PMID(sorted ascending)
soil fungi for mycoremediation of arsenic pollution in agriculture soils.soil arsenic (as) contamination of food-chains and public health can be mitigated through fungal bioremediation. to enumerate culturable soil fungi, soils were collected from the as-contaminated paddy fields (3-35 mg kg(-1) ) of the middle indo-gangetic plains.201526348882
nitric oxide synthesis by nitrate reductase is regulated during development in aspergillus.nitric oxide (no) is a signalling molecule involved in many biological processes in bacteria, plants and mammals. however, little is known about the role and biosynthesis of no in fungi. here we show that no production is increased at the early stages of the transition from vegetative growth to development in aspergillus nidulans. full no production requires a functional nitrate reductase (nr) gene (niad) that is upregulated upon induction of conidiation, even under n-repressing conditions in th ...201626353949
the wopr domain protein osaa orchestrates development in aspergillus nidulans.orchestration of cellular growth and development occurs during the life cycle of aspergillus nidulans. a multi-copy genetic screen intended to unveil novel regulators of development identified the an6578 locus predicted to encode a protein with the wopr domain, which is a broadly present fungi-specific dna-binding motif. multi-copy of an6578 disrupted the normal life cycle of the fungus leading to enhanced proliferation of vegetative cells, whereas the deletion resulted in hyper-active sexual fr ...201526359867
involvement of lipocalin-like cgha in decalin-forming stereoselective intramolecular [4+2] cycloaddition.understanding enzymatic diels-alder (da) reactions that can form complex natural product scaffolds is of considerable interest. sch 210972 1, a potential anti-hiv fungal natural product, contains a decalin core that is proposed to form through a da reaction. we identified the gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of 1 and heterologously reconstituted the biosynthetic pathway in aspergillus nidulans to characterize the enzymes involved. most notably, deletion of cgha resulted in a loss of ...201526360642
seeing the world differently: variability in the photosensory mechanisms of two model fungi.light plays an important role for most organisms on this planet, serving either as a source of energy or information for the adaptation of biological processes to specific times of day. the fungal kingdom is estimated to contain well over a million species, possibly 10-fold more, and it is estimated that a majority of the fungi respond to light, eliciting changes in several physiological characteristics including pathogenesis, development and secondary metabolism. two model organisms for photobi ...201626373782
investigation of a 6-msa synthase gene cluster in aspergillus aculeatus reveals 6-msa-derived aculinic acid, aculins a-b and epi-aculin a.aspergillus aculeatus, a filamentous fungus belonging to the aspergillus clade nigri, is an industrial workhorse in enzyme production. recently we reported a number of secondary metabolites from this fungus; however, its genetic potential for the production of secondary metabolites is vast. in this study we identified a 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-msa) synthase from a. aculeatus, and verified its functionality by episomal expression in a. aculeatus and heterologous expression in a. nidulans. feedi ...201526374386
discovery of a vezatin-like protein for dynein-mediated early endosome transport.early endosomes are transported bidirectionally by cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-3, but how the movements are regulated in vivo remains unclear. here our forward genetic study led to the discovery of veza, a vezatin-like protein in aspergillus nidulans, as a factor critical for early endosome distribution. loss of veza causes an abnormal accumulation of early endosomes at the hyphal tip, where microtubule plus ends are located. this abnormal accumulation depends on kinesin-3 and is due to a dec ...201526378255
novel β-1,4-mannanase belonging to a new glycoside hydrolase family in aspergillus nidulans.many filamentous fungi produce β-mannan-degrading β-1,4-mannanases that belong to the glycoside hydrolase 5 (gh5) and gh26 families. here we identified a novel β-1,4-mannanase (man134a) that belongs to a new glycoside hydrolase (gh) family (gh134) in aspergillus nidulans. blast analysis of the amino acid sequence using the ncbi protein database revealed that this enzyme had no similarity to any sequences and no putative conserved domains. protein homologs of the enzyme were distributed to limite ...201526385921
rite of passage: a bzip transcription factor must transit the cell apex to become the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans brla triggers the central developmental pathway that controls the transition from vegetative growth to asexual reproduction. upstream regulators including the bzip transcription factor flbb activate the expression of brla. previous work has established that flbb localizes to both the apex of the hypha, where it interacts with and is anchored by flbe, and to nuclei, with highest levels in the nucleus closest to the apex and successively lower levels ...201526387769
the aspergillus nidulans syntaxin pepa(pep12) is regulated by two sec1/munc-18 proteins to mediate fusion events at early endosomes, late endosomes and vacuoles.syntaxins are target-snares that crucially contribute to determine membrane compartment identity. three syntaxins, tlg2p, pep12p and vam3p, organize the yeast endovacuolar system. remarkably, filamentous fungi lack the equivalent of the yeast vacuolar syntaxin vam3p, making unclear how these organisms regulate vacuole fusion. we show that the nearly essential aspergillus nidulans syntaxin pepa(pep12) , present in all endocytic compartments between early endosomes and vacuoles, shares features of ...201626395371
small heat shock proteins, phylogeny in filamentous fungi and expression analyses in aspergillus nidulans.small heat shock proteins (shsps) have been characterized in organisms from all three domains of life and viruses and are involved in a wide range of biological functions. however, the evolution and function of shsp in aspergillus species are largely unknown. in the present work, shsps were identified in 31 filamentous fungi, including species from aspergillus, penicillium, fusarium and magnaporthe, as well as botrytis cinerea and neurospora crassa. phylogenetic analysis revealed high level of d ...201626403724
effect of biotransformation by liver s9 enzymes on the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of melanin extracted from aspergillus nidulans.a mutant that exhibited increased melanin pigment production was isolated from aspergillus nidulans fungus. this pigment has aroused biotechnological interest due to its photoprotector and antioxidant properties. in a recent study, we showed that melanin from a. nidulans also inhibits no and tnf-α production.201626459656
aspergillus mulundensis sp. nov., a new species for the fungus producing the antifungal echinocandin lipopeptides, mulundocandins.the invalidly published name aspergillus sydowii var. mulundensis was proposed for a strain of aspergillus that produced new echinocandin metabolites designated as the mulundocadins. reinvestigation of this strain (y-30462=dsmz 5745) using phylogenetic, morphological, and metabolic data indicated that it is a distinct and novel species of aspergillus sect. nidulantes. the taxonomic novelty, aspergillus mulundensis, is introduced for this historically important echinocandin-producing strain. the ...201626464011
characterization of annce102 and its role in eisosome stability and sphingolipid biosynthesis.the plasma membrane is implicated in a variety of functions, whose coordination necessitates highly dynamic organization of its constituents into domains of distinct protein and lipid composition. eisosomes, at least partially, mediate this lateral plasma membrane compartmentalization. in this work, we show that the nce102 homologue of aspergillus nidulans colocalizes with eisosomes and plays a crucial role in density/number of pila/surg foci in the head of germlings. in addition we demonstrate ...201526468899
hgt-finder: a new tool for horizontal gene transfer finding and application to aspergillus genomes.horizontal gene transfer (hgt) is a fast-track mechanism that allows genetically unrelated organisms to exchange genes for rapid environmental adaptation. we developed a new phyletic distribution-based software, hgt-finder, which implements a novel bioinformatics algorithm to calculate a horizontal transfer index and a probability value for each query gene. applying this new tool to the aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, and aspergillus nidulans genomes, we found 273, 542, and 715 transf ...201526473921
the fungal exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan mediates virulence by enhancing resistance to neutrophil extracellular traps.of the over 250 aspergillus species, aspergillus fumigatus accounts for up to 80% of invasive human infections. a. fumigatus produces galactosaminogalactan (gag), an exopolysaccharide composed of galactose and n-acetyl-galactosamine (galnac) that mediates adherence and is required for full virulence. less pathogenic aspergillus species were found to produce gag with a lower galnac content than a. fumigatus and expressed minimal amounts of cell wall-bound gag. increasing the galnac content of gag ...201526492565
extreme diversity in the regulation of ndt80-like transcription factors in fungi.the saccharomyces cerevisiae ndt80 protein is the founding member of a class of p53-like transcription factors that is known as the ndt80/phog-like dna-binding family. the number of ndt80-like genes in different fungi is highly variable and their roles, which have been examined in only a few species, include regulation of meiosis, sexual development, biofilm formation, drug resistance, virulence, the response to nutrient stress and programmed cell death. the protein kinase ime2 regulates the sin ...201526497142
identification and functional analysis of two golgi-localized udp-galactofuranose transporters with overlapping functions in aspergillus niger.galactofuranose (galf)-containing glycoconjugates are present in numerous microbes, including filamentous fungi where they are important for morphology, virulence and maintaining cell wall integrity. the incorporation of galf-residues into galactomannan, galactomannoproteins and glycolipids is carried out by golgi-localized galf transferases. the nucleotide sugar donor used by these transferases (udp-galf) is produced in the cytoplasm and has to be transported to the lumen of the golgi by a dedi ...201526526354
structure of the dioxygenase asqj: mechanistic insights into a one-pot multistep quinolone antibiotic biosynthesis.multienzymatic cascades are responsible for the biosynthesis of natural products and represent a source of inspiration for synthetic chemists. the fe(ii)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase asqj from aspergillus nidulans is outstanding because it stereoselectively catalyzes both a ferryl-induced desaturation reaction and epoxidation on a benzodiazepinedione. interestingly, the enzymatically formed spiro epoxide spring-loads the 6,7-bicyclic skeleton for non-enzymatic rearrangement into the 6,6 ...201626553478
the selective expression of carbonic anhydrase genes of aspergillus nidulans in response to changes in mineral nutrition and co2 concentration.carbonic anhydrase (ca) plays an important role in the formation and evolution of life. however, to our knowledge, there has been no report on ca isoenzyme function differentiation in fungi. two different ca gene sequences in aspergillus nidulans with clear genetic background provide us a favorable basis for studying function differentiation of ca isoenzymes. heterologously expressed ca1 was used to test its weathering ability on silicate minerals and real-time quantitative pcr was used to detec ...201526553629
the first case of invasive mixed-mold infections due to emericella nidulans var. echinulata and rasamsonia piperina in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease.a 16-year-old boy with chronic granulomatous disease presented with pneumonia and rib osteomyelitis. emericella nidulans var. echinulata was isolated from his sputum. after starting voriconazole, rasamsonia piperina was isolated from the rib swelling. a combination therapy of voriconazole and micafungin effectively eradicated this invasive mixed-mold infection. in immunocompromised patients, a precise pathogenic diagnosis is clinically useful for administration of an appropriate treatment regime ...201626563166
development of genetic dereplication strains in aspergillus nidulans results in the discovery of reduce the secondary metabolite background in aspergillus nidulans and minimize the rediscovery of compounds and pathway intermediates, we created a "genetic dereplication" strain in which we deleted eight of the most highly expressed secondary metabolite gene clusters (more than 244,000 base pairs deleted in total). this strain allowed us to discover a novel compound that we designate aspercryptin and to propose a biosynthetic pathway for the compound. interestingly, aspercryptin is formed f ...201626563584
a phosphorylation code of the aspergillus nidulans global regulator velveta (vea) determines specific functions.the velvet protein vea is a global fungal regulator for morphogenetic pathways as well as for the control of secondary metabolism. it is found exclusively in filamentous fungi, where it fulfills conserved, but also unique functions in different species. the involvement of vea in various morphogenetic and metabolic pathways is probably due to spatially and timely controlled specific protein-protein interactions with other regulators such as phytochrome (fpha) or velvet-like proteins (velb). here ...201626564476
catalytic conversion of sugarcane bagasse to cellulosic ethanol: tio2 coupled nanocellulose as an effective hydrolysis enhancer.the present study deals with the production of cellulosic ethanol from bagasse using the synthesized tio2 coupled nanocellulose (nc-tio2) as catalyst. aspergillus nidulans ajsu04 cellulase was used for the hydrolysis of bagasse. nc-tio2 at various concentrations was added to bagasse in order to enhance the yield of reducing sugars. complex interaction between cellulase, bagasse, nc-tio2 and the reaction environment is thoroughly studied. a mathematical model was developed to describe the hydroly ...201626572403
genetic interaction of aspergillus nidulans galr, xlnr and arar in regulating d-galactose and l-arabinose release and catabolism gene aspergillus nidulans, the xylanolytic regulator xlnr and the arabinanolytic regulator arar co-regulate pentose catabolism. in nature, the pentose sugars d-xylose and l-arabinose are both main building blocks of the polysaccharide arabinoxylan. in pectin and arabinogalactan, these two monosaccharides are found in combination with d-galactose. galr, the regulator that responds to the presence of d-galactose, regulates the d-galactose catabolic pathway. in this study we investigated the possible ...201526580075
stress tolerances of nullmutants of function-unknown genes encoding menadione stress-responsive proteins in aspergillus nidulans.a group of menadione stress-responsive function-unkown genes of aspergillus nidulans (locus ids anid_03987.1, anid_06058.1, anid_10219.1, and anid_10260.1) was deleted and phenotypically characterized. importantly, comparative and phylogenetic analyses of the tested a. nidulans genes and their orthologs shed light only on the presence of a tango2 domain with nrde protein motif in the translated anid_06058.1 gene but did not reveal any recognizable protein-encoding domains in other protein sequen ...201626631869
[effect of microparticles on echinocandin b production by aspergillus nidulans].anidulafungin is an effective antifungal medicine, which can inhibit activities of candida in vitro and in vivo. echinocandin b (ecb) is the key precursor of anidulafungin, thus the price and market prospect of anidulafungin is directly due to the fermentation titer of ecb. in this study, aspergillus nidulans was used for ecb fermentation, and the influence of adding microparticles on ecb fermentation was studied, such as talcum powder, al2o3, and glass beads. the particle size and concentration ...201526647583
superresolution microscopy reveals a dynamic picture of cell polarity maintenance during directional growth.polar (directional) cell growth, a key cellular mechanism shared among a wide range of species, relies on targeted insertion of new material at specific locations of the plasma membrane. how these cell polarity sites are stably maintained during massive membrane insertion has remained elusive. conventional live-cell optical microscopy fails to visualize polarity site formation in the crowded cell membrane environment because of its limited resolution. we have used advanced live-cell imaging tech ...201526665168
carbon regulation of environmental ph by secreted small molecules that modulate pathogenicity in phytopathogenic fungi.fruit pathogens can contribute to the acidification or alkalinization of the host environment. this capability has been used to divide fungal pathogens into acidifying and/or alkalinizing classes. here, we show that diverse classes of fungal pathogens-colletotrichum gloeosporioides, penicillium expansum, aspergillus nidulans and fusarium oxysporum-secrete small ph-affecting molecules. these molecules modify the environmental ph, which dictates acidic or alkaline colonizing strategies, and induce ...201626666972
the glycolytic enzyme enolase represents a plasminogen-binding protein on the surface of a wide variety of medically important fungal species.allergies are an increasing issue in human health and can, eventually, cause severe anaphylactic shock. aspergillus fumigatus and candida albicans are leading causes of life-threatening invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, but can also cause severe allergic responses in otherwise healthy individuals. the glycolytic enzyme enolase is known as a major allergen despite its function in intracellular metabolism. therefore, its presentation on surfaces of different fungal species ...201626679571
aspergillus nidulans protein kinase a plays an important role in cellulase production.the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks is dependent on lignocellulosic biomass degradation by hydrolytic enzymes. the main component of lignocellulose is cellulose and different types of organisms are able to secrete cellulases. the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans serves as a model organism to study cellulase production and the available tools allow exploring more in depth the mechanisms governing cellulase production and carbon catabolite repression.201526690721
a global view of gene expression of aspergillus nidulans on responding to the deficiency in soluble potassium.many researchers have suggested that microbes can accelerate the weathering of silicate minerals. however, many genes and metabolic pathways related to microorganisms obtaining potassium (k) from silicate remain undiscovered. it is feasible to detect the gene expression within the scope of the whole genome through high-throughput sequencing. surprisingly, only a few reports have shown fungal weathering of silicate using this technology. this study explored differences in gene expression of asper ...201626693724
function and regulation of fungal amino acid transporters: insights from predicted structure.amino acids constitute a major nutritional source for probably all fungi. studies of model species such as the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae and the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans have shown that they possess multiple amino acid transporters. these proteins belong to a limited number of superfamilies, now defined according to protein fold in addition to sequence criteria, and differ in subcellular location, substrate specificity range, and regulation. structural models of several of th ...201626721271
identification and characterization of haemofungin, a novel antifungal compound that inhibits the final step of haem biosynthesis.during recent decades, the number of invasive fungal infections among immunosuppressed patients has increased significantly, whereas the number of effective systemic antifungal drugs remains low and unsatisfactory. the aim of this study was to characterize a novel antifungal compound, cw-8/haemofungin, which we previously identified in a screen for compounds affecting fungal cell wall integrity.201626747101
changes of global gene expression and secondary metabolite accumulation during light-dependent aspergillus nidulans development.fungal development and secondary metabolite production are coordinated by regulatory complexes as the trimeric velvet complex. light accelerates asexual but decreases sexual development of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. changes in gene expression and secondary metabolite accumulation in response to environmental stimuli have been the focus of many studies, but a comprehensive comparison during entire development is lacking. we compared snapshots of transcript and metabolite profile ...201626773375
an aspergillus nidulans gh26 endo-β-mannanase with a novel degradation pattern on highly substituted galactomannans.the activity and substrate degradation pattern of a novel aspergillus nidulans gh26 endo-β-mannanase (anman26a) was investigated using two galactomannan substrates with varying amounts of galactopyranosyl residues. the anman26a was characterized in parallel with the gh26 endomannanase from podospora anserina (paman26a) and three gh5 endomannanases from a. nidulans and trichoderma reesei (anman5a, anman5c and trman5a). the initial rates and the maximal degree of enzymatically catalyzed conversion ...201626777252
proteomics of survival structures of fungal pathogens.fungal pathogens are causal agents of numerous human, animal, and plant diseases. they employ various infection modes to overcome host defense systems. infection mechanisms of different fungi have been subjected to many comprehensive studies. these investigations have been facilitated by the development of various '-omics' techniques, and proteomics has one of the leading roles in this regard. fungal conidia and sclerotia could be considered the most important structures for pathogenesis as thei ...201626777984
apical control of conidiation in aspergillus nidulans.the infection cycle of filamentous fungi consists of two main stages: invasion (growth) and dispersion (development). after the deposition of a spore on a host, germination, polar extension and branching of vegetative cells called hyphae allow a fast and efficient invasion. under suboptimal conditions, genetic reprogramming of hyphae results in the generation of asexual spores, allowing dissemination to new hosts and the beginning of a new infection cycle. in the model filamentous fungus aspergi ...201626782172
novel enzyme family found in filamentous fungi catalyzing trans-4-hydroxylation of l-pipecolic acid.hydroxypipecolic acids are bioactive compounds widely distributed in nature and are valuable building blocks for the organic synthesis of pharmaceuticals. we have found a novel hydroxylating enzyme with activity toward l-pipecolic acid (l-pip) in a filamentous fungus, fusarium oxysporum c8d. the enzyme l-pip trans-4-hydroxylase (pip4h) of f. oxysporum (fopip4h) belongs to the fe(ii)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily, catalyzes the regio- and stereoselective hydroxylation of l-pip ...201626801577
peroxisomes move by hitchhiking on early endosomes using the novel linker protein pxda.eukaryotic cells use microtubule-based intracellular transport for the delivery of many subcellular cargos, including organelles. the canonical view of organelle transport is that organelles directly recruit molecular motors via cargo-specific adaptors. in contrast with this view, we show here that peroxisomes move by hitchhiking on early endosomes, an organelle that directly recruits the transport machinery. using the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans we found that hitchhiking is mediated ...201626811422
the signal peptide peptidase sppa is involved in sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage and hypoxia adaptation in aspergillus nidulans.using forward genetics, we revealed that the signal peptide peptidase (spp) sppa, an aspartyl protease involved in regulated intramembrane proteolysis (rip), is essential for hypoxia adaptation in aspergillus nidulans, as well as hypoxia-sensitive mutant alleles of a sterol regulatory element-binding protein (srebp) srba and the dsc ubiquitin e3 ligase complex dsca-e. both null and dead activity [d337a] mutants of sppa failed to grow in hypoxia, and the growth defect of δsppa was complemented by ...201626822492
genotoxic investigation of a thiazolidinedione pparγ agonist using the in vitro micronucleus test and the in vivo homozygotization assay.pioglitazone (ptz) is an oral antidiabetic agent whose anti-cancer properties have been described recently. since ptz increases the production of reactive oxygen species in mammalian cells, the aim of current study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of ptz using respectively the in vitro mitotic index assay and the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test in human peripheral lymphocytes, and the in vivo homozygotization assay in aspergillus nidulans, which detec ...201626825076
characterization of the aoda, dnma, mnsod and pima genes in aspergillus nidulans.mitochondria play key roles in cellular energy generation and lifespan of most eukaryotes. to understand the functions of four nuclear-encoded genes predicted to be related to the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function in aspergillus nidulans, systematic characterization was carried out. the deletion and overexpression mutants of aoda, dnma, mnsod and pima encoding alternative oxidase, dynamin related protein, manganese superoxide dismutase and lon protease, respectively, were gene ...201626846452
three extracellular dipeptidyl peptidases found in aspergillus oryzae show varying substrate specificities.three extracellular dipeptidyl peptidase genes, dppb, dppe, and dppf, were unveiled by sequence analysis of the aspergillus oryzae genome. we investigated their differential enzymatic profiles, in order to gain an understanding of the diversity of these genes. the three dipeptidyl peptidases were expressed using aspergillus nidulans as the host. each recombinant enzyme was purified and subsequently characterized. the enzymes displayed similar optimum ph values, but optimum temperatures, ph stabi ...201626846741
cooperation of aspergillus nidulans enzymes increases plant polysaccharide saccharification.efficient polysaccharide degradation depends on interaction between enzymes acting on the main chain and the side chains. previous studies demonstrated cooperation between several enzymes, but not all enzyme combinations have been explored. a better understanding of enzyme cooperation would enable the design of better enzyme mixtures, optimally profiting from synergistic effects. in this study, we analyzed the cooperation of several enzymes involved in the degradation of xylan, glucan, xylogluca ...201626848939
characterization of the product of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like (nrps-like) gene using the doxycycline dependent tet-on system in aspergillus terreus.genome sequencing of the fungus aspergillus terreus uncovered a number of silent core structural biosynthetic genes encoding enzymes presumed to be involved in the production of cryptic secondary metabolites. there are five nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps)-like genes with the predicted a-t-te domain architecture within the a. terreus genome. among the five genes, only the product of pgna remains unknown. the tet-on system is an inducible, tunable and metabolism-independent expression syste ...201626851300
cytotoxicity and colloidal behavior of polystyrene latex nanoparticles toward filamentous fungi in isotonic solutions.the effects of surface physicochemical properties of functionalized polystyrene latex (psl) nanoparticles (nps) and model filamentous fungi aspergillus oryzae and aspergillus nidulans cultivated in different environment (aqueous and atmospheric environment) on the colloidal behavior and cytotoxicity were investigated in different isotonic solutions (154 mm nacl and 292 mm sucrose). when the liquid cultivated fungal cells were exposed to positively charged psl nps in 154 mm nacl solution, the nps ...201626855210
cloning and characterization of filamentous fungal s-nitrosoglutathione reductase from aspergillus nidulans.s-nitrosoglutathione reductase (gsnor) metabolizes s-nitrosoglutathione (gsno) and has been shown to play important roles in regulating cellular signaling and formulating host defense by modulating intracellular nitric oxide levels. the enzyme has been found in bacterial, yeast, mushroom, plant, and mammalian cells. however, to date, there is still no evidence of its occurrence in filamentous fungi. in this study, we cloned and investigated a gsnor-like enzyme from the filamentous fungus aspergi ...201626869606
live cell imaging of actin dynamics in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.hyphal cells of filamentous fungi grow at their tips in a method analogous to pollen tube and root hair elongation. this process, generally referred to as tip growth, requires precise regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and characterizing the various actin structures in these cell types is currently an active area of research. here, the actin marker lifeact was used to document actin dynamics in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. contractile double rings were observed at septa, and a ...201626879694
a case of aspergillus nidulans causing white granule mycetoma. 201626900232
recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by aspergillus delacroxii (formerly aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus).we report aspergillus delacroxii (formerly aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus) causing recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis. the fungus was the sole agent detected during replacement of a mechanical aortic valve conduit due to abscess formation. despite extensive surgery and anti-fungal treatment, the patient had a cerebral hemorrhage 4 months post-surgery prompting a diagnosis of recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis and fungemia.201526909244
bsda(bsd2) -dependent vacuolar turnover of a misfolded version of the uapa transporter along the secretory pathway: prominent role of selective autophagy.transmembrane proteins translocate cotranslationally in the endoplasmic reticulum (er) membrane and traffic as vesicular cargoes, via the golgi, in their final membrane destination. misfolding in the er leads to protein degradation basically through the erad/proteasome system. here, we use a mutant version of the purine transporter uapa (δr481) to show that specific misfolded versions of plasma membrane cargoes undergo vacuolar turnover prior to localization in the plasma membrane. we show that ...201626917498
generation and characterization of indoor fungal aerosols for inhalation the indoor environment, people are exposed to several fungal species. evident dampness is associated with increased respiratory symptoms. to examine the immune responses associated with fungal exposure, mice are often exposed to a single species grown on an agar medium. the aim of this study was to develop an inhalation exposure system to be able to examine responses in mice exposed to mixed fungal species aerosolized from fungus-infested building materials. indoor airborne fungi were sampled ...201626921421
a wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein is involved in endocytosis in aspergillus nidulans.endocytosis is vital for hyphal tip growth in filamentous fungi and is involved in the tip localization of various membrane proteins. to investigate the function of a wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein (wasp) in endocytosis of filamentous fungi, we identified a wasp ortholog-encoding gene, wspa, in aspergillus nidulans and characterized it. the wspa product, wspa, localized to the tips of germ tubes during germination and actin rings in the subapical regions of mature hyphae. wspa is essential for ...201626927610
roles of aspergillus nidulans cdc42/rho gtpase regulators in hyphal morphogenesis and development.the rho-related family of gtpases are pivotal regulators of morphogenetic processes in diverse eukaryotic organisms. in the filamentous fungi two related members of this family, cdc42 and rac1, perform particularly important roles in the establishment and maintenance of hyphal polarity. the activity of these gtpases is tightly controlled by two sets of regulators: guanine nucleotide exchange factors (gefs) and gtpase-activating proteins (gaps). despite the importance of cdc42 and rac1 in polariz ...201626932184
the golgi apparatus: insights from filamentous fungi.cargo passage through the golgi, albeit an undoubtedly essential cellular function, is a mechanistically unresolved and much debated process. although the main molecular players are conserved, diversification of the golgi among different eukaryotic lineages is providing us with tools to resolve standing controversies. during the past decade the golgi apparatus of model filamentous fungi, mainly aspergillus nidulans, has been intensively studied. here an overview of the most important findings in ...201626932185
characterization of a second physiologically relevant lactose permease gene (lacpb) in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans, uptake rather than hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step of lactose catabolism. deletion of the lactose permease a-encoding gene (lacpa) reduces the growth rate on lactose, while its overexpression enables faster growth than wild-type strains are capable of. we have identified a second physiologically relevant lactose transporter, lacpb. glycerol-grown mycelia from mutants deleted for lacpb appear to take up only minute amounts of lactose during the first 60 h after a med ...201626935851
atp citrate lyase mediated cytosolic acetyl-coa biosynthesis increases mevalonate production in saccharomyces cerevisiae.with increasing concern about the environmental impact of a petroleum based economy, focus has shifted towards greener production strategies including metabolic engineering of microbes for the conversion of plant-based feedstocks to second generation biofuels and industrial chemicals. saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive host for this purpose as it has been extensively engineered for production of various fuels and chemicals. many of the target molecules are derived from the central metabol ...201626939608
regulation of genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes by pal-pacc signaling in aspergillus nidulans.cellulosic biomass represents a valuable potential substitute for fossil-based fuels. as such, there is a strong need to develop efficient biotechnological processes for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass via the optimization of cellulase production by fungi. ambient ph is an important factor affecting the industrial production of cellulase. in the present study, we demonstrate that several aspergillus nidulans genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes are regulated by pal-pacc-mediated ph ...201626946171
an efficient arabinoxylan-debranching α-l-arabinofuranosidase of family gh62 from aspergillus nidulans contains a secondary carbohydrate binding α-l-arabinofuranosidase of gh62 from aspergillus nidulans fgsc a4 (anabf62a-m2,3) has an unusually high activity towards wheat arabinoxylan (wax) (67 u/mg; k cat = 178/s, k m = 4.90 mg/ml) and arabinoxylooligosaccharides (axos) with degrees of polymerisation (dp) 3-5 (37-80 u/mg), but about 50 times lower activity for sugar beet arabinan and 4-nitrophenyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside. α-1,2- and α-1,3-linked arabinofuranoses are released from monosubstituted, but not from disubstituted, xylose in wa ...201626946172
laser capture microdissection to identify septum-associated proteins in aspergillus spatially resolve genetic differences at the cellular level, the laser-capture microdissection technique was developed. with this method cells can be cut from tissues with a laser beam and analyzed for dna, rna or protein composition. here we adapted the technique to isolate septal microtubule-organizing center (mtoc)-associated proteins in aspergillus nidulans about 3000 septa were collected and subjected to peptide fingerprinting by mass-spectrometric analysis. we identified the microtubule ...201626951366
distinct roles of myosins in aspergillus fumigatus hyphal growth and pathogenesis.myosins are a family of actin-based motor proteins found in many organisms and are categorized into classes based on their structures. class ii and v myosins are known to be important for critical cellular processes, including cytokinesis, endocytosis, exocytosis, and organelle trafficking, in the model fungi saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus nidulans however, the roles of myosins in the growth and virulence of the pathogen aspergillus fumigatus are unknown. we constructed single- and dou ...201626953327
biosynthetic pathway of the reduced polyketide product citreoviridin in aspergillus terreus var. aureus revealed by heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans.citreoviridin (1) belongs to a class of f1-atpase β-subunit inhibitors that are synthesized by highly reducing polyketide synthases. these potent mycotoxins share an α-pyrone polyene structure, and they include aurovertin, verrucosidin, and asteltoxin. the identification of the citreoviridin biosynthetic gene cluster in aspergillus terreus var. aureus and its reconstitution using heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans are reported. two intermediates were isolated that allowed the propos ...201626954888
emerging roles of nudc family: from molecular regulation to clinical implications.nuclear distribution gene c (nudc) was first found in aspergillus nidulans as an upstream regulator of nudf, whose mammalian homolog is lissencephaly 1 (lis1). nudc is conserved from fungi to mammals. vertebrate nudc has three homologs: nudc, nudc-like protein (nudcl), and nudc-like protein 2 (nudcl2). all members of the nudc family share a conserved p23 domain, which possesses chaperone activity both in conjunction with and independently of heat shock protein 90 (hsp90). our group and the other ...201626965524
involvement of an srf-mads protein mcma in regulation of extracellular enzyme production and asexual/sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.srf-mads proteins are transcription factors conserved among eukaryotes that regulate a variety of cellular functions; however, their physiological roles are still not well understood in filamentous fungi. effects of a mutation in mcma gene that encodes the sole srf-mads protein in the fungus aspergillus nidulans were examined by rna sequencing. sequencing data revealed that expression levels of cellulase genes were significantly decreased by the mutation as reported previously. however, expressi ...201626967516
thiamine synthesis regulates the fermentation mechanisms in the fungus aspergillus nidulans.thiamine pyrophosphate (tpp) is a critical cofactor and its biosynthesis is under the control of tpp availability. here we disrupted a predicted thia gene of the fungus aspergillus nidulans and demonstrated that it is essential for synthesizing cellular thiamine. the thiamine riboswitch is a post-transcriptional mechanism for tpp to repress gene expression and it is located on a. nidulans thia pre-messenger rna. the thia riboswitch was not fully derepressed under thiamine-limited conditions, and ...201626967817
subcellular compartmentalization and trafficking of the biosynthetic machinery for fungal by melanin depends on its subcellular location. although most filamentous fungi synthesize melanin via a polyketide synthase pathway, where and how melanin biosynthesis occurs and how it is deposited as extracellular granules remain elusive. using a forward genetic screen in the pathogen aspergillus fumigatus, we find that mutations in an endosomal sorting nexin abolish melanin cell-wall deposition. we find that all enzymes involved in the early steps of melanin biosynthesis are recru ...201626972005
fungal quorum sensing molecules: role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity.when microorganisms live together in high numbers, they need to communicate with each other. to achieve cell-cell communication, microorganisms secrete molecules called quorum-sensing molecules (qsms) that control their biological activities and behaviors. fungi secrete qsms such as farnesol, tyrosol, phenylethanol, and tryptophol. the role of qsms in fungi has been widely studied in both yeasts and filamentous fungi, for example in candida albicans, c. dubliniensis, aspergillus niger, a. nidula ...201626972663
development of a candida glabrata dominant nutritional transformation marker utilizing the aspergillus nidulans acetamidase gene (amds).the gene encoding aspergillus nidulans acetamidase (amds) was placed under control of candida albicans act1 promoter and terminator sequences and then cloned into a plasmid containing c. glabrata ars10,cen8 or ars10+cen8 sequences. all plasmids transformed c. glabrata wild-type cells to acetamide+, with the ars-only containing plasmid transforming cells at the highest frequencies (>1.0 × 10(4) transformants μg(-1)). plasmids were rapidly lost under non-selective conditions with the frequency dep ...201626975388
occurrence of moulds from bee pollen in central italy--a preliminary study.the present study aimed to preliminary evaluate the occurrence of fungi in 40 specimens of trapped pollen collected from april-september 2015 in 40 apiaries from tuscany (central italy). cultural and microscopical examinations allowed the recognition of cladosporium sp., alternaria sp., humicola sp. mucoraceae and acremonium sp. penicillium brevicompactum, penicillium chrysogenum, aspergillus flavus , aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus were also identified. yeasts an ...201627010410
accelerated nucleation of hydroxyapatite using an engineered hydrophobin fusion protein.calcium phosphate mineralization is of particular interest in dental repair. a biomimetic approach using proteins or peptides is a highly promising way to reconstruct eroded teeth. in this study, the screening of several proteins is described for their binding and nucleating activities toward hydroxyapatite. out of 27 tested candidates, only two hydrophobin fusion proteins showed binding abilities to hydroxyapatite in a mouthwash formulation and an increased nucleation in artificial saliva. usin ...201627010648
diverse regulation of the crea carbon catabolite repressor in aspergillus nidulans.carbon catabolite repression (ccr) is a process that selects the energetically most favorable carbon source in an environment. ccr represses the use of less favorable carbon sources when a better source is available. glucose is the preferential carbon source for most microorganisms because it is rapidly metabolized, generating quick energy for growth. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, ccr is mediated by the transcription factor crea, a c2h2 finger domain dna-binding protein. the ai ...201627017621
rtfa, a putative rna-pol ii transcription elongation factor gene, is necessary for normal morphological and chemical development in aspergillus flavus.the filamentous fungus aspergillus flavus is an agriculturally important opportunistic plant pathogen that produces potent carcinogenic compounds called aflatoxins. we identified the a. flavus rtfa gene, the ortholog of rtf1 in saccharomyces cerevisiae and rtfa in aspergillus nidulans. interestingly, rtfa has multiple cellular roles in this mycotoxin-producing fungus. in this study, we show that rtfa regulates conidiation. the rtfa deletion mutant presented smaller conidiophores with significant ...201627020290
structural divergence of the group i intron binding surface in fungal mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetases that function in rna splicing.the mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetases (mttyrrss) of pezizomycotina fungi, a subphylum that includes many pathogenic species, are bifunctional proteins that both charge mitochondrial trna(tyr) and act as splicing cofactors for autocatalytic group i introns. previous studies showed that one of these proteins, neurospora crassa cyt-18, binds group i introns by using both its n-terminal catalytic and c-terminal anticodon binding domains and that the catalytic domain uses a newly evolved group i ...201627036943
calcineurin and calcium channel ccha coordinate the salt stress response by regulating cytoplasmic ca2+ homeostasis in aspergillus nidulans.the eukaryotic calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin is crucial for the environmental adaption of fungi. however, the mechanism of coordinate regulation of the response to salt stress by calcineurin and the high-affinity calcium channel ccha in fungi is not well understood. here we show that the deletion of ccha suppresses the hyphal growth defects caused by the loss of calcineurin under salt stress in aspergillus nidulans additionally, the hypersensitivity of the δcnaa st ...201627037124
development and validation of a custom microarray for global transcriptome profiling of the fungus aspergillus nidulans.transcriptome profiling is a powerful tool for identifying gene networks from whole genome expression analysis in many living species. here is described the first extensively characterized platform using agilent microarray technology for transcriptome analysis in the filamentous fungus aspergillus (emericella) nidulans. we developed and validated a reliable gene expression microarray in 8 × 15 k format, with predictive and experimental data establishing its specificity and sensitivity. either on ...201627038308
enhancement of echinocandin b production by a uv- and microwave-induced mutant of aspergillus nidulans with precursor- and biotin-supplying strategy.echinocandin b belongs to lipopeptide antifungal antibiotic bearing five types of direct precursor amino acids including proline, ornithine, tyrosine, threonine, and leucine. the objective of this study is to screen over-producing mutant in order to improve echinocandin b production; a stable mutant aspergillus nidulans zjb12073, which can use fructose as optimal carbon source instead of expensive mannitol, was selected from thousand isolates after several cycles of uv and microwave irradiation ...201627039401
the adenylate-forming enzymes afea and tmpb are involved in aspergillus nidulans self-communication during asexual development.aspergillus nidulans asexual sporulation (conidiation) is triggered by different environmental signals and involves the differentiation of specialized structures called conidiophores. the elimination of genes flba-e, flug, and tmpa results in a fluffy phenotype characterized by delayed conidiophore development and decreased expression of the conidiation essential gene brla. while flba-e encode regulatory proteins, flug and tmpa encode enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of independent signals n ...201627047469
palmitoylation of the cysteine residue in the dhhc motif of a palmitoyl transferase mediates ca2+ homeostasis in aspergillus.finely tuned changes in cytosolic free calcium ([ca2+]c) mediate numerous intracellular functions resulting in the activation or inactivation of a series of target proteins. palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification involved in membrane protein trafficking between membranes and in their functional modulation. however, studies on the relationship between palmitoylation and calcium signaling have been limited. here, we demonstrate that the yeast palmitoyl transferase scakr1p h ...201627058039
multiple effects of a commercial roundup® formulation on the soil filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans at low doses: evidence of an unexpected impact on energetic metabolism.soil microorganisms are highly exposed to glyphosate-based herbicides (gbh), especially to roundup® which is widely used worldwide. however, studies on the effects of gbh formulations on specific non-rhizosphere soil microbial species are scarce. we evaluated the toxicity of a commercial formulation of roundup® (r450), containing 450 g/l of glyphosate (gly), on the soil filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, an experimental model microorganism. the median lethal dose (ld50) on solid media was ...201627068896
transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of ionic liquid stimuli unveils enhanced secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.the inherent potential of filamentous fungi, especially of ascomycota, for producing diverse bioactive metabolites remains largely silent under standard laboratory culture conditions. innumerable strategies have been described to trigger their production, one of the simplest being manipulation of the growth media composition. supplementing media with ionic liquids surprisingly enhanced the diversity of extracellular metabolites generated by penicillia. this finding led us to evaluate the impact ...201627072538
a family of aa9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in aspergillus nidulans is differentially regulated by multiple substrates and at least one is active on cellulose and xyloglucan.fungal genomes contain multiple genes encoding aa9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (lpmos), a recently discovered class of enzymes known to be active on cellulose and expressed when grown on biomass. because of extensive genetic and biochemical data already available, aspergillus nidulans offers an excellent model system to study the need for multiple aa9 lpmos and their activity during oxidative degradation of biomass. we provide the first report on regulation of the entire family of aa9 lp ...201627075737
structure of eukaryotic purine/h(+) symporter uapa suggests a role for homodimerization in transport activity.the uric acid/xanthine h(+) symporter, uapa, is a high-affinity purine transporter from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. here we present the crystal structure of a genetically stabilized version of uapa (uapa-g411vδ1-11) in complex with xanthine. uapa is formed from two domains, a core domain and a gate domain, similar to the previously solved uracil transporter uraa, which belongs to the same family. the structure shows uapa in an inward-facing conformation with xanthine bound to re ...201627088252
the first case of fungal endophthalmitis caused by emericella nidulans after cataract surgery.emericella nidulans is a species that has only rarely been implicated in human disease after cataract surgery. here, we report the first postoperative case in the literature, as far as we know. the patient was a 50-year-old patient presented with mild anterior uveitis one week after cataract surgery, and hypopion developed over the next two days. first microbiological evaluation and the results of direct microscopy and cultures of the anterior chamber and vitreous samples were found to be negati ...201627091580
engineering aspergillus nidulans for heterologous ent-kaurene and gamma-terpinene production.terpenes are a large and varied group of natural products with a wide array of bioactivities and applications. the chemical production of industrially relevant terpenes can be expensive and time-consuming due to the structural complexity of these compounds. here, we studied aspergillus nidulans as a heterologous host for monoterpene and diterpene production. previously, we identified a novel diterpene gene cluster in a. nidulans and showed that overexpression of the cluster-specific transcriptio ...201627098256
diversity, molecular phylogeny and fingerprint profiles of airborne aspergillus species using random amplified polymorphic the present study, diversity and phylogenetic relationship of aspergillus species isolated from tehran air was studied using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd)-polymerase chain reaction (rapd-pcr). thirty-eight aspergillus isolates belonging to 12 species i.e. a. niger (28.94 %, 11 isolates), a. flavus (18.42 %, 7 isolates), a. tubingensis (13.15 %, 5 isolates), a. japonicus (10.52 %, 4 isolates), a. ochraceus (10.52 %, 4 isolates), and 2.63 %, 1 isolate from each a. nidulans, a. amstelo ...201627116962
production of 10r-hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids from hempseed oil hydrolyzate by recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing ppoc from aspergillus nidulans.the first and second preferred substrates of recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing 10r-dioxygenase (ppoc) from aspergillus nidulans and the purified enzyme were linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively. ppoc in cells showed higher thermal and reaction stabilities compared to purified ppoc. thus, 10r-hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids were produced from linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, and hempseed oil hydrolyzate containing linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid as substrates by whole r ...201627129531
new applications for known drugs: human glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors as modulators of aspergillus fumigatus growth.invasive aspergillosis (ia) is one of the most severe forms of fungi infection. ia disease is mainly due to aspergillus fumigatus, an air-borne opportunistic pathogen. mortality rate caused by ia is still very high (50-95%), because of difficulty in early diagnostics and reduced antifungal treatment options, thus new and efficient drugs are necessary. the aim of this work is, using aspergillus nidulans as non-pathogen model, to develop efficient drugs to treat ia. the recent discovered role of g ...201627131621
decreased cell wall galactosaminogalactan in aspergillus nidulans mediates dysregulated inflammation in the chronic granulomatous disease host.invasive aspergillosis is a major threat to patients suffering from impaired neutrophil function, with aspergillus fumigatus being the most common species causing this life-threatening condition. patients with chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) not only develop infections with a. fumigatus, but also exhibit a unique susceptibility to infection with the normally nonpathogenic species aspergillus nidulans. in this study, we compared the inflammatory cytokine response of peripheral blood mononucle ...201627142572
stereospecific capillary electrophoresis assays using pentapeptide substrates for the study of aspergillus nidulans methionine sulfoxide reductase a and mutant enzymes.stereospecific capillary electrophoresis-based methods for the analysis of methionine sulfoxide [met(o)]-containing pentapeptides were developed in order to investigate the reduction of met(o)-containing peptide substrates by recombinant aspergillus nidulans methionine sulfoxide reductase a (msra) as well as enzymes carrying mutations in position glu99 and asp134. the separation of the diastereomers of the n-acetylated, c-terminally 2,4-dinitrophenyl (dnp)-labeled pentapeptides ac-lys-phe-met(o) ...201627145186
pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of voriconazole against candida spp. and aspergillus spp. in children, adolescents and adults by monte carlo simulation.the objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative fraction of response of various voriconazole dosing regimens against six candida and six aspergillus spp. in immunocompromised children, immunocompromised adolescents, and adults. using pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic data, 5000-subject monte carlo simulations (mcss) were conducted to evaluate the ability of simulated dosing strategies in terms of fauc/mic targets of voriconazole. according to the results of the mcss, c ...201627179818
new natural products isolated from metarhizium robertsii arsef 23 by chemical screening and identification of the gene cluster through engineered biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans rapidly identify novel natural products and their associated biosynthetic genes from underutilized and genetically difficult-to-manipulate microbes, we developed a method that uses (1) chemical screening to isolate novel microbial secondary metabolites, (2) bioinformatic analyses to identify a potential biosynthetic gene cluster and (3) heterologous expression of the genes in a convenient host to confirm the identity of the gene cluster and the proposed biosynthetic mechanism. the chemical sc ...201627189118
spectroscopic evidence for the two c-h-cleaving intermediates of aspergillus nidulans isopenicillin n synthase.the enzyme isopenicillin n synthase (ipns) installs the β-lactam and thiazolidine rings of the penicillin core into the linear tripeptide l-δ-aminoadipoyl-l-cys-d-val (acv) on the pathways to a number of important antibacterial drugs. a classic set of enzymological and crystallographic studies by baldwin and co-workers established that this overall four-electron oxidation occurs by a sequence of two oxidative cyclizations, with the β-lactam ring being installed first and the thiazolidine ring se ...201627193226
the flippase dnfb is cargo of fimbrin-associated endocytosis in aspergillus nidulans, and likely recycles through the late golgi. 201727195062
co-cultivation of aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains produces an enzymatic cocktail as alternative to alkaline sugarcane bagasse pretreatment.plant materials represent a strategic energy source because they can give rise to sustainable biofuels through the fermentation of their carbohydrates. a clear example of a plant-derived biofuel resource is the sugar cane bagasse exhibiting 60-80% of fermentable sugars in its composition. however, the current methods of plant bioconversion employ severe and harmful chemical/physical pretreatments raising biofuel cost production and environmental degradation. replacing these methods with co-culti ...201627199917
rmta, a putative arginine methyltransferase, regulates secondary metabolism and development in aspergillus flavus.aspergillus flavus colonizes numerous oil seed crops such as corn, peanuts, treenuts and cotton worldwide, contaminating them with aflatoxin and other harmful potent toxins. in the phylogenetically related model fungus aspergillus nidulans, the methyltransferase, rmta, has been described to be involved in epigenetics regulation through histone modification. epigenetics regulation affects a variety of cellular processes, including morphogenesis and secondary metabolism. our study shows that delet ...201627213959
gln3 is a main regulator of nitrogen assimilation in candida glabrata.after candida albicans, the yeast candida glabrata ranks second as an aetiological agent of candidaemia and is the most frequently encountered non-candida albicans species in patients with invasive candidiasis. transcriptome analysis in c. albicans, c. glabrata and cryptoccocus neoformans has revealed that, when engulfed by macrophages, these yeasts upregulate genes involved in nutrient acquisition, including nitrogen transporters such as the general amino acid permease gap1, the dicarboxylic am ...201627222014
characterization and biotechnological application of recombinant xylanases from aspergillus nidulans.two xylanases from aspergillus nidulans, xlnb and xlnc, were expressed in pichia pastoris, purified and characterized. xlnb and xlnc achieved maximal activities at 60°c and ph 7.5 and at 50°c and ph 6.0, respectively. xlnb showed to be very thermostable by maintaining 50% of its original activity after 49h incubated at 50°c. xlnb had its highest activity against wheat arabinoxylan while xlnc had the best activity against beechwood xylan. both enzymes were completely inhibited by sds and hgcl2. x ...201627235731
dynamics of actin cables in polarized growth of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.highly polarized growth of filamentous fungi requires a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the hyphal tip. this transport is managed by vesicle trafficking via the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and their associated motor proteins. particularly, actin cables originating from the hyphal tip are essential for hyphal growth. although, specific marker proteins have been developed to visualize actin cables in filamentous fungi, the exact organization and dynamics of actin cables has rem ...201627242709
the functional properties of a xyloglucanase (gh12) of aspergillus terreus expressed in aspergillus nidulans may increase performance of biomass degradation.filamentous fungi are attractive hosts for heterologous protein expression due to their capacity to secrete large amounts of enzymes into the extracellular medium. xyloglucanases, which specifically hydrolyze xyloglucan, have been recently applied in lignocellulosic biomass degradation and conversion in many other industrial processes. in this context, this work aimed to clone, express, and determine the functional properties of a recombinant xyloglucanase (atxeg12) from aspergillus terreus, and ...201627245677
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