TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
g protein-coupled receptor gpr4 senses amino acids and activates the camp-pka pathway in cryptococcus neoformans.the galpha protein gpa1 governs the camp-pka signaling pathway and plays a central role in virulence and differentiation in the human fungal pathogen cryptococcus neoformans, but the signals and receptors that trigger this pathway were unknown. we identified seven putative proteins that share identity with known g protein-coupled receptors (gpcrs). one protein, gpr4, shares limited sequence identity with the dictyostelium discoideum camp receptor car1 and the aspergillus nidulans gpcr protein gp ...200616291861
genetic transformation of ascochyta rabiei using agrobacterium-mediated order to study pathogenic mechanisms of the plant pathogen ascochyta rabiei, conditions for efficient transformation using agrobacterium-mediated transformation were investigated. hygromycin b resistance (hph) was superior to geneticin resistance (nptii) for selecting transformants, and the hph gene was more efficiently expressed by the aspergillus nidulans trpc promoter than by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter camv35s. co-cultivation on solid media for 72 h was optimal for generatin ...200616369840
efficient pcr-based gene targeting with a recyclable marker for aspergillus nidulans.the rapid accumulation of genomic sequences from a large number of eukaryotes, including numerous filamentous fungi, has created a tremendous scientific potential, which can only be realized if precise site-directed genome modifications, like gene deletions, promoter replacements, in-frame gfp fusions and specific point mutations can be made rapidly and reliably. the development of gene-targeting techniques in filamentous fungi and other higher eukaryotes has been hampered because foreign dna is ...200616289954
detection of unknown toxic mycotoxins inaspergillus nidulans using a structure-activity approach.mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi that can cause various acute and chronic toxic effects in humans. previous work by büngeret al. exhibited that the cytotoxicityof aspergillus nidulans, one of the most frequent toxigenic moulds in composting plants, could not be explained by its content of identified mycotoxins. the presence of additional mycotoxins or other toxic prinpiples was assumed, which may be detected by a structure-activity hplc-diode array detector m ...200623605709
mechanism to combat cobalt toxicity in cobalt resistant mutants of aspergillus nidulans.characteristics of fungal species tolerant to high levels of metals in natural environment can be amplified by isolation and selection of resistant mutants. step-by-step culturing led to identification of highly stable co-resistant (co(r)) mutants of a. nidulans. based on two distinct morphological features, co-resistant mutants were categorized as co(r)i and co(r)ii. the two mutants varied in their growth behavior and colony morphology that were reflected in supplemented as well as unsupplement ...200723100687
development and characterization of nickel accumulating mutants of aspergillus nidulans.stable mutants of aspergillus nidulans, resistant to 1 mm ni were developed by step-by-step repeated culturing of the fungus on the medium containing increasing concentrations of nickel chloride. characterization of mutants could differentiate them into two categories ni(r) i and ni(r) ii. each category of mutants exhibited alterations in growth, conidial germination and melanin secretion both in ni-free and ni-containing media. ni(r) ii mutants were little slow in growth with sparse mycelia and ...200723100672
biodiversity of epilithic cyanobacteria from freshwater streams of kakoijana reserve forest, assam, india.the biodiversity of epilithic cyanobacteria from one of the unexplored habitats of freshwater streams of kakoijana reserve forest of assam, india was estimated. this paper lists a total of 29 species representing 18 genera of 12 families and 4 orders as per recent system of classification. morphological descriptions, common habitats and distribution pattern were described for each species identified that were represented systematically. of these 29 species, 11 were unicellular, 9 non-heterocytou ...200723100670
an activating mutation of the sclerotinia sclerotiorum pac1 gene increases oxalic acid production at low ph but decreases virulence.summary the production of oxalic acid by sclerotinia sclerotiorum is regulated by the ambient ph environment. this regulation and that of a few investigated ph-responsive genes is mediated in part by the zinc finger transcription factor encoded by pac1, an orthologue of the aspergillus nidulans pacc gene. we manipulated the pac1 sequence by site-directed mutagenesis to create a dominant activating pac1(c) mutation and introduced this allele into a pac1 loss-of-function (deltapac1) strain. consis ...200720507525
antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activities of anthocephalus cadamba.anthocephalus cadamba (roxb.) miq. syn a. chinensis (lamk) a. rich (rubiaceae) is ethnomedicinally widely used in the form of paste by tribe in western ghats for treating skin diseases. in this context, antimicrobial potential of a. cadamba against a wide range of microorganisms was studied. to validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, wound healing activity was studied, besides antioxidant activity to understand the mechanism of wound healing. the alchoholic and aqueou ...200720161916
improved protocols for functional analysis in the pathogenic fungus aspergillus available whole genome sequence for aspergillus flavus provides the opportunity to characterize factors involved in pathogenicity and to elucidate the regulatory networks involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. functional analysis of genes within the genome is greatly facilitated by the ability to disrupt or mis-express target genes and then evaluate their result on the phenotype of the fungus. large-scale functional analysis requires an efficient genetic transformation system and the ability to ...200718039373
sexual and vegetative compatibility genes in the aspergilli.gene flow within populations can occur by sexual and/or parasexual means. analyses of experimental and in silico work are presented relevant to possible gene flow within the aspergilli. first, the discovery of mating-type (mat) genes within certain species of aspergillus is described. the implications for self-fertility, sexuality in supposedly asexual species and possible uses as phylogenetic markers are discussed. second, the results of data mining for heterokaryon incompatibility (het) and pr ...200718490952
the mitochondrial genome from the thermal dimorphic fungus paracoccidioides brasiliensis.we present here the sequence of the mitochondrial dna of the pathogenic thermodimorphic fungus paracoccidioides brasiliensis, agent of an endemic disease in most south american countries. the sequenced genome has 71 334 bp and is organized as a circular molecule with two gaps of unknown size flanking the middle exon of the nad5 gene. we located genes coding for the three subunits of the atp synthase (atp6, atp8 and atp9), the apocytochrome b (cob), three subunits of the cytochrome c oxidase enzy ...200717492801
the aspergillus nidulans putative kinase, kfsa (kinase for septation), plays a role in septation and is required for efficient asexual spore aspergillus nidulans nuclear division and cytokinesis are coupled processes during asexual sporulation. metulae, phialides and conidia contain a single nucleus. here we describe the role of a putative saccharomyces cerevisiae kin4-related kinase, kfsa (kinase for septation) in the control of septum formation in a. nidulans. the kfsa deletion caused an increase in the number of conidiophores with septa in their stalks from 20% in wild type to 60% in the mutant strain. interestingly, 7% of metu ...200717500016
human nima-related kinase 6 is one of the fe65 ww domain binding proteins.the aspergillus nidulans protein nima (never in mitosis, gene a) is a protein kinase required for initiation of mitosis, whereas its inactivation is necessary for mitotic exit. here, we present evidence that human nek6 is associated with fe65. based on the presence of fe65 ww domain binding motifs ((267)pplp(270)) in the nek6 catalytic domain, we observed that nek6 interacts physically with fe65 both in vivo and in vitro, using a pull-down approach. additionally, we detected co-localization of n ...200717512906
regulation of expression and kinetic modeling of substrate interactions of a uracil transporter in aspergillus nidulans.early genetic evidence suggested that a. nidulans possesses at least one uracil transporter. a gene, named furd, was recently identified by reverse genetics and in silico approaches and we confirm here that it encodes a high-affinity, high-capacity, uracil transporter. in this work, we study the regulation of expression of furd and develop a kinetic model describing transporter-substrate interactions. the furd gene is not expressed in resting conidiospores, is transcriptionally activated and rea ...200717520477
synthetic ecosystems based on airborne inter- and intrakingdom communication.intercellular communication within an organism, between populations, or across species and kingdoms forms the basis of many ecosystems in which organisms coexist through symbiotic, parasitic, or predator-prey relationships. using multistep airborne communication and signal transduction, we present synthetic ecosystems within a mammalian cell population, in mice, or across species and kingdoms. inter- and intrakingdom communication was enabled by using sender cells that produce volatile aldehydes ...200717551014
molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of a chitinase from the entomopathogenic fungus paecilomyces javanicus.paecilomyces javanicus is an entomopathogenic fungus of coleopteran and lepidopteran insects. here we report on cloning, characterization, and expression patterns of a chitinase from p. javanicus. a strong chitinase activity was detected in p. javanicus cultures added to chitin. the full-length cdna, designated pjchi-1, was cloned from mycelia by using both degenerate primer/reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) amplification and 5'-/3'-race extension. the 1.18-kb cdna gene co ...200717551789
steric analysis of 8-hydroxy- and 10-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids and dihydroxyoctadecadienoic acids formed from 8r-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid by hydroperoxide isomerases.8-hydroxyoctadeca-9z,12z-dienoic acid (8-hode) and 10-hydroxyoctadeca-8e,12z-octadecadienoic acid (10-hode) are produced by fungi, e.g., 8r-hode by gaeumannomyces graminis (take-all of wheat) and aspergillus nidulans, 10s-hode by lentinula edodes, and 10r-hode by epichloe typhina. racemic [8-(2)h]8-hode and [10-(2)h]10-hode were prepared by oxidation of 8- and 10-hode to keto fatty acids by dess-martin periodinane followed by reduction to hydroxy fatty acids with nab(2)h(4). the hydroxy fatty ac ...200717553451
interaction of hapx with the ccaat-binding complex--a novel mechanism of gene regulation by iron.iron homeostasis requires subtle control systems, as iron is both essential and toxic. in aspergillus nidulans, iron represses iron acquisition via the gata factor srea, and induces iron-dependent pathways at the transcriptional level, by a so far unknown mechanism. here, we demonstrate that iron-dependent pathways (e.g., heme biosynthesis) are repressed during iron-depleted conditions by physical interaction of hapx with the ccaat-binding core complex (cbc). proteome analysis identified putativ ...200717568774
characterization of afpa, an alkaline foam protein from cultures of fusarium culmorum and its identification in infected malt.the objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of fusarium culmorum to produce non-hydrophobin surface-active proteins in vitro, to isolate and characterize such proteins from liquid cultures, to analyse their effect on overfoaming (gushing) of beer and to elucidate their prevalence in pure cultures and infected malt.200717584451
a one-pot chemoenzymatic synthesis for the universal precursor of antidiabetes and antiviral bis-indolylquinones.bis-indolylquinones represent a class of fungal natural products that display antiretroviral, antidiabetes, or cytotoxic bioactivities. recent advances in aspergillus genomic mining efforts have led to the discovery of the tdia-e-gene cluster, which is the first genetic locus dedicated to bis-indolylquinone biosynthesis. we have now genetically and biochemically characterized the enzymes tdia (bis-indolylquinone synthetase) and tdid (l-tryptophan:phenylpyruvate aminotransferase), which, together ...200717584611
nek7 is a centrosomal kinase critical for microtubule nucleation.nima in aspergillus nidulans is a mitotic kinase for chromosome condensation and segregation. we characterized nek7, a human homologue of aspergillus nima. nek7 was located at the centrosome throughout the cell cycle. temporal localization of nek7 at midbody of the cytokinetic cell was also observed. nek7 knockdown by rnai caused a prometaphase arrest of the cell cycle with monopolar or disorganized spindle. we propose that such defects in spindle assembly are resulted from reduction in microtub ...200717586473
analysis of septins across kingdoms reveals orthology and new motifs.septins are cytoskeletal gtpase proteins first discovered in the fungus saccharomyces cerevisiae where they organize the septum and link nuclear division with cell division. more recently septins have been found in animals where they are important in processes ranging from actin and microtubule organization to embryonic patterning and where defects in septins have been implicated in human disease. previous studies suggested that many animal septins fell into independent evolutionary groups, conf ...200717601340
a clc chloride channel plays an essential role in copper homeostasis in aspergillus nidulans at increased extracellular copper concentrations.a putative clc voltage-gated anion channel gene from aspergillus nidulans (anclca) is characterised. the expression of the anclca cdna restored the iron-limited growth of the saccharomyces cerevisiae clc null mutant strain (gef1) suggesting that anclca functions as a chloride channel. an anclca conditional mutant was created and exhibited a strong and specific growth inhibition in the presence of extracellular copper concentrations >18 microm. this sensitivity was shown to be the result of a hyp ...200717601488
mpka-dependent and -independent cell wall integrity signaling in aspergillus nidulans.cell wall integrity signaling (cwis) maintains cell wall biogenesis in fungi, but only a few transcription factors (tfs) and target genes downstream of the cwis cascade in filamentous fungi are known. because a mitogen-activated protein kinase (mpka) is a key cwis enzyme, the transcriptional regulation of mpka and of cell wall-related genes (cwgs) is important in cell wall biogenesis. we cloned aspergillus nidulans mpka; rlma, a tf gene orthologous to saccharomyces cerevisiae rlm1 that encodes r ...200717601879
transformation of taxol-producing endophytic fungi by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (remi).the remi method was used to introduce the plasmid pv2 harboring the hygromycin b phosphotransferase (hph) gene controlled by the aspergillus nidulans trpc promoter and the trpc terminator into a taxol-producing endophytic fungus bt2. remi transformation yielded stable transformants capable of continuing to grow on pda medium containing 125 mug ml(-1) hygromycin b. the transformation efficiency was about 5-6 transformants mug(-1) plasmid dna. the presence of hph gene in transformants was confirme ...200717608701
fungal photoreceptors: sensory molecules for fungal development and behaviour.light regulates fungal development and behaviour and activates metabolic pathways. in addition, light is one of the many signals that fungi use to perceive and interact with the environment. in the ascomycete neurospora crassa blue light is perceived by the white collar (wc) complex, a protein complex formed by wc-1 and wc-2. wc-1 is a protein with a flavin-binding domain and a zinc-finger domain, and interacts with wc-2, another zinc-finger domain protein. the wc complex operates as a photorece ...200717609765
histone deacetylase activity regulates chemical diversity in aspergillus.bioactive small molecules are critical in aspergillus species during their development and interaction with other organisms. genes dedicated to their production are encoded in clusters that can be located throughout the genome. we show that deletion of hdaa, encoding an aspergillus nidulans histone deacetylase (hdac), causes transcriptional activation of two telomere-proximal gene clusters--and subsequent increased levels of the corresponding molecules (toxin and antibiotic)--but not of a telome ...200717616629
characterization of the bzip-type transcription factor napa with reference to oxidative stress response in aspergillus nidulans.microorganisms growing in natural habitats are constantly confronted with a wide variety of external stresses. here we provide several lines of experimental evidence for the thesis that the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans has a homolog of the ap-1-like bzip transcription factor, which is known to play general roles in oxidative responses in many types of yeast.200717617701
novel reporter gene expression systems for monitoring activation of the aspergillus nidulans hog pathway.the aspergillus nidulans high-osmolarity glycerol response (anhog) pathway is involved in osmoadaptation. we found that fludioxonil, a fungicide, causes improper activation of hoga mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) in a. nidulans. here we present novel reporter systems for monitoring activation of the anhog pathway. the promoter region of gfdb (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), whose expression depends on the presence of hoga, was fused to a beta-glucuronidase uida gene (gus) to constru ...200717617716
gene duplication, modularity and adaptation in the evolution of the aflatoxin gene cluster.the biosynthesis of aflatoxin (af) involves over 20 enzymatic reactions in a complex polyketide pathway that converts acetate and malonate to the intermediates sterigmatocystin (st) and o-methylsterigmatocystin (omst), the respective penultimate and ultimate precursors of af. although these precursors are chemically and structurally very similar, their accumulation differs at the species level for aspergilli. notable examples are a. nidulans that synthesizes only st, a. flavus that makes predomi ...200717620135
neuronal migration: unraveling the molecular pathway with humans, mice, and a fungus.this review highlights the utility of comparative genetics in understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie neuronal migration. it is apparent from studies in humans, mice, and a fungus that nuclear migration is a key component of neuronal migration and that both are dependent on a dynamic microtubule network. in vertebrates regulation of this network involves a complex pathway that is dependent on extracellular guidance cues, membrane-bound receptors, intracellular signaling molecules, p ...200717629745
aspergillus nidulans conidiation genes dewa, flug, and stua are differentially regulated in early vegetative growth.microarray analysis was used to identify transcriptional changes in early vegetative growth of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. the results suggest that the previously identified conidiation genes dewa, flug, and stua may function in isotropic expansion during early vegetative growth and asexual reproduction.200717630328
response regulators srra and sska are central components of a phosphorelay system involved in stress signal transduction and asexual sporulation in aspergillus nidulans.among eukaryotes, only slime molds, fungi, and plants contain signal transduction phosphorelay systems. in filamentous fungi, multiple sensor kinases appear to use a single histidine-containing phosphotransfer (hpt) protein to relay signals to two response regulators (rr). in aspergillus nidulans, the rr sska mediates activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase saka in response to osmotic and oxidative stress, whereas the functions of the rr srra were unknown. we used a genetic approach t ...200717630329
oxylipins as developmental and host-fungal communication signals.pathogenic microbes and their hosts have acquired complex signalling mechanisms to appraise themselves of the environmental milieu in the ongoing battle for survival. several recent studies have implicated oxylipins as a novel class of host-microbe signalling molecules. oxylipins represent a vast and diverse family of secondary metabolites that originate from the oxidation or further conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids. among the microbial oxylipins, the fungal oxylipins are best character ...200717276068
phosphopantetheinyl transferase cfwa/npga is required for aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolism and asexual development.polyketide synthases (pkss) and/or nonribosomal peptide synthetases (nrpss) are central components of secondary metabolism in bacteria, plants, and fungi. in filamentous fungi, diverse pkss and nrpss participate in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as pigments, antibiotics, siderophores, and mycotoxins. however, many secondary metabolites as well as the enzymes involved in their production are yet to be discovered. both pkss and nrpss require activation by enzyme members of the 4'-p ...200717277172
accurate prediction of the aspergillus nidulans terrequinone gene cluster boundaries using the transcriptional regulator laea.laea is a regulatory protein of the genus aspergillus which controls global expression of secondary metabolism gene clusters. during a previous genome-wide transcriptional profiling screen, numerous novel gene clusters were found to be regulated by laea including a cluster required for the production of the antitumor agent terrequinone a. beginnings and ends of secondary metabolite gene clusters are difficult to predict by gene sequence alone, but sharp demarcation of transcriptional control by ...200717291795
genotoxicity (mitotic recombination) of the cancer chemotherapeutic agents cisplatin and cytosine arabinoside in aspergillus nidulans.cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, cis-ddp) and cytosine arabinoside (ara-c) are anticancer drugs used in the treatment of human cancer. the two chemotherapeutic drugs were tested in current research for their recombinogenic potential in diploid cells of aspergillus nidulans. non-cytotoxic concentrations of ara-c (0.4 and 0.8 microm) and cis-ddp (1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 microm) were strong recombinagens in a. nidulans ut448//a757 diploid strain, which induced homozygosis of recessive genetic mark ...200717306432
small molecule inhibitors of histone arginine methyltransferases: homology modeling, molecular docking, binding mode analysis, and biological evaluations.the screening of the inhibition capabilities of dye-like small molecules from a focused library against both human prmt1 and aspergillus nidulans rmta is reported as well as molecular modeling studies (homology modeling, molecular docking, and 3-d qsar) of the catalytic domain of the prmt1 fungal homologue rmta. the good correlation between computational and biological results makes rmta a reliable tool for screening arginine methyltransferase inhibitors. in addition, the binding mode analyses o ...200717323938
the evolutionary history of cytochrome p450 genes in four filamentous ascomycetes.the cytochrome p450 system is important in fungal evolution for adapting to novel ecological niches. to elucidate the evolutionary process of cytochrome p450 genes in fungi with different life styles, we studied the patterns of gene gains and losses in the genomes of four filamentous ascomycetes, including two saprotrophs (aspergillus nidulans (an) and neurospora crassa (nc)) and two plant pathogens (fusarium graminearum (fg) and magnaporthe grisea (mg)).200717324274
transcriptional control of gluconeogenesis in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans can utilize carbon sources that result in the production of tca cycle intermediates, thereby requiring gluconeogenesis. we have cloned the acug gene encoding fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase and found that expression of this gene is regulated by carbon catabolite repression as well as by induction by a tca cycle intermediate similar to the induction of the previously studied acuf gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. the acun356 mutation results in loss of growth on gl ...200717339216
characterization of the nika histidine kinase implicated in the phosphorelay signal transduction of aspergillus nidulans, with special reference to fungicide responses.we recently compiled a complete list of phosphorelay signal transduction components in the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. in this study, we characterized a histidine protein kinase (designated nika) that is found in many fungi, with special reference to responses to potent fungicides (iprodione and fludioxonil). we provided evidence that not only nika, but also two downstream response regulators (sska and srra) are crucially implicated in the mode of action of these fungicides, a ...200717341812
genomics of aspergillus oryzae.the genome sequence of aspergillus oryzae, a fungus used in the production of the traditional japanese fermentation foods sake (rice wine), shoyu (soy sauce), and miso (soybean paste), has revealed prominent features in its gene composition as compared to those of saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crassa. the a. oryzae genome is extremely enriched with genes involved in biomass degradation, primary and secondary metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and cell signaling. even compared to t ...200717341818
the proline permease of aspergillus nidulans: functional replacement of the native cysteine residues and properties of a cysteine-less transporter.the major proline transporter (prnb) of aspergillus nidulans belongs to the amino acid polyamine organocation (apc) transporter superfamily. members of this family have not been subjected to systematic structure-function relationship studies. in this report, we examine the functional replacement of the three native cys residues (cys54, cys352 and cys530) of prnb and the properties of an engineered cys-less prnb protein, as background for employing a cys-scanning mutagenesis approach. we show tha ...200717350864
the tightly regulated promoter of the xana gene of aspergillus nidulans is included in a aspergillus nidulans the xana gene codes for a xanthine alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, an enzyme only present in the fungal kingdom. the 5' region of this gene, including its putative promoter and the first 54 codons of the open reading frame, together with the first intron is duplicated in the genome. this duplication corresponds to a helitron, a eukaryotic element proposed to transpose replicatively by the rolling circle mechanism. we show that the regulation of xana conforms to ...200717367381
genomics-driven discovery of pks-nrps hybrid metabolites from aspergillus the postgenomic era it has become increasingly apparent that the vast number of predicted biosynthesis genes of microorganisms is not reflected by the metabolic profile observed under standard fermentation conditions. in the absence of a particular (in most cases unknown) trigger these gene loci remain silent. because these cryptic gene clusters may code for the biosynthesis of important virulence factors, toxins, or even drug candidates, new strategies for their activation are urgently neede ...200717369821
the light-dependent regulator velvet a of aspergillus nidulans acts as a repressor of the penicillin biosynthesis.the biosynthesis of the beta-lactam antibiotic penicillin in aspergillus nidulans is catalysed by three enzymes that are encoded by the genes acva, ipna and aata. several studies have indicated that these genes are controlled by a complex regulatory network, including a variety of cis-acting dna elements and regulatory factors. until now, however, relatively little information is available on external signals and their transmission influencing the expression of the structural genes. here, we sho ...200717375284
a regulator of a g protein signalling (rgs) gene, cag8, from the insect-pathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae is involved in conidiation, virulence and hydrophobin synthesis.regulators of the g protein signalling (rgs) pathway have been implicated in the control of a diverse array of cellular functions, including conidiation in filamentous fungi. however, the regulatory processes involved in conidiation in insect-pathogenic fungi are poorly understood. since conidia are the infective propagules in these fungi, an understanding of the regulatory processes involved in conidiation is essential to the development of an effective biocontrol fungus. here, the cloning and ...200717379711
interactions of isopenicillin n synthase with cyclopropyl-containing substrate analogues reveal new mechanistic insight.isopenicillin n synthase (ipns), a non-heme iron oxidase central to penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthesis, catalyzes an energetically demanding chemical transformation to produce isopenicillin n from the tripeptide delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine (acv). we describe the synthesis of two cyclopropyl-containing tripeptide analogues, delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-l-cysteinyl-beta-methyl-d-cyclopropylglycine and delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-cyclopropylglycine, desig ...200717397141
a homologue of the aspergillus velvet gene regulates both cephalosporin c biosynthesis and hyphal fragmentation in acremonium chrysogenum.the aspergillus nidulans velvet (vea) gene encodes a global regulator of gene expression controlling sexual development as well as secondary metabolism. we have identified the vea homologue acvea from acremonium chrysogenum, the major producer of the beta-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin c. two different disruption strains as well as the corresponding complements were generated as a prelude to detailed functional analysis. northern hybridization and quantitative real-time pcr clearly indicate tha ...200717400783
targeting polyamines of aspergillus nidulans by sirna specific to fungal ornithine decarboxylase gene.aspergillus nidulans is a filamentous, ubiquitous and opportunistic pathogenic fungus, which causes fatal invasive aspergillosis among immunocompromised patients. as a prelude to the investigations on the possible control of human fungal diseases by selective targeting of fungal polyamines that are essential for fungal growth and development by rnai strategy, we have examined the effect of sirna specific to a key polyamine biosynthesis gene ornithine decarboxylase (odc) on the in vitro germinati ...200717464842
mitotic recombination accelerates adaptation in the fungus aspergillus nidulans.understanding the prevalence of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is a hard problem. at least two aspects still defy a fully satisfactory explanation, the functional significance of genetic recombination and the great variation among taxa in the relative lengths of the haploid and diploid phases in the sexual cycle. we have performed an experimental study to explore the specific advantages of haploidy or diploidy in the fungus aspergillus nidulans. comparing the rate of adaptation to a novel env ...200717465683
coupling the gal4 uas system with alcr for versatile cell type-specific chemically inducible gene expression in arabidopsis.the aspergillus alc regulon encodes a transcription factor, alcr, which regulates transcription from cognate promoters such as alca(p). in the presence of suitable chemical inducers, alcr activates gene expression from alca(p). the alc regulon can be transferred to other species and can be used to control the expression of reporter, metabolic and developmental genes in response to low-level ethanol exposure. in this paper, we describe a versatile system for targeting the alc regulon to specific ...200717470056
an eight-subunit cop9 signalosome with an intact jamm motif is required for fungal fruit body formation.fruit body formation in filamentous fungi is a complex and yet hardly understood process. we show here that protein turnover control is crucial for aspergillus nidulans development. deletion of genes encoding cop9 signalosome (csn) subunits 1, 2, 4, or 5 resulted in identical blocks in fruit body formation. the csn multiprotein complex controls ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation in eukaryotes. six csn subunits interacted in a yeast two-hybrid analysis, and the complete eight-subunit csn was ...200717470786
multiple fungal enzymes possess cysteine synthase activity in vitro.we present evidence that there are at least three aspergillus nidulans enzymes which catalyze in vitro the reaction of o-acetylserine (oas) with sulfide forming cysteine. this activity is shared by cysteine synthase (cs) encoded by the cysb gene, homocysteine synthase encoded by cysd and by at least one more enzyme. moreover, arginine, histidine or proline starvation leads to derepression of cs activity even in the cysb,cysd double mutant strains, while neither cysb nor cysd gene transcription i ...200717482430
role of respiration in the germination process of the pathogenic mold aspergillus fumigatus.inhalation of resting conidia is usually the first step of a systemic infection caused by the opportunistic fungal pathogen aspergillus fumigatus. in the lung, the inhaled spores encounter an environment that permits germination. however, the relative importance of certain environmental conditions for conidial activation and subsequent hyphae formation has so far not been analyzed in detail. in this study, we studied the role of oxygen during germination. we found that inhibitors of the respirat ...200717486408
the thioredoxin system of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans: impact on development and oxidative stress response.redox regulation has been shown to be of increasing importance for many cellular processes. here, redox homeostasis was addressed in aspergillus nidulans, an important model organism for fundamental biological questions such as development, gene regulation or the regulation of the production of secondary metabolites. we describe the characterization of a thioredoxin system from the filamentous fungus a. nidulans. the a. nidulans thioredoxin a (antrxa) is an 11.6-kda protein with a characteristic ...200717631497
a small membrane-peripheral region close to the active center determines regioselectivity of membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases from aspergillus nidulans.fatty acid desaturases catalyze the introduction of double bonds at specific positions of an acyl chain and are categorized according to their substrate specificity and regioselectivity. the current understanding of membrane-bound desaturases is based on mutant studies, biochemical topology analysis, and the comparison of related enzymes with divergent functionality. because structural information is lacking, the principles of membrane-bound desaturase specificity are still not understood despit ...200717636265
protein environment facilitates o2 binding in non-heme iron enzyme. an insight from oniom calculations on isopenicillin n synthase (ipns).binding of dioxygen to a non-heme enzyme has been modeled using the oniom combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (qm/mm) method. for the present system, isopenicillin n synthase (ipns), binding of dioxygen is stabilized by 8-10 kcal/mol for a qm:mm (b3lyp:amber) protein model compared to a quantum mechanical model of the active site only. in the protein system, the free energy change of o2 binding is close to zero. two major factors consistently stabilize o2 binding. the first effect, ...200717637052
purification and characterization of the feii- and alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent xanthine hydroxylase from aspergillus nidulans.his6-tagged xanthine/alpha-ketoglutarate (alphakg) dioxygenase (xana) of aspergillus nidulans was purified from both the fungal mycelium and recombinant escherichia coli cells, and the properties of the two forms of the protein were compared. evidence was obtained for both n- and o-linked glycosylation on the fungus-derived xana, which aggregates into an apparent dodecamer, while bacterium-derived xana is free of glycosylation and behaves as a monomer. immunological methods identify phosphothreo ...200717429948
target-based approach to inhibitors of histone arginine methyltransferases.lysine and arginine methyltransferases participate in the post-translational modification of histones and regulate key cellular functions. so far only one arginine methyltransferase inhibitor discovered by random screening was available. we present the first target-based approach to protein arginine methyltransferase (prmt) inhibitors. homology models of human and aspergillus nidulans prmt1 were generated from available x-ray structures of rat prmts. the nci diversity set was filtered by a targe ...200717432842
genetic manipulation of aspergillus nidulans: meiotic progeny for genetic analysis and strain construction.the multicellular microbial eukaryote aspergillus nidulans is an excellent model for the study of a wide array of biological processes. studies in this system contribute significantly to understanding fundamental biological principles and are relevant for biotechnology and industrial applications, as well as human, animal and plant fungal pathogenesis. a. nidulans is easily manipulated using classical and molecular genetics. here, we describe the storage and handling of a. nidulans and procedure ...200717446881
genetic manipulation of aspergillus nidulans: heterokaryons and diploids for dominance, complementation and haploidization analyses.the haploid microbial eukaryote aspergillus nidulans is a powerful genetic system, which allows analysis of a broad range of biological phenomena. in addition to conventional analysis of meiotic progeny in a single generation, parasexual analysis affords a rapid and convenient method for genetic analysis. we describe the construction of a. nidulans heterokaryons and diploids for use in genetic analysis to determine dominance and conduct complementation tests. we also describe the rapid mapping o ...200717446882
the aspergillus nidulans pkca gene is involved in polarized growth, morphogenesis and maintenance of cell wall integrity.the protein kinase c (pkc) family participates in maintaining integrity and growth of fungal cell walls. however, the precise molecular role of these proteins in the filamentous fungi remains unknown. in this work, pkca, the gene encoding the pkc homolog in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, was cloned and its function analyzed using a conditional alca-pkc mutant strain. repression of pkca expression resulted in increased conidial swelling, decreased rates of hyphal growth, changes in ...200717406869
basa regulates cell wall organization and asexual/sexual sporulation ratio in aspergillus nidulans.sphingolipid c4 hydroxylase catalyzes the conversion of dihydrosphingosine to phytosphingosine. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, sur2 is essential for sphingolipid c4 hydroxylation activity but not essential for normal growth. here we demonstrate that the aspergillus nidulans sur2 homolog basa is also required for phytosphingosine biosynthesis but is also essential for viability. we previously reported that a point missense mutation in basa resulted in aberrant cell wall thickening. here our data su ...200717409079
further characterization of the signaling proteolysis step in the aspergillus nidulans ph signal transduction pathway.the aspergillus nidulans ph-responsive transcription factor pacc is modulated by limited, two-step proteolysis. the first, ph-regulated cleavage occurs in the 24-residue highly conserved "signaling protease box" in response to the alkaline ph signal. this is transduced by the pal signaling pathway, containing the predicted calpain-like cysteine protease and likely signaling protease, palb. in this work, we carried out classical mutational analysis of the putative signaling protease palb, and we ...200717416893
the sska and srra response regulators are implicated in oxidative stress responses of hyphae and asexual spores in the phosphorelay signaling network of aspergillus nidulans.histidine-to-aspartate (his-asp) phosphorelay (or two-component) systems are common signal transduction mechanisms implicated in a wide variety of cellular responses to environmental stimuli in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. for a model filamentous fungi, aspergillus nidulans, in this study we first compiled a complete list of his-asp phosphorelay components, including 15 genes for his-kinase (hk), four genes for response regulator (rr), and only one for histidine-containing phosphotransfer in ...200717420584
lissencephaly and lis1: insights into the molecular mechanisms of neuronal migration and development.lissencephaly is a severe human neuronal migration defect characterized by a smooth cerebral surface, mental retardation and seizures. lis1 was first gene cloned in an organism important for neuronal migration, as it was deleted or mutated in patients with lissencephaly in a heterozygous fashion. studies in model organisms, particularly aspergillus nidulans, as well as those in the mouse, have uncovered an evolutionarily conserved pathway that involves lis1 and cytoplasmic dynein. this pathway c ...200717850624
transcriptional control of nmra by the bzip transcription factor meab reveals a new level of nitrogen regulation in aspergillus nidulans.fungi can use a diverse range of nitrogen sources. some nitrogen sources sustain a rapid growth rate and are used in preference to less readily metabolized nitrogen sources. the mechanisms involved in this control of nitrogen utilization have been studied in the model filamentous ascomycete, aspergillus nidulans. the gata transcription factor area is necessary for the expression of nitrogen-catabolic permeases and enzymes. area activity is controlled by multiple mechanisms including regulated ar ...200717854403
effect of selected natural dyes in reduction on colour changes of egyptian linen textiles by fungi.linen is the most historical egyptian textile fibre liable to fungal deterioration. fungal deterioration of dyed linen textiles may appear as undesirable different stains. in order to success in removing of fungal stains from biodeteriorated historical egyptian dyed linen textiles, it is necessary to understand the nature and causes of these stains, hence their subsequent removal. so this paper aims to investigate the effect of fungi on dyed linen textiles. in this study linen textile samples we ...200717867537
terrequinone a biosynthesis through l-tryptophan oxidation, dimerization and bisprenylation.the antitumor fungal metabolite terrequinone a, identified in extracts of aspergillus sp., is biosynthesized by the five-gene cluster tdia-tdie. in this work, we have overproduced all five proteins (tdia-tdie) in the bacterial host escherichia coli, fully reconstituting the biosynthesis of terrequinone a. this pathway involves aminotransferase activity, head-to-tail dimerization and bisprenylation of the scaffold to yield the benzoquinone natural product. we have established that tdid is a pyrid ...200717704773
arginine catabolism in aspergillus nidulans is regulated by the rrma gene coding for the rna-binding protein.expression of aspergillus nidulans arginine catabolism genes, agaa and otaa, is regulated at the level of transcription by a specific induction and two global carbon and nitrogen repression systems. post-transcriptional and/or post-translational mechanisms have also been proposed to operate additionally. gene tagging with transposon impala allowed us to select the rrma gene. rrma protein contains three conserved rrm domains, typical for rna-binding proteins. the gene has a complex structure with ...200717719249
role of the transcriptional activator xlnr of fusarium oxysporum in regulation of xylanase genes and virulence.fungal infection of plants involves degradation of the host cell wall through the action of lytic enzymes secreted by the pathogen. the role of these enzymes in virulence is difficult to determine due to their functional redundancy and, therefore, remains controversial. here, we have studied xlnr, a zinc-finger transcription factor from the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum that is orthologous to the major transcriptional activator of xylanase genes in aspergillus spp. transcription of t ...200717722701
mitotic regulation by nima-related kinases.abstract: the nima-related kinases represent a family of serine/threonine kinases implicated in cell cycle control. the founding member of this family, the nima kinase of aspergillus nidulans, as well as the fission yeast homologue fin1, contribute to multiple aspects of mitotic progression including the timing of mitotic entry, chromatin condensation, spindle organization and cytokinesis. mammals contain a large family of eleven nima-related kinases, named nek1 to nek11. of these, there is now ...200717727698
the pan-ac assay: a single-reaction real-time pcr test for quantitative detection of a broad range of aspergillus and candida view of the growing incidence and the high mortality of invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis, adequate diagnostic techniques permitting timely onset of treatment are of paramount importance. more than 90 % of all invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised individuals can be attributed to candida and aspergillus species. to date, standardized techniques permitting rapid, sensitive and, no less importantly, economic screening for the clinically most relevant fungi are lacking. in the pre ...200717761478
fungal nucleobase transporters.early genetic and physiological work in bacteria and fungi has suggested the presence of highly specific nucleobase transport systems. similar transport systems are now known to exist in algae, plants, protozoa and metazoa. within the last 15 years, a small number of microbial genes encoding nucleobase transporters have been cloned and studied in great detail. the sequences of several other putative proteins submitted to databases are homologous to the microbial nucleobase transporters but their ...200717784857
effect of caspofungin on metabolite profiles of aspergillus species determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.invasive aspergillosis remains a potentially life-threatening infection, the incidence of which is increasing. current methods used to determine the susceptibilities of aspergillus strains to antifungal drugs are often unreliable. nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy can identify the metabolic complement of microorganisms while monitoring nutrient utilization from the incubation medium. we used 600-mhz (1)h nmr spectroscopy to monitor the metabolic responses of five aspergillus species ...200717785514
asexual recombination in a uvsh mutant of aspergillus nidulans.mutations in the gene uvsh of aspergillus nidulans result in increased spontaneous chromosome instability and increased intragenic and intergenic mitotic recombination in homozygous diploids. the aim of the present work was to obtain a uvs mutant of a. nidulans and to use it for the isolation of asexual recombinants (parameiotic segregants). the mutant uvsh, named b511, showed normal frequency of meiotic recombination in sexual crosses and high frequency of parameiotic segregants in the parasexu ...200717657356
dioctatin a is a strong inhibitor of aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus.dioctatin a (dota), a metabolite of streptomyces, is known to be an inhibitor of human dipeptidyl aminopeptidase ii. here, it was found that dota strongly inhibited aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus, with an ic50 value of 4.0 microm. the mycelial growth of the fungus was not affected by the addition of dota at a concentration of 50 microm, but inhibition of conidiation was observed at the same concentration. dota inhibited production of norsolorinic acid, an early biosynthetic inte ...200717660441
mating type and the genetic basis of self-fertility in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans.sexual reproduction occurs in two fundamentally different ways: by outcrossing, in which two distinct partners contribute nuclei, or by self-fertilization (selfing), in which both nuclei are derived from the same individual. selfing is common in flowering plants, fungi, and some animal taxa. we investigated the genetic basis of selfing in the homothallic fungus aspergillus nidulans. we demonstrate that alpha and high-mobility group domain mating-type (mat) genes, found in outcrossing species, ar ...200717669651
rapid isolation of fungal genomic dna suitable for long distance pcr.a quick and reliable method for screening fungal transformants for specific genetic modifications is essential for many molecular applications. we have compared the applicability of a few rapid dna extraction methods for myrothecium and aspergillus and tested the resulting dna as to its suitability for pcr. for myrothecium gramineum, the highest dna concentration was obtained with the procedure described by n. vanittanakom et al. (j clin microbiol 2002, 40: 1739-1742). for a. nidulans, concentra ...200717680211
secondary chemicals protect mould from fungivory.the vast repertoire of toxic fungal secondary metabolites has long been assumed to have an evolved protective role against fungivory. it still remains elusive, however, whether fungi contain these compounds as an anti-predator adaptation. we demonstrate that loss of secondary metabolites in the soil mould aspergillus nidulans causes, under the attack of the fungivorous springtail folsomia candida, a disadvantage to the fungus. springtails exhibited a distinct preference for feeding on a mutant d ...200717686752
evidence for post-translational regulation of nrta, the aspergillus nidulans high-affinity nitrate, influx and efflux of (13)no(3)(-), and net fluxes of (14)no(3)(-) and (14)no(2)(-), were measured in aspergillus nidulans mutants niad171 and niia5, devoid of nitrate reductase (nr) and nitrite reductase (nir) activities, respectively. transcript and protein abundances of nrta, the a. nidulans principal high-affinity no(3)(-) transporter, were determined using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blots, respectively. (13)no(3)(-) influx in niad171 wa ...200717688585
conrad: gene prediction using conditional random fields.we present conrad, the first comparative gene predictor based on semi-markov conditional random fields (smcrfs). unlike the best standalone gene predictors, which are based on generalized hidden markov models (ghmms) and trained by maximum likelihood, conrad is discriminatively trained to maximize annotation accuracy. in addition, unlike the best annotation pipelines, which rely on heuristic and ad hoc decision rules to combine standalone gene predictors with additional information such as ests ...200717690204
light represses conidiation in koji mold aspergillus the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae, there has been no report on photoreaction. here we investigated the effect of light in a. oryzae and found that conidiation was repressed by white light. this reaction is contrary to that of other aspergilli, which show abundant conidiation under light. moreover, red light also caused reduced conidiation. genome sequencing of a. oryzae indicated the existence of homologs of some light-related genes in other filamentous fungi. to approach the molecula ...200717690479
pina from aspergillus nidulans binds to ps/pt-p motifs using the same loop i and xp groove as mammalian pin1.binding of the cdc25c-t48 ligand to pina from aspergillus nidulans has been characterised by the identification of 15n and 1h resonances from 1h-15n hsqc nmr titration experiments using previous backbone assignments. it is shown that the binding site for the cdc25c-t48 ligand with pina is the same as in the mammalian protein pin1, although with a reduced binding affinity. it had previously been proposed that the arginine residue (r17) in the loop i region of the pin1 ww domain is essential for b ...200717693144
palc, one of two bro1 domain proteins in the fungal ph signalling pathway, localizes to cortical structures and binds vps32.palc, distantly related to saccharomyces cerevisiae peripheral endosomal sorting complexes required for transport iii (escrt-iii) component bro1p and one of six aspergillus nidulans ph signalling proteins, contains a bro1 domain. green fluorescent protein (gfp)-tagged palc is recruited to plasma membrane-associated punctate structures upon alkalinization, when ph signalling is active. palc recruitment to these structures is dependent on the seven transmembrane domain (7-tmd) receptor and likely ...200717696968
femtochemistry in enzyme catalysis: dna photolyase.photolyase uses light energy to split uv-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in damaged dna. this photoenzyme encompasses a series of elementary dynamical processes during repair function from early photoinitiation by a photoantenna molecule to enhance repair efficiency, to in vitro photoreduction through aromatic residues to reconvert the cofactor to the active form, and to final photorepair to fix damaged dna. the corresponding series of dynamics include resonance energy transfer, intraprote ...200717703066
aspergillus volatiles regulate aflatoxin synthesis and asexual sporulation in aspergillus parasiticus.aspergillus parasiticus is one primary source of aflatoxin contamination in economically important crops. to prevent the potential health and economic impacts of aflatoxin contamination, our goal is to develop practical strategies to reduce aflatoxin synthesis on susceptible crops. one focus is to identify biological and environmental factors that regulate aflatoxin synthesis and to manipulate these factors to control aflatoxin biosynthesis in the field or during crop storage. in the current stu ...200717890344
identification of dioxygenases required for aspergillus development. studies of products, stereochemistry, and the reaction mechanism.aspergillus sp. contain ppoa, ppob, and ppoc genes, which code for fatty acid oxygenases with homology to fungal linoleate 7,8-diol synthases (7,8-lds) and cyclooxygenases. our objective was to identify these enzymes, as ppo gene replacements show critical developmental aberrancies in sporulation and pathogenicity in the human pathogen aspergillus fumigatus and the genetic model aspergillus nidulans. the ppoas of a. fumigatus and a. nidulans were identified as (8r)-dioxygenases with hydroperoxid ...200717906293
evidence for the direct involvement of the proteasome in the proteolytic processing of the aspergillus nidulans zinc finger transcription factor pacc.the 72-kda zinc finger transcription factor pacc, distantly related to ci/gli developmental regulators, undergoes two-step proteolytic processing in response to alkaline ambient ph. "signaling protease" cleavage of pacc(72) removes a processing-inhibitory c-terminal domain, making its truncated pacc(53) product accessible to a second "processing" protease, yielding pacc(27). features of the processing proteolysis suggested the proteasome as a candidate protease. we constructed, using gene replac ...200717911112
a novel regulator couples sporogenesis and trehalose biogenesis in aspergillus nidulans.trehalose is a compatible osmolyte produced by bacteria, fungi, insects and plants to protect the integrity of cells against various environmental stresses. spores, the reproductive, survival and infection bodies of fungi require high amounts of trehalose for long-term survival. here, via a gain-of-function genetic screen, we identify the novel regulator vosa that couples the formation of spores and focal trehalose biogenesis in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans. the vosa gene is expressed s ...200717912349
self-fertility: the genetics of sex in lonely fungi.the genome of the fungus aspergillus nidulans encodes both of the mating-type regulators of sexuality, thus allowing self-fertility. pheromone signaling genes are induced during sexual development, as found in outcrossing species, but, surprisingly, the regulators do not control expression of these genes.200717925212
in vitro analysis of his-asp phosphorelays in aspergillus nidulans: the first direct biochemical evidence for the existence of his-asp phosphotransfer systems in filamentous fungi.his-asp phosphorelays are widespread signal transduction mechanisms in bacteria, fungi, and higher plants. in order to investigate a his-asp phosphorelay network in filamentous fungi, which has been genetically characterized in part, we attempted to construct an in vitro phosphotransfer network in aspergillus nidulans comprising all the necessary components. as a first step, we established an in vitro phosphotransfer system with a histidine-containing phosphotransmitter ypda, a response regulato ...200717928704
time fluctuations and imaging in the sers spectra of fungal hypha grown on nanostructured substrates.surface-enhanced raman scattering (sers) spectroscopy is an emerging technique in biomolecular analysis that can have a tremendous impact in the life sciences. we report on the sers imaging of fungal hyphae grown on nanostructured sers active substrates engineered using semiconductor technologies. time fluctuations in the intensity and band position in the sers spectra measured on the same sample position with 1 s integration time have been observed indicating that the sers signal arises from a ...200717944510
in vitro susceptibilities of aspergillus spp. causing otomycosis to amphotericin b, voriconazole and itraconazole.otomycosis is worldwide in distribution and most commonly caused by aspergillus species. amphotericin b, itraconazole and voriconazole are used for the treatment of aspergillosis, but recently an increase in resistance to these agents has been reported. we aimed at investigating the in vitro activities of amphotericin b, voriconazole and itraconazole against aspergillus isolates causing otomycosis. mycological analysis of samples from the ear canals of patients was performed by culturing onto sa ...200717944704
establishment of the ambient ph signaling complex in aspergillus nidulans: pali assists plasma membrane localization of palh.the aspergillus nidulans ambient ph signaling pathway involves two transmembrane domain (tmd)-containing proteins, palh and pali. we provide in silico and mutational evidence suggesting that pali is a three tmd (3-tmd) protein with an n-terminal signal peptide, and we show that pali localizes to the plasma membrane. pali is not essential for the proteolytic conversion of the pacc translation product into the processed 27-kda form, but its absence markedly reduces the accumulation of the 53-kda i ...200717951518
transcriptome analysis of the aspergillus nidulans atma (atm, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) null mutant.atm is a phosphatidyl-3-kinase-related protein kinase that functions as a central regulator of dna damage response in eukaryotes. in humans, mutations in atm cause the devastating neurodegenerative disease ataxia-telangiectasia. previously, we characterized the homologue of atm (atma) in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. in addition to its expected role in the dna damage response, we found that atma is also required for polarized hyphal growth. our results suggested that atma probably ...200717880424
isolation of aspergillus nidulans from a case of fungal rhinosinusitis: a case report.a rare species i.e. a. nidulans is reported as a causative agent of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis in this study. it is an increasingly recognized type of chronic recurring hypertrophic sinus disease. there are more than 185 species of aspergillus and over 95% of all infections are caused by a. fumigatus, a. flavus and a. niger. a. fumigatus alone accounts for the large majority of cases of both invasive and non invasive aspergillosis. a young immunocompetent lady presented with bilateral nasal ...200717883183
copa:gfp localizes to putative golgi equivalents in aspergillus nidulans.the golgi complex is a main component of the eukaryotic secretory system and functions to modify nascent proteins sent from the endoplasmic reticulum. ultrastructural studies of filamentous fungi have shown golgi to be individual smooth membrane cisternae that are referred to as golgi equivalents or dictyosomes. the aspergillus nidulans copa gene encodes a homolog of mammalian coat protein (alpha-cop), a constituent of the golgi-localized copi vesicle coat. here, the localization of a. nidulansa ...200717986089
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