TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
weta is required for conidiogenesis and conidium maturation in the ascomycete fungus fusarium graminearum.fusarium graminearum, a prominent fungal pathogen that infects major cereal crops, primarily utilizes asexual spores to spread disease. to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in f. graminearum, we functionally characterized the f. graminearum ortholog of aspergillus nidulans weta, which has been shown to be involved in conidiogenesis and conidium maturation. deletion of f. graminearum weta did not alter mycelial growth, sexual development, or virulence, but the weta del ...201424186953
inhibition of tau aggregation by three aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites: 2,ω-dihydroxyemodin, asperthecin, and asperbenzaldehyde.the aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau is a significant event in many neurodegenerative diseases including alzheimer's disease. the inhibition or reversal of tau aggregation is therefore a potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases. fungal natural products have proven to be a rich source of useful compounds having wide varieties of biological activity. we have screened aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites containing aromatic ring structures for their ability to in ...201424414310
a microscopy-based screen employing multiplex genome sequencing identifies cargo-specific requirements for dynein velocity.the timely delivery of membranous organelles and macromolecules to specific locations within the majority of eukaryotic cells depends on microtubule-based transport. here we describe a screening method to identify mutations that have a critical effect on intracellular transport and its regulation using mutagenesis, multicolor-fluorescence microscopy, and multiplex genome sequencing. this screen exploits the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, which has many of the advantages of yeast molecu ...201424403603
a novel thermophilic endo-β-1,4-mannanase from aspergillus nidulans xz3: functional roles of carbohydrate-binding module and thr/ser-rich linker region.the gene man5xz3 from aspergillus nidulans xz3 encodes a multimodular β-mannanase of glycoside hydrolase family 5 that consists of a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (cbm1), a thr/ser-rich linker region, and a catalytic domain. recombinant man5xz3 and its two truncated derivatives, man5δcbm (removing the cbm1) and man5δcl (removing both the cbm1 and linker region), were produced in pichia pastoris and showed significant variance in the secondary structure. the three enzymes had similar bioch ...201423900799
recombinant aspergillus β-galactosidases as a robust glycomic and biotechnological tool.galactosidases are widespread enzymes that are used for manifold applications, including production of prebiotics, biosynthesis of different transgalactosylated products, improving lactose tolerance and in various analytical approaches. the nature of these applications often require galactosidases to be present in a purified form with clearly defined properties, including precisely determined substrate specificities, low sensitivity to inhibitors, and high efficiency and stability under distinct ...201424037406
the nima kinase is required to execute stage-specific mitotic functions after initiation of mitosis.the g2-m transition in aspergillus nidulans requires the nima kinase, the founding member of the nek kinase family. inactivation of nima results in a late g2 arrest, while overexpression of nima is sufficient to promote mitotic events independently of cell cycle phase. endogenously tagged nima-gfp has dynamic mitotic localizations appearing first at the spindle pole body and then at nuclear pore complexes before transitioning to within nuclei and the mitotic spindle and back at the spindle pole ...201424186954
investigating aspergillus nidulans secretome during colonisation of cork cell walls.cork, the outer bark of quercus suber, shows a unique compositional structure, a set of remarkable properties, including high recalcitrance. cork colonisation by ascomycota remains largely overlooked. herein, aspergillus nidulans secretome on cork was analysed (2de). proteomic data were further complemented by microscopic (sem) and spectroscopic (atr-ftir) evaluation of the colonised substrate and by targeted analysis of lignin degradation compounds (uplc-hrms). data showed that the fungus forme ...201424316358
inhibition of cereal rust fungi by both class i and ii defensins derived from the flowers of nicotiana alata.defensins are a large family of small, cysteine-rich, basic proteins, produced by most plants and plant tissues. they have a primary function in defence against fungal disease, although other functions have been described. this study reports the isolation and characterization of a class i secreted defensin (nad2) from the flowers of nicotiana alata, and compares its antifungal activity with the class ii defensin (nad1) from n. alata flowers, which is stored in the vacuole. nad2, like all other c ...201424015961
characterization of aspergillus nidulans α-glucan synthesis: roles for two synthases and two amylases.cell walls are essential for fungal survival and growth. fungal walls are ∼ 90% carbohydrate, mostly types not found in humans, making them promising targets for anti-fungal drug development. echinocandins, which inhibit the essential β-glucan synthase, are already clinically available. in contrast, α-glucan, another abundant fungal cell wall component has attracted relatively little research attention because it is not essential for most fungi. aspergillus nidulans has two α-glucan synthases (a ...201424308872
the cop9 signalosome is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and of transition metals uptake in saccharomyces cerevisiae.the cop9 signalosome (csn) is a highly conserved eukaryotic protein complex which regulates the cullin ring family of ubiquitin ligases and carries out a deneddylase activity that resides in subunit 5 (csn5). whereas csn activity is essential for the development of higher eukaryotes, several unicellular fungi including the budding yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae can survive without a functional csn. nevertheless, the budding yeast csn is biochemically active and deletion mutants of each of its su ...201424164706
the n-terminus region of the putative c2h2 transcription factor ada1 harbors a species-specific activation motif that regulates asexual reproduction in fusarium verticillioides.fusarium verticillioides is an important plant pathogenic fungus causing maize ear and stalk rots. in addition, the fungus is directly associated with fumonisin contamination of food and feeds. here, we report the functional characterization of ada1, a putative cys2-his2 zinc finger transcription factor with a high level of similarity to aspergillus nidulans flbc, which is required for the activation of the key regulator of conidiation brla. ada1 is predicted to encode a protein with two dna bin ...201424161731
water recycle as a must: decolorization of textile wastewaters by plant-associated fungi.textile dye effluents are among the most problematic pollutants because of their toxicity on several organisms and ecosystems. low cost and ecocompatible bioremediation processes offer a promising alternative to the conventional and aspecific physico-chemical procedures adopted so far. here, microorganisms resident on three real textile dyeing effluent were isolated, characterized, and tested for their decolorizing performances. although able to survive on these real textile-dyeing wastewaters, ...201423553673
in vitro and in silico analysis of the aspergillus nidulans dna-crea repressor interactions.the crea protein mediates carbon catabolite repression in the fungus aspergillus nidulans. its dna-binding domain belongs to the cys2-his2 class, binding specifically to a 5' syggrg 3' nucleotide sequence. emsa experiments showed that the crea(g27d) mutation resulted in a 30-fold increase of the kdiss, and footprinting revealed a altered pattern of protein/dna contacts. we modeled the crea and the crea(g27d) complexes in silico. a 15 ns molecular dynamics simulation of the solvated crea(g27d) an ...201424125468
insights into dynamic mitotic chromatin organization through the nima kinase suppressor sonc, a chromatin-associated protein involved in the dna damage response.the nuclear pore complex proteins sona and sonb, the orthologs of mammalian rae1 and nup98, respectively, were identified in aspergillus nidulans as cold-sensitive suppressors of a temperature-sensitive allele of the essential mitotic nima kinase (nima1). subsequent analyses found that sonb1 mutants exhibit temperature-dependent dna damage sensitivity. to understand this pathway further, we performed a genetic screen to isolate additional conditional dna damage-sensitive suppressors of nima1. we ...201424214344
establishing a versatile golden gate cloning system for genetic engineering in fungi.the corn pathogen ustilago maydis is a well-studied fungal model organism. along with a broad set of experimental tools, versatile strategies for the generation of gene replacement mutants by homologous recombination in u. maydis have been developed. nevertheless, the production of corresponding linear dna constructs still constitutes a time-limiting step. to overcome this bottleneck, various resistance cassette modules were adopted for use with the so-called golden gate cloning strategy. these ...201424211735
spread and change in stress resistance of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli o157 on fungal elucidate the effect of fungal hyphae on the behaviour of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) o157, the spread and change in stress resistance of the bacterium were evaluated after coculture with 11 species of food-related fungi including fermentation starters. spread distances of stec o157 varied depending on the co-cultured fungal species, and the motile bacterial strain spread for longer distances than the non-motile strain. the population of stec o157 increased when co-cultured ...201423919289
transcriptional regulation of fksa, a β-1,3-glucan synthase gene, by the apses protein stua during aspergillus nidulans development.the temporal and spatial regulation of β-1,3-glucan synthesis plays an important role in morphogenesis during fungal growth and development. northern blot analysis showed that the transcription of fksa, the gene encoding β-1,3-glucan synthase in aspergillus nidulans, was cell-cycle-dependent and increased steadily over the duration of the vegetative period, but its overall expression during the asexual and sexual stages was fairly constant up until the time of transcription cessation. in an a. n ...201425359270
characterization of the mutagenic spectrum of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-nqo) in aspergillus nidulans by whole genome sequencing.4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-nqo) is a highly carcinogenic chemical that induces mutations in bacteria, fungi, and animals through the formation of bulky purine adducts. 4-nqo has been used as a mutagen for genetic screens and in both the study of dna damage and dna repair. in the model eukaryote aspergillus nidulans, 4-nqo-based genetic screens have been used to study diverse processes, including gene regulation, mitosis, metabolism, organelle transport, and septation. early work during the 1970 ...201425352541
gbf/gea mutant with a single substitution sustains fungal growth in the absence of big/sec7.golgi arf1-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (gefs) belong to two subfamilies: gbf/gea and big/sec7. both are conserved across eukaryotes, but the physiological role of each is not well understood. aspergillus nidulans has a single member of the early golgi gbf/gea-subfamily, geaa, and the late golgi big/sec7-subfamily, hypb. both geaa and hypb are essential. hypb5 conditionally blocks secretion. we sought extragenic hypb5 suppressors and obtained geaa1. geaa1 results in tyr1022cys within a co ...201425451223
trpac1, a ph response transcription regulator, is involved in cellulase gene expression in trichoderma reesei.fungi grow over a relatively wide ph range and adapt to extracellular ph through a genetic regulatory system mediated by a key component pacc, which is a ph transcription regulator. the cellulase production of the filamentous fungi trichoderma reesei is sensitive to ambient ph. to investigate the connection between cellulase expression regulation and ambient ph, an ortholog of aspergillus nidulans pacc, trpac1, was identified and functionally characterized using a target gene deletion strategy. ...201425442944
mitotic regulation of fungal cell-to-cell connectivity through septal pores involves the nima kinase.intercellular bridges are a conserved feature of multicellular organisms. in multicellular fungi, cells are connected directly via intercellular bridges called septal pores. using aspergillus nidulans, we demonstrate for the first time that septal pores are regulated to be opened during interphase but closed during mitosis. septal pore-associated proteins display dynamic cell cycle-regulated locations at mature septa. of importance, the mitotic nima kinase locates to forming septa and surprising ...201424451264
identification of interphase functions for the nima kinase involving microtubules and the escrt pathway.the never in mitosis a (nima) kinase (the founding member of the nek family of kinases) has been considered a mitotic specific kinase with nuclear restricted roles in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans. by extending to a. nidulans the results of a synthetic lethal screen performed in saccharomyces cerevisiae using the nima ortholog kin3, we identified a conserved genetic interaction between nima and genes encoding proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (escrt) pathwa ...201424675878
distinct septin heteropolymers co-exist during multicellular development in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.septins are important components of the cytoskeleton that are highly conserved in eukaryotes and play major roles in cytokinesis, patterning, and many developmental processes. septins form heteropolymers which assemble into higher-order structures including rings, filaments, and gauzes. in contrast to actin filaments and microtubules, the molecular mechanism by which septins assemble is not well-understood. here, we report that in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, four core septins fo ...201424664283
constitutive homologous expression of phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase increases the metabolic flux of fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum is among the few filamentous fungi that have been reported of being able to directly ferment biomass to ethanol in a consolidated bioprocess. understanding its metabolic pathways and their limitations can provide some insights on the genetic modifications required to enhance its growth and subsequent fermentation capability. in this study, we investigated the hypothesis reported previously that phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase are metabolic bottlenecks in the glycolysis an ...201424649884
hooka is a novel dynein-early endosome linker critical for cargo movement in vivo.cytoplasmic dynein transports membranous cargoes along microtubules, but the mechanism of dynein-cargo interaction is unclear. from a genetic screen, we identified a homologue of human hook proteins, hooka, as a factor required for dynein-mediated early endosome movement in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. hooka contains a putative n-terminal microtubule-binding domain followed by coiled-coil domains and a c-terminal cargo-binding domain, an organization reminiscent of cytoplasmic li ...201424637327
functional analysis of the c-ii subgroup killer toxin-like chitinases in the filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans.chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes responsible for chitin polymer degradation. fungal chitinases belong exclusively to glycoside hydrolases family 18 and they are categorized into three phylogenetic groups (a, b and c), which are further divided into subgroups (a-ii to a-v, b-i to b-v and c-i to c-ii). subgroup c chitinases display similarity with the α/β-subunit of the zymocin yeast killer toxin produced by kluyveromyces lactis, suggesting a role of these enzymes in fungal-fungal interactions. i ...201424384382
trans-resveratrol concentrations and antimutagenic potential of juice from the grape cultivars vênus, brs violeta and isabel.grape juice, in addition to being an energetic food, due to its high sugar content, has several compounds that can prevent or treat various types of diseases. resveratrol is a compound present in grapes that has attracted a lot of interest; in addition to preventing cardiovascular disease linked to lipid metabolism, it has chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. we evaluated the antimutagenic activity and determined the trans-resveratrol content in grape juice from the varieties vênus, ...201424634171
comparative functional analysis of the velvet gene family reveals unique roles in fungal development and pathogenicity in magnaporthe oryzae.the ascomycete fungus magnaporthe oryzae is an economically important pathogen that causes rice blast disease worldwide. accumulating evidence indicates that the fungal velvet genes are key regulators of a number of cellular processes, including development, pathogenicity and secondary metabolism, in many species of fungi. in this study, we identified and functionally characterized four genes (movosa, movelb, movea, and movelc) from the genome of the fungal pathogen m. oryzae. these genes were h ...201424632440
synthetic biology tools for bioprospecting of natural products in eukaryotes.filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a battery of natural products of often unknown function, synthesized by complex metabolic pathways. unfortunately, most of these pathways appear silent, many in intractable organisms, and their products consequently unidentified. one basic challenge is the difficulty of expressing a biosynthesis pathway for a complex natural product in a heterologous eukaryotic host. here, we provide a proof-of concept solution to this challenge and describe how the ...201424631120
a novel thermostable xylanase gh10 from malbranchea pulchella expressed in aspergillus nidulans with potential applications in biotechnology.the search for novel thermostable xylanases for industrial use has intensified in recent years, and thermophilic fungi are a promising source of useful enzymes. the present work reports the heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a novel thermostable xylanase (gh10) from the thermophilic fungus malbranchea pulchella, the influence of glycosylation on its stability, and a potential application in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis.201425788980
using aspergillus nidulans to identify antifungal drug resistance mutations.systemic fungal infections contribute to at least 10% of deaths in hospital settings. most antifungal drugs target ergosterol (polyenes) or its biosynthetic pathway (azoles and allylamines), or beta-glucan synthesis (echinocandins). antifungal drugs that target proteins are prone to the emergence of resistant strains. identification of genes whose mutations lead to targeted resistance can provide new information on those pathways. we used aspergillus nidulans as a model system to exploit its tra ...201424363365
in vitro photodynamic inactivation of plant-pathogenic fungi colletotrichum acutatum and colletotrichum gloeosporioides with novel phenothiazinium photosensitizers.the increasing tolerance to currently used fungicides in both clinical and agricultural areas is of great concern. the nonconventional light-based approach of antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (apdt) is a promising alternative to conventional fungicides. we evaluated the effects of apdt with four phenothiazinium derivatives (methylene blue [mb], new methylene blue n [nmbn], toluidine blue o [tbo], and the novel pentacyclic phenothiazinium photosensitizer [ps] s137) on conidia of three fungal ...201424362436
x-ray microfluorescence (μxrf) imaging of aspergillus nidulans cell wall mutants reveals biochemical changes due to gene deletions.we used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence to create the first semiquantitative, submicron resolution, element distribution maps of p, s, k, and ca, in situ, in fungal samples. data collection was performed at the european synchrotron radiation facility beam line id21, grenoble, france. we studied developing hyphae, septa, and conidiophores in aspergillus nidulans, comparing wild type and two cell wall biosynthesis gene deletion strains. the latter encode sequential enzymes for biosynthesis of galac ...201424618991
improved production of fatty acid ethyl esters in saccharomyces cerevisiae through up-regulation of the ethanol degradation pathway and expression of the heterologous phosphoketolase pathway.due to an increasing demand of transportation fuels, a lower availability of cheap crude oil and a lack of sustainability of fossil fuels, a gradual shift from petroleum based fuels towards alternative and renewable fuel resources will be required in the near future. fatty acid ethyl esters (faees) have properties similar to current crude diesel and could therefore form an important contribution to the development of sustainable transportation fuels in future. it is important to develop novel ce ...201424618091
the sugarcane defense protein sugarwin2 causes cell death in colletotrichum falcatum but not in non-pathogenic fungi.plants respond to pathogens and insect attacks by inducing and accumulating a large set of defense-related proteins. two homologues of a barley wound-inducible protein (barwin) have been characterized in sugarcane, sugarwin1 and sugarwin2 (sugarcane wound-inducible proteins). induction of sugarwins occurs in response to diatraea saccharalis damage but not to pathogen infection. in addition, the protein itself does not show any effect on insect development; instead, it has antimicrobial activitie ...201424608349
modelling and mutational analysis of aspergillus nidulans urea, a member of the subfamily of urea/h⁺ transporters in fungi and plants.we present the first account of the structure-function relationships of a protein of the subfamily of urea/h(+) membrane transporters of fungi and plants, using aspergillus nidulans urea as a study model. based on the crystal structures of the vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose symporter (vsglt) and of the nucleobase-cation-symport-1 benzylhydantoin transporter from microbacterium liquefaciens (mhp1), we constructed a three-dimensional model of urea which, combined with site-directed and c ...201424966243
genome-scale analysis of the high-efficient protein secretion system of aspergillus oryzae.the koji mold, aspergillus oryzae is widely used for the production of industrial enzymes due to its particularly high protein secretion capacity and ability to perform post-translational modifications. however, systemic analysis of its secretion system is lacking, generally due to the poorly annotated proteome.201424961398
f-box protein rcya controls turnover of the kinesin-7 motor kipa in aspergillus nidulans.fungal filamentous growth depends on continuous membrane insertion at the tip, the delivery of membrane-bound positional markers, and the secretion of enzymes for cell wall biosynthesis. this is achieved through exocytosis. at the same time, polarized growth requires membrane and protein recycling through endocytosis. endocytic vesicles are thought to enter the protein degradation pathway or recycle their content to the cell surface. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, the rcy1 f-box protein is involve ...201424951440
gene homozygosis and mitotic recombination induced by camptothecin and irinotecan in aspergillus nidulans diploid cells.mitotic recombination is a process involved in carcinogenesis which can lead to genetic loss through the loss of heterozygosity. the recombinogenic potentials of two anticancer drugs topoisomerase i inhibitors, camptothecin (cpt) and irinotecan (cpt-11), were evaluated in the present study. the homozygotization assay, which assess the induction of mitotic recombination and gene homozygosis, as well as the heterozygous a757//ut448 diploid strain of aspergillus nidulans were employed. the three no ...201425337669
neurospora crassa female development requires the pacc and other signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, cell-to-cell fusion, and autophagy.using a screening protocol we have identified 68 genes that are required for female development in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa. we find that we can divide these genes into five general groups: 1) genes encoding components of the pacc signal transduction pathway, 2) other signal transduction pathway genes, including genes from the three n. crassa map kinase pathways, 3) transcriptional factor genes, 4) autophagy genes, and 5) other miscellaneous genes. complementation and rip studies ...201425333968
mutations in proteins of the conserved oligomeric golgi complex affect polarity, cell wall structure, and glycosylation in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.we have described two aspergillus nidulans gene mutations, designated podb1 (polarity defective) and swop1 (swollen cell), which cause temperature-sensitive defects during polarization. mutant strains also displayed unevenness and abnormal thickness of cell walls. un-polarized or poorly-polarized mutant cells were capable of establishing normal polarity after a shift to a permissive temperature, and mutant hyphae shifted from permissive to restrictive temperature show wall and polarity abnormali ...201425312861
the aspergillus nidulans signalling mucin msba regulates starvation responses, adhesion and affects cellulase secretion in response to environmental the heterogeneous semi-solid environment naturally occupied by lignocellulolytic fungi the majority of nutrients are locked away as insoluble plant biomass. hence, lignocellulolytic fungi must actively search for, and attach to, a desirable source of nutrients. during growth on lignocellulose a period of carbon deprivation provokes carbon catabolite derepression and scavenging hydrolase secretion. subsequently, starvation and/or contact sensing was hypothesized to play a role in lignocellulos ...201425294314
protein phosphatase 2a (pp2a) regulatory subunits para and paba orchestrate septation and conidiation and are essential for pp2a activity in aspergillus nidulans.protein phosphatase 2a (pp2a) is a major intracellular protein phosphatase that regulates multiple aspects of cell growth and metabolism. different activities of pp2a and subcellular localization are determined by its regulatory subunits. here we identified and characterized the functions of two protein phosphatase regulatory subunit homologs, para and paba, in aspergillus nidulans. our results demonstrate that para localizes to the septum site and that deletion of para causes hyperseptation, wh ...201425280816
the vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family regulates polarized growth and modulates the microtubule cytoskeleton in fungi.microtubules (mts) are pivotal for numerous eukaryotic processes ranging from cellular morphogenesis, chromosome segregation to intracellular transport. execution of these tasks requires intricate regulation of mt dynamics. here, we identify a new regulator of the schizosaccharomyces pombe mt cytoskeleton: asp1, a member of the highly conserved vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family. inositol pyrophosphates generated by asp1 modulate mt dynamic parameters independent of the central +tip eb1 a ...201425254656
flow cytometry of microencapsulated colonies for genetics analysis of filamentous fungi.the analysis of filamentous fungi by flow cytometry has been impossible to date due to their filamentous nature and size. in this work, we have developed a method that combines single-spore microencapsulation and large-particle flow cytometry as a powerful alternative for the genetic analysis of filamentous fungi. individual spores were embedded in monodisperse alginate microparticles and incubated in the appropriate conditions. growth could be monitored by light or fluorescent microscopy and co ...201425239104
microtubule plus end-tracking proteins play critical roles in directional growth of hyphae by regulating the dynamics of cytoplasmic microtubules in aspergillus nidulans.cytoplasmic microtubules (mts) serve as a rate-limiting factor for hyphal tip growth in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. we hypothesized that this function depended on the mt plus end-tracking proteins (+tips) including the eb1 family protein eba that decorated the mt plus ends undergoing polymerization. the ebaδ mutation reduced colony growth and the mutant hyphae appeared in an undulating pattern instead of exhibiting unidirectional growth in the control. these phenotypes were enha ...201425213466
the role of +tips in directional tip expansion.aspergillus nidulans is an ideal model to study nuclear migration and intracellular transport by dynein and kinesin owing to its long neuron-like hyphae, conserved transport mechanisms, and powerful genetics. in this organism, as in other filamentous fungi, microtubules have been implicated in patterning cell shape through polarized tip growth - the hallmark mode of growth that generates the elongated hyphae. exactly how microtubules regulate tip growth is incompletely understood and remains a f ...201425213368
the aspergillus nidulans zn(ii)2cys6 transcription factor an5673/rhar mediates l-rhamnose utilization and the production of α-l-rhamnosidases.various plant-derived substrates contain l-rhamnose that can be assimilated by many fungi and its liberation is catalyzed by α-l-rhamnosidases. initial data obtained in our laboratory focussing on two aspergillus nidulans α-l-rhamnosidase genes (rhaa and rhae) showed α-l-rhamnosidase production to be tightly controlled at the level of transcription by the carbon source available. whilst induction is effected by l-rhamnose, unlike many other glycosyl hydrolase genes repression by glucose and othe ...201425416526
illumina identification of rsra, a conserved c2h2 transcription factor coordinating the napa mediated oxidative stress signaling pathway in aspergillus.chemical mutagenesis screens are useful to identify mutants involved in biological processes of interest. identifying the mutation from such screens, however, often fails when using methodologies involving transformation of the mutant to wild type phenotype with dna libraries.201425416206
the velvet a orthologue vel1 of trichoderma reesei regulates fungal development and is essential for cellulase gene expression.trichoderma reesei is the industrial producer of cellulases and hemicellulases for biorefinery processes. their expression is obligatorily dependent on the function of the protein methyltransferase lae1. the aspergillus nidulans orthologue of lae1--laea--is part of the velvet protein complex consisting of laea, vea and velb that regulates secondary metabolism and sexual as well as asexual reproduction. here we have therefore investigated the function of vel1, the t. reesei orthologue of a. nidul ...201425386652
putative pmra and pmca are important for normal growth, morphogenesis and cell wall integrity, but not for viability in aspergillus nidulans.p-type ca(2+)-transporting atpases are ca(2+) pumps, extruding cytosolic ca(2+) to the extracellular environment or the intracellular ca(2+) store lumens. in budding yeast, pmr1 (plasma membrane atpase related), and pmc1 (plasma membrane calcium-atpase) cannot be deleted simultaneously for it to survive in standard medium. here, we deleted two putative ca(2+) pumps, designated anpmra and anpmca, from aspergillus nidulans, and obtained the mutants δanpmra and δanpmca, respectively. then, using δa ...201425118249
genome organization and assessment of high copy number and increased expression of pectinolytic genes from penicillium griseoroseum: a potential heterologous system for protein production.the fungus penicillium griseoroseum has the potential for application on an industrial scale as a host for the production of homologous and heterologous proteins, mainly because it does not produce some mycotoxins or secrete proteases under the growth conditions for pectinase production. however, for the fungus to be used effectively as an expression heterologous system, an understanding of the organization of its genome, as well as the mechanisms of gene expression and protein production, is re ...201425099254
the phosphoproteome of aspergillus nidulans reveals functional association with cellular processes involved in morphology and secretion.we describe the first phosphoproteome of the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. phosphopeptides were enriched using titanium dioxide, separated using a convenient ultra-long reverse phase gradient, and identified using a "high-high" strategy (high mass accuracy on the parent and fragment ions) with higher-energy collisional dissociation. using this approach 1801 phosphosites, from 1637 unique phosphopeptides, were identified. functional classification revealed phosphoproteins were ov ...201425116090
restraint of the g2/m transition by the sr/rrm family mrna shuttling binding protein snxahrb1 in aspergillus nidulans.control of the eukaryotic g2/m transition by cdc2/cyclinb is tightly regulated by protein-protein interactions, protein phosphorylations, and nuclear localization of cdc2/cyclinb. we previously reported a screen, in aspergillus nidulans, for extragenic suppressors of nimx2(cdc2) that resulted in the identification of the cold-sensitive snxa1 mutation. we demonstrate here that snxa1 suppresses defects in regulators of the cdk1 mitotic induction pathway, including nimx2(cdc) (2), nime6(cyclinb), a ...201425104516
hydroxamate production as a high affinity iron acquisition mechanism in paracoccidioides spp.iron is a micronutrient required by almost all living organisms, including fungi. although this metal is abundant, its bioavailability is low either in aerobic environments or within mammalian hosts. as a consequence, pathogenic microorganisms evolved high affinity iron acquisition mechanisms which include the production and uptake of siderophores. here we investigated the utilization of these molecules by species of the paracoccidioides genus, the causative agents of a systemic mycosis. it was ...201425157575
a dually located multi-hmg-box protein of aspergillus nidulans has a crucial role in conidial and ascospore hmg-box proteins of aspergillus nidulans have been identified in the genomic databases. three of these have the characteristics of non-specific dna-binding proteins. one of these, an1267 (hmbb), comprises one canonical hmg-box in its c-terminus and upstream of the canonical box two structurally related boxes, to be called shadow-hmg-boxes. this protein defines, together with the podospora anserina mthmg1, a clade of proteins present in the pezizomycotina, with orthologues in some of the ta ...201425156107
protein kinase c overexpression suppresses calcineurin-associated defects in aspergillus nidulans and is involved in mitochondrial filamentous fungi, intracellular signaling pathways which are mediated by changing calcium levels and/or by activated protein kinase c (pkc), control fungal adaptation to external stimuli. a rise in intracellular ca2+ levels activates calcineurin subunit a (cnaa), which regulates cellular calcium homeostasis among other processes. pkc is primarily involved in maintaining cell wall integrity (cwi) in response to different environmental stresses. cross-talk between the ca2+ and pkc-mediated pat ...201425153325
metabolism of d-galactose is dispensable for the induction of the beta-galactosidase (bgad) and lactose permease (lacpa) genes in aspergillus this study, we analyze the expression of the aspergillus nidulans bgad-lacpa gene couple (encoding an intracellular beta-galactosidase and a lactose permease) in the presence of d-galactose. this monosaccharide can be catabolized via alternative, independent pathways in this model organism. the inductive capabilities of intermediates of the two alternative routes of d-galactose utilization were addressed in loss-of-function mutants defective in a defined step in one of the two pathways. in a ...201425145606
high-yield recombinant xylanase production by aspergillus nidulans under pyridoxine limitation.the present study investigated the limitation of pyridoxine on an aspergillus nidulans culture that produces xylanase b (xynb) as a client enzyme and was unable to synthesize pyridoxine. this technique was used to limit cell growth and divert substrate to product formation for a surface grown culture that could be used in trickle bed reactors. it was observed that growth was limited when pyridoxine was absent, while enzyme production was unaffected. enzyme production was 1,026 u after 480 h of c ...201425085742
modelling, substrate docking and mutational analysis identify residues essential for function and specificity of the major fungal purine transporter azga.the azga purine/h(+) symporter of aspergillus nidulans is the founding member of a functionally and phylogenetically distinct transporter family present in fungi, bacteria and plants. here a valid azga topological model is built based on the crystal structure of the escherichia coli uracil transporter uraa, a member of the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat/ncs2) family. the model consists of 14 transmembrane, mostly α-helical, segments (tmss) and cytoplasmic n- and c-tails. a distinct compac ...201424818808
direct involvement of the crea transcription factor in penicillin biosynthesis and expression of the pcbab gene in penicillium chrysogenum.the transcription factor crea is the main regulator responsible for carbon repression in filamentous fungi. crea is a wide domain regulator that binds to regulatory elements in the promoters of target genes to repress their transcription. penicillin biosynthesis and the expression of penicillin biosynthetic genes are subject to carbon repression. however, evidence of the participation of crea in this regulation is still lacking, and previous studies on the promoter of the pcbc gene of aspergillu ...201424818689
a cyclin-like protein, clga, regulates development in aspergillus nidulans.a cyclin-like protein from aspergillus nidulans, clga, was identified. its cyclin-like subunit shares 28.3% identity to saccharomyces cerevisiae clg1. deletion of clga slightly influenced fungal growth, but repressed asexual development and made it more sensitive to temperature variations. it also downregulated expression of brla, abaa and weta, which are critically responsible for asexual development. sexual development was impaired in the δclga mutant. its related genes, vea and nosa, were exp ...201424794637
similar is not the same: differences in the function of the (hemi-)cellulolytic regulator xlnr (xlr1/xyr1) in filamentous fungi.the transcriptional activator xlnr (xlr1/xyr1) is a major regulator in fungal xylan and cellulose degradation as well as in the utilization of d-xylose via the pentose catabolic pathway. xlnr homologs are commonly found in filamentous ascomycetes and often assumed to have the same function in different fungi. however, a comparison of the saprobe aspergillus niger and the plant pathogen magnaporthe oryzae showed different phenotypes for deletion strains of xlnr. in this study wild type and xlnr/x ...201425064064
high-affinity glucose transport in aspergillus nidulans is mediated by the products of two related but differentially expressed genes.independent systems of high and low affinity effect glucose uptake in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. low-affinity uptake is known to be mediated by the product of the mste gene. in the current work two genes, msta and mstc, have been identified that encode high-affinity glucose transporter proteins. these proteins' primary structures share over 90% similarity, indicating that the corresponding genes share a common origin. whilst the function of the paralogous proteins is little cha ...201424751997
in aspergillus nidulans the suppressors suaa and suac code for release factors erf1 and erf3 and suad codes for a glutamine aspergillus nidulans, after extensive mutagenesis, a collection of mutants was obtained and four suppressor loci were identified genetically that could suppress mutations in putative chain termination mutations in different genes. suppressor mutations in suab and suad have a similar restricted spectrum of suppression and suab111 was previously shown to be an alteration in the anticodon of a gln trna. we have shown that like suab, a suad suppressor has a mutation in the anticodon of another gl ...201424727290
six hydrophobins are involved in hydrophobin rodlet formation in aspergillus nidulans and contribute to hydrophobicity of the spore surface.hydrophobins are amphiphilic proteins able to self-assemble at water-air interphases and are only found in filamentous fungi. in aspergillus nidulans two hydrophobins, roda and dewa, have been characterized, which both localize on the conidiospore surface and contribute to its hydrophobicity. roda is the constituent protein of very regularly arranged rodlets, 10 nm in diameter. here we analyzed four more hydrophobins, dewb-e, in a. nidulans and found that all six hydrophobins contribute to the h ...201424722460
production of 5,8-dihydroxy-9,12(z,z)-octadecadienoic acid from linoleic acid by whole recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing diol synthase from aspergillus nidulans.diol synthase from aspergillus nidulans was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. recombinant e. coli cells expressing diol synthase from a. nidulans converted linoleic acid to a product that was identified as 5,8-dihydroxy-9,12(z,z)-octadecadienoic acid by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms). the recombinant cells and the purified enzyme showed the highest activity for linoleic acid among the fatty acids tested. the optimal reaction conditions for the produc ...201424695832
dual dna binding and coactivator functions of aspergillus nidulans tama, a zn(ii)2cys6 transcription factor.transcription factors containing dna binding domains generally regulate transcription by direct interaction with dna. for most transcription factors, including the fungal zn(ii)2cys6 zinc binuclear cluster transcription factors, the dna binding motif is essential for function. however, aspergillus nidulans tama and the related saccharomyces cerevisiae dal81p protein contain zn(ii)2cys6 motifs shown to be dispensable for function. tama acts at several promoters as a coactivator of the global nitr ...201424750216
germination of aspergillus niger conidia is triggered by nitrogen compounds related to l-amino acids.conidial germination is fundamentally important to the growth and dissemination of most fungi. it has been previously shown (k. hayer, m. stratford, and d. b. archer, appl. environ. microbiol. 79:6924-6931, 2013,, using sugar analogs, that germination is a 2-stage process involving triggering of germination and then nutrient uptake for hyphal outgrowth. in the present study, we tested this 2-stage germination process using a series of nitrogen-containing c ...201425063657
elucidating how the saprophytic fungus aspergillus nidulans uses the plant polyester suberin as carbon source.lipid polymers in plant cell walls, such as cutin and suberin, build recalcitrant hydrophobic protective barriers. their degradation is of foremost importance for both plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi. regardless of numerous reports on fungal degradation of emulsified fatty acids or cutin, and on fungi-plant interactions, the pathways involved in the degradation and utilisation of suberin remain largely overlooked. as a structural component of the plant cell wall, suberin isolation, in gen ...201425043916
improvement of aspergillus nidulans penicillin production by targeting acva to peroxisomes.aspergillus nidulans is able to synthesize penicillin and serves as a model to study the regulation of its biosynthesis. only three enzymes are required to form the beta lactam ring tripeptide, which is comprised of l-cysteine, l-valine and l-aminoadipic acid. whereas two enzymes, acva and ipna localize to the cytoplasm, aata resides in peroxisomes. here, we tested a novel strategy to improve penicillin production, namely the change of the residence of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis. w ...201425043338
the putative stress sensor protein mtla is required for conidia formation, cell wall stress tolerance, and cell wall integrity in aspergillus nidulans.the mid2-like protein mtla is a putative sensor of the cell wall integrity (cwi) signaling pathway in aspergillus nidulans. an mtla-egfp fusion protein was localized at the cell surface and septa. the mtla disruptant (∆mtla) showed radial colony growth similar to the wild-type (wt) strain, but showed reduced conidia formation. the ∆mtla mutant showed growth deficiency in the presence of inhibitors of cell wall synthesis. moreover, mtla disruption resulted in a reduction in the glucan and chitin ...201425036689
photo-convertible tagging for localization and dynamic analyses of low-expression proteins in filamentous fluorescent proteins (pcfps) undergo a dramatic change in their excitation and emission spectra upon irradiation at specific wavelengths, thus rendering a different color. dendra2 is a commercially available pcfp used to track the redistribution of proteins within cellular compartments, their life-time or interactions. before photo-conversion dendra2 exhibits green fluorescence, which becomes red after irradiation with either uv or blue lights. multiple studies including dendra ...201425014896
identification of the augmin complex in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.augmin is a protein complex that binds to spindle microtubules (mts), recruits the potent mt nucleator, γ-tubulin, and thereby promotes the centrosome-independent mt generation within mitotic and meiotic spindles. augmin is essential for acentrosomal spindle assembly, which is commonly observed during mitosis in plants and meiosis in female animals. in many animal somatic cells that possess centrosomes, the centrosome- and augmin-dependent mechanisms work cooperatively for efficient spindle asse ...201425003582
the observation of plca mutation and localization in aspergillus know the function of the plca gene, which encodes a putative phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase c, in a model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, it was disrupted thorough homologous recombination and examined. the germination rate of δplca was reduced by approximately 65% and germination of δplca at a lower temperature (25°c) was much slower than germination under normal conditions (37°c), suggesting the plca is responsible for cold-sensitivity. the hyphal growth of δplca was sligh ...201424972808
purine utilization proteins in the eurotiales: cellular compartmentalization, phylogenetic conservation and divergence.the purine utilization pathway has been thoroughly characterized in aspergillus nidulans. we establish here the subcellular distribution of seven key intracellular enzymes, xanthine dehydrogenase (hxa), urate oxidase (uaz), 5-hydroxy-isourate hydrolase (uax), 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy ureido imidazoline decarboxylase (uaw), allantoinase (alx), allantoicase (aax), ureidoglycolate lyase (ugla), and the fungal-specific α-ketoglutarate fe(ii)-dependent dioxygenase (xana). hxa, alx, aax, uaw and xana ...201424970358
an aspergillus nidulans β-mannanase with high transglycosylation capacity revealed through comparative studies within glycosidase family 5.β-mannanases are involved in the conversion and modification of mannan-based saccharides. using a retaining mechanism, they can, in addition to hydrolysis, also potentially perform transglycosylation reactions, synthesizing new glyco-conjugates. transglycosylation has been reported for β-mannanases in gh5 and gh113. however, although they share the same fold and catalytic mechanism, there may be differences in the enzymes' ability to perform transglycosylation. three gh5 β-mannanases from asperg ...201424950755
maturation of late golgi cisternae into rabe(rab11) exocytic post-golgi carriers visualized in vivo.the mechanism(s) by which proteins traverse and exit the golgi are incompletely understood. using aspergillus nidulans hyphae, we show that late golgi cisternae undergo changes in composition to gradually lose golgi identity while acquiring post-golgi rabe(rab11) identity. this behavior of late golgi cisternae is consistent with the cisternal maturation model. post-golgi rabe(rab11) carriers travel to, and accumulate at, the apex, indicating that fusion is rate limiting for exocytosis. these car ...201424943841
chitinase but n-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase production correlates to the biomass decline in penicillium and aspergillus species.hydrolytic enzyme production is typical of the autolysis in filamentous fungi; however, less attention has been given to the physiological role of the enzymes. here, the aim was to investigate the possible relation of the chitinolytic enzymes to the changes in the biomass in some filamentous fungi of high importance for pharmaceutical or food industry. in penicillium and aspergillus filamentous fungi, which showed different characteristics in submerged cultures, the growth and biomass decline ra ...201424939682
aspergillus nidulans pmts form heterodimers in all pairwise combinations.eukaryotic protein o-mannosyltransferases (pmts) are divided into three subfamilies (pmt1, pmt2, and pmt4) and activity of pmts in yeasts and animals requires assembly into complexes. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, pmt1 and pmt2 form a heteromeric complex and pmt 4 forms a homomeric complex. the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans has three pmts: pmta (subfamily 2), pmtb (subfamily 1), and pmtc (subfamily 4). in this study we show that a. nidulans pmts form heteromeric complexes in all possibl ...201424936400
bem46 shows eisosomal localization and association with tryptophan-derived auxin pathway in neurospora crassa.bem46 proteins are evolutionarily conserved, but their functions remain elusive. we reported previously that the bem46 protein in neurospora crassa is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (er) and is essential for ascospore germination. in the present study, we established a bem46 knockout strain of n. crassa. this δbem46 mutant exhibited a level of ascospore germination lower than that of the wild type but much higher than those of the previously characterized bem46-overexpressing and rna inte ...201424928924
novel telomere-anchored pcr approach for studying sexual stage telomeres in aspergillus nidulans.telomere length varies between germline and somatic cells of the same organism, leading to the hypothesis that telomeres are lengthened during meiosis. however, little is known about the meiotic telomere length in many organisms. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, the telomere lengths in hyphae and asexual spores are invariant. no study using existing techniques has determined the telomere length of the sexual ascospores due to the relatively low abundance of pure meiotic cells in a ...201424927411
"stop ne(c)king around": how interactomics contributes to functionally characterize nek family kinases.aside from polo and aurora, a third but less studied kinase family involved in mitosis regulation is the never in mitosis-gene a (nima)-related kinases (neks). the founding member of this family is the sole member nima of aspergillus nidulans, which is crucial for the initiation of mitosis in that organism. all 11 human neks have been functionally assigned to one of the three core functions established for this family in mammals: (1) centrioles/mitosis; (2) primary ciliary function/ciliopathies; ...201424921005
the histone acetyltransferase gcne (gcn5) plays a central role in the regulation of aspergillus asexual development.acetylation of histones is a key regulatory mechanism of gene expression in eukaryotes. gcne is an acetyltransferase of aspergillus nidulans involved in the acetylation of histone h3 at lysine 9 and lysine 14. previous works have demonstrated that deletion of gcne results in defects in primary and secondary metabolism. here we unveil the role of gcne in development and show that a ∆gcne mutant strain has minor growth defects but is impaired in normal conidiophore development. no signs of conidia ...201424907261
interdependence of the actin and the microtubule cytoskeleton during fungal growth.cell polarization is a theme in biology conserved from bacteria to man. one of the most extremely polarized cells in nature is the hyphae of filamentous fungi. a continuous flow of secretion vesicles from the hyphal cell body to the tip is essential for cell wall and membrane extension. microtubules (mts) and actin, along with their corresponding motor proteins, are involved in the secretion process. therefore, the arrangement of the cytoskeleton is a crucial step to establish and maintain polar ...201424879477
role of moand1-mediated nuclear positioning in morphogenesis and pathogenicity in the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe cause disease on host plants, many phytopathogenic fungi undergo morphological transitions including development of reproductive structures as well as specialized infection structures called appressoria. such morphological transitions display distinct nuclear dynamics. here we report the developmental requirement of moand1-mediated nuclear positioning for pathogenesis of the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe oryzae. the moand1 gene encodes a protein that shows high similarity to num1 in saccharo ...201424875422
fhip and fts proteins are critical for dynein-mediated transport of early endosomes in aspergillus.the minus end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein transports various cellular cargoes, including early endosomes, but how dynein binds to its cargo remains unclear. recently fungal hook homologues were found to link dynein to early endosomes for their transport. here we identified fhipa in aspergillus nidulans as a key player for hooka (a. nidulans hook) function via a genome-wide screen for mutants defective in early-endosome distribution. the human homologue of fhipa, fhip, is a prot ...201424870033
endocytosis and early endosome motility in filamentous fungi.hyphal growth of filamentous fungi requires microtubule-based long-distance motility of early endosomes. since the discovery of this process in ustilago maydis, our understanding of its molecular basis and biological function has greatly advanced. studies in u. maydis and aspergillus nidulans reveal a complex interplay of the motor proteins kinesin-3 and dynein, which co-operate to support bi-directional motion of early endosomes. genetic screening has shed light on the molecular mechanisms unde ...201424835422
the set1/compass histone h3 methyltransferase helps regulate mitosis with the cdk1 and nima mitotic kinases in aspergillus nidulans.mitosis is promoted and regulated by reversible protein phosphorylation catalyzed by the essential nima and cdk1 kinases in the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. protein methylation mediated by the set1/compass methyltransferase complex has also been shown to regulate mitosis in budding yeast with the aurora mitotic kinase. we uncover a genetic interaction between an-swd1, which encodes a subunit of the set1 protein methyltransferase complex, with nima as partial inactivation of nim ...201424835271
the aspergillus nidulans acul gene encodes a mitochondrial carrier required for the utilization of carbon sources that are metabolized via the tca aspergillus nidulans, the utilization of acetate as sole carbon source requires several genes (acu). most of them are also required for the utilization of fatty acids. this is the case for acud and acue, which encode the two glyoxylate cycle-specific enzymes, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, respectively, but also for acul that we have identified as an7287, and characterized in this study. deletion of acul resulted in the same phenotype as the original acul217 mutant. acul encodes a 322- ...201424835019
the double zinc finger domain and adjacent accessory domain from the transcription factor loss of zinc sensing 1 (loz1) are necessary for dna binding and zinc sensing.the loz1 transcription factor from schizosaccharomyces pombe plays an essential role in zinc homeostasis by repressing target gene expression in zinc-replete cells. to determine how loz1 function is regulated by zinc, we employed a genetic screen to isolate mutants with impaired zinc-dependent gene expression and analyzed loz1 protein truncations to map a minimal zinc-responsive domain. in the screen, we isolated 36 new loz1 alleles. 27 of these alleles contained mutations resulting in the trunc ...201424831008
extra- and intracellular lactose catabolism in penicillium chrysogenum: phylogenetic and expression analysis of the putative permease and hydrolase genes.penicillium chrysogenum is used as an industrial producer of penicillin. we investigated its catabolism of lactose, an abundant component of whey used in penicillin fermentation, comparing the type strain nrrl 1951 with the high producing strain as-p-78. both strains grew similarly on lactose as the sole carbon source under batch conditions, exhibiting almost identical time profiles of sugar depletion. in silico analysis of the genome sequences revealed that p. chrysogenum features at least five ...201424690910
functional characterization of a xylose transporter in aspergillus nidulans.the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks will only become economically feasible when the majority of cellulosic and hemicellulosic biopolymers can be efficiently converted into bioethanol. the main component of cellulose is glucose, whereas hemicelluloses mainly consist of pentose sugars such as d-xylose and l-arabinose. the genomes of filamentous fungi such as a. nidulans encode a multiplicity of sugar transporters with broad affinities for hexose and pentose sugars. sacchar ...201424690493
cloning and characterization of a dynein light chain gene from puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.stripe rust is one of the most serious wheat diseases worldwide. the fungus puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (pst), the causal agent of this disease, is an obligate biotrophic basidiomycete fungus. numerous studies have shown that dyneins play important roles during fungal growth and propagation. however, knowledge is limited regarding the function of dyneins in pst. in this study, we cloned the dynein light chain gene psdlc1 from pst and characterized its expression. the function of psdlc1 w ...201424470306
standardization of functional reporter and antibiotic resistance cassettes to facilitate the genetic engineering of filamentous fungi.the unique physiological properties of fungi are useful for a myriad of applications, which could greatly benefit from increased control of native pathways and introduction of recombinant genes. however, fungal genetic engineering is still limited in scope and accessibility, largely due to lack of standardization. to help standardize the genetic engineering of filamentous fungi, we created biobricks of commonly used antibiotic resistance genes, neomycin phosphotransferase (nptii) and hygromycin ...201425524098
penicillium antifungal protein (paf) is involved in the apoptotic and autophagic processes of the producer penicillium chrysogenum.paf, which is produced by the filamentous fungus pencicillium chrysogenum, is a small antifungal protein, triggering ros-mediated apoptotic cell death in aspergillus nidulans. in this work, we provide information on the function of paf in the host p. chrysogenum considering that carbon-starving cultures of the δpaf mutant strain showed significantly reduced apoptosis rates in comparison to the wild-type (wt) strain. moreover, the addition of paf to the δpaf strain resulted in a twofold increase ...201425261948
fgflbd regulates hyphal differentiation required for sexual and asexual reproduction in the ascomycete fungus fusarium graminearum.fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal plant pathogen that infects major cereal crops. the fungus produces both sexual and asexual spores in order to endure unfavorable environmental conditions and increase their numbers and distribution across plants. in a model filamentous fungus, aspergillus nidulans, early induction of conidiogenesis is orchestrated by the fluffy genes. the objectives of this study were to characterize fluffy gene homologs involved in conidiogenesis and their mechanism ...201425277408
gene homozygosis and mitotic recombination induced by camptothecin and irinotecan in aspergillus nidulans diploid cells.mitotic recombination is a process involved in carcinogenesis which can lead to genetic loss through the loss of heterozygosity. the recombinogenic potentials of two anticancer drugs topoisomerase i inhibitors, camptothecin (cpt) and irinotecan (cpt-11), were evaluated in the present study. the homozygotization assay, which assess the induction of mitotic recombination and gene homozygosis, as well as the heterozygous a757//ut448 diploid strain of aspergillus nidulans were employed. the three no ...201425590709
an isoprenylation and palmitoylation motif promotes intraluminal vesicle delivery of proteins in cells from distant species.the c-terminal ends of small gtpases contain hypervariable sequences which may be posttranslationally modified by defined lipid moieties. the diverse structural motifs generated direct proteins towards specific cellular membranes or organelles. however, knowledge on the factors that determine these selective associations is limited. here we show, using advanced microscopy, that the isoprenylation and palmitoylation motif of human rhob (-cincckvl) targets chimeric proteins to intraluminal vesicle ...201425207810
expression of aspergillus nidulans phy gene in nicotiana benthamiana produces active phytase with broad specificities.a full-length phytase gene (phy) of aspergillus nidulans was amplified from the cdna library by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and it was introduced into a bacterial expression vector, pet-28a. the recombinant protein (rphy-e, 56 kda) was overexpressed in the insoluble fraction of escherichia coli culture, purified by ni-nta resin under denaturing conditions and injected into rats as an immunogen. to express a. nidulans phytase in a plant, the full-length of phy was cloned into a plant express ...201425192284
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