PMID(sorted descending)
the transcription factor bcltf1 regulates virulence and light responses in the necrotrophic plant pathogen botrytis cinerea.botrytis cinerea is the causal agent of gray mold diseases in a range of dicotyledonous plant species. the fungus can reproduce asexually by forming macroconidia for dispersal and sclerotia for survival; the latter also participate in sexual reproduction by bearing the apothecia after fertilization by microconidia. light induces the differentiation of conidia and apothecia, while sclerotia are exclusively formed in the absence of light. the relevance of light for virulence of the fungus is not o ...201424415947
sources of fungal linamarases.forty-four strains of aspergillus, penicillium, fusarium, trichoderma and rhizopus were grown on a liquid medium containing glucose and cassava-root extract. all of the aspergillus and fusarium strains, eight out of 10 penicillium strains and three of seven trichoderma strains showed linamarase activity. no such activity was detected in any rhizopus strain. the crude enzyme preparation from f. oxysporum had the highest affinity for linamarin whereas that from a. nidulans was the most heat-stable ...199524415020
expression of the aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene in penicillium nalgiovense.the glucose oxidase gene (god) from aspergillus niger was expressed in penicillium nalgiovense under control of the latter's homologous transcription signals. the god protein was synthesized in an active form, leading to increased glucose oxidase activity. the expression vector was introduced into p. nalgiovense along with a selectable plasmid carrying the dominant amds marker gene of a. nidulans.199524414658
inhibition of tau aggregation by three aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites: 2,ω-dihydroxyemodin, asperthecin, and asperbenzaldehyde.the aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau is a significant event in many neurodegenerative diseases including alzheimer's disease. the inhibition or reversal of tau aggregation is therefore a potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases. fungal natural products have proven to be a rich source of useful compounds having wide varieties of biological activity. we have screened aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites containing aromatic ring structures for their ability to in ...201424414310
a microscopy-based screen employing multiplex genome sequencing identifies cargo-specific requirements for dynein velocity.the timely delivery of membranous organelles and macromolecules to specific locations within the majority of eukaryotic cells depends on microtubule-based transport. here we describe a screening method to identify mutations that have a critical effect on intracellular transport and its regulation using mutagenesis, multicolor-fluorescence microscopy, and multiplex genome sequencing. this screen exploits the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, which has many of the advantages of yeast molecu ...201424403603
aspergillosis of bones and joints - a review from 2002 until today.poor clinical outcome and complicated neurological complications illustrate the severity of bone and joint infections with aspergillus species. host predisposing conditions are immunosuppression, intravenous drug use, a variety of chronic underlying diseases and prior surgical interventions. nosocomial infections may originate from contaminated air ventilation systems or water pipes. most common causative pathogen is aspergillus fumigatus, followed by aspergillus flavus and aspergillus nidulans. ...201424397460
assessing the effects of light on differentiation and virulence of the plant pathogen botrytis cinerea: characterization of the white collar complex.organisms are exposed to a tough environment, where acute daily challenges, like light, can strongly affect several aspects of an individual's physiology, including pathogenesis. while several fungal models have been widely employed to understand the physiological and molecular events associated with light perception, various other agricultural-relevant fungi still remain, in terms of their responsiveness to light, in the dark. the fungus botrytis cinerea is an aggressive pathogen able to cause ...201324391918
a putative apses transcription factor is necessary for normal growth and development of aspergillus nidulans.the nsdd gene encoding a gata type transcription factor positively controls sexual development in aspergillus nidulans. according to microarray data, 20 genes that were upregulated by deleting nsdd during various life cycle stages were randomly selected and deleted for functional analysis. none of the mutants showed apparent changes in growth or development compared with those of the wild-type except the an3154 gene that encodes a putative apses transcription factor and is an ortholog of sacchar ...201324385358
functional analysis of the c-ii subgroup killer toxin-like chitinases in the filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans.chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes responsible for chitin polymer degradation. fungal chitinases belong exclusively to glycoside hydrolases family 18 and they are categorized into three phylogenetic groups (a, b and c), which are further divided into subgroups (a-ii to a-v, b-i to b-v and c-i to c-ii). subgroup c chitinases display similarity with the α/β-subunit of the zymocin yeast killer toxin produced by kluyveromyces lactis, suggesting a role of these enzymes in fungal-fungal interactions. i ...201424384382
development of a pyrg mutant of aspergillus oryzae strain s1 as a host for the production of heterologous proteins.the ease with which auxotrophic strains and genes that complement them can be manipulated, as well as the stability of auxotrophic selection systems, are amongst the advantages of using auxotrophic markers to produce heterologous proteins. most auxotrophic markers in aspergillus oryzae originate from chemical or physical mutagenesis that may yield undesirable mutations along with the mutation of interest. an auxotrophic a. oryzae strain s1 was generated by deleting the orotidine-5'-monophosphate ...201324381522
cytoplasmic dynamics of the general nuclear import machinery in apically growing syncytial cells.karyopherins are transporters involved in the bidirectional, selective and active transport of macromolecules through nuclear pores. importin-β1 is the paradigm of karyopherins and, together with its cargo-adapter importin-α, mediates the general nuclear import pathway. here we show the existence of different cellular pools of both importin-α and -β1 homologues, kapa and kapb, in the coenocytic ascomycete aspergillus nidulans. fluorescence analysis of haploid and diploid strains expressing kapb: ...201324376868
figa, a putative homolog of low-affinity calcium system member fig1 in saccharomyces cerevisiae, is involved in growth and asexual and sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.calcium-mediated signaling pathways are widely employed in eukaryotes and are implicated in the regulation of diverse biological processes. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, at least two different calcium uptake systems have been identified: the high-affinity calcium influx system (hacs) and the low-affinity calcium influx system (lacs). compared to the hacs, the lacs in fungi is not well known. in this study, figa, a homolog of the lacs member fig1 from s. cerevisiae, was functionally characterized ...201424376003
down-regulation of sidb gene by use of rna interference in aspergillus nidulans.introduction of the rna interference (rnai) machinery has guided the researchers to discover the function of essential vital or virulence factor genes in the microorganisms such as fungi. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, the gene sidb plays an essential role in septation, conidiation and vegetative hyphal growth. in the present study, we benefited from the rnai strategy for down-regulating a vital gene, sidb, in the fungus a. nidulans.201424375164
using aspergillus nidulans to identify antifungal drug resistance mutations.systemic fungal infections contribute to at least 10% of deaths in hospital settings. most antifungal drugs target ergosterol (polyenes) or its biosynthetic pathway (azoles and allylamines), or beta-glucan synthesis (echinocandins). antifungal drugs that target proteins are prone to the emergence of resistant strains. identification of genes whose mutations lead to targeted resistance can provide new information on those pathways. we used aspergillus nidulans as a model system to exploit its tra ...201424363365
in vitro photodynamic inactivation of plant-pathogenic fungi colletotrichum acutatum and colletotrichum gloeosporioides with novel phenothiazinium photosensitizers.the increasing tolerance to currently used fungicides in both clinical and agricultural areas is of great concern. the nonconventional light-based approach of antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (apdt) is a promising alternative to conventional fungicides. we evaluated the effects of apdt with four phenothiazinium derivatives (methylene blue [mb], new methylene blue n [nmbn], toluidine blue o [tbo], and the novel pentacyclic phenothiazinium photosensitizer [ps] s137) on conidia of three fungal ...201424362436
a p53-like transcription factor similar to ndt80 controls the response to nutrient stress in the filamentous fungus, aspergillus nidulans.the aspergillus nidulans xprg gene encodes a putative transcriptional activator that is a member of the ndt80 family in the p53-like superfamily of proteins. previous studies have shown that xprg controls the production of extracellular proteases in response to starvation. we undertook transcriptional profiling to investigate whether xprg has a wider role as a global regulator of the carbon nutrient stress response. our microarray data showed that the expression of a large number of genes, inclu ...201324358888
transport assays in filamentous fungi: kinetic characterization of the uapc purine transporter of aspergillus nidulans.transport assays allow the direct kinetic analysis of a specific transporter by measuring apparent km and vmax values, and permit the characterization of substrate specificity profiles through competition assays. in this protocol we describe a rapid and easy method for performing uptake assays in the model filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans. our method makes use of a. nidulans germinating conidiospores at a defined morphological stage in which most transporters show maximal expression, ...201424355588
linkage of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions to spontaneous culture degeneration in aspergillus nidulans.filamentous fungi including mushrooms frequently and spontaneously degenerate during subsequent culture maintenance on artificial media, which shows the loss or reduction abilities of asexual sporulation, sexuality, fruiting, and production of secondary metabolites, thus leading to economic losses during mass production. to better understand the underlying mechanisms of fungal degeneration, the model fungus aspergillus nidulans was employed in this study for comprehensive analyses. first, linkag ...201424345786
recent advances in genome mining of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and the development of heterologous expression systems in aspergillus nidulans.fungi are prolific producers of secondary metabolites (sms) that show a variety of biological activities. recent advances in genome sequencing have shown that fungal genomes harbor far more sm gene clusters than are expressed under conventional laboratory conditions. activation of these "silent" gene clusters is a major challenge, and many approaches have been taken to attempt to activate them and, thus, unlock the vast treasure chest of fungal sms. this review will cover recent advances in geno ...201424342965
investigating aspergillus nidulans secretome during colonisation of cork cell walls.cork, the outer bark of quercus suber, shows a unique compositional structure, a set of remarkable properties, including high recalcitrance. cork colonisation by ascomycota remains largely overlooked. herein, aspergillus nidulans secretome on cork was analysed (2de). proteomic data were further complemented by microscopic (sem) and spectroscopic (atr-ftir) evaluation of the colonised substrate and by targeted analysis of lignin degradation compounds (uplc-hrms). data showed that the fungus forme ...201424316358
sensitivity of aspergillus nidulans to the cellulose synthase inhibitor dichlobenil: insights from wall-related genes' expression and ultrastructural hyphal morphologies.the fungal cell wall constitutes an important target for the development of antifungal drugs, because of its central role in morphogenesis, development and determination of fungal-specific molecular features. fungal walls are characterized by a network of interconnected glycoproteins and polysaccharides, namely α-, β-glucans and chitin. cell walls promptly and dynamically respond to environmental stimuli by a signaling mechanism, which triggers, among other responses, modulations in wall biosynt ...201324312197
intestinal retransplant in a patient after fungal sepsis: considerations and adolescent female received an isolated intestinal transplant. she developed severe exfoliative rejection and required complete enterectomy. the patient developed a septic hip and lung lesions with biopsy-proven aspergillus nidulans and was treated with caspofungin, ambiosome, and voriconizole. after completing a year of treatment and extensive physical therapy, the patient requested retransplant. the case was presented to the ethics committee, which determined that the patient demonstrated un ...201324311401
active-site histidines in recombinant cyanobacterial ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase examined by site-directed mutagenesis.the functions of his(291), his(295) and his(324) at the active-site of recombinant a. nidulans ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase have been explored by site-directed mutagenesis. replacement of his(291) by k or r resulted in unassembled proteins, while its replacement by e, q or n resulted in assembled but inactive proteins. these results are in accord with a metal ion-binding role of this residue in the activated ternary complex by analogy to x-ray crystallographic analyses of tob ...199424310117
characterization of aspergillus nidulans α-glucan synthesis: roles for two synthases and two amylases.cell walls are essential for fungal survival and growth. fungal walls are ∼ 90% carbohydrate, mostly types not found in humans, making them promising targets for anti-fungal drug development. echinocandins, which inhibit the essential β-glucan synthase, are already clinically available. in contrast, α-glucan, another abundant fungal cell wall component has attracted relatively little research attention because it is not essential for most fungi. aspergillus nidulans has two α-glucan synthases (a ...201424308872
osteomyelitis caused by aspergillus species: a review of 310 reported cases.aspergillus osteomyelitis is a rare infection. we reviewed 310 individual cases reported in the literature from 1936 to 2013. the median age of patients was 43 years (range, 0-86 years), and 59% were males. comorbidities associated with this infection included chronic granulomatous disease (19%), haematological malignancies (11%), transplantation (11%), diabetes (6%), pulmonary disease (4%), steroid therapy (4%), and human immunodeficiency virus infection (4%). sites of infection included the sp ...201424303995
astpt catalyses both reverse n1- and regular c2 prenylation of a methylated bisindolyl benzoquinone.prenylated bisindolyl benzoquinones exhibit interesting biological activities, such as antidiabetic or anti-hiv activities. a number of these compounds, including asterriquinones, have been isolated from aspergillus terreus. in this study, we identified two putative genes by genome mining, ateg_09980 and ateg_00702, which share high sequence similarity with the known bisindolyl benzoquinone prenyltransferase tdib from aspergillus nidulans. the coding sequences were cloned and overexpressed in e. ...201424302698
transcriptome analysis of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans directed to the global identification of promoters.the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans has been a tractable model organism for cell biology and genetics for over 60 years. it is among a large number of aspergilli whose genomes have been sequenced since 2005, including medically and industrially important species. in order to advance our knowledge of its biology and increase its utility as a genetic model by improving gene annotation we sequenced the transcriptome of a. nidulans with a focus on 5' end analysis.201324299161
the interplay between the gata transcription factors area, the global nitrogen regulator and areb in fusarium fujikuroi.nitrogen metabolite repression (nmr) in filamentous fungi is controlled by the gata transcription factors area and areb. while area mainly acts as a positive regulator of nmr-sensitive genes, the role of areb is not well understood. we report the characterization of areb and its interplay with area in the gibberellin-producing fungus fusarium fujikuroi. the areb locus produces three different transcripts that each code for functional proteins fully complementing the areb deletion mutant that inf ...201424286256
identification of glucose transporters in aspergillus characterize the mechanisms involved in glucose transport, in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, we have identified four glucose transporter encoding genes hxtb-e. we evaluated the ability of hxtb-e to functionally complement the saccharomyces cerevisiae eby.vw4000 strain that is unable to grow on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose as single carbon source. in s. cerevisiae hxtb-e were targeted to the plasma membrane. the expression of hxtb, hxtc and hxte was able to restore gro ...201324282591
interplay of the fungal sumoylation network for control of multicellular development.the role of the complex network of the ubiquitin-like modifier sumo in fungal development was analysed. sumo is not only required for sexual development but also for accurate induction and light stimulation of asexual development. the aspergillus nidulans compass complex including its subunits ccla and the methyltransferase seta connects the sumo network to histone modification. seta is required for correct positioning of aerial hyphae for conidiophore and asexual spore formation. multicellular ...201324279728
interactions between naturally occurring antifungal agents.pairwise interactions between four antifungal compounds were studied. the β-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor echinocandin b (ecb) showed synergistic effect with the cell wall hydrolase chib chitinase and enga β-1,3-glucanase on saccharomyces cerevisiae, candida albicans, aspergillus rugulosus and a. fumigatus. the antifungal protein of penicillium chrysogenum (paf) did not influence the antifungal activity of chib or enga, but showed antagonistic effect with ecb on a. nidulans, a. rugulosus and a. ...201324275596
secondary metabolites from the fungus emericella nidulans.a new polyketide derivative koninginin h (1), has been isolated from the fungus emericella nidulans, together with koninginin e (2), koninginin a (3), trichodermatide b (4), citrantifidiol (5), (4s,5r)-4-hydroxy-5-methylfuran-2-one (6), the glycerol derivatives gingerglycolipid b (7), (2s)-bis[9z,12z]-1-o, 2-o-dilinoleoyl-3-o-[alpha-d-galactopyranosyl-(1" --> 6') beta-d-galactopyranosyl]glycerol (8), (2s)-bis[9z,12z]-1-o, 2-o-dilinoleoyl-3-o-beta-d-galactopyranosylglycerol (9), the cerebroside f ...201324273867
photodynamic effects of hypericin on photosynthetic electron transport and fluorescence of anacystis nidulans (synechococcus 6301).we investigated the photodynamic action of hypericin, a natural naphthodianthrone, on photosynthetic electron transport and fluorescence of the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans (synechococcus 6301). the most drastic effect was the inactivation of photosynthetic oxygen evolution in the presence of the electron acceptor phenyl-p-benzoquinone in aerobic cells which required 1 hypericin/5 chlorophyll a for half-maximal effect. anaerobic a. nidulans was only partially inactivated and variable chloro ...199624271302
phosphate solubilizing ability of emericella nidulans strain v1 isolated from vermicompost.phosphorus is one of the key factors that regulate soil fertility. its deficiencies in soil are largely replenished by chemical fertilizers. the present study was aimed to isolate efficient phosphate solubilizing fungal strains from eisenia fetida vermicompost. out of total 30 fungal strains the most efficient phosphate solubilizing one was emericella (aspergillus) nidulans v1 (mtcc 11044), identified by custom sequencing of beta-tubulin gene and blast analysis. this strain solubilized 13 to 36% ...201324266109
ambient ph sensing in filamentous fungi: pitfalls in elucidating regulatory hierarchical signaling this article, the experiments used to construct the ambient ph-signaling network involved in the secretion of enzymes by filamentous fungi have been reviewed, focusing on the phosphate-repressible phosphatases in aspergillus nidulans. classic and molecular genetics have been used to demonstrate that proteolysis of the transcription factor pacc at alkaline ambient ph is imperative for its action, implying that the full-length version is not an active molecular form of pacc. it has been hypothe ...201324265200
phytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents ofartemisia princeps var.orientalis.the volatile constituents ofartemisia princeps var.orientalis (wormwood) were investigated for phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. the germination and radicle elongation of receptor plants were inhibited by volatile substances emitted from wormwood leaf and effects were concentration-dependent. essential oil of the plant extracted by karlsruker's apparatus suppressed seed germination and seedling elongation of the receptor plants at a threshold concentration of 4.8μl/100 ml.escherichia coli ...199324248725
identification and molecular genetic analysis of the cichorine gene cluster in aspergillus nidulans.we recently demonstrated that the phytotoxin cichorine is produced by aspergillus nidulans. through a set of targeted deletions, we have found a cluster of seven genes that are required for its biosynthesis. two of the deletions yielded molecules that give information about the biosynthesis of this metabolite.201224244835
insights into dynamic mitotic chromatin organization through the nima kinase suppressor sonc, a chromatin-associated protein involved in the dna damage response.the nuclear pore complex proteins sona and sonb, the orthologs of mammalian rae1 and nup98, respectively, were identified in aspergillus nidulans as cold-sensitive suppressors of a temperature-sensitive allele of the essential mitotic nima kinase (nima1). subsequent analyses found that sonb1 mutants exhibit temperature-dependent dna damage sensitivity. to understand this pathway further, we performed a genetic screen to isolate additional conditional dna damage-sensitive suppressors of nima1. we ...201424214344
electrofusion of protoplasts from celery (apium graveolens l.) with protoplasts from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.a method was developed for electrofusion of higher-plant protoplasts from celery and protoplasts from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. initially, methods for the fusion of protoplasts from ecch species were determined individually and, subsequently, electrical parameters for fusion between the species were determined. pronase-e treatment and the presence of calcium ions markedly increased celery protoplast stability under the electrical conditions required and increased fusion freque ...198924212750
establishing a versatile golden gate cloning system for genetic engineering in fungi.the corn pathogen ustilago maydis is a well-studied fungal model organism. along with a broad set of experimental tools, versatile strategies for the generation of gene replacement mutants by homologous recombination in u. maydis have been developed. nevertheless, the production of corresponding linear dna constructs still constitutes a time-limiting step. to overcome this bottleneck, various resistance cassette modules were adopted for use with the so-called golden gate cloning strategy. these ...201424211735
the aspergillus genome database: multispecies curation and incorporation of rna-seq data to improve structural gene annotations.the aspergillus genome database (aspgd; is a freely available web-based resource that was designed for aspergillus researchers and is also a valuable source of information for the entire fungal research community. in addition to being a repository and central point of access to genome, transcriptome and polymorphism data, aspgd hosts a comprehensive comparative genomics toolbox that facilitates the exploration of precomputed orthologs among the 20 currently available asperg ...201424194595
the aspergillus nidulans atm kinase regulates mitochondrial function, glucose uptake and the carbon starvation response.mitochondria supply cellular energy and also perform a role in the adaptation to metabolic stress. in mammals, the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (atm) kinase acts as a redox sensor controlling mitochondrial function. subsequently, transcriptomic and genetic studies were utilized to elucidate the role played by a fungal atm homolog during carbon starvation. in aspergillus nidulans, atma was shown to control mitochondrial function and glucose uptake. carbon starvation responses that are regulated ...201424192833
high frequency transfer of species specific mitochondrial dna sequences between members of the aspergillaceae.the mitochondrial genome of aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus is approximately 20% larger than that of the closely related species aspergillus nidulans (eidam) winter. restriction enzyme mapping and electron microscopy has revealed that the size difference is due to the presence of six inserted sequences in the former. with the exception of a small number of species specific restriction sites and the six insertions/deletions, the two mitochondrial genomes appear identical. protoplast fusion ...198124190134
gene roles in the prn cluster of aspergillus nidulans.the roles of the four genes of the prn gene cluster involved in l-proline catabolism in aspergillus nidulans have been investigated. prnd and prnc encode, respectively, proline exidase and δ(i)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (p5c) dehydrogenase. prnb is almost certainly the structural gene for the proline-inducible major proline permease. the prna product has no structural role in these activities but is a positive acting regulatory molecule necessary for the expression of prnd, prnc and, to a lesser e ...198124189952
the nima kinase is required to execute stage-specific mitotic functions after initiation of mitosis.the g2-m transition in aspergillus nidulans requires the nima kinase, the founding member of the nek kinase family. inactivation of nima results in a late g2 arrest, while overexpression of nima is sufficient to promote mitotic events independently of cell cycle phase. endogenously tagged nima-gfp has dynamic mitotic localizations appearing first at the spindle pole body and then at nuclear pore complexes before transitioning to within nuclei and the mitotic spindle and back at the spindle pole ...201424186954
weta is required for conidiogenesis and conidium maturation in the ascomycete fungus fusarium graminearum.fusarium graminearum, a prominent fungal pathogen that infects major cereal crops, primarily utilizes asexual spores to spread disease. to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in f. graminearum, we functionally characterized the f. graminearum ortholog of aspergillus nidulans weta, which has been shown to be involved in conidiogenesis and conidium maturation. deletion of f. graminearum weta did not alter mycelial growth, sexual development, or virulence, but the weta del ...201424186953
nitrogen metabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans: a farewell to tama?previous work has established that nitrogen metabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans is mediated by the positive acting regulatory gene area. pateman and kinghorn (1977) proposed that the gene tama plays an equally important regulatory role in nitrogen metabolite repression as the result of work with "tama(r)-50," an "allele" leading to inability to utilise nitrogen sources other than ammonium, and "tama(d)-1," an "allele" leading to nitrogen metabolite derepression. both "tama(r)-50" and " ...198224186552
a single mutation leads to loss of glutamine synthetase and relief of ammonium repression in aspergillus.glutamine synthetase activity in the ascomycete fungus aspergillus nidulans is regulated by nitrogen source. the lowest activities are obtained when the fungus is grown on l-glutamine, and the highest activities when grown on l-glutamate + arabinose. glutamine auxotrophs of the fungus have been isolated, and one of these mutant strains, glna-1, has been shown to lack the enzyme glutamine synthetase. the mutation is recessive, and is located on the right arm of chromosome ii. in addition to aboli ...198224186546
domain-wide, locus-specific suppression of nitrogen metabolite repressed mutations in aspergillus nidulans.previous work has shown that loss of function mutations (designated are a(r)) in area, a positive acting regulatory gene mediating nitrogen metabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans, lead to inability to utilise nitrogen sources other than ammonium. this work establishes the existence of a gene designated areb where mutations can suppress area(r) mutations in a locus-specific manner for expression of apparently all of the genes under area control. areb mutations are partially dominant in dip ...198224186375
genetic map of mitochondrial dna in podospora order to develop an eukaryotic vector with the podospora plasmid, further characterization is required of the mitochondrial dna into which this plasmid is integrated, a physical map (restriction sites) of the podospora chondriome (size 95 kb) has been completed. as prerequisite for the establishment of a genetic (functional) map, 70% of the chondriome was cloned in e. coli vectors. using mitochondrial genes from saccharomyces cerevisiae, six structural genes were located on the podospora chon ...198224186230
cloning and analysis of recombinant plasmids containing genes for aspergillus nidulans 5 s rrna.genes coding for 5s rrna were found to be dispersed in the aspergillus nidulans genome. three different recombinant plasmids hybridizing to 5s rrna were isolated and their restriction enzyme maps were established.198124185988
mutations to constitutivity and derepression are separate and separable in a regulatory gene of aspergillus nidulans.previous work has shown that expression of the structural genes for the enzymes of nitrate and nitrite assimilation in aspergillus nidulans requires the products of two positively acting regulatory genes - nira, mediating induction, and area, mediating nitrogen metabolite repression. here we show that, in addition to previously described mutations in nira leading to constitutivity, other mutations can be selected in nira leading to nitrogen metabolite derepression. these constitutivity and depre ...198124185869
a mitochondrial reading frame which may code for a second form of atpase subunit 9 in aspergillus nidulans.the nucleotide sequence of a 74 codon reading frame from the aspergillus nidulans mitochondrial genome is presented. the derived amino acid sequence displays typical features of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (dccd) binding proteins and is 84% homologous with a mitochondrial reading frame that potentially encodes an atpase subunit 9 polypeptide in neurospora crassa. however, in a. nidulans, as in n. crassa, there is strong biochemical and genetic evidence that this subunit is in fact nuclearly-encoded ...198424177948
regulation of two alcohol dehydrogenases in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans there are two alcohol dehydrogenases. in the presence of ethanol, alcohol dehydrogenase i (ahh i) is induced and alcohol dehydrogenase ii (adh ii) is repressed. adh i and adh ii have molecular weights of 39,000 and 36,000 respectively. at least adh i is under the control of alcr, a transacting regulatory gene that is adjacent to alca (the structural gene for adh i, pateman et al. 1983). mutations in the alcr regulatory gene result in non inducibility of adh i specific mrn ...198424177792
suppressible alleles in a wide domain regulatory gene in aspergillus nidulans.the area gene of aspergillus nidulans is a one of the better studied eukaryotic wide domain regulatory genes, necessary for the expression of most structural genes involved in the utilization of a wide variety of nitrogen sources (arst and cove 1973; arst 1983). here we report the isolation and properties of area alleles suppressible by translational suppressors (roberts et al. 1979). thus we show formally that the area gene specifies a protein rather than an rna product and we show that it is p ...198424177791
transcription of the rrna gene cluster in aspergillus nidulanss.transcription of rdna in aspergillus nidulans was examined by hybridizing labeled cloned rdna fragments to blots of rna gels. one processing pathway was found.198324173152
the cop9 signalosome is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and of transition metals uptake in saccharomyces cerevisiae.the cop9 signalosome (csn) is a highly conserved eukaryotic protein complex which regulates the cullin ring family of ubiquitin ligases and carries out a deneddylase activity that resides in subunit 5 (csn5). whereas csn activity is essential for the development of higher eukaryotes, several unicellular fungi including the budding yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae can survive without a functional csn. nevertheless, the budding yeast csn is biochemically active and deletion mutants of each of its su ...201424164706
the n-terminus region of the putative c2h2 transcription factor ada1 harbors a species-specific activation motif that regulates asexual reproduction in fusarium verticillioides.fusarium verticillioides is an important plant pathogenic fungus causing maize ear and stalk rots. in addition, the fungus is directly associated with fumonisin contamination of food and feeds. here, we report the functional characterization of ada1, a putative cys2-his2 zinc finger transcription factor with a high level of similarity to aspergillus nidulans flbc, which is required for the activation of the key regulator of conidiation brla. ada1 is predicted to encode a protein with two dna bin ...201424161731
the mpkb map kinase plays a role in autolysis and conidiation of aspergillus nidulans.the mpkb gene of aspergillus nidulans encodes a map kinase homologous to fus3p of saccharomyces cerevisiae which is involved in conjugation process. mpkb is required for completing the sexual development at the anastomosis and post-karyogamy stages. the mpkb deletion strain could produce conidia under the repression condition of conidiation such as sealing and even in the submerged culture concomitant with persistent brla expression, implying that mpkb might have a role in timely regulation of b ...201324161728
fatty acids with in vitro binding affinity for human opioid receptors from the fungus emericella nidulans.bioassay-guided fractionation of the etoac extracts of the epiphytic fungus emericella nidulans resulted in the isolation of a mixture of two fatty acids. this mixture showed 98% binding affinity to human δ opioid receptor. these two fatty acids were identified as palmitic (pam), 1, and linoleic acids (lna), 2, by 1d nmr as well as by gc/ms analysis, after their methylation. we found that different ratio mixtures of 1 and 2 showed variations in selective binding activities to human δ opioid rece ...201324147790
targeting fungal genes by diced sirnas: a rapid tool to decipher gene function in aspergillus nidulans.gene silencing triggered by chemically synthesized small interfering rnas (sirnas) has become a powerful tool for deciphering gene function in many eukaryotes. however, prediction and validation of a single sirna duplex specific to a target gene is often ineffective. rna interference (rnai) with synthetic sirna suffers from lower silencing efficacy, off-target effects and is cost-intensive, especially for functional genomic studies. with the explosion of fungal genomic information, there is an i ...201324130711
cost-effective isobaric tagging for quantitative phosphoproteomics using diart reagents.we describe the use of an isobaric tagging reagent, deuterium isobaric amine reactive tag (diart), for quantitative phosphoproteomic experiments. using diart tagged custom mixtures of two phosphorylated peptides from alpha casein and their non-phosphorylated counterparts, we demonstrate the compatibility of diart with tio2 affinity purification of phosphorylated peptides. comparison of theoretical vs. experimental reporter ion ratios reveals accurate quantification of phosphorylated peptides ove ...201324129742
in vitro and in silico analysis of the aspergillus nidulans dna-crea repressor interactions.the crea protein mediates carbon catabolite repression in the fungus aspergillus nidulans. its dna-binding domain belongs to the cys2-his2 class, binding specifically to a 5' syggrg 3' nucleotide sequence. emsa experiments showed that the crea(g27d) mutation resulted in a 30-fold increase of the kdiss, and footprinting revealed a altered pattern of protein/dna contacts. we modeled the crea and the crea(g27d) complexes in silico. a 15 ns molecular dynamics simulation of the solvated crea(g27d) an ...201424125468
aspergillus collagen-like genes (acl): identification, sequence polymorphism, and assessment for pcr-based pathogen detection.the genus aspergillus is a burden to public health due to its ubiquitous presence in the environment, its production of allergens, and wide demographic susceptibility among cystic fibrosis, asthmatic, and immunosuppressed patients. current methods of detection of aspergillus colonization and infection rely on lengthy morphological characterization or nonstandardized serological assays that are restricted to identifying a fungal etiology. collagen-like genes have been shown to exhibit species-spe ...201324123732
proteomic alterations induced by ionic liquids in aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa.this study constitutes the first attempt to understand at the proteomic level the fungal response to ionic liquid stress. ascomycota are able to grow in media supplemented with high concentrations of an ionic liquid, which, in turn, lead to major alterations in the fungal metabolic footprint. herein, we analysed the differential accumulation of mycelial proteins in aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa after their exposure to two of the most commonly used ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylimid ...201324120530
gfsa encodes a novel galactofuranosyltransferase involved in biosynthesis of galactofuranose antigen of o-glycan in aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus fumigatus.the cells walls of filamentous fungi in the genus aspergillus have galactofuranose (galf)-containing polysaccharides and glycoconjugates, including o-glycans, n-glycans, fungal-type galactomannan and glycosylinositolphosphoceramide, which are important for cell wall integrity. here, we attempted to identify galactofuranosyltransferases that couple galf monomers onto other wall components in aspergillus nidulans. using reverse-genetic and biochemical approaches, we identified that the an8677 gene ...201324118544
involvement of the anucleate primary sterigmata protein fgapsb in vegetative differentiation, asexual development, nuclear migration, and virulence in fusarium graminearum.the protein apsb has been shown to play critical roles in the migration and positioning of nuclei and in the development of conidiophores in aspergillus nidulans. the functions of apsb in fusarium graminearum, a causal agent of fusarium head blight in china, are largely unknown. in this study, we used the blastp program at the broad institute to identify fgapsb, an f. graminearum homolog of a. nidulansapsb. the functions of fgapsb were evaluated by constructing a deletion mutant of fgapsb, desig ...201324117691
elucidation of substrate specificity in aspergillus nidulans udp-galactose-4-epimerase.the frequency of invasive fungal infections has rapidly increased in recent years. current clinical treatments are experiencing decreased potency due to severe host toxicity and the emergence of fungal drug resistance. as such, new targets and their corresponding synthetic pathways need to be explored for drug development purposes. in this context, galactofuranose residues, which are employed in fungal cell wall construction, but are notably absent in animals, represent an appealing target. here ...201324116166
penicillium decumbens brla extensively regulates secondary metabolism and functionally associates with the expression of cellulase genes.penicillium decumbens has been used in the industrial production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in china for more than 15 years. conidiation is essential for most industrial fungi because conidia are used as starters in the first step of fermentation. to investigate the mechanism of conidiation in p. decumbens, we generated mutants defective in two central regulators of conidiation, flug and brla. deletion of flug resulted in neither "fluffy" phenotype nor alteration in conidiation, indicating pos ...201324113825
the cell-end marker teaa and the microtubule polymerase alpa contribute to microtubule guidance at the hyphal tip cortex of aspergillus nidulans to provide polarity the absence of landmark proteins, hyphae of aspergillus nidulans lose their direction of growth and show a zigzag growth pattern. here, we show that the cell-end marker protein teaa is important for localizing the growth machinery at hyphal tips. the central position of teaa at the tip correlated with the convergence of the microtubule (mt) ends to a single point. conversely, in the absence of teaa, the mts often failed to converge to a single point at the cortex. further analysis suggested a ...201324101725
4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolone derivatives from aspergillus nidulans ma-143, an endophytic fungus isolated from the mangrove plant rhizophora stylosa.six new 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolone derivatives (1-6) along with the related aflaquinolone a (7) were isolated and identified from the cultures of aspergillus nidulans ma-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the fresh leaves of the marine mangrove plant rhizophora stylosa. their structures including absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic analysis and electronic circular dichroism experiments, and the structure of compound 1 was confirmed by single-crystal x-ray crystallogr ...201324099304
bzip transcription factor smjlb1 regulates autophagy-related genes smatg8 and smatg4 and is required for fruiting-body development and vegetative growth in sordaria macrospora.autophagy is a precisely controlled degradation process in eukaryotic cells, during which the bulk of the cytoplasm is engulfed by a double membrane vesicle, the autophagosome. fusion of the autophagosome with the vacuole leads to breakdown of its contents, such as proteins and organelles, and the recycling of nutrients. earlier studies of autophagic genes of the core autophagic machinery in the filamentous ascomycete sordaria macrospora elucidated the impact of autophagy on fungal viability, ve ...201324095659
novel and cost-effective 6-plex isobaric tagging reagent, diart, is effective for identification and relative quantification of complex protein mixtures using pqd fragmentation.deuterium isobaric amine reactive tag (diart) reagents facilitate relative quantification during proteomic analysis in a functionally similar manner to commercially available isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (itraq) and tandem mass tag (tmt) reagents. in contrast to itraq and tmt, diart reagents incorporate deuterium isotopes which significantly reduce the number of required synthesis steps and hence have potential to significantly reduce reagent production cost. we examined t ...201324078244
fungal metabolic plasticity and sexual development mediate induced resistance to arthropod fungivory.prey organisms do not tolerate predator attack passively but react with a multitude of inducible defensive strategies. although inducible defence strategies are well known in plants attacked by herbivorous insects, induced resistance of fungi against fungivorous animals is largely unknown. resistance to fungivory is thought to be mediated by chemical properties of fungal tissue, i.e. by production of toxic secondary metabolites. however, whether fungi change their secondary metabolite compositio ...201324068353
the putative c2h2 transcription factor mtfa is a novel regulator of secondary metabolism and morphogenesis in aspergillus nidulans.secondary metabolism in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans is controlled by the conserved global regulator vea, which also governs morphological differentiation. among the secondary metabolites regulated by vea is the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (st). the presence of vea is necessary for the biosynthesis of this carcinogenic compound. we identified a revertant mutant able to synthesize st intermediates in the absence of vea. the point mutation occurred at the coding region of a gene encoding a ...201324066102
in situ analysis of apoptosis in aspergillus nidulans with ethidium bromide and acridine orange.apoptosis and necrosis are among several types of cell death. we stained the nuclei of aspergillus nidulans grown in micro-colonies with ethidium bromide and acridine orange to detect in situ apoptosis. suspensions of conidia from 5-day-old colonies of the a. nidulans strains bia1methg1, g422, clc100, and clb3 were each put into two tubes. the suspension of one tube was irradiated with ultraviolet light for 20 s, whereas the other tube was not exposed to irradiation. the two suspensions were ino ...201324065645
occurrence of fungal species and mycotoxins from decayed sugarcane (saccharrum officinarum) in egypt.seventy-three fungal species belonging to forty-three genera were isolated from 40 samples of saccharrum officinarum (collected from naage-hamadi canal in qena governorate, egypt). aspergillus, trichoderma, mucor and pythium were the most common genera on the two isolation media. the dominant species of aspergillus were a. niger, a. flavus, a. ustus, a. terreus and a. wentii. some species were dominant on 40 g/l sucrose such as aspergillus niger, a. flavus, emericella nidulans, trichoderma virid ...200524049478
abaa regulates conidiogenesis in the ascomycete fungus fusarium graminearum.fusarium graminearum (teleomorph gibberella zeae) is a prominent pathogen that infects major cereal crops such as wheat, barley, and maize. both sexual (ascospores) and asexual (conidia) spores are produced in f. graminearum. since conidia are responsible for secondary infection in disease development, our objective of the present study was to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in f. graminearum based on the framework previously described in aspergillus nidulans. in this s ...201324039821
recombinant aspergillus β-galactosidases as a robust glycomic and biotechnological tool.galactosidases are widespread enzymes that are used for manifold applications, including production of prebiotics, biosynthesis of different transgalactosylated products, improving lactose tolerance and in various analytical approaches. the nature of these applications often require galactosidases to be present in a purified form with clearly defined properties, including precisely determined substrate specificities, low sensitivity to inhibitors, and high efficiency and stability under distinct ...201424037406
cytological characterization of an aspergillus nidulans mutant from a strain with chromosomic duplication.a development mutant, named v103, was obtained spontaneously from the a strain of a. nidulans. the a strain contains a duplicated segment of chromosome i that has undergone translocation to chromosome ii (i ii). it is mitotically unstable and generates phenotypically deteriorated types, some with enhanced stability. the deteriorated variants of a. nidulans show abnormal development, exhibiting slower colony growth, variations in colony pigmentation and changes in conidiophore structure. the alte ...201024031489
mechanism of sterigmatocystin biosynthesis regulation by ph in aspergillus nidulans.external ph constitutes one of the most important environmental factors that control growth, metabolism and differentiation in microorganisms, including fungi. we have analyzed the effect of external ph on sterigmatocystin biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans. it was observed in repeated experiments that alkaline ph, in opposition to acid ph, increased sterigmatocystin production and the transcript levels of aflr, the master gene that regulates expression of the sterigmatocystin cluster in a. ni ...200924031444
regulation of the nadp-glutamate dehydrogenase gene gdha in aspergillus nidulans by the zn(ii)2cys6 transcription factor leub.nadp-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (nadp-gdh) is a key enzyme in the assimilation of alternative nitrogen nutrient sources through ammonium in fungi. in aspergillus nidulans, nadp-gdh is encoded by gdha. several transcription factors are known to regulate gdha expression, including area, the major transcription activator of nitrogen metabolic genes, and tama, a co-activator of area. tama also interacts with leub, the regulator of leucine biosynthesis. we have investigated the effects of leuc ...201324025604
induced fungal resistance to insect grazing: reciprocal fitness consequences and fungal gene expression in the drosophila-aspergillus model system.fungi are key dietary resources for many animals. fungi, in consequence, have evolved sophisticated physical and chemical defences for repelling and impairing fungivores. expression of such defences may entail costs, requiring diversion of energy and nutrients away from fungal growth and reproduction. inducible resistance that is mounted after attack by fungivores may allow fungi to circumvent the potential costs of defence when not needed. however, no information exists on whether fungi display ...201324023705
phylogenetic analysis and substrate specificity of gh2 β-mannosidases from aspergillus species.phylogenetic analysis of glycoside hydrolase family 2 including aspergillus sequences and characterised β-mannosidases from other organisms, clusters putative aspergillus β-mannosidases in two distinct clades (a and b). aspergillus species have at least one paralog in each of the two clades. it appears that clade a members are extracellular and clade b members intracellular. substrate specificity analysis of mnda of aspergillus niger (clade a) and mndb of aspergillus nidulans (clade b) show that ...201324021641
nudix hydrolase controls nucleotides and glycolytic mechanisms in hypoxic aspergillus nidulans.nucleoside diphosphates linked to moiety x (nudix) hydrolase functions were investigated in hypoxic aspergillus nidulans cells. among three nudix hydrolase isozymes, ndxa transcription was up-regulated under oxygen (o2)-limited conditions. a gene disruptant of the ndxa-encoding gene (ndxaδ) accumulated more nadh and adp-ribose than the wild type (wt) under the same conditions. these results indicate that ndxa hydrolyzes these nucleotides in hypoxic fungal cells, which accords with the thesis tha ...201324018665
inhibition of cereal rust fungi by both class i and ii defensins derived from the flowers of nicotiana alata.defensins are a large family of small, cysteine-rich, basic proteins, produced by most plants and plant tissues. they have a primary function in defence against fungal disease, although other functions have been described. this study reports the isolation and characterization of a class i secreted defensin (nad2) from the flowers of nicotiana alata, and compares its antifungal activity with the class ii defensin (nad1) from n. alata flowers, which is stored in the vacuole. nad2, like all other c ...201424015961
engineered fungal polyketide biosynthesis in pichia pastoris: a potential excellent host for polyketide production.polyketides are one of the most important classes of secondary metabolites and usually make good drugs. currently, heterologous production of fungal polyketides for developing a high potential industrial application system with high production capacity and pharmaceutical feasibility was still at its infancy. pichia pastoris is a highly successful system for the high production of a variety of heterologous proteins. in this work, we aim to develop a p. pastoris based in vivo fungal polyketide pro ...201324011431
heterologous reconstitution of the intact geodin gene cluster in aspergillus nidulans through a simple and versatile pcr based approach.fungal natural products are a rich resource for bioactive molecules. to fully exploit this potential it is necessary to link genes to metabolites. genetic information for numerous putative biosynthetic pathways has become available in recent years through genome sequencing. however, the lack of solid methodology for genetic manipulation of most species severely hampers pathway characterization. here we present a simple pcr based approach for heterologous reconstitution of intact gene clusters. s ...201324009710
topical application of preparations containing dna repair enzymes prevents ultraviolet-induced telomere shortening and c-fos proto-oncogene hyperexpression in human skin: an experimental pilot study.the exposure to ultraviolet radiation (uvr) is one of the most important risk factors for skin aging and increases the risk of malignant transformation. telomere shortening and an altered expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos are among the key molecular mechanisms associated with photoaging and tumorigenesis. photolyase from a. nidulans and endonuclease from m. luteus are xenogenic dna repair enzymes which can reverse the molecular events associated with skin aging and carcinogenosis caused by ...201324002149
effect of some food preservatives on the lipolytic activity of beef luncheon fungi.beef luncheon meat is one of the most popular meals in several countries in the world including egypt. thirty one fungal species and 3 species varieties were recovered from 30 samples of beef luncheon meat collected from different supermarkets in qena. alternaria, aspergillus, emericella, mucor, mycosphaerella, penicillium and rhizopus were the most common genera on the two types of media. from the above genera, the most prevalent species were alternaria alternate, aspergillus flavus, a. fumigat ...200823997619
ecological and physiological studies on soil fungi at western region, libya.sixty three species and 5 varieties belonging to 30 fungal genera were collected from 75 soil samples. cultivated (29 genera and 58 species + 5 var.), desert (22 and 35 + 2 var.) and saline soil (21 and 41 + 1 var.) fungi were recovered on glucose-, cellulose- and 50% sucrose-czapek's agar at 28℃. the most common genera were alternaria, aspergillus, emericella, fusarium, mycosphaerella, nectria and penicillium. the most prevalent species from the three types of soils on the three types of media ...200823997599
characterization and identification of partial amino acid sequence of a novel elastase inhibitor, asnidin from aspergillus nidulans.a novel elastase inhibitor from aspergillus nidulans nbrc 4340, asnidin, was isolated, and biochemical properties and partial amino acid sequence were examined. column chromatography using diethylaminoethyl (de) 52-cellulose and reversed-phase hplc were used to purify the inhibitor. purified asnidin was found to be homogeneous as indicated by reversed-phase hplc and tof-ms (time of flight mass spectrometry). asnidin has a molecular weight of 4,181.63 as determined by tof-ms. the elastolytic acti ...201323995417
aspergillus flavus velb acts distinctly from vea in conidiation and may coordinate with flug to modulate sclerotial production.the proteins vea, velb and laea of aspergillus nidulans form a heterotrimeric complex (the velvet complex) in the dark to coordinate sexual development and production of some secondary metabolites. vea and velb of a. nidulans and aspergillus fumigatus also are repressors of conidiation, but vea of aspergillus flavus in studied strains acts positively on conidiation. in the present study, we show via yeast-two hybrid assays that interactions among a. flavus vea, velb, and laea are conserved as in ...201323994319
aspergillus nidulans synthesize insect juvenile hormones upon expression of a heterologous regulatory protein and in response to grazing by drosophila melanogaster larvae.secondary metabolites are known to serve a wide range of specialized functions including communication, developmental control and defense. genome sequencing of several fungal model species revealed that the majority of predicted secondary metabolite related genes are silent in laboratory strains, indicating that fungal secondary metabolites remain an underexplored resource of bioactive molecules. in this study, we combine heterologous expression of regulatory proteins in aspergillus nidulans wit ...201323991191
molecular genetics of emericella nidulans sexual development.many aspergilli that belongs to ascomycetes have sexuality. in a homothallic or self-fertile fungus, a number of fruiting bodies or cleistothecia are formed in a thallus grown from a single haploid conidia or ascospores. genome-sequencing project revealed that two mating genes (mat) encoding the regulatory proteins that are necessary for controlling partner recognition in heterothallic fungi were conserved in most aspergilli. the mat gene products in some self-fertile species were not required f ...200923983529
in praise of erroneous the sixties cove and pateman discovered that mutants of aspergillus nidulans lacking nitrate reductase activity were constitutive for the expression of genes induced by nitrate and dependent on the transcription factor nira. they proposed that the nitrate protein acted as a repressor, preventing the transcription factor activity of nira. nitrate-mediated regulation behaved similarly in other organisms. this "autogenous regulation hypothesis" has recently shown to be erroneous, in the very org ...201323973960
determination of isavuconazole susceptibility of aspergillus and candida species by the eucast method.isavuconazole is a novel expanded-spectrum triazole, which has recently been approved by the fda as an orphan drug to treat invasive aspergillosis and is currently being studied in phase iii clinical trials for invasive candidiasis. the susceptibility of relatively few clinical isolates has been reported. in this study, the isavuconazole susceptibilities of 1,237 aspergillus and 2,010 candida geographically diverse clinical isolates were determined by eucast methodology at four european mycology ...201323959309
regulation of development in aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus fumigatus.members of the genus aspergillus are the most common fungi and all reproduce asexually by forming long chains of conidiospores (or conidia). the impact of various aspergillus species on humans ranges from beneficial to harmful. for example, several species including aspergillus oryzae and aspergillus niger are used in industry for enzyme production and food processing. in contrast, aspergillus flavus produce the most potent naturally present carcinogen aflatoxins, which contaminate various plant ...201023956662
no-inducible nitrosothionein mediates no removal in tandem with thioredoxin.nitric oxide (no) is a toxic reactive nitrogen species that induces microbial adaption mechanisms. screening a genomic dna library identified a new gene, ntpa, that conferred growth tolerance upon aspergillus nidulans against exogenous no. the gene encoded a cysteine-rich 23-amino-acid peptide that reacted with no and s-nitrosoglutathione to generate an s-nitrosated peptide. disrupting ntpa increased amounts of cellular s-nitrosothiol and no susceptibility. thioredoxin and its reductase denitros ...201323955366
an acidic thermostable recombinant aspergillus nidulans endoglucanase is active towards distinct agriculture residues.aspergillus nidulans is poorly exploited as a source of enzymes for lignocellulosic residues degradation for biotechnological purposes. this work describes the a. nidulans endoglucanase a heterologous expression in pichia pastoris, the purification and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme. active recombinant endoglucanase a (reg a) was efficiently secreted as a 35 kda protein which was purified through a two-step chromatography procedure. the highest enzyme activity was detecte ...201323936633
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