TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
the wopr domain protein osaa orchestrates development in aspergillus nidulans.orchestration of cellular growth and development occurs during the life cycle of aspergillus nidulans. a multi-copy genetic screen intended to unveil novel regulators of development identified the an6578 locus predicted to encode a protein with the wopr domain, which is a broadly present fungi-specific dna-binding motif. multi-copy of an6578 disrupted the normal life cycle of the fungus leading to enhanced proliferation of vegetative cells, whereas the deletion resulted in hyper-active sexual fr ...201526359867
development of the dichlorvos-ammonia (dv-am) method for the visual detection of aflatoxigenic fungi.aflatoxins (afs) are carcinogenic and toxic secondary metabolites produced mainly by aspergillus flavus and aspergillus parasiticus. to monitor and regulate the af contamination of crops, a sensitive and precise detection method for these toxigenic fungi in environments is necessary. we herein developed a novel visual detection method, the dichlorvos-ammonia (dv-am) method, for identifying af-producing fungi using dv and am vapor on agar culture plates, in which dv inhibits the esterase in af bi ...201526300294
association of fungal secondary metabolism and sclerotial biology.fungal secondary metabolism and morphological development have been shown to be intimately associated at the genetic level. much of the literature has focused on the co-regulation of secondary metabolite production (e.g., sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin in aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus flavus, respectively) with conidiation or formation of sexual fruiting bodies. however, many of these genetic links also control sclerotial production. sclerotia are resistant structures produced by a number ...201525762985
in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of biomodified lignin from acacia nilotica wood.the antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of biomodified alkali lignin extracted from a deciduous plant acacia nilotica, was evaluated in vitro. the extracted alkali lignin was subjected to microbial biotransformation by ligninolytic fungus aspergillus flavus and emericella nidulans. these modifications were done under varying concentration of carbon to nitrogen sources. the structural feature of the lignin samples were compared by ftir, functional group analysis and (13)c solid state nmr. all l ...201525600985
pcr-rflp on β-tubulin gene for rapid identification of the most clinically important species of aspergillus.aspergillus species are important agents of life-threatening infections in immunosuppressed patients. proper speciation in the aspergilli has been justified based on varied fungal virulence, clinical presentations, and antifungal resistance. accurate identification of aspergillus species usually relies on fungal dna sequencing but this requires expensive equipment that is not available in most clinical laboratories. we developed and validated a discriminative low-cost pcr-based test to discrimin ...201526264625
snpks19 encodes the polyketide synthase for alternariol mycotoxin biosynthesis in the wheat pathogen parastagonospora nodorum.alternariol (aoh) is an important mycotoxin from the alternaria fungi. aoh was detected for the first time in the wheat pathogen parastagonospora nodorum in a recent study. here, we exploited reverse genetics to demonstrate that snog_15829 (snpks19), a close homolog of penicillium aethiopicum norlichexanthone (nlx) synthase gene gsfa, is required for aoh production. we further validate that snpks19 is solely responsible for aoh production by heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans. the e ...201526025896
targeted production of secondary metabolites by coexpression of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and prenyltransferase genes in aspergillus.prenylated tryptophan-containing cyclic dipeptides are found in different fungi and serve as precursors for the biosynthesis of diverse biologically active secondary metabolites. they show distinct and usually higher biological and pharmacological activities than the respective non-prenylated dipeptides. successful production of such compounds were achieved by a new approach based on the coexpression of ftmps, a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase from neosartorya fischeri, with three cyclic dipept ...201525744649
a genomics based discovery of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters in aspergillus ustus.secondary metabolites (sms) produced by aspergillus have been extensively studied for their crucial roles in human health, medicine and industrial production. however, the resulting information is almost exclusively derived from a few model organisms, including a. nidulans and a. fumigatus, but little is known about rare pathogens. in this study, we performed a genomics based discovery of sm biosynthetic gene clusters in aspergillus ustus, a rare human pathogen. a total of 52 gene clusters were ...201525706180
the white collar complex is involved in sexual development of fusarium graminearum.sexual spores (ascospores) of fusarium graminearum, a homothallic ascomycetous fungus, are believed to be the primary inocula for epidemics of the diseases caused by this species in cereal crops. based on the light requirement for the formation of fruiting bodies (perithecia) of f. graminearum under laboratory conditions, we explored whether photoreceptors play an important role in sexual development. here, we evaluated the roles of three genes encoding putative photoreceptors [a phytochrome gen ...201525785736
identification and functional analysis of two golgi-localized udp-galactofuranose transporters with overlapping functions in aspergillus niger.galactofuranose (galf)-containing glycoconjugates are present in numerous microbes, including filamentous fungi where they are important for morphology, virulence and maintaining cell wall integrity. the incorporation of galf-residues into galactomannan, galactomannoproteins and glycolipids is carried out by golgi-localized galf transferases. the nucleotide sugar donor used by these transferases (udp-galf) is produced in the cytoplasm and has to be transported to the lumen of the golgi by a dedi ...201526526354
fungal artificial chromosomes for mining of the fungal secondary metabolome.with thousands of fungal genomes being sequenced, each genome containing up to 70 secondary metabolite (sm) clusters 30-80 kb in size, breakthrough techniques are needed to characterize this sm wealth.201525925221
investigation of a 6-msa synthase gene cluster in aspergillus aculeatus reveals 6-msa-derived aculinic acid, aculins a-b and epi-aculin a.aspergillus aculeatus, a filamentous fungus belonging to the aspergillus clade nigri, is an industrial workhorse in enzyme production. recently we reported a number of secondary metabolites from this fungus; however, its genetic potential for the production of secondary metabolites is vast. in this study we identified a 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-msa) synthase from a. aculeatus, and verified its functionality by episomal expression in a. aculeatus and heterologous expression in a. nidulans. feedi ...201526374386
examining the evolution of the regulatory circuit controlling secondary metabolism and development in the fungal genus aspergillus.filamentous fungi produce diverse secondary metabolites (sms) essential to their ecology and adaptation. although each sm is typically produced by only a handful of species, global sm production is governed by widely conserved transcriptional regulators in conjunction with other cellular processes, such as development. we examined the interplay between the taxonomic narrowness of sm distribution and the broad conservation of global regulation of sm and development in aspergillus, a diverse funga ...201525786130
(1→3)-α-d-glucans from aspergillus spp.: structural characterization and biological study on their carboxymethylated derivatives.alkali-soluble polysaccharides (asps) were isolated from the cell wall of four aspergillus species (a. fumigatus, a. nidulans, a. niger, and a. wentii). the chemical and spectroscopic investigations (immunofluorescent labelling, composition analysis, methylation analysis, ftir, and 1h nmr) indicated that the asps were polymers composed almost exclusively of (1→3)-linked α-d-glucose. after carboxymethylation (cm), the activity of (1→3)-α-d-glucans on three human cell lines (hsf, hela, and jurkat) ...201525601326
[mechanisms and regulation of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in filamentous fungi: classical cases and new models].cellulose is the most abundant renewable carbon source on earth. however, this polymer structure comprises a physical and chemical barrier for carbon access, which has limited its exploitation. in nature, only a few percentage of microorganisms may degrade this polymer by cellulase expression. filamentous fungi are one of the most active and efficient groups among these microorganisms. this review describes similarities and differences between cellulase activity mechanisms and regulatory mechani ...201524607657
flug affects secretion in colonies of aspergillus niger.colonies of aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. for instance, the glucoamylase gene glaa is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. as a consequence, its encoded protein glaa is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. here, multiple copies of amyr were introduced in a. niger. most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed hete ...201525370014
conserved and distinct functions of the “stunted” (stua)-homolog ust1 during cell differentiation in the corn smut fungus ustilago maydis.ustilago maydis, causal agent of corn smut, can proliferate saprobically in a yeast form but its infectious filamentous form is an obligate parasite. previously, we showed that ust1, the first apses (asm1p, phd1p, sok2p, efg1p, and stuap) transcription factor functionally characterized in the phylum basidiomycota, controlled morphogenesis and virulence in this species. here, we further analyzed ust1 function using multiple experimental approaches and determined that i) ust1 activity was able to ...201525208341
laea negatively regulates dothistromin production in the pine needle pathogen dothistroma filamentous fungi both pathway-specific and global regulators regulate genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. laea is a global regulator that was named for its mutant phenotype, loss of aflr expression, due to its effect on the aflatoxin-pathway regulator aflr in aspergillus spp. the pine needle pathogen dothistroma septosporum produces a polyketide virulence factor, dothistromin, that is chemically related to aflatoxin and whose pathway genes are also regulated by an or ...201627818262
comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the fuzhuan brick tea-fermentation fungus aspergillus cristatus.aspergillus cristatus is the dominant fungus involved in the fermentation of chinese fuzhuan brick tea. aspergillus cristatus is a homothallic fungus that undergoes a sexual stage without asexual conidiation when cultured in hypotonic medium. the asexual stage is induced by a high salt concentration, which completely inhibits sexual development. the taxon is therefore appropriate for investigating the mechanisms of asexual and sexual reproduction in fungi. in this study, de novo genome sequencin ...201627267057
diversity, molecular phylogeny and fingerprint profiles of airborne aspergillus species using random amplified polymorphic the present study, diversity and phylogenetic relationship of aspergillus species isolated from tehran air was studied using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd)-polymerase chain reaction (rapd-pcr). thirty-eight aspergillus isolates belonging to 12 species i.e. a. niger (28.94 %, 11 isolates), a. flavus (18.42 %, 7 isolates), a. tubingensis (13.15 %, 5 isolates), a. japonicus (10.52 %, 4 isolates), a. ochraceus (10.52 %, 4 isolates), and 2.63 %, 1 isolate from each a. nidulans, a. amstelo ...201627116962
aspergillus mulundensis sp. nov., a new species for the fungus producing the antifungal echinocandin lipopeptides, mulundocandins.the invalidly published name aspergillus sydowii var. mulundensis was proposed for a strain of aspergillus that produced new echinocandin metabolites designated as the mulundocadins. reinvestigation of this strain (y-30462=dsmz 5745) using phylogenetic, morphological, and metabolic data indicated that it is a distinct and novel species of aspergillus sect. nidulantes. the taxonomic novelty, aspergillus mulundensis, is introduced for this historically important echinocandin-producing strain. the ...201626464011
fungal quorum sensing molecules: role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity.when microorganisms live together in high numbers, they need to communicate with each other. to achieve cell-cell communication, microorganisms secrete molecules called quorum-sensing molecules (qsms) that control their biological activities and behaviors. fungi secrete qsms such as farnesol, tyrosol, phenylethanol, and tryptophol. the role of qsms in fungi has been widely studied in both yeasts and filamentous fungi, for example in candida albicans, c. dubliniensis, aspergillus niger, a. nidula ...201626972663
proteomics of survival structures of fungal pathogens.fungal pathogens are causal agents of numerous human, animal, and plant diseases. they employ various infection modes to overcome host defense systems. infection mechanisms of different fungi have been subjected to many comprehensive studies. these investigations have been facilitated by the development of various '-omics' techniques, and proteomics has one of the leading roles in this regard. fungal conidia and sclerotia could be considered the most important structures for pathogenesis as thei ...201626777984
an efficient arabinoxylan-debranching α-l-arabinofuranosidase of family gh62 from aspergillus nidulans contains a secondary carbohydrate binding α-l-arabinofuranosidase of gh62 from aspergillus nidulans fgsc a4 (anabf62a-m2,3) has an unusually high activity towards wheat arabinoxylan (wax) (67 u/mg; k cat = 178/s, k m = 4.90 mg/ml) and arabinoxylooligosaccharides (axos) with degrees of polymerisation (dp) 3-5 (37-80 u/mg), but about 50 times lower activity for sugar beet arabinan and 4-nitrophenyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside. α-1,2- and α-1,3-linked arabinofuranoses are released from monosubstituted, but not from disubstituted, xylose in wa ...201626946172
functional analysis of the nitrogen metabolite repression regulator gene nmra in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans, the nitrogen metabolite repression (nmr) regulator nmra plays a major role in regulating the activity of the gata transcription factor area during nitrogen metabolism. however, the function of nmra in a. flavus has not been previously studied. here, we report the identification and functional analysis of nmra in a. flavus. our work showed that the amino acid sequences of nmra are highly conserved among aspergillus species and that a. flavus nmra protein contains a canoni ...201627933036
negative regulation and developmental competence in aspergillus.asexual development (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans is governed by orchestrated gene expression. the three key negative regulators of conidiation sfga, vosa, and nsdd act at different control point in the developmental genetic cascade. here, we have revealed that nsdd is a key repressor affecting the quantity of asexual spores in aspergillus. moreover, nullifying both nsdd and vosa results in abundant formation of the development specific structure conidiophores even ...201627364479
rmta, a putative arginine methyltransferase, regulates secondary metabolism and development in aspergillus flavus.aspergillus flavus colonizes numerous oil seed crops such as corn, peanuts, treenuts and cotton worldwide, contaminating them with aflatoxin and other harmful potent toxins. in the phylogenetically related model fungus aspergillus nidulans, the methyltransferase, rmta, has been described to be involved in epigenetics regulation through histone modification. epigenetics regulation affects a variety of cellular processes, including morphogenesis and secondary metabolism. our study shows that delet ...201627213959
pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of voriconazole against candida spp. and aspergillus spp. in children, adolescents and adults by monte carlo simulation.the objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative fraction of response of various voriconazole dosing regimens against six candida and six aspergillus spp. in immunocompromised children, immunocompromised adolescents, and adults. using pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic data, 5000-subject monte carlo simulations (mcss) were conducted to evaluate the ability of simulated dosing strategies in terms of fauc/mic targets of voriconazole. according to the results of the mcss, c ...201627179818
linker flexibility facilitates module exchange in fungal hybrid pks-nrps engineering.polyketide synthases (pkss) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (nrpss) each give rise to a vast array of complex bioactive molecules with further complexity added by the existence of natural pks-nrps fusions. rational genetic engineering for the production of natural product derivatives is desirable for the purpose of incorporating new functionalities into pre-existing molecules, or for optimization of known bioactivities. we sought to expand the range of natural product diversity by combining ...201627551732
the construction and use of versatile binary vectors carrying pyrg auxotrophic marker and fluorescent reporter genes for agrobacterium-mediated transformation of aspergillus oryzae.aspergillus oryzae is a safe mold widely used in food industry. it is also considered as a microbial cell factory for production of recombinant proteins and enzymes. currently, genetic manipulation of filamentous fungi is achieved via agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation methods usually employing antibiotic resistance markers. these methods are hardly usable for a. oryzae due to its strong resistance to the common antifungal compounds used for fungal transformation. in this study, w ...201627804102
biosynthetic pathway of the reduced polyketide product citreoviridin in aspergillus terreus var. aureus revealed by heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans.citreoviridin (1) belongs to a class of f1-atpase β-subunit inhibitors that are synthesized by highly reducing polyketide synthases. these potent mycotoxins share an α-pyrone polyene structure, and they include aurovertin, verrucosidin, and asteltoxin. the identification of the citreoviridin biosynthetic gene cluster in aspergillus terreus var. aureus and its reconstitution using heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans are reported. two intermediates were isolated that allowed the propos ...201626954888
the glycolytic enzyme enolase represents a plasminogen-binding protein on the surface of a wide variety of medically important fungal species.allergies are an increasing issue in human health and can, eventually, cause severe anaphylactic shock. aspergillus fumigatus and candida albicans are leading causes of life-threatening invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, but can also cause severe allergic responses in otherwise healthy individuals. the glycolytic enzyme enolase is known as a major allergen despite its function in intracellular metabolism. therefore, its presentation on surfaces of different fungal species ...201626679571
proteolytic activation of both components of the cation stress-responsive slt pathway in aspergillus nidulans.tolerance of aspergillus nidulans to alkalinity and elevated cation concentrations requires both slta and sltb. transcription factor slta and the putative pseudokinase/protease signaling protein sltb comprise a regulatory pathway specific to filamentous fungi. in vivo, sltb is proteolytically cleaved into its two principal domains. mutational analysis defines a chymotrypsin-like serine protease domain that mediates sltb autoproteolysis and proteolytic cleavage of slta. the pseudokinase domain mi ...201627307585
novel enzyme family found in filamentous fungi catalyzing trans-4-hydroxylation of l-pipecolic acid.hydroxypipecolic acids are bioactive compounds widely distributed in nature and are valuable building blocks for the organic synthesis of pharmaceuticals. we have found a novel hydroxylating enzyme with activity toward l-pipecolic acid (l-pip) in a filamentous fungus, fusarium oxysporum c8d. the enzyme l-pip trans-4-hydroxylase (pip4h) of f. oxysporum (fopip4h) belongs to the fe(ii)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily, catalyzes the regio- and stereoselective hydroxylation of l-pip ...201626801577
generation of β-glucuronidase reporter-tagged strain to monitor ustilaginoidea virens infection in agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system for the rice false smut fungus ustilaginoidea virens was developed using conidia as recipients. a binary vector, pcambia1301-pgpda-gus-ttrpc, was constructed. the gpda promoter (pgpda) from aspergillus nidulans was used to drive the expression of the β-glucuronidase (gus) gene which enabled gus activity visualization. the conidia transformation efficiency reached approximately 110 to 250 transformants per 1×10(5) conidia. based on the analy ...201627789314
the signal peptide peptidase sppa is involved in sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage and hypoxia adaptation in aspergillus nidulans.using forward genetics, we revealed that the signal peptide peptidase (spp) sppa, an aspartyl protease involved in regulated intramembrane proteolysis (rip), is essential for hypoxia adaptation in aspergillus nidulans, as well as hypoxia-sensitive mutant alleles of a sterol regulatory element-binding protein (srebp) srba and the dsc ubiquitin e3 ligase complex dsca-e. both null and dead activity [d337a] mutants of sppa failed to grow in hypoxia, and the growth defect of δsppa was complemented by ...201626822492
identification and characterization of haemofungin, a novel antifungal compound that inhibits the final step of haem biosynthesis.during recent decades, the number of invasive fungal infections among immunosuppressed patients has increased significantly, whereas the number of effective systemic antifungal drugs remains low and unsatisfactory. the aim of this study was to characterize a novel antifungal compound, cw-8/haemofungin, which we previously identified in a screen for compounds affecting fungal cell wall integrity.201626747101
a class 1 histone deacetylase with potential as an antifungal target.histone deacetylases (hdacs) remove acetyl moieties from lysine residues at histone tails and nuclear regulatory proteins and thus significantly impact chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes. in recent years, hdacs of filamentous fungi were found to be decisive regulators of genes involved in pathogenicity and the production of important fungal metabolites such as antibiotics and toxins. here we present proof that one of these enzymes, the class 1 type hdac rpda, is of ...201627803184
fungal sex: the ascomycota.this article provides an overview of sexual reproduction in the ascomycetes, a phylum of fungi that is named after the specialized sacs or "asci" that hold the sexual spores. they have therefore also been referred to as the sac fungi due to these characteristic structures that typically contain four to eight ascospores. ascomycetes are morphologically diverse and include single-celled yeasts, filamentous fungi, and more complex cup fungi. the sexual cycles of many species, including those of the ...201627763253
contribution of molecular tools for the diagnosis and epidemiology of fungal chronic rhinosinusitis.chronic rhinosinusitis (crs) rank second at chronic inflammatory diseases in industrialized countries and are an important public health concern. diagnosis relies on a set of arguments including clinical signs, imaging, histopathologic and mycological analyses of sinus specimens, collected during nasal endoscopy. the sensitivity of fungal cultures is reported to be poor, even when direct examination is positive, thus the epidemiology of fungal chronic sinusitis is ill-known. this study evaluated ...201627335058
rtfa, a putative rna-pol ii transcription elongation factor gene, is necessary for normal morphological and chemical development in aspergillus flavus.the filamentous fungus aspergillus flavus is an agriculturally important opportunistic plant pathogen that produces potent carcinogenic compounds called aflatoxins. we identified the a. flavus rtfa gene, the ortholog of rtf1 in saccharomyces cerevisiae and rtfa in aspergillus nidulans. interestingly, rtfa has multiple cellular roles in this mycotoxin-producing fungus. in this study, we show that rtfa regulates conidiation. the rtfa deletion mutant presented smaller conidiophores with significant ...201627020290
occurrence of moulds from bee pollen in central italy--a preliminary study.the present study aimed to preliminary evaluate the occurrence of fungi in 40 specimens of trapped pollen collected from april-september 2015 in 40 apiaries from tuscany (central italy). cultural and microscopical examinations allowed the recognition of cladosporium sp., alternaria sp., humicola sp. mucoraceae and acremonium sp. penicillium brevicompactum, penicillium chrysogenum, aspergillus flavus , aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus were also identified. yeasts an ...201627010410
decreased cell wall galactosaminogalactan in aspergillus nidulans mediates dysregulated inflammation in the chronic granulomatous disease host.invasive aspergillosis is a major threat to patients suffering from impaired neutrophil function, with aspergillus fumigatus being the most common species causing this life-threatening condition. patients with chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) not only develop infections with a. fumigatus, but also exhibit a unique susceptibility to infection with the normally nonpathogenic species aspergillus nidulans. in this study, we compared the inflammatory cytokine response of peripheral blood mononucle ...201627142572
new applications for known drugs: human glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors as modulators of aspergillus fumigatus growth.invasive aspergillosis (ia) is one of the most severe forms of fungi infection. ia disease is mainly due to aspergillus fumigatus, an air-borne opportunistic pathogen. mortality rate caused by ia is still very high (50-95%), because of difficulty in early diagnostics and reduced antifungal treatment options, thus new and efficient drugs are necessary. the aim of this work is, using aspergillus nidulans as non-pathogen model, to develop efficient drugs to treat ia. the recent discovered role of g ...201627131621
structural divergence of the group i intron binding surface in fungal mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetases that function in rna splicing.the mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetases (mttyrrss) of pezizomycotina fungi, a subphylum that includes many pathogenic species, are bifunctional proteins that both charge mitochondrial trna(tyr) and act as splicing cofactors for autocatalytic group i introns. previous studies showed that one of these proteins, neurospora crassa cyt-18, binds group i introns by using both its n-terminal catalytic and c-terminal anticodon binding domains and that the catalytic domain uses a newly evolved group i ...201627036943
subcellular compartmentalization and trafficking of the biosynthetic machinery for fungal by melanin depends on its subcellular location. although most filamentous fungi synthesize melanin via a polyketide synthase pathway, where and how melanin biosynthesis occurs and how it is deposited as extracellular granules remain elusive. using a forward genetic screen in the pathogen aspergillus fumigatus, we find that mutations in an endosomal sorting nexin abolish melanin cell-wall deposition. we find that all enzymes involved in the early steps of melanin biosynthesis are recru ...201626972005
distinct roles of myosins in aspergillus fumigatus hyphal growth and pathogenesis.myosins are a family of actin-based motor proteins found in many organisms and are categorized into classes based on their structures. class ii and v myosins are known to be important for critical cellular processes, including cytokinesis, endocytosis, exocytosis, and organelle trafficking, in the model fungi saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus nidulans however, the roles of myosins in the growth and virulence of the pathogen aspergillus fumigatus are unknown. we constructed single- and dou ...201626953327
three extracellular dipeptidyl peptidases found in aspergillus oryzae show varying substrate specificities.three extracellular dipeptidyl peptidase genes, dppb, dppe, and dppf, were unveiled by sequence analysis of the aspergillus oryzae genome. we investigated their differential enzymatic profiles, in order to gain an understanding of the diversity of these genes. the three dipeptidyl peptidases were expressed using aspergillus nidulans as the host. each recombinant enzyme was purified and subsequently characterized. the enzymes displayed similar optimum ph values, but optimum temperatures, ph stabi ...201626846741
fungal cell cycle: a unicellular versus multicellular comparison.all cells must accurately replicate dna and partition it to daughter cells. the basic cell cycle machinery is highly conserved among eukaryotes. most of the mechanisms that control the cell cycle were worked out in fungal cells, taking advantage of their powerful genetics and rapid duplication times. here we describe the cell cycles of the unicellular budding yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae and the multicellular filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. we compare and contrast morphological landma ...201628087934
design and synthesis of purine analogues as highly specific ligands for fcyb, a ubiquitous fungal nucleobase the course of our study on fungal purine transporters, a number of new 3-deazapurine analogues have been rationally designed, based on the interaction of purine substrates with the aspergillus nidulans fcyb carrier, and synthesized following an effective synthetic procedure. certain derivatives have been found to specifically inhibit fcyb-mediated [(3)h]-adenine uptake. molecular simulations have been performed, suggesting that all active compounds interact with fcyb through the formation of ...201627720327
cation-stress-responsive transcription factors slta and crza regulate morphogenetic processes and pathogenicity of colletotrichum gloeosporioides.growth of colletotrichum gloeosporioides in the presence of cation salts nacl and kcl inhibited fungal growth and anthracnose symptom of colonization. previous reports indicate that adaptation of aspergillus nidulans to salt- and osmotic-stress conditions revealed the role of zinc-finger transcription factors slta and crza in cation homeostasis. homologs of a. nidulans slta and crza were identified in c. gloeosporioides. the c. gloeosporioides crza homolog is a 682-amino acid protein, which cont ...201628030573
identification and characterization of putative xylose and cellobiose transporters in aspergillus nidulans.the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels (second-generation biofuel production) is an environmentally friendlier alternative to petroleum-based energy sources. enzymatic deconstruction of lignocellulose, catalyzed by filamentous fungi such as aspergillus nidulans, releases a mixture of mono- and polysaccharides, including hexose (glucose) and pentose (xylose) sugars, cellodextrins (cellobiose), and xylooligosaccharides (xylobiose). these sugars can subsequently be fermented by yeast ...201627708711
a mitotic nuclear envelope tether for gle1 also impacts nuclear and nucleolar architecture.during aspergillus nidulans mitosis peripheral nuclear pore complex (npc) proteins (nups) disperse from the core npc structure. unexpectedly, one predicted peripheral nup, gle1, remains at the mitotic ne via an unknown mechanism. gle1 affinity purification identified mtga ( m: itotic t: ether for g: le1), which tethers gle1 to the ne during mitosis, but not during interphase when gle1 is at npcs. mtga is the ortholog of the schizosaccharomyces pombe telomere-anchoring inner nuclear membrane prot ...201627630260
d-galactose catabolism in penicillium chrysogenum: expression analysis of the structural genes of the leloir this study, we analyzed the expression of the structural genes encoding the five enzymes comprising the leloir pathway of d-galactose catabolism in the industrial cell factory penicillium chrysogenum on various carbon sources. the genome of p. chrysogenum contains a putative galactokinase gene at the annotated locus pc13g10140, the product of which shows strong structural similarity to yeast galactokinase that was expressed on lactose and d-galactose only. the expression profile of the galact ...201627630054
plant defensins nad1 and nad2 induce different stress response pathways in fungi.nicotiana alata defensins 1 and 2 (nad1 and nad2) are plant defensins from the ornamental tobacco that have antifungal activity against a variety of fungal pathogens. some plant defensins interact with fungal cell wall o-glycosylated proteins. therefore, we investigated if this was the case for nad1 and nad2, by assessing the sensitivity of the three aspergillus nidulans (an) o-mannosyltransferase (pmt) knockout (ko) mutants (an∆pmta, an∆pmtb, and an∆pmtc). an∆pmta was resistant to both defensin ...201627598152
the creb deubiquitinating enzyme does not directly target the crea repressor protein in aspergillus nidulans.ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathways are now recognized as key components of gene regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotes. the major transcriptional repressor for carbon catabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans is crea, and mutational analysis led to the suggestion that a regulatory ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathway is involved. a key unanswered question is if and how this pathway, comprising creb (deubiquitinating enzyme) and hula (ubiquitin ligase) and other proteins, is involved in ...201627589970
immobilization of lccc laccase from aspergillus nidulans on hard surfaces via fungal hydrophobins.fungal hydrophobins are small amphiphilic proteins that can be used for coatings on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. through the formation of monolayers, they change the hydrophobicity of a given surface. especially, the class i hydrophobins are interesting for biotechnology, because their layers are stable at high temperatures and can only be removed with strong solvents. these proteins self-assemble into monolayers under physiological conditions and undergo conformational changes that sta ...201627565614
diminishing-returns epistasis among random beneficial mutations in a multicellular fungus.adaptive evolution ultimately is fuelled by mutations generating novel genetic variation. non-additivity of fitness effects of mutations (called epistasis) may affect the dynamics and repeatability of adaptation. however, understanding the importance and implications of epistasis is hampered by the observation of substantial variation in patterns of epistasis across empirical studies. interestingly, some recent studies report increasingly smaller benefits of beneficial mutations once genotypes b ...201627559062
molecular components of the neurospora crassa ph signaling pathway and their regulation by ph and the pac-3 transcription factor.environmental ph induces a stress response triggering a signaling pathway whose components have been identified and characterized in several fungi. neurospora crassa shares all six components of the aspergillus nidulans ph signaling pathway, and we investigate here their regulation during an alkaline ph stress response. we show that the n. crassa pal mutant strains, with the exception of δpal-9, which is the a. nidulans pali homolog, exhibit low conidiation and are unable to grow at alkaline ph. ...201627557053
kdmb, a jumonji histone h3 demethylase, regulates genome-wide h3k4 trimethylation and is required for normal induction of secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.histone posttranslational modifications (hptms) are involved in chromatin-based regulation of fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis (smb) in which the corresponding genes-usually physically linked in co-regulated clusters-are silenced under optimal physiological conditions (nutrient-rich) but are activated when nutrients are limiting. the exact molecular mechanisms by which hptms influence silencing and activation, however, are still to be better understood. here we show by a combined approac ...201627548260
evaluation of biosynthetic pathway and engineered biosynthesis of alkaloids.varieties of alkaloids are known to be produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi and plants, as secondary metabolites that exhibit useful bioactivities. however, understanding of how those metabolites are biosynthesized still remains limited, because most of these compounds are isolated from plants and at a trace level of production. in this review, we focus on recent efforts in identifying the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of those nitrogen-containing natural products an ...201627548127
nitrogen metabolism and growth enhancement in tomato plants challenged with trichoderma harzianum expressing the aspergillus nidulans acetamidase amds gene.trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. in addition to the direct application of trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. the amds gene, encoding an acetamidase of aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the trans ...201627536277
botrytis cinerea can import and utilize nucleosides in salvage and catabolism and bcent functions as high affinity nucleoside transporter.nucleotide de novo synthesis is an essential pathway in nearly all organisms. transport processes as well as salvage and catabolism of nucleotides and pathway intermediates are required to balance nucleotide pools. we have analysed the genome of the fungal plant pathogen botrytis cinerea for genes involved in nucleotide metabolism and found a complete set of genes necessary for purine and pyrimidine uptake and salvage based on homology of the gene products to corresponding proteins from aspergil ...201627521624
mapping n-linked glycosylation of carbohydrate-active enzymes in the secretome of aspergillus nidulans grown on lignocellulose.the genus aspergillus includes microorganisms that naturally degrade lignocellulosic biomass, secreting large amounts of carbohydrate-active enzymes (cazymes) that characterize their saprophyte lifestyle. aspergillus has the capacity to perform post-translational modifications (ptm), which provides an additional advantage for the use of these organisms as a host for the production of heterologous proteins. in this study, the n-linked glycosylation of cazymes identified in the secretome of asperg ...201627508003
echinocandin b biosynthesis: a biosynthetic cluster from aspergillus nidulans nrrl 8112 and reassembly of the subclusters ecd and hty from aspergillus pachycristatus nrrl 11440 reveals a single coherent gene cluster.echinocandins are nonribosomal lipopeptides produced by ascommycete fungi. due to their strong inhibitory effect on fungal cell wall biosynthesis and lack of human toxicity, they have been developed to an important class of antifungal drugs. since 2012, the biosynthetic gene clusters of most of the main echinocandin variants have been characterized. especially the comparison of the clusters allows a deeper insight for the biosynthesis of these complex structures.201627502607
in vivo analysis of septin heteropolymer rods and higher-order structures in filamentous fungi.individual septins from separate phylogenetic groups assemble into heteropolymer rods with defined compositions. heteropolymer rods can in turn assemble into larger higher-order structures (hos). using a combination of immunoprecipitation and fluorescence microscopy in aspergillus nidulans wild-type and septin-mutant strains, we have shown that even when septin hos are not visible by fluorescence microscopy, heteropolymer rods can still be present and that a septin found largely in filamentous f ...201627473907
recombinant expression of a gh12 β-glucanase carrying its own signal peptide from stachybotrys atra in yeast and filamentous fungi.the β-glucanase cel12a gene from stachybotrys atra has been cloned and heterologously expressed in aspergillus nidulans and saccharomyces cerevisiae. the recombinant strains constructed, contained the exonic sequence of cel12a including its own signal peptide coding sequence. sds-page and zymography revealed that recombinant cel12a has a molecular mass of 24 kda which agrees with that deduced from its amino acid sequence, indicating that it is expressed in the non-glycosylated active form. recom ...201627339304
increased enzyme production under liquid culture conditions in the industrial fungus aspergillus oryzae by disruption of the genes encoding cell wall α-1,3-glucan synthase.under liquid culture conditions, the hyphae of filamentous fungi aggregate to form pellets, which reduces cell density and fermentation productivity. previously, we found that loss of α-1,3-glucan in the cell wall of the fungus aspergillus nidulans increased hyphal dispersion. therefore, here we constructed a mutant of the industrial fungus a. oryzae in which the three genes encoding α-1,3-glucan synthase were disrupted (tripleδ). although the hyphae of the tripleδ mutant were not fully disperse ...201627442340
new aspercryptins, lipopeptide natural products, revealed by hdac inhibition in aspergillus nidulans.unlocking the biochemical stores of fungi is key for developing future pharmaceuticals. through reduced expression of a critical histone deacetylase in aspergillus nidulans, increases of up to 100-fold were observed in the levels of 15 new aspercryptins, recently described lipopeptides with two noncanonical amino acids derived from octanoic and dodecanoic acids. in addition to two nmr-verified structures, ms/ms networking helped uncover an additional 13 aspercryptins. the aspercryptins break the ...201627310134
ndel1 and reelin maintain postnatal ca1 hippocampus the integrity of laminar structures in the postnatal brain is maintained impacts neuronal functions. ndel1, the mammalian homolog of nude from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, is an atypical microtubule (mt)-associated protein that was initially investigated in the contexts of neurogenesis and neuronal migration. constitutive knock-out mice for ndel1 are embryonic lethal, thereby necessitating the creation a conditional knock-out to probe the roles of ndel1 in postnatal brains. h ...201627307241
rnaseq reveals hydrophobins that are involved in the adaptation of aspergillus nidulans to lignocellulose.sugarcane is one of the world's most profitable crops. waste steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (seb) is a cheap, abundant, and renewable lignocellulosic feedstock for the next-generation biofuels. in nature, fungi seldom exist as planktonic cells, similar to those found in the nutrient-rich environment created within an industrial fermenter. instead, fungi predominantly form biofilms that allow them to thrive in hostile environments.201627437031
dissection of transporter function: from genetics to structure.transporters are transmembrane proteins mediating the selective uptake or efflux of solutes, metabolites, drugs, or ions across cellular membranes. despite their immense biological importance in cell nutrition, communication, signaling, and homeostasis, their study remains technically difficult mostly due to their lipid-embedded nature. the study of eukaryotic transporters presents additional complexity due to multiple subcellular control mechanisms that operate to ensure proper membrane traffic ...201627430403
status epilepticus stimulates ndel1 expression via the creb/cre pathway in the adult mouse brain.nuclear distribution element-like 1 (ndel1/nudel) is a mammalian homolog of the aspergillus nidulans nuclear distribution molecule nude. ndel1 plays a critical role in neuronal migration, neurite outgrowth and neuronal positioning during brain development; however within the adult central nervous system, limited information is available regarding ndel1 expression and functions. here, the goal was to examine inducible ndel1 expression in the adult mouse forebrain. immunolabeling revealed ndel1 wi ...201627298008
resistance gene-guided genome mining: serial promoter exchanges in aspergillus nidulans reveal the biosynthetic pathway for fellutamide b, a proteasome inhibitor.fungal genome projects are revealing thousands of cryptic secondary metabolism (sm) biosynthetic gene clusters that encode pathways that potentially produce valuable compounds. heterologous expression systems should allow these clusters to be expressed and their products obtained, but approaches are needed to identify the most valuable target clusters. the inp cluster of aspergillus nidulans contains a gene, inpe, that encodes a proteasome subunit, leading us to hypothesize that the inp cluster ...201627294372
mutational analysis of the aspergillus ambient ph receptor palh underscores its potential as a target for antifungal compounds.the pal/rim ambient ph signalling pathway is crucial for the ability of pathogenic fungi to infect hosts. the aspergillus nidulans 7-tmd receptor palh senses alkaline ph, subsequently facilitating ubiquitination of the arrestin palf. ubiquitinated palf triggers downstream signalling events. the mechanism(s) by which palh transduces the alkaline ph signal to palf is poorly understood. we show that palh is phosphorylated in a signal dependent manner, resembling mammalian gpcrs, although palh phosp ...201627279148
the functional properties of a xyloglucanase (gh12) of aspergillus terreus expressed in aspergillus nidulans may increase performance of biomass degradation.filamentous fungi are attractive hosts for heterologous protein expression due to their capacity to secrete large amounts of enzymes into the extracellular medium. xyloglucanases, which specifically hydrolyze xyloglucan, have been recently applied in lignocellulosic biomass degradation and conversion in many other industrial processes. in this context, this work aimed to clone, express, and determine the functional properties of a recombinant xyloglucanase (atxeg12) from aspergillus terreus, and ...201627245677
heterologous expression of fungal secondary metabolite pathways in the aspergillus nidulans host system.heterologous expression of fungal secondary metabolite genes allows for the product formation of otherwise silent secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways. it also allows facile expression of mutants or combinations of genes not found in nature. this capability makes model fungi an ideal platform for synthetic biology. in this chapter a detailed description is provided of how to heterologously express any fungal secondary metabolite gene(s) in a well-developed host strain of aspergillus nidula ...201627417927
light governs asexual differentiation in the grey mould fungus botrytis cinerea via the putative transcription factor bcltf2.botrytis cinerea is a plant pathogenic fungus known for its utilization of light as environmental cue to regulate asexual differentiation: conidia are formed in the light, while sclerotia are formed in the dark. as no orthologues of known regulators of conidiation (e.g., aspergillus nidulans brla, neurospora crassa fl) exist in the leotiomycetes, we initiated a de novo approach to identify the functional counterpart in b. cinerea. the search revealed the light-responsive c2h2 transcription facto ...201627347834
dynamics of actin cables in polarized growth of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.highly polarized growth of filamentous fungi requires a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the hyphal tip. this transport is managed by vesicle trafficking via the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and their associated motor proteins. particularly, actin cables originating from the hyphal tip are essential for hyphal growth. although, specific marker proteins have been developed to visualize actin cables in filamentous fungi, the exact organization and dynamics of actin cables has rem ...201627242709
characterization and biotechnological application of recombinant xylanases from aspergillus nidulans.two xylanases from aspergillus nidulans, xlnb and xlnc, were expressed in pichia pastoris, purified and characterized. xlnb and xlnc achieved maximal activities at 60°c and ph 7.5 and at 50°c and ph 6.0, respectively. xlnb showed to be very thermostable by maintaining 50% of its original activity after 49h incubated at 50°c. xlnb had its highest activity against wheat arabinoxylan while xlnc had the best activity against beechwood xylan. both enzymes were completely inhibited by sds and hgcl2. x ...201627235731
gln3 is a main regulator of nitrogen assimilation in candida glabrata.after candida albicans, the yeast candida glabrata ranks second as an aetiological agent of candidaemia and is the most frequently encountered non-candida albicans species in patients with invasive candidiasis. transcriptome analysis in c. albicans, c. glabrata and cryptoccocus neoformans has revealed that, when engulfed by macrophages, these yeasts upregulate genes involved in nutrient acquisition, including nitrogen transporters such as the general amino acid permease gap1, the dicarboxylic am ...201627222014
co-cultivation of aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains produces an enzymatic cocktail as alternative to alkaline sugarcane bagasse pretreatment.plant materials represent a strategic energy source because they can give rise to sustainable biofuels through the fermentation of their carbohydrates. a clear example of a plant-derived biofuel resource is the sugar cane bagasse exhibiting 60-80% of fermentable sugars in its composition. however, the current methods of plant bioconversion employ severe and harmful chemical/physical pretreatments raising biofuel cost production and environmental degradation. replacing these methods with co-culti ...201627199917
spectroscopic evidence for the two c-h-cleaving intermediates of aspergillus nidulans isopenicillin n synthase.the enzyme isopenicillin n synthase (ipns) installs the β-lactam and thiazolidine rings of the penicillin core into the linear tripeptide l-δ-aminoadipoyl-l-cys-d-val (acv) on the pathways to a number of important antibacterial drugs. a classic set of enzymological and crystallographic studies by baldwin and co-workers established that this overall four-electron oxidation occurs by a sequence of two oxidative cyclizations, with the β-lactam ring being installed first and the thiazolidine ring se ...201627193226
new natural products isolated from metarhizium robertsii arsef 23 by chemical screening and identification of the gene cluster through engineered biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans rapidly identify novel natural products and their associated biosynthetic genes from underutilized and genetically difficult-to-manipulate microbes, we developed a method that uses (1) chemical screening to isolate novel microbial secondary metabolites, (2) bioinformatic analyses to identify a potential biosynthetic gene cluster and (3) heterologous expression of the genes in a convenient host to confirm the identity of the gene cluster and the proposed biosynthetic mechanism. the chemical sc ...201627189118
stereospecific capillary electrophoresis assays using pentapeptide substrates for the study of aspergillus nidulans methionine sulfoxide reductase a and mutant enzymes.stereospecific capillary electrophoresis-based methods for the analysis of methionine sulfoxide [met(o)]-containing pentapeptides were developed in order to investigate the reduction of met(o)-containing peptide substrates by recombinant aspergillus nidulans methionine sulfoxide reductase a (msra) as well as enzymes carrying mutations in position glu99 and asp134. the separation of the diastereomers of the n-acetylated, c-terminally 2,4-dinitrophenyl (dnp)-labeled pentapeptides ac-lys-phe-met(o) ...201627145186
production of 10r-hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids from hempseed oil hydrolyzate by recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing ppoc from aspergillus nidulans.the first and second preferred substrates of recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing 10r-dioxygenase (ppoc) from aspergillus nidulans and the purified enzyme were linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively. ppoc in cells showed higher thermal and reaction stabilities compared to purified ppoc. thus, 10r-hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids were produced from linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, and hempseed oil hydrolyzate containing linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid as substrates by whole r ...201627129531
engineering aspergillus nidulans for heterologous ent-kaurene and gamma-terpinene production.terpenes are a large and varied group of natural products with a wide array of bioactivities and applications. the chemical production of industrially relevant terpenes can be expensive and time-consuming due to the structural complexity of these compounds. here, we studied aspergillus nidulans as a heterologous host for monoterpene and diterpene production. previously, we identified a novel diterpene gene cluster in a. nidulans and showed that overexpression of the cluster-specific transcriptio ...201627098256
the first case of fungal endophthalmitis caused by emericella nidulans after cataract surgery.emericella nidulans is a species that has only rarely been implicated in human disease after cataract surgery. here, we report the first postoperative case in the literature, as far as we know. the patient was a 50-year-old patient presented with mild anterior uveitis one week after cataract surgery, and hypopion developed over the next two days. first microbiological evaluation and the results of direct microscopy and cultures of the anterior chamber and vitreous samples were found to be negati ...201627091580
a wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein is involved in endocytosis in aspergillus nidulans.endocytosis is vital for hyphal tip growth in filamentous fungi and is involved in the tip localization of various membrane proteins. to investigate the function of a wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein (wasp) in endocytosis of filamentous fungi, we identified a wasp ortholog-encoding gene, wspa, in aspergillus nidulans and characterized it. the wspa product, wspa, localized to the tips of germ tubes during germination and actin rings in the subapical regions of mature hyphae. wspa is essential for ...201626927610
structure of eukaryotic purine/h(+) symporter uapa suggests a role for homodimerization in transport activity.the uric acid/xanthine h(+) symporter, uapa, is a high-affinity purine transporter from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. here we present the crystal structure of a genetically stabilized version of uapa (uapa-g411vδ1-11) in complex with xanthine. uapa is formed from two domains, a core domain and a gate domain, similar to the previously solved uracil transporter uraa, which belongs to the same family. the structure shows uapa in an inward-facing conformation with xanthine bound to re ...201627088252
a family of aa9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in aspergillus nidulans is differentially regulated by multiple substrates and at least one is active on cellulose and xyloglucan.fungal genomes contain multiple genes encoding aa9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (lpmos), a recently discovered class of enzymes known to be active on cellulose and expressed when grown on biomass. because of extensive genetic and biochemical data already available, aspergillus nidulans offers an excellent model system to study the need for multiple aa9 lpmos and their activity during oxidative degradation of biomass. we provide the first report on regulation of the entire family of aa9 lp ...201627075737
transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of ionic liquid stimuli unveils enhanced secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.the inherent potential of filamentous fungi, especially of ascomycota, for producing diverse bioactive metabolites remains largely silent under standard laboratory culture conditions. innumerable strategies have been described to trigger their production, one of the simplest being manipulation of the growth media composition. supplementing media with ionic liquids surprisingly enhanced the diversity of extracellular metabolites generated by penicillia. this finding led us to evaluate the impact ...201627072538
multiple effects of a commercial roundup® formulation on the soil filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans at low doses: evidence of an unexpected impact on energetic metabolism.soil microorganisms are highly exposed to glyphosate-based herbicides (gbh), especially to roundup® which is widely used worldwide. however, studies on the effects of gbh formulations on specific non-rhizosphere soil microbial species are scarce. we evaluated the toxicity of a commercial formulation of roundup® (r450), containing 450 g/l of glyphosate (gly), on the soil filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, an experimental model microorganism. the median lethal dose (ld50) on solid media was ...201627068896
palmitoylation of the cysteine residue in the dhhc motif of a palmitoyl transferase mediates ca2+ homeostasis in aspergillus.finely tuned changes in cytosolic free calcium ([ca2+]c) mediate numerous intracellular functions resulting in the activation or inactivation of a series of target proteins. palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification involved in membrane protein trafficking between membranes and in their functional modulation. however, studies on the relationship between palmitoylation and calcium signaling have been limited. here, we demonstrate that the yeast palmitoyl transferase scakr1p h ...201627058039
the adenylate-forming enzymes afea and tmpb are involved in aspergillus nidulans self-communication during asexual development.aspergillus nidulans asexual sporulation (conidiation) is triggered by different environmental signals and involves the differentiation of specialized structures called conidiophores. the elimination of genes flba-e, flug, and tmpa results in a fluffy phenotype characterized by delayed conidiophore development and decreased expression of the conidiation essential gene brla. while flba-e encode regulatory proteins, flug and tmpa encode enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of independent signals n ...201627047469
enhancement of echinocandin b production by a uv- and microwave-induced mutant of aspergillus nidulans with precursor- and biotin-supplying strategy.echinocandin b belongs to lipopeptide antifungal antibiotic bearing five types of direct precursor amino acids including proline, ornithine, tyrosine, threonine, and leucine. the objective of this study is to screen over-producing mutant in order to improve echinocandin b production; a stable mutant aspergillus nidulans zjb12073, which can use fructose as optimal carbon source instead of expensive mannitol, was selected from thousand isolates after several cycles of uv and microwave irradiation ...201627039401
development and validation of a custom microarray for global transcriptome profiling of the fungus aspergillus nidulans.transcriptome profiling is a powerful tool for identifying gene networks from whole genome expression analysis in many living species. here is described the first extensively characterized platform using agilent microarray technology for transcriptome analysis in the filamentous fungus aspergillus (emericella) nidulans. we developed and validated a reliable gene expression microarray in 8 × 15 k format, with predictive and experimental data establishing its specificity and sensitivity. either on ...201627038308
calcineurin and calcium channel ccha coordinate the salt stress response by regulating cytoplasmic ca2+ homeostasis in aspergillus nidulans.the eukaryotic calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin is crucial for the environmental adaption of fungi. however, the mechanism of coordinate regulation of the response to salt stress by calcineurin and the high-affinity calcium channel ccha in fungi is not well understood. here we show that the deletion of ccha suppresses the hyphal growth defects caused by the loss of calcineurin under salt stress in aspergillus nidulans additionally, the hypersensitivity of the δcnaa st ...201627037124
diverse regulation of the crea carbon catabolite repressor in aspergillus nidulans.carbon catabolite repression (ccr) is a process that selects the energetically most favorable carbon source in an environment. ccr represses the use of less favorable carbon sources when a better source is available. glucose is the preferential carbon source for most microorganisms because it is rapidly metabolized, generating quick energy for growth. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, ccr is mediated by the transcription factor crea, a c2h2 finger domain dna-binding protein. the ai ...201627017621
a robust analytical pipeline for genome-wide identification of the genes regulated by a transcription factor: combinatorial analysis performed using gselex-seq and rna-seq.for identifying the genes that are regulated by a transcription factor (tf), we have established an analytical pipeline that combines genomic systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (gselex)-seq and rna-seq. here, selex was used to select dna fragments from an aspergillus nidulans genomic library that bound specifically to amyr, a tf from a. nidulans. high-throughput sequencing data were obtained for the dnas enriched through the selection, following which various in silico ana ...201627411092
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