phosphatase regulation in aspergillus nidulans: responses to nutritional starvation. 19863011591
cloning of the arg-12 gene of neurospora crassa and regulation of its transcript via cross-pathway amino acid control.the arg-12 locus of neurospora crassa encodes ornithine carbamoyl transferase, which is one of many amino acid synthetic enzymes whose activity is regulated through cross-pathway (or general) amino acid control. we report here the use of probes derived from the functionally equivalent arg-b gene of aspergillus nidulans to identify and clone a 10 kb neurospora dna fragment carrying the arg-12 gene. short neurospora dna probes derived from this fragment were used to identify a 1.5 kb polya+ transc ...19863012277
an immunochemical study of neurospora nucleases.nucleases derived from neurospora crassa mycelia with neutral single-strand (ss) endodeoxyribonuclease activity have been examined by immunochemical techniques and by sodium dodecyl sulfate - dna gel electrophoresis. all of the intracellular nucleases, which have different divalent metal ion requirements, different strand specificities with single- and double-strand dna, different modes of action on dna and rna, and other distinguishing characteristics, are immunochemically related to neurospora ...19863013242
cloning of the regulatory gene area mediating nitrogen metabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans.the area gene, which mediates nitrogen metabolite repression in the fungus aspergillus nidulans, lies sufficiently close to a telomere that no indispensable gene can be distal to it. we were able therefore to exploit the existence of a near terminal pericentric inversion to devise a method for cloning area plus the region beyond it towards the telomere. in crosses heterozygous for this inversion a class of duplication-deficient progeny lacking area and the region centromere-distal to it is obtai ...19863013617
regulation of gene expression by ph of the growth medium in aspergillus the fungus aspergillus nidulans the levels of a number of enzymes whose location is at least in part extracellular (e.g. acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, phosphodiesterase) and of certain permeases (e.g. that for gamma-amino-n-butyrate) are controlled by the ph of the growth medium. for example, at acidic ph, levels of acid phosphatase are high and those of alkaline phosphatase are low whereas at alkaline ph the reverse is true. mutations in five genes, pala, b, c, e and f, mimic the e ...19863016485
controlled gene expression utilising lambda phage regulatory signals in a cyanobacterium host.this study presents plasmid systems that utilize regulatory signals of bacteriophage lambda to accomplish regulated expression of cloned genes in an a. nidulans r2 derivative strain. an operator-promoter region and the temperature-sensitive repressor gene ci857 of bacteriophage lambda were employed. linked to a cyanobacterial replicon, the plasmid vectors efficiently transformed anacystis and were stably maintained within this host. the cat structural gene, encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransfe ...19863018433
heterologous insertion of transforming dna and generation of new deletions associated with transformation in aspergillus nidulans.the analysis of four transformants for the proline catabolism (prn) gene cluster of aspergillus nidulans is reported. using a combination of traditional genetic methodology and southern hybridisation we have shown that in two cases multiple copies of the transforming plasmid have been integrated into linkage groups other than vii, which contains the prn cluster. in the other two cases integration of the plasmid has probably occurred homologously. the phenotype of these transformants is broadly c ...19863018435
molecular analysis of the argb gene of aspergillus nidulans.the transcriptional organization and sequence of the aspergillus nidulans argb gene, encoding ornithine carbamoyl transferase (octase; e.c., was determined. transcription of the gene begins within a methionine-initiated open translation reading frame, indicating that a second methionine codon of the open reading frame is used for translation initiation. the predicted length of the octase precursor peptide is 359 amino acids, and it contains a highly basic amino terminus that is probabl ...19863020372
oxidative phosphorylation and energy buffering in cyanobacteria.the onset of respiration in the cyanobacteria anacystis nidulans and nostoc sp. strain mac upon a shift from dark anaerobic to aerobic conditions was accompanied by rapid energization of the adenylate pool (owing to the combined action of atp synthase and adenylate kinase) and also the guanylate, uridylate, and cytidylate pools (owing to nucleoside diphosphate and nucleoside monophosphate kinases). rates of the various transphosphorylation reactions were comparable to the rate of oxidative phosp ...19863023299
expression of the aspergillus nidulans argb gene in escherichia coli.the aspergillus nidulans argb gene coding for ornithine carbamoyltransferase (otcase) is not expressed in escherichia coli. however, e. coli otcase-deficient strains transformed with plasmids carrying the argb gene from a. nidulans reverted to prototrophy at a high frequency. in these derivatives the argb gene became functional due to dna rearrangements upstream of the coding sequence. two types of rearrangement were characterized. one was identified as an insertion of is2. the second was a dele ...19863027235
site-directed mutagenesis of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from anacystis nidulans.using oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of the gene encoding the small subunit (rbcs) from anacystis nidulans mutant enzymes have been generated with either trp-54 of the small subunit replaced by a phe residue, or with trp-57 replaced by a phe residue, whereas both trp-54 and trp-57 have been replaced by phe residues in a double mutant. trp-54 and trp-57 are conserved in all amino acid sequences or the small subunit (s) that are known at present. the wild-type and mutant forms of rubisco hav ...19873030746
cloning and characterization of the alda gene of aspergillus nidulans.we have cloned and sequenced the alda (encoding aldehyde dehydrogenase) gene of aspergillus nidulans. the gene contains two introns which are similar in size and structure to other fungal introns. the amino acid sequence of aldehyde dehydrogenase (497 residues) shows a significant level of homology with analogous sequences in other organisms. comparison of the primary structure of the active sites of the mammalian cytosolic and mitochondrial enzymes shows that the aspergillus enzyme closely rese ...19873036652
phycocyanin alpha-subunit gene of anacystis nidulans r2: cloning, nucleotide sequencing and expression in escherichia coli.the cloning and nucleotide sequence determination of the anacystis nidulans r2 phycocyanin (pc) alpha-subunit gene are described. a 3.0-kb psti fragment of anacystis nidulans r2 genomic dna cloned in plasmid puc8 was found to hybridize with a heptadecameric oligodeoxynucleotide probe. sequencing using synthetic primers revealed the presence of the pc alpha-subunit gene and the 3' proximal end of the beta-subunit gene. the alpha-gene is separated from the upstream beta-gene by a spacer length of ...19873036657
the nucleotide sequence of the amds gene of aspergillus nidulans and the molecular characterization of 5' mutations.the structure of the amds gene of aspergillus nidulans has been determined by nucleotide sequence analysis. the coding sequence is interrupted by three small introns with splicing signals consistent with other fungal genes. possible tata and caat elements are found upstream of the start point of transcription. sequence changes in mutations in the 5' region of the gene have been determined. two deletions including the start point of transcription abolish detectable transcripts. a series of mutati ...19873036667
nucleotide sequence of the arg3 gene of the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding ornithine carbamoyltransferase. comparison with other carbamoyltransferases.the complete nucleotide sequence of the arg3 structural gene encoding the monomer of the trimeric ornithine carbamoyltransferase (otcase) (ec has been determined. it consists of 338 codons with a corresponding molecular mass of 37842 da. comparing otcases from escherichia coli, yeast, aspergillus, rat and man emphasizes peculiarities of the yeast enzyme but also brings to light an important degree of conservation between these proteins. comparing the various otcases with e. coli asparta ...19873038540
cloning of the ribob locus of aspergillus nidulans.we have complemented the ribob2 mutation of aspergillus nidulans by transformation with a plasmid library of wild-type (wt) sequences. we have isolated, by marker rescue from a ribob+ transformant, a plasmid that complements ribob2 efficiently. from this plasmid we have subcloned an a. nidulans sequence that complements ribob2 efficiently and that integrates by homologous recombination at a site closely linked to the ribob locus. we conclude that this sequence contains the wt ribob+ allele.19873038695
selectable genes for transformation of the fungal plant pathogen glomerella cingulata f. sp. phaseoli (colletotrichum lindemuthianum).glomerella cingulata f. sp. phaseoli (gcp) was transformed using either of two selectable markers: the amds + gene of aspergillus nidulans, which encodes acetamidase and permits growth on acetamide as the sole nitrogen source and the hygbr gene of escherichia coli which encodes hygromycin b (hy) phosphotransferase and permits growth in the presence of the antibiotic hy. the amds+ gene functioned in gcp under control of a. nidulans regulatory signals and hygbr was expressed after fusion to a prom ...19873038698
functional organization of the aspergillus nidulans trpc promoter.we investigated the functional organization of the aspergillus nidulans trpc promoter by the sequential removal of sequences upstream of the major trpc mrna cap site (+1). dna fragments containing promoter mutations were fused to the escherichia coli lacz gene, and a novel method was used to select for integration of the fusion gene at the aspergillus argb locus. beta-galactosidase assays and s1 nuclease protection experiments demonstrated that the promoter mutations affected gene expression in ...19873039345
behaviour of a replicating mitochondrial dna sequence from aspergillus amstelodami in saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus amplified sequence of mitochondrial dna from a ragged (rgd) mutant of aspergillus amstelodami has been shown to exist in multimeric circular form, suggesting that it is excised from the genome and can exist independently of it. this sequence has replicative (ars) activity in saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a subfragment responsible for this activity has been identified and sequenced. a homologous sequence from aspergillus nidulans mtdna also has ars activity in s. cerevisiae. both a. amstelodam ...19883042169
an asparaginase of aspergillus nidulans is subject to oxygen repression in addition to nitrogen metabolite repression.of five amidohydrolase activities subject to nitrogen metabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans, l-asparaginase shows clearest evidence of also being subject to repression by atmospheric oxygen. such oxygen repressibility is only evident under nitrogen metabolite derepressed conditions. asparaginase levels are also considerably elevated by area300, an altered function allele of the positive acting wide domain regulatory gene area mediating nitrogen metabolite repression and are drastically r ...19883043173
identification of the sites of action for regulatory genes controlling the amds gene of aspergillus nidulans.the amds gene of aspergillus nidulans, which encodes an acetamidase enzyme, is positively regulated by the trans-acting genes amdr, facb, amda, and area. sequence changes in several cis-acting mutations in the 5' region of the gene which specifically affect amds regulation were determined. the amdi9 mutation, which results in increased facb-dependent acetate induction, is due to a single-base change at base pair -210 relative to the start point of translation. the amdi93 mutation, which abolishe ...19883043184
cloning and expression in escherichia coli of isopenicillin n synthetase genes from streptomyces lipmanii and aspergillus nidulans.beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins are synthesized by a wide variety of microbes, including procaryotes and eucaryotes. isopenicillin n synthetase catalyzes a key reaction in the biosynthetic pathway of penicillins and cephalosporins. the genes encoding this protein have previously been cloned from the filamentous fungi cephalosporium acremonium and penicillium chrysogenum and characterized. we have extended our analysis to the isopenicillin n synthetase genes from th ...19883045077
chronic granulomatous disease of childhood. an unusual case of infection with aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus.aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus was the sole agent cultured from the left lung, a paraspinal abscess, left ribs, and thoracic vertebral bodies from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. hyphal elements were present in histologic sections of lung, vertebral bodies, and infected ribs along with granuloma formation. the patient was treated with two debridement procedures and insertion of a harrington rod followed by a long course of amphotericin b, flucytosine, and daily white blood c ...19883046321
every ribosomal suppressor mutation in aspergillus nidulans has a unique and highly pleiotropic phenotype.18 suppressors of alcr125 have been selected in aspergillus nidulans. they have been located in genes as follows: 12 in suaa, 1 in suab and 5 in suac. suppressors have been examined to see whether their phenotype is diagnostic for their genotype. several new traits are described: conidial viability, cycloheximide resistance, fertility, suppression of niad500, niad501 and fwa1. these tests, added to those already in use, provide a battery of tests suitable for assigning suppressor mutations to ph ...19883046761
genetic regulation of the quinic acid utilization (qut) gene cluster in aspergillus nidulans.a large number of quinic acid non-utilizing qut mutants of aspergillus nidulans deficient in the induction of all three quinic acid specific enzymes have been analysed. one class the qutd mutants, are all recessive and are non-inducible at ph 6.5 due to inferred deficiency in a quinate ion permease. two regulatory genes have been identified. the quta gene encodes an activator protein since most quta mutants are recessive and non-inducible although a few fully dominant mutants have been found. th ...19883049934
induction of chromosome malsegregation by halogenated organic solvents in aspergillus nidulans: unspecific or specific mechanism?three chloromethanes (dichloromethane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) and 8 chlorinated ethanes (1,1- and 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,1,1,2- and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, pentachloroethane and hexachloroethane) were assayed in tests for the induction of mitotic segregation in aspergillus nidulans diploid strain p1. eight of the 11 compounds assayed (dichloromethane, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1- and 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,1,1,2- a ...19883050490
cell-cycle modulation of mpm-2-specific spindle pole body phosphorylation in aspergillus nidulans.mpm-2 is a monoclonal antibody that interacts with mitosis-specific phosphorylated proteins in many different organisms. immunocytochemistry of tissue culture cells has shown that mpm-2 stains centrosomes, chromosomes, kinetochores, and spindles. in this paper, we demonstrate that mpm-2 staining colocalizes with the spindle pole body (spb) of aspergillus nidulans and that spb staining varies during the mitotic cycle. in an unsynchronized population, about one-fourth to one-third of the cells sta ...19883052873
glycerol uptake mutants of the hyphal fungus aspergillus nidulans.a new class of glycerol non-utilizing mutants, designated glcc, has been isolated. the glcc gene was mapped in linkage group vi and mutants were found to complement the reference strains glca1 (linkage group v) and glcb33 (linkage group i) in diploids. the new mutants were unable to grow on glycerol. however, in contrast to the glca and glcb phenotype these mutants did grow well on dihydroxyacetone and d-galacturonate. by in vivo 13c nmr spectroscopy it was shown that the glcc mutant did not tak ...19883053975
molecular cloning, identification and transcriptional analysis of genes involved in acetate utilization in neurospora crassa.four neurospora crassa genomic clones have been selected as hybridizing much more strongly to labelled mrna isolated from acetate-grown mycelium than to mrna from sucrose-grown mycelium. hybridization of restriction fragments with acetate-specific mrna or cdna has been used to delimit the transcribed region(s) of each clone. the transcription of all four clones is strongly induced by transfer of growing mycelium from sucrose to acetate as sole carbon source. in wild-type mycelium, mrnas correspo ...19883054423
location and biosynthetic regulation of endo-1,4-beta-glucanase in aspergillus nidulans.the location and biosynthetic regulation of endo-1,4-beta-glucanase were studied in aspergillus nidulans. the enzyme was found to be extracellular, but low intracellular activity was also detected at the beginning of enzyme induction. the synthesis of the enzyme was regulated by carbon catabolite repression as well as specific induction. beta-1,4-linked carbohydrates, such as carboxymethylcellulose, cellobiose and lactose, induced the enzyme synthesis, while 2-deoxyglucose and readily metaboliza ...19883054436
mitotic gene conversion, reciprocal recombination and gene replacement at the bena, beta-tubulin, locus of aspergillus nidulans.we have developed a procedure for determining the rates of mitotic recombination of an interrupted duplication created by integration of transforming plasmid sequences at the bena, beta-tubulin, locus of aspergillus nidulans. transformation of a strain carrying a benomyl-resistant bena allele with plasmid aipgm4, which carries the wild-type bena allele and the pyr4 (orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase) gene of neurospora crassa, creates an interrupted duplication with plasmid sequences flanked ...19883054484
localisation of several chromosome i genes of aspergillus nidulans: implications for mitotic recombination.another laboratory previously reported that the vast majority of mitotic recombinants in chromosome i disomics of aspergillus nidulans arise from double exchange events involving the centromeric region and a far distal, possibly telomeric, region. this conclusion was based on the assumption that the camc gene is located in a position far distal to the centromere on the left arm of chromosome i. as a left arm location for camc distal to the centromere was possibly in conflict with mapping data ob ...19883054488
a rapid purification procedure for pyruvate kinase from the hyphal fungus aspergillus nidulans.pyruvate kinase was purified from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans with a 45-55% yield. the procedure involved dye-affinity chromatography and fast protein liquid chromatography, resulting in highly active and pure enzyme in milligram quantities within 2 days. the purified enzyme, a tetramer with a subunit molecular weight of 65,000 and an isoelectric point of 4.7, was used to determine the amino acid composition.19883058273
cloning and analysis of the positively acting regulatory gene amdr from aspergillus nidulans.the positively acting regulatory gene amdr of aspergillus nidulans coordinately regulates the expression of four unlinked structural genes involved in acetamide (amds), omega amino acid (gata and gaba), and lactam (lama) catabolism. by the use of dna-mediated transformation of a. nidulans, the amdr regulatory gene was cloned from a genomic cosmid library. southern blot analysis of dna from various loss-of-function amdr mutants revealed the presence of four detectable dna rearrangements, includin ...19883062382
evaluation of the mutagenic activity of leucinostatins, a novel class of antibiotic peptides produced by paecilomyces marquandii, in the modul aspergillus nidulans.leucinostatins a, b, c, d, e, g, h, and k were thoroughly investigated for their genotoxic activity using the modul aspergillus nidulans as the test organism. the results of assays for gene mutation (8-azaguanine resistance and methionine suppressors), gene conversion, mitotic crossing-over and mitotic aneuploidy induction suggest that these peptide antibiotics lack significant mutagenicity and that non-genotoxic mechanism(s) underlie their cytotoxic properties.19883063923
isolation of a phytoalexin-detoxification gene from the plant pathogenic fungus nectria haematococca by detecting its expression in aspergillus nidulans.detoxification of the pea phytoalexin pisatin via demethylation, mediated by a cytochrome p-450 monooxygenase, is thought to be important for pathogenicity of the fungus nectria haematococca on pea. to isolate a fungal gene encoding pisatin demethylating activity (pda), we transformed aspergillus nidulans with a genomic library of n. haematococca dna constructed in a cosmid which carried the a. nidulans trpc gene. transformants were selected for trp+ and then screened for pda. one transformant a ...19883065148
regulatory region of the aspergillus nidulans argb gene.we have constructed a series of deletion plasmids which contain the aspergillus nidulans argb gene for ornithine carbamoyltransferase (otc). these deletions comprise the 5' upstream sequence of the argb gene. the pro- arg- strain of a. nidulans was transformed with the above plasmids. several arg+ transformants of integration types i and ii, obtained using each of the deletion plasmids, were studied, and their ability to de-repress otc level by proline starvation was compared. it was concluded t ...19883066508
ammonium ion sensitivity is a ribosomal phenotype associated with suppressor mutations in the suac gene of aspergillus nidulans.ammonium ions are selectively toxic to strains containing mutations in the suac gene which can mutate to a suppressor phenotype. this phenotype is associated with increased ribosomal misreading in vitro (zamir and martinelli 1987) and altered ribosomal proteins (harvey and martinelli 1983). such ammonium-sensitivity is a feature of both strong and weak suppressor alleles, and segregates with suppressor ability in crosses. suppressor mutations in the suab and suad genes are not affected, nor are ...19883066509
an adaptive response to alkylating agents in aspergillus nidulans.a simple method is described for demonstrating adaptation to alkylation damage in aspergillus nidulans. one wild type, two mnng-sensitive, and one mnng-resistant strain all showed improvement in colony growth when challenged with mnng following appropriate inducing pretreatments. other alkylating agents (mms, ems) could also adapt mycelium to later mnng challenge, while 4nqo and uv could not. the inducible effect was not transmissible through conidia. a standard reversion assay based upon methg ...19883066510
isolation and characterization of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of aspergillus nidulans.the isolation and characterization of the highly expressed glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd)-coding gene (gpda) of aspergillus nidulans is described. the gene was isolated from an a. nidulans lambda gene library with a saccharomyces cerevisiae gpd-coding gene as a probe. unlike many other eukaryotes, a. nidulans contains only one gpd-coding gene. at the amino acid level, homology with other gpd enzymes is extensive. the a. nidulans gene contains seven introns, one of which is positi ...19883066699
structure of the aspergillus nidulans pyruvate kinase gene.the complete nucleotide sequence of the aspergillus nidulans pyruvate kinase gene, including its flanking sequences, is presented. the gene has a 1,578 bp coding sequence that encodes a protein of 526 amino acids; the latter is strongly homologous to the pyruvate kinases found in saccharomyces cerevisiae (66%) and mammals (53%). the gene is interrupted by seven introns, three of which are in a conserved position compared to those present in the mammalian pyruvate kinase genes sequenced thus far. ...19883072099
an efficient cell-free translation system from aspergillus nidulans and in vitro translocation of prepro-alpha-factor across aspergillus microsomes.we describe the preparation of an in vitro translation system from heat shock-treated aspergillus nidulans, capable of supporting efficient and faithful synthesis of proteins from natural and in vitro transcribed eukaryotic messages. in vitro synthesized prepro-alpha-factor was translocated across aspergillus nidulans microsomal membranes in either the homologous a. nidulans or a yeast cell-free system. the translocated prepro-alpha-factor was protected from digestion by protease and glycosylate ...19883072100
the ethanol regulon in aspergillus nidulans: characterization and sequence of the positive regulatory gene alcr.the regulatory gene, alcr, of aspergillus nidulans, encodes a protein that induces the expression of the alca and alda genes. the alcr gene is inducible, autoregulated, and subject to carbon catabolite repression. we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the alcr gene and its 5' and 3' non-coding regions. in the 5' flanking region of the alcr gene, several repeats and inverted repeats were found, and small sequence similarities were also found with the 5' flanking regions of the alca and al ...19883072264
[investigation on sterigmatocystin-producing species of aspergillus in china]. 19883073929
genetic regulation of development in aspergillus nidulans. 19883076298
organization of the genes for protein synthesis elongation factors tu and g in the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans.the genes for protein synthesis elongation factors tu and g were cloned from the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans. the locations of these genes were mapped within the cloned dna fragment by hybridization with escherichia coli probes. the organization of the cloned fragment and the dna flanking it in the a. nidulans chromosome was also determined. the elongation factor tu and g genes are adjacent to one another and in the same 5'-to-3' orientation. in contrast to other gram-negative bacteria, a. ...19863082860
transformation of the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans 6301 with the escherichia coli plasmid pbr322.anacystis nidulans 6301 has been transformed in the light to ampicillin resistance with the plasmid pbr322. permeaplasts prepared by 2-hr treatment of cells with lysozyme and edta are transformed with a 50-fold higher efficiency than that observed for cells. beta-lactamase is present in a. nidulans transformed either with pbr322 or the plasmid pch1 as evidenced by hydrolysis of the beta-lactam ring of nitrocefin in extracts of transformants. beta-lactamase also can be immunoprecipitated from ext ...19863085098
grouping of aspergillus species with exoantigens.ninety-two slant extracts prepared from 2-week-old cultures of seven aspergillus groups, nonsporulating "albino-type" a.fumigatus, blastomyces dermatitidis, histoplasma capsulatum, 3 penicillium spp., 2 pseudallescheria spp., 3 paecilomyces spp., and acremonium sp., were analyzed concurrently against antisera to a. fumigatus, a. flavus, a. nidulans, a. niger, and a. terreus. the extract of each of the aforementioned five pathogenic aspergillus spp. produced 2-11 specific antigen-antibody complex ...19863086014
characterization of dna uptake by the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans.the binding and uptake of nick-translated 32p-labeled pbr322 by anacystis nidulans 6301 have been characterized. both processes were considerably enhanced in permeaplasts compared to cells. the breakdown of labeled dna was not correlated with binding or uptake by permeaplasts or cells. uptake of dna by permeaplasts was unaffected by: mg2+ or ca2+, light, or inhibitors of photophosphorylation such as valinomycin or gramicidin d in the presence or absence of nh4cl. atp at 2.5-10 mm inhibited both ...19863093820
selectivity to k+ and na+ of protoplast fractions isolated from different regions of aspergillus nidulans hyphae.the selectivity to k+ and na+ of protoplast samples representing cytoplasm isolated from different regions of the hyphal filament of aspergillus nidulans was investigated. concentrations of both ions contained in successive protoplast fractions were measured. during lytic digestion, protoplasts were released first from apical regions and subsequently from progressively older regions of hyphae. a low k+/na+ ratio was found in protoplasts containing primarily apical cytoplasm and a high k+/na+ rat ...19863095487
isolation and nucleotide sequence analysis of the ferredoxin i gene from the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans r2.two mixed oligonucleotide probes derived from conserved regions of the synechocystis sp. strain pcc 6714 ferredoxin amino acid sequence were utilized to isolate an anacystis nidulans r2 clone containing the ferredoxin i gene. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed a 297-base-pair (bp) open reading frame with a deduced amino acid sequence having high homology to other cyanobacterial ferredoxins. assuming proteolytic cleavage of the initial methionine residue, the molecular weight of the mature a. ...19863096975
nitrate starvation induces homeoviscous regulation of lipids in the cell envelope of the blue-green alga, anacystis nidulans.replacement of the normal culture liquid to a nitrate-free medium resulted in an immediate drop in the ratio of protein to lipid in isolated cell envelopes of anacystis nidulans cells. the relative fluidity of the envelope membranes or liposomes, made from the extracted lipids of the envelope, was estimated by measuring the steady-state fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. a thermotrophic phase transition of lipids within the cytoplasmic membrane of intact cells was also r ...19873109903
uptake and expression of bacterial and cyanobacterial genes by isolated cucumber etioplasts.the uptake and expression by plastids isolated from dark-grown cucumber cotyledons (etioplasts) of two puc derivatives, pcs75 and puc9-cm, respectively carrying genes for the large small subunits of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of anacystis nidulans or chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, is reported. untreated etioplasts take up only 3% as much dna as that taken up by edta-washed etioplasts after 2 hr of incubation with nick-translated [32p]-pcs75. the presence or absence of light ...19873114748
nucleotide sequence of the gene from the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans r2 encoding the mn-stabilizing protein involved in photosystem ii water oxidation.the gene for the mn-stabilizing protein (msp; the so-called extrinsic 33-kda protein) that is involved in photosystem ii water oxidation was cloned and sequenced from the genome of the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans r2. the gene (here designated woxa) was shown to be present in a single copy. the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the translation product consisted of 277 amino acid residues with a mr of 29,306. the comparison of the sequence with that of mature msp from spinach chloro ...19873120187
the role of the n-terminus of the large subunit of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase investigated by construction and expression of chimaeric genes.the genes for the large and small subunits of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) from anacystis nidulans have been expressed in escherichia coli under the control of the lac promoter to produce active enzyme. the enzyme can be purified from the cells to yield up to 200 mg rubisco/l cultured bacteria, and is indistinguishable from the enzyme extracted from a. nidulans. in order to investigate the role of the n-terminus of the large subunit in catalysis, chimaeric genes were con ...19873121325
isolation, sequence analysis, and transcriptional studies of the flavodoxin gene from anacystis nidulans r2.the nonheme, iron-sulfur protein ferredoxin is the terminal constituent of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. under conditions of iron stress, many cyanobacteria and eucaryotic algae replace ferredoxin with the flavoprotein flavodoxin. the gene for flavodoxin was cloned from the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans r2 by using three mixed oligonucleotide probes derived from the partial synechococcus sp. strain pcc 6301 amino acid sequence. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed a 513-base- ...19883121586
changes in sulfate transport characteristics and protein composition of anacystis nidulans r2 during sulfur deprivation.sulfur-starved cells of anacystis nidulans have an increased capacity to take up sulfate. the apparent vmax for sulfate uptake increased at least 10-fold after 24 h of sulfur deprivation, whereas the k1/2 remained unchanged at approximately 1.35 microm. the initial rate of sulfate uptake increased between 2 and 6 h after transfer of the cells to sulfur-free medium, in concert with elevated levels of three cytoplasmic membrane polypeptides with molecular masses of 43, 42, and 36 kilodaltons (kda) ...19883123460
evaluation of commercial serologic test reagents for immunoidentification of medically important aspergilli.we evaluated commercial serodiagnostic test reagents from greer laboratories (gl), lenoir, nc; immuno-mycologics, inc. (imi), norman, ok; and scott laboratories (sl), fiskville, ri; for their ability to detect aspergillus spp. exoantigens and group them in their proper series. we detected 87 culture extracts from coded cultures of aspergillus groups and heterologous fungi against anti-a. fumigatus, a. flavus, a. nidulans, a. niger, and a. terreus sera in the presence of their corresponding antig ...19873126020
a versatile transformation system for the cellulolytic filamentous fungus trichoderma efficient transformation system for the cellulolytic filamentous fungus trichoderma reesei has been developed. transformation was obtained with plasmid carrying the dominant selectable marker amds or the argb gene of aspergillus nidulans, which was found to complement the respective argb mutation of t. reesei. the transformation frequency can be up to 600 transformants per microgram of transforming dna. the efficiency of co-transformation with unselected dna was high (approx. 80%). the transf ...19873127274
saprophytic fungi isolated from animal and bird pens in egypt.forty-four samples collected from animal and bird pens were screened for their content of saprophytic fungi by using the dilution plate method. 76 species in addition to one variety of aspergillus flavus belonging to 33 genera were recovered on three types of media: 20 genera and 49 species on littman-oxgall agar, 19 genera and 41 species on cellulose- and 19 genera and 43 species on glucose-czapek's agar. the most frequent genera were aspergillus (21 species), scopulariopsis (4 species) and pen ...19873130473
transformation of penicillium chrysogenum using the aspergillus nidulans amds gene as a dominant selective marker.the aspergillus nidulans acetamidase gene (amds) has been used to transform penicillium chrysogenum at low frequency. several transformants were tested and shown to be mitotically stable. southern blot analysis indicated that transforming dna had integrated into the chromosomal dna, possibly at multiple sites.19873131026
transformation of penicillium chrysogenum using dominant selection markers and expression of an escherichia coli lacz fusion industrial penicillium chrysogenum strain was transformed using two dominant selection markers, namely the bacterial gene for phleomycin resistance (ble) fused to a fungal promoter, and the acetamidase (amds) gene from aspergillus nidulans. transformation frequencies of up to 20 transformants per microgram of dna were obtained with the ble system. with the amds marker the frequency was up to 120 transformants. cotransformation was very efficient when using amds as a selection marker. the intr ...19883131191
aspergillus in pulmonary infections. 19883133316
transformation of penicillium chrysogenum with a dominant selectable marker.we have cloned a mutant oligomycin resistance allele of the mitochondrial atp synthase subunit 9 gene from the filamentous fungus penicillium chrysogenum. the gene was isolated using the equivalent gene from aspergillus nidulans as a hybridisation probe. using the cloned gene it is possible to select for oligomycin resistance in p. chrysogenum transformation experiments. this transformation system was used to introduce further copies of the p. chrysogenum isopenicillin n synthetase gene, which w ...19883135949
comparative study on the evolution of chloroplast ribosomal 5s rna of a living fossil plant, cycas revoluta thumb.the complete nucleotide sequence of cycas revoluta thunb chloroplast 5 s rrna was determined. it consists of 122 nucleotides. this is the only known 5 s rrna sequence in gymnospermae. it is highly homologous with chloroplast 5 s rrna of higher plants (92-97%), but less homologous (about 54%) with those of lower plants. there is however 67% homology between cycas and a procaryote a. nidulans. the chloroplast 5 s rrnas of angiospermae are nearly identical with each other (95-97%). s. oligorhize an ...19883136036
characterization of a cyanobacterial iron stress-induced gene similar to psbc.recently we have reported that the flavodoxin gene from the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans r2 is transcribed as part of an iron stress-induced operon containing multiple mrna species (d. e. laudenbach, m. e. reith, and n. a. straus, j. bacteriol. 170: 258-265, 1988). here we report that nucleotide sequence analyses of dna located immediately upstream of the flavodoxin gene revealed an open reading frame of 1,026 bases (designated isia; iron stress inducible) with a deduced amino acid sequence ...19883141374
nadph generation in aspergillus nidulans: is the mannitol cycle involved?a cyclic pathway of nadph generation involving interconversion of mannitol and fructose has been proposed to occur in fungi. in aspergillus nidulans three enzymes of this proposed mannitol cycle (hexokinase, nadp-mannitol dehydrogenase and mannitol-l-phosphate phosphatase) were shown to be localized exclusively in the cytosol. two isoenzymes of the fourth enzyme (mannitol-l-phosphate dehydrogenase) were detected and shown to be localized respectively in the mitochondrion and the cytosol. the mit ...19883141571
the amidases from a brevibacterium strain: study and applications. 19883142225
isozyme polymorphism of beta-glucosidase in aspergillus nidulans.electrophoretic analysis of the distribution of various electromorphs at different beta-glucosidase zones was carried out in natural populations of a. nidulans, the a. nidulans group, and various species belonging to the genus aspergillus from diverse geographical areas of india. the data show the existence of three segregating zones for beta-glucosidase, designated beta-glui, beta-gluii, and beta-gluiii. all three zones are present in wild isolates of a. nidulans, and only two, i.e., beta-glui ...19883145736
unusual evolutionary conservation of 5s rrna pseudogenes in aspergillus nidulans: similarity of the dna sequence associated with the pseudogenes with the mouse immunoglobulin switch region.all aspergillus nidulans 5s rrna pseudogenes known so far are the result of integration of an approx. 0.2-kbp-long dna sequence into the 5s rrna genes. this sequence, called block c, is present in at least five copies in the a. nidulans genome and seems to be associated either with 5s rrna genes or pseudogenes. in contrast to the 78% sequence conservation of the c-block in pseudogenes, the truncated 5' halves of the pseudogenes are very highly conserved (96.9-100%). we postulate that the 5s rrna ...19883148732
prevalence of airborne aspergillus flavus in khartoum (sudan) airspora with reference to dusty weather and inoculum survival in simulated summer conditions.khartoum air was scanned for airborne aspergillus flavus for 12 months using the horizontal gravitational settling method. frequency of occurrence was related to total fungal catch and dusty weather. the aspergilli were prevalent (68% of total isolated/plate/month) and a. flavus constituted 31% of the total aspergilli. in june (hot, dry & dusty) aspergilli constituted 79% of the total isolates, whilst a. flavus represented 30% from amongst the other aspergilli. a. flavus, a. niger, a. nidulans ( ...19883148861
fixing on an enigma. 19873153172
exploiting classical genetics to clone a eukaryotic regulatory gene. 19863153577
purification and preliminary characterization of alcohol dehydrogenase from aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus alcohol dehydrogenase is produced in response to growth in the presence of a wide variety of inducers, of which the most effective are short-chain alcohols and ketones, e.g. butan-2-one and propan-2-ol. the enzyme can be readily extracted from fresh or freeze-dried cells and purified to homogeneity on blue sepharose in a single step by using specific elution with nad+ and pyrazole. the pure enzyme has mr 290 000 by electrophoresis or gel filtration; it is a homopolymer with subunit m ...19853156582
polyamines in microorganisms. 19853157043
genomic clones of aspergillus nidulans containing alca, the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase and alcr, a regulatory gene for ethanol metabolism.our aim was to obtain from aspergillus nidulans a genomic bank and then clone a region we expected from earlier genetic mapping to contain two closely linked genes, alca, the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) and alcr, a positive trans-acting regulatory gene for ethanol metabolism. the expression of alca is repressed by carbon catabolites. a genomic restriction fragment characteristic of the alca-alcr region was identified, cloned in pbr322, and used to select from a genomic bank i ...19853158502
cloning and characterization of the ethanol utilization regulon in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) i and aldehyde dehydrogenase (alddh) are co-inducible by acetaldehyde (pateman et al., 1983; sealy-lewis and lockington, 1984) and subject to carbon catabolite repression. the structural genes alca and alda are unlinked, but alca is closely linked to the positive control gene alcr. we have obtained cdna clones of alca and alda and genomic clones comprising alca and alcr. the location of these genes in a genomic clone carrying a 13-kb insert was ...19853158573
primary structure of the trpc gene from aspergillus nidulans.we have determined the structure and complete nucleotide sequence of the trifunctional trpc gene from the ascomycetous fungus aspergillus nidulans. results from rna gel blot analyses showed that this gene encodes two size classes of polyribosomal, poly (a)+rnas with approximate lengths of 2,400 and 2,600 nucleotides. s1 nuclease protection studies demonstrated that the distribution into the two size classes is due to selection of alternative sites for polyadenylation. the transcription units con ...19853158796
differential expression of ustilago maydis dna sequences during induction of nitrate reductase enzyme activity.a differential hybridisation screen of an ustilago maydis genomic dna library was used to identify dna sequences transcribed at higher levels under growth conditions which induce nitrate reductase activity. after two rounds of screening, four different sequences showed a strongly enhanced hybridisation signal with an induced cdna probe relative to a repressed cdna probe. the sequence in plasmid pmh3007 hybridised to a u. maydis rna transcript of a 4.2 kb. this is identical in size to a transcrip ...19883224386
a phosphate-repressible acid phosphatase gene from aspergillus niger: its cloning, sequencing and transcriptional analysis.the cloning and sequencing of an aspergillus niger gene encoding a secreted form of phosphate-repressible acid phosphatase by complementation of a paca (phosphate-repressible acid phosphatase) mutant of aspergillus nidulans is described. the gene contains two introns, 201 and 265 nt in length, and codes for a 1.6-kb transcript. both phosphate concentration and ph of the growth medium affect the level of expression of the gene in a. niger. similar regulation is observed in a. nidulans transforman ...19883224828
microorganisms associated with mouldiness of dried yam chips and their prevention.the broad objective of this study was to isolate and identify the microorganisms causing mouldiness of stored yam chips and to look for ways of preventing the problem. microorganisms isolated included aspergillus flavus, a. glaucus, a. nidulans, a. niger, a. ochraceous, a. tamarii, a. candidus, penicillium oxalicum, trichoderma longibrachyatum, rhizopus nigricans, cylindrocarpon radicicola, neurospora crassa, botryodiplodia theobromae, bacillus subtilis, bacillus cereus, erwinia carotovora and s ...19883231261
interpretation of uv-survival curves of aspergillus conidiospores.semi-logarithmic dose-response curves for survival of uv-irradiated conidiospores of a. nidulans have an initial shoulder (at low doses) followed by a decline which becomes linear. to explain the initial shoulder and the resulting extrapolation number (log s intercept of the linear extrapolation line) a general model is presented, which includes multi-target (n) and multi-hit (h) effects and allows for the effect of initial repair and of a compound parameter k, which stands for inherent sensitiv ...19883275884
spindle formation and chromatin condensation in cells blocked at interphase by mutation of a negative cell cycle control aspergillus nidulans the temperature-sensitive cell cycle mutation bime7 causes chromosome condensation and pre-anaphase spindle formation to occur at restrictive temperature. by constructing double mutants between bime7 and s phase or g2 phase mutants and blocking dna replication with hydroxyurea, we demonstrate that bime7 can cause chromatin condensation and spindle formation in cells held in s or g2. thus bime7 overrides normal control systems that prevent mitosis from prematurely occurrin ...19883277718
nuclear migration in a nud mutant of aspergillus nidulans is inhibited in the presence of a quantitatively normal population of cytoplasmic microtubules.nuclear migration was studied in germinating conidia of a temperature-sensitive mutant of the fungus aspergillus nidulans. at the restrictive temperature motility was demonstrably impaired because significantly fewer nuclei migrated into the germ tube relative to a population of similarly sized germlings grown at the permissive temperature. further comparison of these populations showed that the mutant was leaky in that an increasing number of nuclei migrated as the total nuclear content increas ...19883279053
on the mutagenic and recombinogenic activity of certain herbicides in salmonella typhimurium and in aspergillus nidulans.the plant growth-regulating hormones indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) and indole-3-butyric acid (iba), both strong recombinogens in aspergillus nidulans, were tested in salmonella typhimurium strains for his revertants at a range of concentrations from 1 to 2000 micrograms/plate with and without metabolic activation and were found negative. also 3 herbicides of the chlorophenoxy group, 2,4-(dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-d), 2,4-(dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid (2,4-db) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacet ...19883280995
mutants of aspergillus nidulans with increased resistance to the alkylating agent, n-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine.the isolation and characterisation of mutants of aspergillus nidulans showing resistance to mnng is described. such isolates were stable through prolonged subculture in the absence of the selective agent, and resistance segregated as an allele of a single gene in meiotic and mitotic analysis. mnng-resistant strains showed an increase in resistance to ems and uv irradiation but no cross-resistance to mms was detected. possible mechanisms of resistance to alkylating agents are discussed.19883283539
an uvsb mutant of aspergillus nidulans with high variable spontaneous mutation and intergenic mitotic recombination uv-sensitive mutant has been isolated with a new technique which allows isolation of uv-sensitive and uv-non-mutable mutants in aspergillus nidulans. this mutant is an allele of the known uvsb gene but shows some features not previously described in the alleles so far isolated. its more important characteristics are: (1) frequency of mitotic intergenic recombination is strongly increased in uvs/uvs diploids and it is highly variable in different clones: it varies from a minimum of 40-fold to ...19883283545
a new gene controlling sulphite reductase in aspergillus nidulans. 19883284789
similarity of nucleotide sequences at splicing sites. 19883287170
brla is necessary and sufficient to direct conidiophore development in aspergillus nidulans.the brla gene of a. nidulans mediates the developmental switch from the indeterminate, apical growth pattern of vegetative cells to the budding growth pattern of conidiophores. brla encodes a 432 amino acid polypeptide containing two directly repeated motifs resembling the zn(ii) coordination sites first recognized in xenopus tfiiia. misscheduled expression of brla in vegetative cells results in transcriptional activation of developmentally regulated genes, cessation of unidirectional hyphal gro ...19883293800
developmental regulation of a conidiation specific beta-tubulin in aspergillus nidulans.a beta-tubulin gene previously suggested to participate in conidial development in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans is shown to be developmentally regulated in its expression. a quantitative s1 assay was used to show that the abundance of the tubc messenger rna increases during conidial development relative to the bena messenger rna. morphological analysis of cultures, used to prepare rna for the s1 analysis, demonstrated that the increase in tubc messenger rna was directly correlated ...19883294063
regulation of the mrna levels of nima, a gene required for the g2-m transition in aspergillus nidulans.the temperature-sensitive cell cycle mutation nima5 causes nuclei of aspergillus nidulans to be blocked in late g2 at restrictive temperature. under these conditions the spindle pole body divides but does not separate and the mitotic index drops to zero. if nima5 is blocked for more than one doubling time and then shifted from restrictive to permissive temperature, nuclei immediately enter mitosis, the mitotic spindle forms, and the chromosomes condense (oakley, b. r., and n. r. morris, 1983, j. ...19873294854
comparison of the cis-acting control regions of two coordinately controlled genes involved in ethanol utilization in aspergillus nidulans.the alca and alda genes of aspergillus nidulans are regulated in exactly the same manner, being subject to positive control by the product of the alcr gene. we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the alca gene and its 5' non-coding region, preliminary localization of the region involved in the regulation of alca expression, and a detailed comparison of this region to the 5' non-coding region of alda (pickett et al., 1987). the 5' flanking regions of the genes contain six similar sequence ...19873297923
conditionally lethal tuba alpha-tubulin mutations in aspergillus nidulans.we have mapped 17 extragenic suppressors of bena33, a heat-sensitive beta-tubulin mutation of aspergillus nidulans, to the tuba alpha tubulin locus. fifteen of these tuba mutations cause cold sensitivity in a genetic background with bena33 and appear to cause lethality in a background with the wild-type bena allele. we examined the microtubule-mediated processes, nuclear division and nuclear migration, in seven different cold-sensitive double mutants, each carrying bena33 and a different cold-se ...19873302605
proteolysis by toxigenic aspergillus nidulans from nigerian palm produce.the submerged cultures of aspergillus nidulans had optimal growth and protease production at 37 degrees c and within 6 days of incubation. a rapid drop in ph of the growth medium from 6.9 to 4.8 and a subsequent gradual rise was recorded with the period of incubation. the acid-protease produced was purified by a combination of ethanolic precipitation, ultrafiltration and fractionation on deae-cellulose and sephadex g-200. a single peak showing protease activity was subsequently obtained with a 1 ...19873302717
antisuppressor mutations in aspergillus nidulans: cold-resistant revertants of suppressor suac109. 19873305170
chemical and biological characterization of hazardous industrial waste. ii. eukaryotic bioassay of a wood-preserving bottom sediment.the eukaryotic haploid and diploid forms of aspergillus nidulans were used to detect gene mutations and various types of chromosome damage, respectively, in the acid, base and neutral fractions of a wood-preserving bottom sediment. the corresponding response to prokaryotic mutagenicity assays and major chemical constituents of the 3 waste fractions were described by donnelly et al. (1987). the haploid methionine system detected genotoxic compounds in all 3 primary waste fractions without metabol ...19873306353
an endogenous inducer of sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.during development of the homothallic ascomycete aspergillus nidulans, asexual sporulation is followed by sexual sporulation. we report here the detection of a solvent-extractable activity which inhibits asexual sporulation and stimulates premature sexual sporulation. this activity, called precocious sexual inducer (psi), is overproduced by certain mutants that are blocked in both modes of sporulation. using partially purified preparations of psi, biological response could be elicited with as li ...19873309182
demonstration of an altered phenylalanyl-trna synthetase in an analogue-resistant mutant of aspergillus nidulans.we have isolated and characterized a new class of p-fluorophenylalanine (fpa)-resistant mutant in aspergillus nidulans using a phena strain as the wild type, by optimizing the conditions of growth. all four spontaneous mutants selected on a medium containing fpa were found to be recessive to their wild-type alleles in heterozygous diploids. complementation analyses and linkage data showed that they were allelic and mapped at a single locus (fpau) in the faca-ribod interval on the right arm of li ...19873312953
cotransformation of aspergillus nidulans: a tool for replacing fungal genes.when a non-selected dna sequence was added during the transformation of amds320 deletion strains of aspergillus nidulans with a vector containing the wild-type amds gene the amds+ transformants were cotransformed at a high frequency. cotransformation of an amds320, trpc801 double mutant strain showed that both the molar ratio of the two vectors and the concentration of the cotransforming vector affected the cotransformation frequency. the maximum frequency obtained was defined by the gene chosen ...19873312958
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