PMID(sorted ascending)
domain-wide, locus-specific suppression of nitrogen metabolite repressed mutations in aspergillus nidulans.previous work has shown that loss of function mutations (designated are a(r)) in area, a positive acting regulatory gene mediating nitrogen metabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans, lead to inability to utilise nitrogen sources other than ammonium. this work establishes the existence of a gene designated areb where mutations can suppress area(r) mutations in a locus-specific manner for expression of apparently all of the genes under area control. areb mutations are partially dominant in dip ...198224186375
a single mutation leads to loss of glutamine synthetase and relief of ammonium repression in aspergillus.glutamine synthetase activity in the ascomycete fungus aspergillus nidulans is regulated by nitrogen source. the lowest activities are obtained when the fungus is grown on l-glutamine, and the highest activities when grown on l-glutamate + arabinose. glutamine auxotrophs of the fungus have been isolated, and one of these mutant strains, glna-1, has been shown to lack the enzyme glutamine synthetase. the mutation is recessive, and is located on the right arm of chromosome ii. in addition to aboli ...198224186546
nitrogen metabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans: a farewell to tama?previous work has established that nitrogen metabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans is mediated by the positive acting regulatory gene area. pateman and kinghorn (1977) proposed that the gene tama plays an equally important regulatory role in nitrogen metabolite repression as the result of work with "tama(r)-50," an "allele" leading to inability to utilise nitrogen sources other than ammonium, and "tama(d)-1," an "allele" leading to nitrogen metabolite derepression. both "tama(r)-50" and " ...198224186552
weta is required for conidiogenesis and conidium maturation in the ascomycete fungus fusarium graminearum.fusarium graminearum, a prominent fungal pathogen that infects major cereal crops, primarily utilizes asexual spores to spread disease. to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in f. graminearum, we functionally characterized the f. graminearum ortholog of aspergillus nidulans weta, which has been shown to be involved in conidiogenesis and conidium maturation. deletion of f. graminearum weta did not alter mycelial growth, sexual development, or virulence, but the weta del ...201424186953
the nima kinase is required to execute stage-specific mitotic functions after initiation of mitosis.the g2-m transition in aspergillus nidulans requires the nima kinase, the founding member of the nek kinase family. inactivation of nima results in a late g2 arrest, while overexpression of nima is sufficient to promote mitotic events independently of cell cycle phase. endogenously tagged nima-gfp has dynamic mitotic localizations appearing first at the spindle pole body and then at nuclear pore complexes before transitioning to within nuclei and the mitotic spindle and back at the spindle pole ...201424186954
gene roles in the prn cluster of aspergillus nidulans.the roles of the four genes of the prn gene cluster involved in l-proline catabolism in aspergillus nidulans have been investigated. prnd and prnc encode, respectively, proline exidase and δ(i)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (p5c) dehydrogenase. prnb is almost certainly the structural gene for the proline-inducible major proline permease. the prna product has no structural role in these activities but is a positive acting regulatory molecule necessary for the expression of prnd, prnc and, to a lesser e ...198124189952
high frequency transfer of species specific mitochondrial dna sequences between members of the aspergillaceae.the mitochondrial genome of aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus is approximately 20% larger than that of the closely related species aspergillus nidulans (eidam) winter. restriction enzyme mapping and electron microscopy has revealed that the size difference is due to the presence of six inserted sequences in the former. with the exception of a small number of species specific restriction sites and the six insertions/deletions, the two mitochondrial genomes appear identical. protoplast fusion ...198124190134
the aspergillus nidulans atm kinase regulates mitochondrial function, glucose uptake and the carbon starvation response.mitochondria supply cellular energy and also perform a role in the adaptation to metabolic stress. in mammals, the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (atm) kinase acts as a redox sensor controlling mitochondrial function. subsequently, transcriptomic and genetic studies were utilized to elucidate the role played by a fungal atm homolog during carbon starvation. in aspergillus nidulans, atma was shown to control mitochondrial function and glucose uptake. carbon starvation responses that are regulated ...201424192833
the aspergillus genome database: multispecies curation and incorporation of rna-seq data to improve structural gene annotations.the aspergillus genome database (aspgd; is a freely available web-based resource that was designed for aspergillus researchers and is also a valuable source of information for the entire fungal research community. in addition to being a repository and central point of access to genome, transcriptome and polymorphism data, aspgd hosts a comprehensive comparative genomics toolbox that facilitates the exploration of precomputed orthologs among the 20 currently available asperg ...201424194595
establishing a versatile golden gate cloning system for genetic engineering in fungi.the corn pathogen ustilago maydis is a well-studied fungal model organism. along with a broad set of experimental tools, versatile strategies for the generation of gene replacement mutants by homologous recombination in u. maydis have been developed. nevertheless, the production of corresponding linear dna constructs still constitutes a time-limiting step. to overcome this bottleneck, various resistance cassette modules were adopted for use with the so-called golden gate cloning strategy. these ...201424211735
electrofusion of protoplasts from celery (apium graveolens l.) with protoplasts from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.a method was developed for electrofusion of higher-plant protoplasts from celery and protoplasts from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. initially, methods for the fusion of protoplasts from ecch species were determined individually and, subsequently, electrical parameters for fusion between the species were determined. pronase-e treatment and the presence of calcium ions markedly increased celery protoplast stability under the electrical conditions required and increased fusion freque ...198924212750
insights into dynamic mitotic chromatin organization through the nima kinase suppressor sonc, a chromatin-associated protein involved in the dna damage response.the nuclear pore complex proteins sona and sonb, the orthologs of mammalian rae1 and nup98, respectively, were identified in aspergillus nidulans as cold-sensitive suppressors of a temperature-sensitive allele of the essential mitotic nima kinase (nima1). subsequent analyses found that sonb1 mutants exhibit temperature-dependent dna damage sensitivity. to understand this pathway further, we performed a genetic screen to isolate additional conditional dna damage-sensitive suppressors of nima1. we ...201424214344
identification and molecular genetic analysis of the cichorine gene cluster in aspergillus nidulans.we recently demonstrated that the phytotoxin cichorine is produced by aspergillus nidulans. through a set of targeted deletions, we have found a cluster of seven genes that are required for its biosynthesis. two of the deletions yielded molecules that give information about the biosynthesis of this metabolite.201224244835
phytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents ofartemisia princeps var.orientalis.the volatile constituents ofartemisia princeps var.orientalis (wormwood) were investigated for phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. the germination and radicle elongation of receptor plants were inhibited by volatile substances emitted from wormwood leaf and effects were concentration-dependent. essential oil of the plant extracted by karlsruker's apparatus suppressed seed germination and seedling elongation of the receptor plants at a threshold concentration of 4.8μl/100 ml.escherichia coli ...199324248725
ambient ph sensing in filamentous fungi: pitfalls in elucidating regulatory hierarchical signaling this article, the experiments used to construct the ambient ph-signaling network involved in the secretion of enzymes by filamentous fungi have been reviewed, focusing on the phosphate-repressible phosphatases in aspergillus nidulans. classic and molecular genetics have been used to demonstrate that proteolysis of the transcription factor pacc at alkaline ambient ph is imperative for its action, implying that the full-length version is not an active molecular form of pacc. it has been hypothe ...201324265200
phosphate solubilizing ability of emericella nidulans strain v1 isolated from vermicompost.phosphorus is one of the key factors that regulate soil fertility. its deficiencies in soil are largely replenished by chemical fertilizers. the present study was aimed to isolate efficient phosphate solubilizing fungal strains from eisenia fetida vermicompost. out of total 30 fungal strains the most efficient phosphate solubilizing one was emericella (aspergillus) nidulans v1 (mtcc 11044), identified by custom sequencing of beta-tubulin gene and blast analysis. this strain solubilized 13 to 36% ...201324266109
photodynamic effects of hypericin on photosynthetic electron transport and fluorescence of anacystis nidulans (synechococcus 6301).we investigated the photodynamic action of hypericin, a natural naphthodianthrone, on photosynthetic electron transport and fluorescence of the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans (synechococcus 6301). the most drastic effect was the inactivation of photosynthetic oxygen evolution in the presence of the electron acceptor phenyl-p-benzoquinone in aerobic cells which required 1 hypericin/5 chlorophyll a for half-maximal effect. anaerobic a. nidulans was only partially inactivated and variable chloro ...199624271302
secondary metabolites from the fungus emericella nidulans.a new polyketide derivative koninginin h (1), has been isolated from the fungus emericella nidulans, together with koninginin e (2), koninginin a (3), trichodermatide b (4), citrantifidiol (5), (4s,5r)-4-hydroxy-5-methylfuran-2-one (6), the glycerol derivatives gingerglycolipid b (7), (2s)-bis[9z,12z]-1-o, 2-o-dilinoleoyl-3-o-[alpha-d-galactopyranosyl-(1" --> 6') beta-d-galactopyranosyl]glycerol (8), (2s)-bis[9z,12z]-1-o, 2-o-dilinoleoyl-3-o-beta-d-galactopyranosylglycerol (9), the cerebroside f ...201324273867
interactions between naturally occurring antifungal agents.pairwise interactions between four antifungal compounds were studied. the β-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor echinocandin b (ecb) showed synergistic effect with the cell wall hydrolase chib chitinase and enga β-1,3-glucanase on saccharomyces cerevisiae, candida albicans, aspergillus rugulosus and a. fumigatus. the antifungal protein of penicillium chrysogenum (paf) did not influence the antifungal activity of chib or enga, but showed antagonistic effect with ecb on a. nidulans, a. rugulosus and a. ...201324275596
interplay of the fungal sumoylation network for control of multicellular development.the role of the complex network of the ubiquitin-like modifier sumo in fungal development was analysed. sumo is not only required for sexual development but also for accurate induction and light stimulation of asexual development. the aspergillus nidulans compass complex including its subunits ccla and the methyltransferase seta connects the sumo network to histone modification. seta is required for correct positioning of aerial hyphae for conidiophore and asexual spore formation. multicellular ...201324279728
identification of glucose transporters in aspergillus characterize the mechanisms involved in glucose transport, in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, we have identified four glucose transporter encoding genes hxtb-e. we evaluated the ability of hxtb-e to functionally complement the saccharomyces cerevisiae eby.vw4000 strain that is unable to grow on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose as single carbon source. in s. cerevisiae hxtb-e were targeted to the plasma membrane. the expression of hxtb, hxtc and hxte was able to restore gro ...201324282591
the interplay between the gata transcription factors area, the global nitrogen regulator and areb in fusarium fujikuroi.nitrogen metabolite repression (nmr) in filamentous fungi is controlled by the gata transcription factors area and areb. while area mainly acts as a positive regulator of nmr-sensitive genes, the role of areb is not well understood. we report the characterization of areb and its interplay with area in the gibberellin-producing fungus fusarium fujikuroi. the areb locus produces three different transcripts that each code for functional proteins fully complementing the areb deletion mutant that inf ...201424286256
transcriptome analysis of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans directed to the global identification of promoters.the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans has been a tractable model organism for cell biology and genetics for over 60 years. it is among a large number of aspergilli whose genomes have been sequenced since 2005, including medically and industrially important species. in order to advance our knowledge of its biology and increase its utility as a genetic model by improving gene annotation we sequenced the transcriptome of a. nidulans with a focus on 5' end analysis.201324299161
astpt catalyses both reverse n1- and regular c2 prenylation of a methylated bisindolyl benzoquinone.prenylated bisindolyl benzoquinones exhibit interesting biological activities, such as antidiabetic or anti-hiv activities. a number of these compounds, including asterriquinones, have been isolated from aspergillus terreus. in this study, we identified two putative genes by genome mining, ateg_09980 and ateg_00702, which share high sequence similarity with the known bisindolyl benzoquinone prenyltransferase tdib from aspergillus nidulans. the coding sequences were cloned and overexpressed in e. ...201424302698
osteomyelitis caused by aspergillus species: a review of 310 reported cases.aspergillus osteomyelitis is a rare infection. we reviewed 310 individual cases reported in the literature from 1936 to 2013. the median age of patients was 43 years (range, 0-86 years), and 59% were males. comorbidities associated with this infection included chronic granulomatous disease (19%), haematological malignancies (11%), transplantation (11%), diabetes (6%), pulmonary disease (4%), steroid therapy (4%), and human immunodeficiency virus infection (4%). sites of infection included the sp ...201424303995
characterization of aspergillus nidulans α-glucan synthesis: roles for two synthases and two amylases.cell walls are essential for fungal survival and growth. fungal walls are ∼ 90% carbohydrate, mostly types not found in humans, making them promising targets for anti-fungal drug development. echinocandins, which inhibit the essential β-glucan synthase, are already clinically available. in contrast, α-glucan, another abundant fungal cell wall component has attracted relatively little research attention because it is not essential for most fungi. aspergillus nidulans has two α-glucan synthases (a ...201424308872
active-site histidines in recombinant cyanobacterial ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase examined by site-directed mutagenesis.the functions of his(291), his(295) and his(324) at the active-site of recombinant a. nidulans ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase have been explored by site-directed mutagenesis. replacement of his(291) by k or r resulted in unassembled proteins, while its replacement by e, q or n resulted in assembled but inactive proteins. these results are in accord with a metal ion-binding role of this residue in the activated ternary complex by analogy to x-ray crystallographic analyses of tob ...199424310117
intestinal retransplant in a patient after fungal sepsis: considerations and adolescent female received an isolated intestinal transplant. she developed severe exfoliative rejection and required complete enterectomy. the patient developed a septic hip and lung lesions with biopsy-proven aspergillus nidulans and was treated with caspofungin, ambiosome, and voriconizole. after completing a year of treatment and extensive physical therapy, the patient requested retransplant. the case was presented to the ethics committee, which determined that the patient demonstrated un ...201324311401
sensitivity of aspergillus nidulans to the cellulose synthase inhibitor dichlobenil: insights from wall-related genes' expression and ultrastructural hyphal morphologies.the fungal cell wall constitutes an important target for the development of antifungal drugs, because of its central role in morphogenesis, development and determination of fungal-specific molecular features. fungal walls are characterized by a network of interconnected glycoproteins and polysaccharides, namely α-, β-glucans and chitin. cell walls promptly and dynamically respond to environmental stimuli by a signaling mechanism, which triggers, among other responses, modulations in wall biosynt ...201324312197
investigating aspergillus nidulans secretome during colonisation of cork cell walls.cork, the outer bark of quercus suber, shows a unique compositional structure, a set of remarkable properties, including high recalcitrance. cork colonisation by ascomycota remains largely overlooked. herein, aspergillus nidulans secretome on cork was analysed (2de). proteomic data were further complemented by microscopic (sem) and spectroscopic (atr-ftir) evaluation of the colonised substrate and by targeted analysis of lignin degradation compounds (uplc-hrms). data showed that the fungus forme ...201424316358
recent advances in genome mining of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and the development of heterologous expression systems in aspergillus nidulans.fungi are prolific producers of secondary metabolites (sms) that show a variety of biological activities. recent advances in genome sequencing have shown that fungal genomes harbor far more sm gene clusters than are expressed under conventional laboratory conditions. activation of these "silent" gene clusters is a major challenge, and many approaches have been taken to attempt to activate them and, thus, unlock the vast treasure chest of fungal sms. this review will cover recent advances in geno ...201424342965
linkage of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions to spontaneous culture degeneration in aspergillus nidulans.filamentous fungi including mushrooms frequently and spontaneously degenerate during subsequent culture maintenance on artificial media, which shows the loss or reduction abilities of asexual sporulation, sexuality, fruiting, and production of secondary metabolites, thus leading to economic losses during mass production. to better understand the underlying mechanisms of fungal degeneration, the model fungus aspergillus nidulans was employed in this study for comprehensive analyses. first, linkag ...201424345786
transport assays in filamentous fungi: kinetic characterization of the uapc purine transporter of aspergillus nidulans.transport assays allow the direct kinetic analysis of a specific transporter by measuring apparent km and vmax values, and permit the characterization of substrate specificity profiles through competition assays. in this protocol we describe a rapid and easy method for performing uptake assays in the model filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans. our method makes use of a. nidulans germinating conidiospores at a defined morphological stage in which most transporters show maximal expression, ...201424355588
a p53-like transcription factor similar to ndt80 controls the response to nutrient stress in the filamentous fungus, aspergillus nidulans.the aspergillus nidulans xprg gene encodes a putative transcriptional activator that is a member of the ndt80 family in the p53-like superfamily of proteins. previous studies have shown that xprg controls the production of extracellular proteases in response to starvation. we undertook transcriptional profiling to investigate whether xprg has a wider role as a global regulator of the carbon nutrient stress response. our microarray data showed that the expression of a large number of genes, inclu ...201324358888
in vitro photodynamic inactivation of plant-pathogenic fungi colletotrichum acutatum and colletotrichum gloeosporioides with novel phenothiazinium photosensitizers.the increasing tolerance to currently used fungicides in both clinical and agricultural areas is of great concern. the nonconventional light-based approach of antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (apdt) is a promising alternative to conventional fungicides. we evaluated the effects of apdt with four phenothiazinium derivatives (methylene blue [mb], new methylene blue n [nmbn], toluidine blue o [tbo], and the novel pentacyclic phenothiazinium photosensitizer [ps] s137) on conidia of three fungal ...201424362436
using aspergillus nidulans to identify antifungal drug resistance mutations.systemic fungal infections contribute to at least 10% of deaths in hospital settings. most antifungal drugs target ergosterol (polyenes) or its biosynthetic pathway (azoles and allylamines), or beta-glucan synthesis (echinocandins). antifungal drugs that target proteins are prone to the emergence of resistant strains. identification of genes whose mutations lead to targeted resistance can provide new information on those pathways. we used aspergillus nidulans as a model system to exploit its tra ...201424363365
down-regulation of sidb gene by use of rna interference in aspergillus nidulans.introduction of the rna interference (rnai) machinery has guided the researchers to discover the function of essential vital or virulence factor genes in the microorganisms such as fungi. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, the gene sidb plays an essential role in septation, conidiation and vegetative hyphal growth. in the present study, we benefited from the rnai strategy for down-regulating a vital gene, sidb, in the fungus a. nidulans.201424375164
figa, a putative homolog of low-affinity calcium system member fig1 in saccharomyces cerevisiae, is involved in growth and asexual and sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.calcium-mediated signaling pathways are widely employed in eukaryotes and are implicated in the regulation of diverse biological processes. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, at least two different calcium uptake systems have been identified: the high-affinity calcium influx system (hacs) and the low-affinity calcium influx system (lacs). compared to the hacs, the lacs in fungi is not well known. in this study, figa, a homolog of the lacs member fig1 from s. cerevisiae, was functionally characterized ...201424376003
cytoplasmic dynamics of the general nuclear import machinery in apically growing syncytial cells.karyopherins are transporters involved in the bidirectional, selective and active transport of macromolecules through nuclear pores. importin-β1 is the paradigm of karyopherins and, together with its cargo-adapter importin-α, mediates the general nuclear import pathway. here we show the existence of different cellular pools of both importin-α and -β1 homologues, kapa and kapb, in the coenocytic ascomycete aspergillus nidulans. fluorescence analysis of haploid and diploid strains expressing kapb: ...201324376868
development of a pyrg mutant of aspergillus oryzae strain s1 as a host for the production of heterologous proteins.the ease with which auxotrophic strains and genes that complement them can be manipulated, as well as the stability of auxotrophic selection systems, are amongst the advantages of using auxotrophic markers to produce heterologous proteins. most auxotrophic markers in aspergillus oryzae originate from chemical or physical mutagenesis that may yield undesirable mutations along with the mutation of interest. an auxotrophic a. oryzae strain s1 was generated by deleting the orotidine-5'-monophosphate ...201324381522
functional analysis of the c-ii subgroup killer toxin-like chitinases in the filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans.chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes responsible for chitin polymer degradation. fungal chitinases belong exclusively to glycoside hydrolases family 18 and they are categorized into three phylogenetic groups (a, b and c), which are further divided into subgroups (a-ii to a-v, b-i to b-v and c-i to c-ii). subgroup c chitinases display similarity with the α/β-subunit of the zymocin yeast killer toxin produced by kluyveromyces lactis, suggesting a role of these enzymes in fungal-fungal interactions. i ...201424384382
a putative apses transcription factor is necessary for normal growth and development of aspergillus nidulans.the nsdd gene encoding a gata type transcription factor positively controls sexual development in aspergillus nidulans. according to microarray data, 20 genes that were upregulated by deleting nsdd during various life cycle stages were randomly selected and deleted for functional analysis. none of the mutants showed apparent changes in growth or development compared with those of the wild-type except the an3154 gene that encodes a putative apses transcription factor and is an ortholog of sacchar ...201324385358
assessing the effects of light on differentiation and virulence of the plant pathogen botrytis cinerea: characterization of the white collar complex.organisms are exposed to a tough environment, where acute daily challenges, like light, can strongly affect several aspects of an individual's physiology, including pathogenesis. while several fungal models have been widely employed to understand the physiological and molecular events associated with light perception, various other agricultural-relevant fungi still remain, in terms of their responsiveness to light, in the dark. the fungus botrytis cinerea is an aggressive pathogen able to cause ...201324391918
aspergillosis of bones and joints - a review from 2002 until today.poor clinical outcome and complicated neurological complications illustrate the severity of bone and joint infections with aspergillus species. host predisposing conditions are immunosuppression, intravenous drug use, a variety of chronic underlying diseases and prior surgical interventions. nosocomial infections may originate from contaminated air ventilation systems or water pipes. most common causative pathogen is aspergillus fumigatus, followed by aspergillus flavus and aspergillus nidulans. ...201424397460
a microscopy-based screen employing multiplex genome sequencing identifies cargo-specific requirements for dynein velocity.the timely delivery of membranous organelles and macromolecules to specific locations within the majority of eukaryotic cells depends on microtubule-based transport. here we describe a screening method to identify mutations that have a critical effect on intracellular transport and its regulation using mutagenesis, multicolor-fluorescence microscopy, and multiplex genome sequencing. this screen exploits the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, which has many of the advantages of yeast molecu ...201424403603
inhibition of tau aggregation by three aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites: 2,ω-dihydroxyemodin, asperthecin, and asperbenzaldehyde.the aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau is a significant event in many neurodegenerative diseases including alzheimer's disease. the inhibition or reversal of tau aggregation is therefore a potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases. fungal natural products have proven to be a rich source of useful compounds having wide varieties of biological activity. we have screened aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites containing aromatic ring structures for their ability to in ...201424414310
expression of the aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene in penicillium nalgiovense.the glucose oxidase gene (god) from aspergillus niger was expressed in penicillium nalgiovense under control of the latter's homologous transcription signals. the god protein was synthesized in an active form, leading to increased glucose oxidase activity. the expression vector was introduced into p. nalgiovense along with a selectable plasmid carrying the dominant amds marker gene of a. nidulans.199524414658
sources of fungal linamarases.forty-four strains of aspergillus, penicillium, fusarium, trichoderma and rhizopus were grown on a liquid medium containing glucose and cassava-root extract. all of the aspergillus and fusarium strains, eight out of 10 penicillium strains and three of seven trichoderma strains showed linamarase activity. no such activity was detected in any rhizopus strain. the crude enzyme preparation from f. oxysporum had the highest affinity for linamarin whereas that from a. nidulans was the most heat-stable ...199524415020
the transcription factor bcltf1 regulates virulence and light responses in the necrotrophic plant pathogen botrytis cinerea.botrytis cinerea is the causal agent of gray mold diseases in a range of dicotyledonous plant species. the fungus can reproduce asexually by forming macroconidia for dispersal and sclerotia for survival; the latter also participate in sexual reproduction by bearing the apothecia after fertilization by microconidia. light induces the differentiation of conidia and apothecia, while sclerotia are exclusively formed in the absence of light. the relevance of light for virulence of the fungus is not o ...201424415947
expression of fungal genes involved in penicllin biosynthesis.carbon catabolite repression and ph regulation are regulatory circuits with a wide domain of action in the plectomycetes. penicillin biosynthesis is one of the pathways which are under their control. the conclusions obtained so far, which are based on studies of the genetic and molecular regulation of the penicillin pathway of aspergillus nidulans, would have been much harder to produce using an organism such as penicillium chrysogenum (the industrial penicillin producer). however, a. nidulans a ...199324420113
isolation and characterization of β-glucosidases from aspergillus nidulans mutant usdb 1183.two extracellular β-glucosidases (cellobiase, ec, i and ii, from aspergillus nidulans usdb 1183 were purified to homogeneity with molecular weights of 240,000 and 78,000, respectively. both hydrolysed laminaribiose, β-gentiobiose, cellobiose, p-nitrophenyl-β-l-glucoside, phenyl-β-l-glucoside, o-nitrophenyl-β-l-glucoside, salicin and methyl-β-l-glucoside but not α-linked disaccharides. both were competitively inhibited by glucose and non-competitively (mixed) inhibited by glucono-1,5-la ...199324420198
cloning, expression and directed mutagenesis of the genes for ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase.the dominant natural form of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) is composed of large (l) 55-kda and small (s) 15-kda subunits. this enzyme (as the l8s8 form) is widely distributed among oxygenic photosynthetic species and among chemosynthetic bacteria. another form lacking small subunits is found as an l2 dimer in rhodospirillum rubrum or an l oligomer of uncertain aggregation state from rhodopseudomonas spharoides. the present article reviews two basically different appro ...198824425168
effect of citrate on radial growth and conidiation of the mould aspergillus nidulans.a mutation of the ctsa locus of aspergillus nidulans affects both the radial growth and conidiation of the mould when grown in the presence of citrate. the ctsa locus was allocated to linkage group iv but it recombines freely with inob2 and pyroa4 (which are also in linkage group iv). it is recessive in heterozygous diploids. a possible role for this gene in maintaining membrane integrity is discussed.199124425277
binding, uptake and expression of foreign dna by cyanobacteria and isolated etioplasts.discoveries of the uptake and expression of various escherichia coli plasmids by the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans and isolated cumber etioplasts are reviewed. in particular, the binding and uptake of nick-translated (32)p-labeled plasmids and the expression of genes in the native plasmids are considered.permeaplasts of a. nidulans 6301 and isolated edta-washed cucumber etioplasts exhibit binding and uptake of dna that is unaffected by uncouplers of photophosphorylation or by dissipators of ...198824425366
inhibition of nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor-α production in peritoneal macrophages by aspergillus nidulans melanin.the naturally occurring pigment, melanin is found in organisms of all phylogenetic kingdoms, including fungi, and exhibits a wide range of biological activities. our objective was to investigate the effects of melanin extracted from the fungus aspergillus nidulans on the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (no) and tumour necrosis factor-α (tnf-α) in peritoneal macrophages and on the viability of mccoy mouse fibroblasts. the results showed that a. nidulans melanin did not s ...201324432378
variation in the polypeptide composition of phycobilisomes from anacystis nidulans and three pigment mutants.phycobilisomes, light harvesting antenna pigment systems, were studied from anacystis nidulans wild type and from several spontaneous pigment mutants selected for improved growth in far-red light (>650 nm). this is the first characterization and description of polypeptide composition of phycobilisomes from spontaneous mutants (not chemically induced) of a. nidulans. the mutants had significant changes in the phycobiliprotein content relative to chlorophyll (chl). two phycobiliproteins, c-phycocy ...198624443211
mitotic regulation of fungal cell-to-cell connectivity through septal pores involves the nima kinase.intercellular bridges are a conserved feature of multicellular organisms. in multicellular fungi, cells are connected directly via intercellular bridges called septal pores. using aspergillus nidulans, we demonstrate for the first time that septal pores are regulated to be opened during interphase but closed during mitosis. septal pore-associated proteins display dynamic cell cycle-regulated locations at mature septa. of importance, the mitotic nima kinase locates to forming septa and surprising ...201424451264
aspergillus nidulans cell wall composition and function change in response to hosting several aspergillus fumigatus udp-galactopyranose mutase activity mutants.deletion or repression of aspergillus nidulans ugma (anugma), involved in galactofuranose biosynthesis, impairs growth and increases sensitivity to caspofungin, a β-1,3-glucan synthesis antagonist. the a. fumigatus ugma (afugma) crystal structure has been determined. from that study, afugma mutants with altered enzyme activity were transformed into anugma▵ to assess their effect on growth and wall composition in a. nidulans. the complemented (anugma::wild type afugma) strain had wild type phenot ...201424454924
temperature dependent changes in absorption and fluorescence properties of the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans.temperature dependent changes in absorbance and fluorescence of chlorophyll a (chl a) were analyzed in membrane fragments and in a chl-protein complex reconstituted with lipids isolated from the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans. absorbance versus temperature curves measured at 656 nm showed an inflection point at 23-24°c and at 14-16°c in the membrane fragments prepared from a. nidulans cells, grown at 39° and 25°c, respectively. temperature-induced absorbance changes measured at 680 and 696 nm ...198424458777
cloning and characterization of a dynein light chain gene from puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.stripe rust is one of the most serious wheat diseases worldwide. the fungus puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (pst), the causal agent of this disease, is an obligate biotrophic basidiomycete fungus. numerous studies have shown that dyneins play important roles during fungal growth and propagation. however, knowledge is limited regarding the function of dyneins in pst. in this study, we cloned the dynein light chain gene psdlc1 from pst and characterized its expression. the function of psdlc1 w ...201424470306
control of reactive oxygen species (ros) production through histidine kinases in aspergillus nidulans under different growth conditions.sensor histidine kinases (hks) are important factors that control cellular growth in response to environmental conditions. the expression of 15 hks from aspergillus nidulans was analyzed by quantitative real-time pcr under vegetative, asexual, and sexual growth conditions. most hks were highly expressed during asexual growth. all hk gene-disrupted strains produced reactive oxygen species (ros). three hks are involved in the control of ros: hysa was the most abundant under the restricted oxygen c ...201424490133
enhanced cellulase producing mutants developed from heterokaryotic aspergillus strain.a heterokaryon 28, derived through protoplast fusion between aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus tubingensis (dal8), was subjected cyclic mutagenesis followed by selection on increasing levels of 2-deoxy glucose (2-dg) as selection marker. the derived deregulated cellulase hyper producing mutant '64', when compared to fusant 28, produced 9.83, 7.8, 3.2, 4.2 and 19.74 folds higher endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, fpase and xylanase, respectively, under shake cultures. the sequenc ...201424491293
furocoumarins and coumarins photoinactivate colletotrichum acutatum and aspergillus nidulans fungi under solar radiation.the increasing tolerance to currently-used fungicides is a major problem both in clinical and agricultural areas leading to an urgent need for the development of novel antifungal strategies. this study investigated the in vitro antimicrobial photo treatment (apt) of conidia of the plant-pathogenic fungus colletotrichum acutatum and the ascomycete aspergillus nidulans with the furocoumarins 8-methoxypsoralen (8-mop) and isopimpinellin, and a mixture of two coumarins (7-methoxy coumarin and citrop ...201424509069
new branches in the degradation pathway of monochlorocatechols by aspergillus nidulans: a metabolomics analysis.a collective view of the degradation of monochlorocatechols in fungi is yet to be attained, though these compounds are recognised as key degradation intermediates of numerous chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, including monochlorophenols. in the present contribution we have analysed the degradation pathways of monochlorophenols in aspergillus nidulans using essentially metabolomics. degradation intermediates herein identified included those commonly reported (e.g. 3-chloro-cis,cis-muconate) but ...201424509097
regulatory mutations affecting sulfur metabolism induce environmental stress response in aspergillus nidulans.mutations in the cysb, sconb and sconc genes affect sulfur metabolism in aspergillus nidulans in different ways. the cysb mutation blocks synthesis of cysteine by the main pathway and leads to a shortage of this amino acid. the sconb and sconc mutations affect subunits of the scf ubiquitin ligase complex, which inactivates the metr transcription factor in the presence of an excess of cysteine. in effect, both cysb and scon mutations lead to permanent derepression of metr-dependent genes. we comp ...201424513272
nsdd is a key repressor of asexual development in aspergillus nidulans.asexual development (conidiation) of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans occurs via balanced activities of multiple positive and negative regulators. for instance, flug (+) and sfga (-) govern upstream regulation of the developmental switch, and brla (+) and vosa (-) control the progression and completion of conidiation. to identify negative regulators of conidiation downstream of flug-sfga, we carried out multicopy genetic screens using sfga deletion strains. after visually screening >1 ...201424532783
multiple nuclear localization signals mediate nuclear localization of the gata transcription factor area.the aspergillus nidulans gata transcription factor area activates transcription of nitrogen metabolic genes in response to nitrogen limitation and is known to accumulate in the nucleus during nitrogen starvation. sequence analysis of area revealed multiple nuclear localization signals (nlss), five putative classical nlss conserved in fungal area orthologs but not in the saccharomyces cerevisiae functional orthologs gln3p and gat1p, and one putative noncanonical rrx33rxr bipartite nls within the ...201424562911
genetic characterization of the neurospora crassa molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis.molybdenum (mo) is a trace element that is essential for important cellular processes. to gain biological activity, mo must be complexed in the molybdenum cofactor (moco), a pterin derivative of low molecular weight. moco synthesis is a multi-step pathway that involves a variable number of genes in eukaryotes, which are assigned to four steps of eukaryotic moco biosynthesis. moco biosynthesis mutants lack any moco-dependent enzymatic activities, including assimilation of nitrate (plants and fung ...201424569084
velc positively controls sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.fungal development and secondary metabolism is intimately associated via activities of the fungi-specific velvet family proteins including vea, vosa, velb and velc. among these, velc has not been characterized in aspergillus nidulans. in this study, we characterize the role of velc in asexual and sexual development in a. nidulans. the velc mrna specifically accumulates during the early phase of sexual development. the deletion of velc leads to increased number of conidia and reduced production o ...201424587098
rational domain swaps reveal insights about chain length control by ketosynthase domains in fungal nonreducing polyketide synthases.a facile genetic methodology in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans allowed exchange of the starter unit acp transacylase (sat) domain in the nonreduced polyketide synthase (nr-pks) afoe of the asperfuranone pathway with the sat domains from 10 other nr-pkss. the newly created hybrid with the nr-pks an3386 is able to accept a longer starter unit in place of the native substrate to create a novel aromatic polyketide in vivo.201424593241
application of a new dual localization-affinity purification tag reveals novel aspects of protein kinase biology in aspergillus nidulans.filamentous fungi occupy critical environmental niches and have numerous beneficial industrial applications but devastating effects as pathogens and agents of food spoilage. as regulators of essentially all biological processes protein kinases have been intensively studied but how they regulate the often unique biology of filamentous fungi is not completely understood. significant understanding of filamentous fungal biology has come from the study of the model organism aspergillus nidulans using ...201424599037
interactive exploration of integrated biological datasets using context-sensitive inference utilizes experimental high-throughput data for the reconstruction of molecular interaction networks where new relationships between the network entities can be predicted. despite the increasing amount of experimental data, the parameters of each modeling technique cannot be optimized based on the experimental data alone, but needs to be qualitatively assessed if the components of the resulting network describe the experimental setting. candidate list prioritization and validati ...201424600467
[mechanisms and regulation of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in filamentous fungi: classical cases and new models].cellulose is the most abundant renewable carbon source on earth. however, this polymer structure comprises a physical and chemical barrier for carbon access, which has limited its exploitation. in nature, only a few percentage of microorganisms may degrade this polymer by cellulase expression. filamentous fungi are one of the most active and efficient groups among these microorganisms. this review describes similarities and differences between cellulase activity mechanisms and regulatory mechani ...201524607657
the sugarcane defense protein sugarwin2 causes cell death in colletotrichum falcatum but not in non-pathogenic fungi.plants respond to pathogens and insect attacks by inducing and accumulating a large set of defense-related proteins. two homologues of a barley wound-inducible protein (barwin) have been characterized in sugarcane, sugarwin1 and sugarwin2 (sugarcane wound-inducible proteins). induction of sugarwins occurs in response to diatraea saccharalis damage but not to pathogen infection. in addition, the protein itself does not show any effect on insect development; instead, it has antimicrobial activitie ...201424608349
improved production of fatty acid ethyl esters in saccharomyces cerevisiae through up-regulation of the ethanol degradation pathway and expression of the heterologous phosphoketolase pathway.due to an increasing demand of transportation fuels, a lower availability of cheap crude oil and a lack of sustainability of fossil fuels, a gradual shift from petroleum based fuels towards alternative and renewable fuel resources will be required in the near future. fatty acid ethyl esters (faees) have properties similar to current crude diesel and could therefore form an important contribution to the development of sustainable transportation fuels in future. it is important to develop novel ce ...201424618091
x-ray microfluorescence (μxrf) imaging of aspergillus nidulans cell wall mutants reveals biochemical changes due to gene deletions.we used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence to create the first semiquantitative, submicron resolution, element distribution maps of p, s, k, and ca, in situ, in fungal samples. data collection was performed at the european synchrotron radiation facility beam line id21, grenoble, france. we studied developing hyphae, septa, and conidiophores in aspergillus nidulans, comparing wild type and two cell wall biosynthesis gene deletion strains. the latter encode sequential enzymes for biosynthesis of galac ...201424618991
synthetic biology tools for bioprospecting of natural products in eukaryotes.filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a battery of natural products of often unknown function, synthesized by complex metabolic pathways. unfortunately, most of these pathways appear silent, many in intractable organisms, and their products consequently unidentified. one basic challenge is the difficulty of expressing a biosynthesis pathway for a complex natural product in a heterologous eukaryotic host. here, we provide a proof-of concept solution to this challenge and describe how the ...201424631120
comparative functional analysis of the velvet gene family reveals unique roles in fungal development and pathogenicity in magnaporthe oryzae.the ascomycete fungus magnaporthe oryzae is an economically important pathogen that causes rice blast disease worldwide. accumulating evidence indicates that the fungal velvet genes are key regulators of a number of cellular processes, including development, pathogenicity and secondary metabolism, in many species of fungi. in this study, we identified and functionally characterized four genes (movosa, movelb, movea, and movelc) from the genome of the fungal pathogen m. oryzae. these genes were h ...201424632440
trans-resveratrol concentrations and antimutagenic potential of juice from the grape cultivars vênus, brs violeta and isabel.grape juice, in addition to being an energetic food, due to its high sugar content, has several compounds that can prevent or treat various types of diseases. resveratrol is a compound present in grapes that has attracted a lot of interest; in addition to preventing cardiovascular disease linked to lipid metabolism, it has chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. we evaluated the antimutagenic activity and determined the trans-resveratrol content in grape juice from the varieties vênus, ...201424634171
hooka is a novel dynein-early endosome linker critical for cargo movement in vivo.cytoplasmic dynein transports membranous cargoes along microtubules, but the mechanism of dynein-cargo interaction is unclear. from a genetic screen, we identified a homologue of human hook proteins, hooka, as a factor required for dynein-mediated early endosome movement in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. hooka contains a putative n-terminal microtubule-binding domain followed by coiled-coil domains and a c-terminal cargo-binding domain, an organization reminiscent of cytoplasmic li ...201424637327
expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis of aspergillus terreus endo-β-1,4-glucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12.endoglucanases are important enzymes that are involved in the modification and degradation of cellulose. filamentous fungi such as aspergillus terreus are effective biomass degraders in nature owing to their capacity to produce an enzymatic arsenal of glycoside hydrolases, including endoglucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12 (gh12). the a. terreus gh12 endoglucanase was cloned and overexpressed in a. nidulans, purified and crystallized. a single crystal was obtained from a solution consist ...201424637772
constitutive homologous expression of phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase increases the metabolic flux of fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum is among the few filamentous fungi that have been reported of being able to directly ferment biomass to ethanol in a consolidated bioprocess. understanding its metabolic pathways and their limitations can provide some insights on the genetic modifications required to enhance its growth and subsequent fermentation capability. in this study, we investigated the hypothesis reported previously that phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase are metabolic bottlenecks in the glycolysis an ...201424649884
distinct septin heteropolymers co-exist during multicellular development in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.septins are important components of the cytoskeleton that are highly conserved in eukaryotes and play major roles in cytokinesis, patterning, and many developmental processes. septins form heteropolymers which assemble into higher-order structures including rings, filaments, and gauzes. in contrast to actin filaments and microtubules, the molecular mechanism by which septins assemble is not well-understood. here, we report that in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, four core septins fo ...201424664283
identification of interphase functions for the nima kinase involving microtubules and the escrt pathway.the never in mitosis a (nima) kinase (the founding member of the nek family of kinases) has been considered a mitotic specific kinase with nuclear restricted roles in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans. by extending to a. nidulans the results of a synthetic lethal screen performed in saccharomyces cerevisiae using the nima ortholog kin3, we identified a conserved genetic interaction between nima and genes encoding proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (escrt) pathwa ...201424675878
functional characterization of a xylose transporter in aspergillus nidulans.the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks will only become economically feasible when the majority of cellulosic and hemicellulosic biopolymers can be efficiently converted into bioethanol. the main component of cellulose is glucose, whereas hemicelluloses mainly consist of pentose sugars such as d-xylose and l-arabinose. the genomes of filamentous fungi such as a. nidulans encode a multiplicity of sugar transporters with broad affinities for hexose and pentose sugars. sacchar ...201424690493
extra- and intracellular lactose catabolism in penicillium chrysogenum: phylogenetic and expression analysis of the putative permease and hydrolase genes.penicillium chrysogenum is used as an industrial producer of penicillin. we investigated its catabolism of lactose, an abundant component of whey used in penicillin fermentation, comparing the type strain nrrl 1951 with the high producing strain as-p-78. both strains grew similarly on lactose as the sole carbon source under batch conditions, exhibiting almost identical time profiles of sugar depletion. in silico analysis of the genome sequences revealed that p. chrysogenum features at least five ...201424690910
production of 5,8-dihydroxy-9,12(z,z)-octadecadienoic acid from linoleic acid by whole recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing diol synthase from aspergillus nidulans.diol synthase from aspergillus nidulans was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. recombinant e. coli cells expressing diol synthase from a. nidulans converted linoleic acid to a product that was identified as 5,8-dihydroxy-9,12(z,z)-octadecadienoic acid by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms). the recombinant cells and the purified enzyme showed the highest activity for linoleic acid among the fatty acids tested. the optimal reaction conditions for the produc ...201424695832
six hydrophobins are involved in hydrophobin rodlet formation in aspergillus nidulans and contribute to hydrophobicity of the spore surface.hydrophobins are amphiphilic proteins able to self-assemble at water-air interphases and are only found in filamentous fungi. in aspergillus nidulans two hydrophobins, roda and dewa, have been characterized, which both localize on the conidiospore surface and contribute to its hydrophobicity. roda is the constituent protein of very regularly arranged rodlets, 10 nm in diameter. here we analyzed four more hydrophobins, dewb-e, in a. nidulans and found that all six hydrophobins contribute to the h ...201424722460
in aspergillus nidulans the suppressors suaa and suac code for release factors erf1 and erf3 and suad codes for a glutamine aspergillus nidulans, after extensive mutagenesis, a collection of mutants was obtained and four suppressor loci were identified genetically that could suppress mutations in putative chain termination mutations in different genes. suppressor mutations in suab and suad have a similar restricted spectrum of suppression and suab111 was previously shown to be an alteration in the anticodon of a gln trna. we have shown that like suab, a suad suppressor has a mutation in the anticodon of another gl ...201424727290
dual dna binding and coactivator functions of aspergillus nidulans tama, a zn(ii)2cys6 transcription factor.transcription factors containing dna binding domains generally regulate transcription by direct interaction with dna. for most transcription factors, including the fungal zn(ii)2cys6 zinc binuclear cluster transcription factors, the dna binding motif is essential for function. however, aspergillus nidulans tama and the related saccharomyces cerevisiae dal81p protein contain zn(ii)2cys6 motifs shown to be dispensable for function. tama acts at several promoters as a coactivator of the global nitr ...201424750216
high-affinity glucose transport in aspergillus nidulans is mediated by the products of two related but differentially expressed genes.independent systems of high and low affinity effect glucose uptake in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. low-affinity uptake is known to be mediated by the product of the mste gene. in the current work two genes, msta and mstc, have been identified that encode high-affinity glucose transporter proteins. these proteins' primary structures share over 90% similarity, indicating that the corresponding genes share a common origin. whilst the function of the paralogous proteins is little cha ...201424751997
isolation and identification of aspergillus spp. from brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli) nocturnal houses in new zealand.aspergillosis, a disease caused by infection with aspergillus spp., is a common cause of death in birds globally and is an irregular cause of mortality of captive kiwi (apteryx spp.). aspergillus spp. are often present in rotting plant material, including the litter and nesting material used for kiwi in captivity. the aim of this study was to survey nocturnal kiwi houses in new zealand to assess the levels of aspergillus currently present in leaf litter. samples were received from 11 nocturnal k ...201424758108
a cyclin-like protein, clga, regulates development in aspergillus nidulans.a cyclin-like protein from aspergillus nidulans, clga, was identified. its cyclin-like subunit shares 28.3% identity to saccharomyces cerevisiae clg1. deletion of clga slightly influenced fungal growth, but repressed asexual development and made it more sensitive to temperature variations. it also downregulated expression of brla, abaa and weta, which are critically responsible for asexual development. sexual development was impaired in the δclga mutant. its related genes, vea and nosa, were exp ...201424794637
direct involvement of the crea transcription factor in penicillin biosynthesis and expression of the pcbab gene in penicillium chrysogenum.the transcription factor crea is the main regulator responsible for carbon repression in filamentous fungi. crea is a wide domain regulator that binds to regulatory elements in the promoters of target genes to repress their transcription. penicillin biosynthesis and the expression of penicillin biosynthetic genes are subject to carbon repression. however, evidence of the participation of crea in this regulation is still lacking, and previous studies on the promoter of the pcbc gene of aspergillu ...201424818689
modelling, substrate docking and mutational analysis identify residues essential for function and specificity of the major fungal purine transporter azga.the azga purine/h(+) symporter of aspergillus nidulans is the founding member of a functionally and phylogenetically distinct transporter family present in fungi, bacteria and plants. here a valid azga topological model is built based on the crystal structure of the escherichia coli uracil transporter uraa, a member of the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat/ncs2) family. the model consists of 14 transmembrane, mostly α-helical, segments (tmss) and cytoplasmic n- and c-tails. a distinct compac ...201424818808
the double zinc finger domain and adjacent accessory domain from the transcription factor loss of zinc sensing 1 (loz1) are necessary for dna binding and zinc sensing.the loz1 transcription factor from schizosaccharomyces pombe plays an essential role in zinc homeostasis by repressing target gene expression in zinc-replete cells. to determine how loz1 function is regulated by zinc, we employed a genetic screen to isolate mutants with impaired zinc-dependent gene expression and analyzed loz1 protein truncations to map a minimal zinc-responsive domain. in the screen, we isolated 36 new loz1 alleles. 27 of these alleles contained mutations resulting in the trunc ...201424831008
the aspergillus nidulans acul gene encodes a mitochondrial carrier required for the utilization of carbon sources that are metabolized via the tca aspergillus nidulans, the utilization of acetate as sole carbon source requires several genes (acu). most of them are also required for the utilization of fatty acids. this is the case for acud and acue, which encode the two glyoxylate cycle-specific enzymes, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, respectively, but also for acul that we have identified as an7287, and characterized in this study. deletion of acul resulted in the same phenotype as the original acul217 mutant. acul encodes a 322- ...201424835019
the set1/compass histone h3 methyltransferase helps regulate mitosis with the cdk1 and nima mitotic kinases in aspergillus nidulans.mitosis is promoted and regulated by reversible protein phosphorylation catalyzed by the essential nima and cdk1 kinases in the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. protein methylation mediated by the set1/compass methyltransferase complex has also been shown to regulate mitosis in budding yeast with the aurora mitotic kinase. we uncover a genetic interaction between an-swd1, which encodes a subunit of the set1 protein methyltransferase complex, with nima as partial inactivation of nim ...201424835271
endocytosis and early endosome motility in filamentous fungi.hyphal growth of filamentous fungi requires microtubule-based long-distance motility of early endosomes. since the discovery of this process in ustilago maydis, our understanding of its molecular basis and biological function has greatly advanced. studies in u. maydis and aspergillus nidulans reveal a complex interplay of the motor proteins kinesin-3 and dynein, which co-operate to support bi-directional motion of early endosomes. genetic screening has shed light on the molecular mechanisms unde ...201424835422
effect of serum components on biofilm formation by aspergillus fumigatus and other aspergillus species.biofilm production by microorganisms is critical for their pathogenicity. serum promotes biofilm production by aspergillus fumigatus; however, its effects on other aspergillus spp. have not been reported. we analyzed biofilm formation by five aspergillus spp., i.e., a. fumigatus, a. flavus, a. nidulans, a. niger, and a. terreus, and examined the effects of serum/serum proteins such as fetal bovine serum (fbs), fetuin a, and bovine serum albumin (bsa) on hyphal growth, hyphal branching, and extra ...201424858605
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