.lipase produced by penicillium expansum is widely used in laundry detergent and leather industry; however, the absence of an efficient transformation technology sets a major obstacle for further enhancement of its lipase productivity through advanced gene engineering. in this work, agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) was investigated for p. expansum pe-12 transformation, using hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) as a selectable marker gene. as a result, we revealed that the ...201223265791
transcriptional changes in the transition from vegetative cells to asexual development in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans.morphogenesis encompasses programmed changes in gene expression that lead to the development of specialized cell types. in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans, asexual development involves the formation of characteristic cell types, collectively known as the conidiophore. with the aim of determining the transcriptional changes that occur upon induction of asexual development, we have applied massive mrna sequencing to compare the expression pattern of 19-h-old submerged vegetative cells (hypha ...201223264642
sexual development and cryptic sexuality in fungi: insights from aspergillus species.major insights into sexual development and cryptic sexuality within filamentous fungi have been gained from investigations using aspergillus species. here, an overview is first given into sexual morphogenesis in the aspergilli, describing the different types of sexual structures formed and how their production is influenced by a variety of environmental and nutritional factors. it is argued that the formation of cleistothecia and accessory tissues, such as hülle cells and sclerotia, should be vi ...201222091779
Heme-Biosynthetic Porphobilinogen Deaminase Protects Aspergillus nidulans from Nitrosative Stress.Microorganisms have developed mechanisms to combat reactive nitrogen species (RNS); however, only a few of the fungal genes involved have been characterized. Here we screened RNS-resistant Aspergillus nidulans strains from fungal transformants obtained by introducing a genomic DNA library constructed in a multicopy vector. We found that the AN0121.3 gene (hemC) encodes a protein similar to the heme biosynthesis enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and facilitates RNS-tolerant fungal growth. ...201222038601
the septin aspb in aspergillus nidulans forms bars and filaments and plays roles in growth emergence and yeast, septins form rings at the mother-bud neck and function as diffusion barriers. in animals, septins form filaments that can colocalize with other cytoskeletal elements. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans there are five septin genes, aspa (ortholog of s. cerevisiae cdc11), aspb (ortholog of s. cerevisiae cdc3), aspc (ortholog of s. cerevisiae cdc12), aspd (ortholog of s. cerevisiae cdc10), and aspe (found only in filamentous fungi). the aspb gene was previously reported to be ...201222247265
comparison and characterization of α-amylase inducers in aspergillus nidulans based on nuclear localization of amyr.amyr, a fungal transcriptional activator responsible for induction of amylolytic genes in aspergillus nidulans, localizes to the nucleus in response to the physiological inducer isomaltose. maltose, kojibiose, and d: -glucose were also found to trigger the nuclear localization of gfp-amyr. isomaltose- and kojibiose-triggered nuclear localization was not inhibited by the glucosidase inhibitor, castanospermine, while maltose-triggered localization was inhibited. thus, maltose itself does not appea ...201222252265
ancut2, an extracellular cutinase from aspergillus nidulans induced by olive oil.cutinases are versatile carboxylic ester hydrolases with great potential in many biocatalytic processes, including biodiesel production. genome sequence analysis of the model organism aspergillus nidulans reveals four genes encoding putative cutinases. in this work, we purified and identified for the first time a cutinase (ancut2) produced by a. nidulans. ancut2 is a 29-kda protein which consists of 255 amino acid residues. comparison of the amino acid sequence of ancut2 with other microbial cut ...201222238011
The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD): recent developments in comprehensive multispecies curation, comparative genomics and community resources.The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD; is a freely available, web-based resource for researchers studying fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which includes organisms of clinical, agricultural and industrial importance. AspGD curators have now completed comprehensive review of the entire published literature about Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus, and this annotation is provided with streamlined, ortholog-based navigation of the multispecies information. AspGD fa ...201222080559
Cloning and Expression of Hemicellulases from Aspergillus nidulans in Pichia pastoris.The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is increasingly used for heterologous expression of high quality proteins in laboratory-scale (milligram) quantities. Commercially available polysaccharide-active enzyme preparations have limited applications in plant cell wall research due to their heterogeneous mix of hydrolytic activities. P. pastoris provides an ideal in vitro expression system for producing monocomponent enzymes, since it lacks endogenous plant cell wall-active enzymes and can perfor ...201222160911
AreA controls nitrogen source utilisation during both growth programs of the dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei.The opportunistic pathogen Penicillium marneffei displays a temperature-dependent dimorphic switching program with saprophytic hyphal growth at 25 °C and yeast growth at 37 °C. The areA gene of P. marneffei has been isolated and found to be required for the utilisation of nonpreferred nitrogen sources during both growth programs of P. marneffei, albeit to differing degrees. Based on this functional characterisation and high degree of sequence conservation with other fungal GATA factors, P. marne ...201222208609
Critical cellulase and hemicellulase activities for hydrolysis of ionic liquid pretreated biomass.Critical cellulase and hemicellulase activities are identified for hydrolysis of ionic liquid (IL) pretreated poplar and switchgrass; hemicellulase rich substrates with largely amorphous cellulose. Enzymes from Aspergillus nidulans were expressed and purified: an endoglucanase (EG) a cellobiohydrolase (CBH), an endoxylanase (EX) and an acetylxylan esterase (AXE). ß-Xylosidase (ßX) from Selenomonas ruminantium and a commercial ß-glucosidase (ßG) from Novozyme 188 were admixed with the A. nidulans ...201222154300
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