TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
nonribosomal peptide synthesis in schizosaccharomyces pombe and the architectures of ferrichrome-type siderophore synthetases in fungi.a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps) in schizosaccharomyces pombe, which possesses an unusual structure incorporating three adenylation domains, six thiolation domains and six condensation domains, has been shown to produce the cyclohexapeptide siderophore ferrichrome. one of the adenylation domains is truncated and contains a distorted key motif. substrate-binding specificities of the remaining two domains were assigned by molecular modelling to glycine and to n-acetyl-n-hydroxy-l-ornithine ...200616502473
common features and interesting differences in transcriptional responses to secretion stress in the fungi trichoderma reesei and saccharomyces cerevisiae.secretion stress is caused by compromised folding, modification or transport of proteins in the secretory pathway. in fungi, induction of genes in response to secretion stress is mediated mainly by the unfolded protein response (upr) pathway. this study aims at uncovering transcriptional responses occurring in the filamentous fungi trichoderma reesei exposed to secretion stress and comparing these to those found in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae.200616504068
induction of temperate cyanophage as-1 by heavy has been reported that some marine cyanophage are temperate and can be induced from a lysogenic phase to a lytic phase by different agents such as heavy metals. however, to date no significant reports have focused on the temperate nature of freshwater cyanophage/cyanobacteria. previous experiments with cyanophage as-1 and cyanobacteria anacystis nidulans have provided some evidence that as-1 may have a lysogenic life cycle in addition to the characterized lytic cycle.200616504132
depletion of aspergillus nidulans cota causes a severe polarity defect which is not suppressed by the nuclear migration mutation nuda2.the aspergillus nidulans homologue of neurospora crassa cot-1, cota, encoding a member of the ndr protein kinase family, has been cloned and expressed under the control of the conditional alca promoter. depletion of cota by repression of the alca promoter led to a severe growth defect accompanied by loss of polarity. germlings show greatly enlarged volume of the spores and hyphae, accompanied by an increase in number of nuclei per compartment, though the nucleus/volume ratio is not significantly ...200616506053
functional characterization of the putative aspergillus nidulans poly(adp-ribose) polymerase homolog prpa.poly(adp-ribose) polymerase (parp) is a highly conserved enzyme involved in multiple aspects of animal and plant cell physiology. for example, parp is thought to be intimately involved in the early signaling events that trigger the dna damage response. however, the genetic dissection of parp function has been hindered by the presence of multiple homologs in most animal and plant species. here, we present the first functional characterization of a putative parp homolog (prpa) in a microbial syste ...200616510786
the product of the shr3 orthologue of aspergillus nidulans has restricted range of amino acid transporter targets.the shra gene of aspergillus nidulans codes for a structural and functional homologue of shr3p, a yeast er membrane protein, which plays a crucial role in the secretory pathway of yeast amino acid permeases. shra is a single-copy gene, whose expression is early activated during germination of a. nidulans conidiospores. shra is localized in the er of the fungal cells and partially complements the shr3delta phenotype. differently from saccharomyces cerevisiae, where shr3p is necessary for membrane ...200616531082
functional analysis of alcs, a gene of the alc cluster in aspergillus nidulans.the ethanol utilization pathway (alc system) of aspergillus nidulans requires two structural genes, alca and alda, which encode the two enzymes (alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, respectively) allowing conversion of ethanol into acetate via acetyldehyde, and a regulatory gene, alcr, encoding the pathway-specific autoregulated transcriptional activator. the alcr and alca genes are clustered with three other genes that are also positively regulated by alcr, although they are dispen ...200616531087
protein kinase c (pkca) of aspergillus nidulans is involved in penicillin production.the biosynthesis of the beta-lactam antibiotic penicillin in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans is catalyzed by three enzymes that are encoded by the acva, ipna, and aata genes. a variety of cis-acting dna elements and regulatory factors form a complex regulatory network controlling these beta-lactam biosynthesis genes. regulators involved include the ccaat-binding complex ancf and anbh1. anbh1 acts as a repressor of the penicillin biosynthesis gene aata. until now, however, little info ...200616598003
antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activity of plagiochasma appendiculatum lehm. et lind.plagiochasma appendiculatum (aytoniaceae) of the order marchantiales is widely used in the form of paste ethnomedicinally by gaddi tribe in kangra valley for treating skin diseases. in this context, antimicrobical potential of plagiochasma appendiculatum against a wide range of microorganisms was studied. to validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, wound healing activity was studied, besides antioxidant activity to understand the mechanism of wound healing activity. th ...200616600543
microscopy reveals disease control through novel effects on fungal development: a case study with an early-generation benzophenone fungicide.the benzophenones are a new class of agricultural fungicides that demonstrate protectant, curative and eradicative/antisporulant activity against powdery mildews. the chemistry is represented in the marketplace by the fungicide metrafenone, recently introduced by basf and discussed in the following paper. the benzophenones show no evidence of acting by previously identified biochemical mechanisms, nor do they show cross-resistance with existing fungicides. the value of microscopy in elucidating ...200616602068
isolation of mutations that bypass the requirement of the septation initiation network for septum formation and conidiation in aspergillus nidulans.the kinase cascade of the septation initiation network (sin), first revealed in fission yeast, activates the contraction of the actomyosin ring, and plays an essential role in fungal septation. mob1p, an evolutionarily conserved sin protein, is associated with the most downstream kinase of this cascade in fission yeast. in this study, the moba gene encoding a homologous protein was isolated from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, whose mycelium is made of multinucleate cells. the moba ...200616624915
the region in a subunit of the aspergillus ccaat-binding protein similar to the hap4p-recruiting domain of saccharomyces cerevisiae hap5p is not essential for transcriptional enhancement.the ccaat-binding complex in aspergillus species, known as the hap complex, consists of at least three subunits, hapb, hapc, and hape. each hap subunit contains an evolutionarily conserved core domain. in this study, a series of the truncated gene, which encodes the hape subunit of aspergillus oryzae, was constructed to survey the regions essential for the transcriptional enhancement of fungal genes. it was revealed that the non-conserved regions and the conserved region similar to the hap4p rec ...200616636442
transcription analysis using high-density micro-arrays of aspergillus nidulans wild-type and crea mutant during growth on glucose or, we describe how the recently published aspergillus nidulans genome sequence [galagan, j.e., calvo, s.e., cuomo, c., li-jun, m., wortman, j.r., et al., 2005. sequencing of aspergillus nidulans and comparative analysis with a. fumigatus and a. oryzae. nature 438 (7071), 1105-1115] was used to design a high-density oligo array with probes for 3,278 selected genes using the febit geniom one array system. for this purpose, the program oligowiz ii was used to design 24,125 probes to cover the 3, ...200616698295
marker and promoter effects on heterologous expression in aspergillus study the effects of selection marker, promoter type, and copy number on heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans, strains were constructed with single- and multicopy plasmid integrations bearing a reporter gene (lacz) under the control of either an inducible (alca) or constitutive (gpda) promoter and one of three aspergillus nutritional marker genes (argb, trpc, or niad). beta-galactosidase activity in the transformants varied over three orders of magnitude, with the majority of level ...200616699756
isolation, characterization, and disruption of dnr1, the area/nit-2-like nitrogen regulatory gene of the zoophilic dermatophyte, microsporum canis.a homolog of the major nitrogen regulatory genes area from aspergillus nidulans and nit-2 from neurospora crassa was isolated from the zoophilic dermatophyte, microsporum canis. this gene, dnr1, encodes a polypeptide of 761 amino acid residues containing a single zinc-finger dna-binding domain, which is almost identical in amino acid sequence to the zinc-finger domains of area and nit-2. the functional equivalence of dnr1 to area was demonstrated by complementation of an area loss-of-function mu ...200616702104
an extract of morinda citrifolia interferes with the serum-induced formation of filamentous structures in candida albicans and inhibits germination of aspergillus aqueous extract of morinda citrifolia was shown to interfere with the serum-induced morphological conversion of candida albicans from a cellular yeast to a filamentous form in vitro. the conversion of c. albicans from a cellular yeast to a filamentous form in vivo is associated with pathogenicity. no significant effect on growth in serum-free media was seen at the concentrations used to interfere with the morphological change. the same extract also inhibited the germination of apergillus nidu ...200616710899
transcriptional and bioinformatic analysis of the 56.8 kb dna region amplified in tandem repeats containing the penicillin gene cluster in penicillium chrysogenum.high penicillin-producing strains of penicillium chrysogenum contain 6-14 copies of the three clustered structural biosynthetic genes, pcbab, pcbc, and pende [barredo, j.l., díez, b., alvarez, e., martín, j.f., 1989. large amplification of a 35-kb dna fragment carrying two penicillin biosynthetic genes in high penicillin producing strains of penicillium chrysogenum. curr. genet. 16, 453-459; smith, d.j., bull, j.h., edwards, j., turner, g., 1989. amplification of the isopenicillin n synthetase g ...200616713314
genomic and experimental evidence for a potential sexual cycle in the pathogenic thermal dimorphic fungus penicillium marneffei.all meiotic genes (except hop1) and genes encoding putative pheromone processing enzymes, pheromone receptors and pheromone response pathways proteins in aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus nidulans and a putative mat-1 alpha box mating-type gene were present in the penicillium marneffei genome. a putative mat-2 high-mobility group mating-type gene was amplified from a mat-1 alpha box mating-type gene-negative p. marneffei strain. among 37 p. marneffei patient strains, mat-1 alpha box and mat- ...200616714021
heterotrimeric g protein signaling and rgss in aspergillus nidulans.heterotrimeric g proteins (g proteins) are conserved in all eukaryotes and are crucial components sensing and relaying external cues into the cells to elicit appropriate physiological and biochemical responses. basic units of the heterotrimeric g protein signaling system include a g protein-coupled receptor (gpcr), a g protein composed of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, and variety of effectors. sequential sensitization and activation of these g protein elements translates external signals into ...200616728950
the distribution and evolutionary history of the prp8 intein.we recently described a mini-intein in the prp8 gene of a strain of the basidiomycete cryptococcus neoformans, an important fungal pathogen of humans. this was the second described intein in the nuclear genome of any eukaryote; the first nuclear encoded intein was found in the vma gene of several saccharomycete yeasts. the evolution of eukaryote inteins is not well understood. in this report we describe additional prp8 inteins (bringing the total of these to over 20). we compare and contrast the ...200616737526
a mammalian nudc-like protein essential for dynein stability and cell viability.cytoplasmic dynein, a minus-end-directed microtubule motor, has been implicated in many fundamental cellular processes; however, little is known regarding the underlying molecular machinery that regulates its stability. in aspergillus nidulans, nuclear distribution gene c (nudc) has been implicated in the regulation of dynein-mediated nuclear migration. here, we characterize a previously undescribed mammalian nudc-like protein (nudcl). the expression and phosphorylation of nudcl are increased du ...200616754861
the fumitremorgin gene cluster of aspergillus fumigatus: identification of a gene encoding brevianamide f synthetase.a gene encoding a putative dimodular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps) was identified within a gene cluster of aspergillus fumigatus, a species reported to produce fumitremorgins and other prenylated alkaloids. the gene was deleted and overexpressed in the genome reference strain af293, and was also expressed in the naïve host aspergillus nidulans, which lacks the equivalent gene cluster. while neither fumitremorgins nor the dipeptide brevianamide f (cyclo-l-trp-l-pro), an early intermediat ...200616755625
functional characterization of aspergillus nidulans homologues of saccharomyces cerevisiae spa2 and bud6.the importance of polarized growth for fungi has elicited significant effort directed at better understanding underlying mechanisms of polarization, with a focus on yeast systems. at sites of tip growth, multiple protein complexes assemble and coordinate to ensure that incoming building material reaches the appropriate destination sites, and polarized growth is maintained. one of these complexes is the polarisome that consists of spa2, bud6, pea2, and bni1 in saccharomyces cerevisiae. filamentou ...200616757736
[diagnosis and treatment of aspergillosis in the patients with chronic granulomatous disease].chronic granulomatous disease is a rare defect of phagocytosis. increased susceptibility to infections is limited to catalase positive bacteria and fungi. aspergillus spp was reported as the increased clinical problem and the main cause of the deaths.200616758737
outdoor environmental levels of aspergillus spp. conidia over a wide geographical area.unfortunately, little information is available on the 'normal' air and water load of aspergillus spores and their seasonal changes. we describe the air and water load of aspergillus spores across the province of madrid (spain). we collected samples of air and water (332 samples of air and 148 of water) from selected points and taps (urban and rural environment) in summer, autumn, winter and spring. temperature, wind speed and humidity at each point were obtained. we collected a total of 369 aspe ...200616772229
the ambient ph response rim pathway in yarrowia lipolytica: identification of ylrim9 and characterization of its role in dimorphism.yarrowia lipolytica is a dimorphic fungus that secretes either an acidic or an alkaline protease depending on the environmental ph. previous results have indicated that secretion of the alkaline protease is under control of the ph signaling pal/rim pathway originally described in aspergillus nidulans. several y. lipolytica mutants defective in some rim components of this pathway have been previously isolated and the rim genes characterized. in the present study, y. lipolytica rim9 (pali) gene (y ...200616775780
reducing the cost of resistance; experimental evolution in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.we have studied compensatory evolution in a fludioxonil resistant mutant of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. in an evolution experiment lasting for 27 weeks (about 3000 cell cycles) 35 parallel strains of this mutant evolved in three different environmental conditions. our results show a severe cost of resistance (56%) in the absence of fludioxonil and in all conditions the mutant strain was able to restore fitness without loss of the resistance. in several cases, the evolved strain ...200616780512
the zn(ii)2cys6 putative transcription factor nosa controls fruiting body formation in aspergillus nidulans.the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans reproduces asexually with conidiospores and sexually with ascospores, both of which are the result of complex morphogenetic pathways. the developmental decisions for both ways of reproduction largely depend on the action of stage-specific transcription factors. here we have characterized the putative zn(ii)(2)cys(6) transcription factor nosa (number of sexual spores), a protein of 675 aa, which shares 44% sequence identity to pro1 from sordaria macrosp ...200616780567
consecutive gene deletions in aspergillus nidulans: application of the cre/loxp system.the ability to perform multiple gene deletions is an important tool for conducting functional genomics. we report the development of a sequential gene deletion protocol for the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans using the cre/loxp recombinase system of bacteriophage p1. a recyclable genetic marker has been constructed by incorporating loxp direct repeats either side of the neurospora crassa pyr-4 gene (encodes orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase) which is able to complement the a. nidu ...200616783565
chemical characterization and quantification of siderophores produced by marine and terrestrial aspergilli.ten aspergilli (five each from marine and terrestrial habitats) were screened for siderophore production. all test isolates produced siderophores as indicated by a positive reaction in the fecl(3) test, chrome azurol sulphonate assay, and chrome azurol sulphonate agar plate test. further, the test isolates were compared for their siderophore production potential and chemical characteristics. examination of the chemical nature of the siderophores revealed that all test isolates produced hydroxama ...200616788730
a phosphoglucose isomerase mutant in aspergillus nidulans is defective in hyphal polarity and conidiation.upon germination aspergillus nidulans swom1 exhibits abnormal development by extending a primary germ tube that quickly reverts to isotropic growth and results in an enlarged, swollen apex with pronounced wall thickenings. apical lysis occurs in 38% of the germlings. a point mutation in the an6037.3 gene encoding the only phosphoglucose isomerase in a. nidulans is responsible for the defect. loss of polarity is bypassed when glucose is replaced with alternate carbon sources but in all cases the ...200616798030
lipid signaling in pathogenic fungi.recent studies have highlighted the importance of lipid signaling molecules in the development and pathogenicity of clinically important fungi. in cryptococcus neoformans, sphingolipid-derived diacylglycerol has been shown to induce the transcription of the putative virulence factor app1, which inhibits the phagocytosis of fungal cells by alveolar macrophages, as well as to activate the protein kinase c pkc1, which promotes cell-wall stability and increased melanin production. in candida albican ...200616798065
a phe389leu substitution in erga confers terbinafine resistance in aspergillus fumigatus.replacement of phenylalanine with leucine at position 391 in squalene epoxidase was identified as being responsible for terbinafine resistance in mutants of aspergillus nidulans. the equivalent mutation was engineered into the erga gene of aspergillus fumigatus, resulting in an f389l substitution that also conferred resistance to this pathogenic mold.200616801438
mutants of aspergillus nidulans affected in asexual development. 200616809845
structure, organization, and transcriptional regulation of a family of copper radical oxidase genes in the lignin-degrading basidiomycete phanerochaete chrysosporium.the white rot basidiomycete phanerochaete chrysosporium produces an array of nonspecific extracellular enzymes thought to be involved in lignin degradation, including lignin peroxidases, manganese peroxidases, and the h2o2-generating copper radical oxidase, glyoxal oxidase (glx). preliminary analysis of the p. chrysosporium draft genome had identified six sequences with significant similarity to glx and designated cro1 through cro6. the predicted mature protein sequences diverge substantially fr ...200616820482
use of laccase as a novel, versatile reporter system in filamentous fungi.laccases are copper-containing enzymes which oxidize phenolic substrates and transfer the electrons to oxygen. many filamentous fungi contain several laccase-encoding genes, but their biological roles are mostly not well understood. the main interest in laccases in biotechnology is their potential to be used to detoxify phenolic substances. we report here on a novel application of laccases as a reporter system in fungi. we purified a laccase enzyme from the ligno-cellulolytic ascomycete stachybo ...200616820501
the aspergillus nidulans f-box protein grra links scf activity to meiosis.cellular differentiation relies on precise and controlled means of gene expression that act on several levels to ensure a flexible and defined spatio-temporal expression of a given gene product. in our aim to identify transcripts enriched during fruiting body formation of the homothallic ascomycete aspergillus (emericella) nidulans, the grra gene could be identified in a negative subtraction hybridization screening procedure. it encodes a protein similar to fungal f-box proteins, which function ...200616824096
interactions between iron availability, aluminium toxicity and fungal siderophores.the influence of iron, aluminium and of the combined application of both metals on microbial biomass and production of siderophores by three fungi (aspergillus nidulans, neurospora crassa and hymenoscyphus ericae) were investigated. all three species showed a strong iron regulation and al-sensitivity of siderophore biosynthesis although several differences remained species dependent. inhibitory effects of fe and al on siderophore-production were additive and the higher binding capacity of sidero ...200616841246
development and application of a suite of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes for analyzing plant cell facilitate analysis of plant cell wall polysaccharide structure and composition, we cloned 74 genes encoding polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus fumigatus, and neurospora crassa and expressed the genes as secreted proteins with c-terminal myc and 6x his tags. most of the recombinant enzymes were active in enzyme assays, and optima for ph and temperature were established. a subset of the enzymes was used to fragment polysaccharides from the irregular xylem 9 ...200616844780
nudc is required for plk1 targeting to the kinetochore and chromosome congression.the equal distribution of chromosomes during mitosis is critical for maintaining the integrity of the genome. essential to this process are the capture of spindle microtubules by kinetochores and the congression of chromosomes to the metaphase plate . polo-like kinase 1 (plk1) is a mitotic kinase that has been implicated in microtubule-kinetochore attachment, tension generation at kinetochores, tension-responsive signal transduction, and chromosome congression . the tension-sensitive substrates ...200616860740
arugosins g and h: prenylated polyketides from the marine-derived fungus emericellanidulans var. acristata.the fungus emericella nidulans var. acristata was isolated as an endophyte from a mediterranean green alga. cultivation of this fungus yielded two new compounds, arugosins g (1) and h (2), together with the known metabolites 3-9. arugosins (1-4) are benzophenone derivatives, biosynthetically related to the xanthones 5, 6, and 9. the indole alkaloid 7 displayed antitumor activity in a panel of 36 human tumor cell lines, exhibiting a mean ic(50) value of 5.5 microg/ml in an in vitro survival and p ...200616872131
parasexuality in asexual development mutants of aspergillus nidulans.the parasexual cycle with parameiosis has been characterized previously by the occurrence of genetic recombination and haploidization inside heterokaryotic hyphae prior to conidial formation. the aim of current research was to characterize, through genetic and cytological analyses, an asexual development mutant strain of a. nidulans and to use it to obtain parameiotic segregants. analyses showed the medusa phenotype of the b84 strain, whose mutant allele was mapped in the chromosome i. the heter ...200616874405
generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from botrytis cinerea.botrytis cinerea is a filamentous plant pathogen of a wide range of plant species, and its infection may cause enormous damage both during plant growth and in the post-harvest phase. we have constructed a cdna library from an isolate of b. cinerea and have sequenced 11,482 expressed sequence tags that were assembled into 1,003 contigs sequences and 3,032 singletons. approximately 81% of the unigenes showed significant similarity to genes coding for proteins with known functions: more than 50% of ...200616874411
nmr metabolic profiling of aspergillus nidulans to monitor drug and protein activity.we describe a general protocol for using comparative nmr metabolomics data to infer in vivo efficacy, specificity and toxicity of chemical leads within a drug discovery program. the methodology is demonstrated using aspergillus nidulans to monitor the activity of urate oxidase and orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase and the impact of 8-azaxanthine, an inhibitor of urate oxidase. 8-azaxanthine is shown to inhibit a. nidulans hyphal growth by in vivo inactivation of urate oxidase.200616889413
fungal surface remodelling visualized by atomic force microscopy.most fungal growth is localized to the tips of hyphae, however, early stages of spore germination and the growth of certain morphological mutant strains exhibit non-polarized expansion. we used atomic force microscopy (afm) to document changes in aspergillus nidulans wall surfaces during non-polarized growth: spore germination, and growth in a strain containing the hypa1 temperature sensitive morphogenesis defect. we compared wall surface structures of both wild-type and mutant a. nidulans follo ...200616891105
fungal metabolic model for tyrosinemia type 3: molecular characterization of a gene encoding a 4-hydroxy-phenyl pyruvate dioxygenase from aspergillus nidulans.mutations in the human hpd gene (encoding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase) cause hereditary tyrosinemia type 3 (ht3). we deleted the aspergillus nidulans homologue (hpda). we showed that the mutant strain is not able to grow in the presence of phenylalanine and that it accumulates increased concentrations of tyrosine and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, mimicking the human ht3 phenotype.200616896227
cloning, sequence analysis and heterologous expression of the myrothecium gramineum orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase gene.a 2918 bp sequence coding for the orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase enzyme (ompd) was isolated from the genome of myrothecium gramineum. this sequence was analysed and, remarkably, it is the first ompd gene of a sordariomycete that has an intron. the gene codes for an enzyme of 282 amino acids. the nucleotide sequence and the amino acid sequence were compared with fungal ompd sequences. they show the highest similarity to ompd genes and enzymes of aspergillus sp., penicillium sp. and clad ...200616907730
aspergillus genomes: secret sex and the secrets of sex.the genomic sequences of three species of aspergillus, including the model organism a. nidulans (which is homothallic: having no differentiated mating types, a strain being able to cross with itself), suggest that a. fumigatus and a. oryzae, considered to be asexual, might in fact be heterothallic (having two differentiated mating types, a strain being able to cross only with strains of opposite mating type). the genomic data have implications for the understanding of the evolution and the mecha ...200616911845
comparative kinetic analysis of azga and fcy21p, prototypes of the two major fungal hypoxanthine-adenine-guanine transporter fungi, uptake of salvageable purines is carried out by members of two evolutionarily distinct protein families, the purine-related transporters (prt/ncs1) and the azga-like transporters. we carried out a comparative kinetic analysis of two prototypes of these transporter families. the first was fcy21p, a herein characterized protein of candida albicans, and the second was azga, a transporter of aspergillus nidulans. our results showed that: (i) azga and fcy21p are equally efficient high-affin ...200616923723
the first transmembrane segment (tms1) of uapa contains determinants necessary for expression in the plasma membrane and purine transport.uapa, a member of the nat/ncs2 family, is a high affinity, high capacity, uric acid-xanthine/h+ symporter in aspergillus nidulans. determinants critical for substrate binding and transport lie in a highly conserved signature motif downstream from tms8 and within tms12. here we examine the role of tms1 in uapa biogenesis and function. first, using a mutational analysis, we studied the role of a short motif (q85h86), conserved in all nats. q85 mutants were cryosensitive, decreasing (q85l, q85n, q8 ...200616923727
investigation of the functional properties and regulation of three glutamine synthetase-like genes in streptomyces coelicolor a3(2).streptomyces coelicolor a3(2) has three additional glna-type genes besides the glutamine synthetase genes glna (encoding gsi) and glnii (encoding gsii). the aim of this work was to characterize their functional properties and regulation. sequence analyses revealed that glna2, glna3, and glna4 are dissimilar to s. coelicolor gsi and lack highly conserved amino acid residues involved in catalysis. in heterologous expression experiments, glna2, glna3, and glna4, in contrast to glna and glnii, were ...200616932908
a caps test allowing a rapid distinction of penicillium expansum among fungal species collected on grape berries, inferred from the sequence and secondary structure of the mitochondrial ssu-rrna.penicillium expansum is a fungal species highly damageable for the postharvest conservation of numerous fruits. in vineyards, this fungus is sometimes isolated from grape berries where its presence may lead to the production of geosmin, a powerful earthy odorant, which can impair grapes and wines aromas. however, the discrimination of p. expansum from related fungi is difficult because it is based on ambiguous phenotypic characters and/or expensive and time-consuming molecular tests. in this con ...200616935376
plant growth-promoting methylobacterium induces defense responses in groundnut (arachis hypogaea l.) compared with rot pathogens.this study, framed in two different phases, studied the plant-growth promotion and the induction of systemic resistance in groundnut by methylobacterium. seed imbibition with methylobacterium sp. increased germination by 19.5% compared with controls. combined inoculation of methylobacterium sp. with rhizobium sp. also significantly increased plant growth, nodulation, and yield attributes in groundnut compared with individual inoculation of rhizobium sp. methylobacterium sp. challenge-inoculated ...200616941245
posaconazole for treatment of refractory invasive fungal disease.invasive fungal infections are usually associated with immunocompromised states about 40-60% of these patients are refractory to standard antifungal therapy we describe the effect of posaconazole in the treatment of a 12 years-old girl with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus with life-threatening cerebral mucor mycosis and a 4 year old girl boy with chronic granulomatous disease presenting with invasive aspergillus nidulans infection.200616961581
phylogenomic analysis of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases in the genus aspergillus.fungi from the genus aspergillus are important saprophytes and opportunistic human fungal pathogens that contribute in these and other diverse ways to human well-being. part of their impact on human well-being stems from the production of small molecular weight secondary metabolites, which may contribute to the ability of these fungi to cause invasive fungal infections and allergic diseases. in this study, we identified one group of enzymes responsible for secondary metabolite production in five ...200616962256
nonsense-mediated mrna decay mutation in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans mutation, designated nmda1, has been selected as a partial suppressor of a frameshift mutation and shown to truncate the homologue of the saccharomyces cerevisiae nonsense-mediated mrna decay (nmd) surveillance component nmd2p/upf2p. nmda1 elevates steady-state levels of premature termination codon-containing transcripts, as demonstrated using mutations in genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase (hxa), urate oxidase (uaz), the transcription factor mediating regulation of ge ...200616963627
evidence for novel ph-dependent regulation of candida albicans rim101, a direct transcriptional repressor of the cell wall beta-glycosidase phr2.candida albicans is a commensal fungus of mucosal surfaces that can cause disease in susceptible hosts. one aspect of the success of c. albicans as both a commensal and a pathogen is its ability to adapt to diverse environmental conditions, including dramatic variations in environmental ph. the response to a neutral-to-alkaline ph change is controlled by the rim101 signal transduction pathway. in neutral-to-alkaline environments, the zinc finger transcription factor rim101 is activated by the pr ...200616963637
secondary metabolic gene cluster silencing in aspergillus contrast to most primary metabolism genes, the genes involved in secondary metabolism and certain nutrient utilization pathways are clustered in fungi. recently a nuclear protein, laea, was found to be required for the transcription of several secondary metabolite gene clusters in aspergillus nidulans. here we show that laea regulation does not extend to nutrient utilization or the spoc1 sporulation clusters. one of the secondary metabolite clusters regulated by laea contains the positive reg ...200616968230
differential expression of genes involved in iron metabolism in aspergillus fumigatus.the ability of fungi to survive in many environments is linked to their capacity to acquire essential nutrients. iron is generally complexed and available in very limited amounts. like bacteria, fungi have evolved highly specific systems for iron acquisition. production and uptake of iron-chelating siderophores has been shown to be important for certain human bacterial pathogens, as well as in fungal pathogens such as cryptococcus neoformans and fusarium graminearum. this system also enables the ...200617236162
g-protein and camp-mediated signaling in aspergilli: a genomic perspective.we have carried out an in silico exploration of the genomes of aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus fumigatus, and aspergillus oryzae, and identified components of g-protein/camp-mediated signaling. putative g-protein coupled receptors (gpcrs) were distributed over nine classes. the gpcrs within classes were well conserved among aspergilli but varied in other ascomycetes. as previously observed in a. nidulans and other fungi, three galpha, one gbeta, and one ggamma subunits of g proteins were ident ...200616546420
[recombinant aspergillus niger glucose oxidase expressed in trichoderma reesei].it was expected that recombinant aspergillus niger glucose oxidase could be expressed in trichoderma reesei with stable activity. t. reesei cbhi promoter--cbhi ss. gene--a. niger glucose oxidase gene--t. reesei cbhi terminator--a. nidulans gpd promoter--e. coli hygromycin b phosphotransferase gene--a. nidulans trpc terminator--puc19 (pcbhgod) vector was constructed in e. coli dh5alpha by pcr application and gene cloning methods. t. reesei qm9414 protoplast was transformed by t. reesei cbhi promo ...200616572845
fvve1 regulates filamentous growth, the ratio of microconidia to macroconidia and cell wall formation in fusarium verticillioides.the velvet gene, vea, co-ordinates asexual and sexual development in the homothallic fungal species aspergillus nidulans. studies in aspergillus parasiticus and aspergillus fumigatus demonstrated that vea also regulates morphological differentiation in these species. whether vea has the same role in morphogenesis in other fungal genera has not been investigated. in this work, we studied the role of the vea homologue, fvve1, in the heterothallic fungus fusarium verticillioides. deletion of fvve1 ...200617054442
metabolic network driven analysis of genome-wide transcription data from aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans (the asexual form of emericella nidulans) is a model organism for aspergilli, which are an important group of filamentous fungi that encompasses human and plant pathogens as well as industrial cell factories. aspergilli have a highly diversified metabolism and, because of their medical, agricultural and biotechnological importance, it would be valuable to have an understanding of how their metabolism is regulated. we therefore conducted a genome-wide transcription analysis o ...200617107606
effects of mutations in the ganb/rgsa g protein mediated signalling on the autolysis of aspergillus nidulans.physiological changes taking place in carbon-starved, autolysing cultures of aspergillus (emericella) nidulans strains with mutations in the ganb/rgsa heterotrimeric g protein signalling pathway were studied and compared. deletion of the ganb, rgsa or both genes did not alter markedly either the autolytic loss of biomass or the extracellular chitinase production. however, they caused a significant decrease in the proteinase formation, which was detected by measuring both extracellular enzyme act ...200617139616
identification of a novel gene, ure2, that functionally complements a urease-negative clinical strain of cryptococcus neoformans.a urease-negative serotype a strain of cryptococcus neoformans (b-4587) was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of an immunocompetent patient with a central nervous system infection. the ure1 gene encoding urease failed to complement the mutant phenotype. urease-positive clones of b-4587 obtained by complementing with a genomic library of strain h99 harboured an episomal plasmid containing dna inserts with homology to the suda gene of aspergillus nidulans. the gene harboured by these plasmids ...200617159224
regulatory genes controlling fatty acid catabolism and peroxisomal functions in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.the catabolism of fatty acids is important in the lifestyle of many fungi, including plant and animal pathogens. this has been investigated in aspergillus nidulans, which can grow on acetate and fatty acids as sources of carbon, resulting in the production of acetyl coenzyme a (coa). acetyl-coa is metabolized via the glyoxalate bypass, located in peroxisomes, enabling gluconeogenesis. acetate induction of enzymes specific for acetate utilization as well as glyoxalate bypass enzymes is via the zn ...200616682457
the aspergillus nidulans rcoa gene is required for vea-dependent sexual development.the aspergillus nidulans rcoadelta mutant exhibits growth and developmental defects. we show that the rcoadelta mutant lacks cleistothecia and is self-sterile. in crosses with wild-type strains, rcoadelta nuclei do not contribute to the cleistothecial walls. furthermore, sexual development resulting from vea overexpression is rcoa dependent, indicating that rcoa lies downstream of vea in the sexual development pathway.200616980390
calmodulin concentrates at the apex of growing hyphae and localizes to the spitzenkörper in aspergillus nidulans.the calmodulin (cam) localization pattern in the growing hyphal tip of aspergillus nidulans was studied with the functional gfp::cam fusion protein. a faint tip-high gradient of cam was found in the growing hyphal tip, with cam highly localized in the region corresponding to the spitzenkörper forming a bright granule. the position of highly concentrated cam in the extreme apex seemed to determine the orientation of the hypha. the normal pattern of cam localization was also shown to be dependent ...200616983484
the aspergillus fumigatus cellobiohydrolase b (cbhb) promoter is tightly regulated and can be exploited for controlled protein expression and rnai.the utility of the aspergillus fumigatus cellobiohydrolase cbhb promoter for controlled gene expression has been investigated. cbhb message was present at high levels in the presence of carboxymethylcellulose and undetected in the presence of glucose. a reporter construct using the cbhb promoter showed similar behaviour and gave lower message levels than the aspergillus nidulans alca promoter under repressing conditions. an rnai construct driven by the cbhb promoter was used to down-regulate the ...200616984401
systematic deletion and mitotic localization of the nuclear pore complex proteins of aspergillus define the extent of the modification of the nuclear pore complex (npc) during aspergillus nidulans closed mitosis, a systematic analysis of nuclear transport genes has been completed. thirty genes have been deleted defining 12 nonessential and 18 essential genes. several of the nonessential deletions caused conditional phenotypes and self-sterility, whereas deletion of some essential genes caused defects in nuclear structure. live cell imaging of endogenously tagged npc proteins (nups) revea ...200616987955
application of electron tomography to fungal ultrastructure studies.access to structural information at the nanoscale enables fundamental insights into many complex biological systems. the development of the transmission electron microscope (tem) has vastly increased our understanding of multiple biological systems. however, when attempting to visualize and understand the organizational and functional complexities that are typical of cells and tissues, the standard 2-d analyses that tem affords often fall short. in recent years, high-resolution electron tomograp ...200616995909
identification and comparative analysis of sixteen fungal peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase repertoires.the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (ppiase) class of proteins is present in all known eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and archaea, and it is comprised of three member families that share the ability to catalyze the cis/trans isomerisation of a prolyl bond. some fungi have been used as model systems to investigate the role of ppiases within the cell, however how representative these repertoires are of other fungi or humans has not been fully investigated.200616995943
novel mitogen-activated protein kinase mpkc of aspergillus fumigatus is required for utilization of polyalcohol sugars.the genome of aspergillus fumigatus has four genes that encode mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks), saka/hoga, mpka, mpkb, and mpkc. the functions of the mpkb and mpkc mapks are unknown for a. fumigatus and the closely related and genetically amenable species aspergillus nidulans. mpkc deletion mutants of a. fumigatus were made and their phenotypes characterized. the mpkc deletion mutants were viable and had normal conidial germination and hyphal growth on minimal or complete media. this i ...200616998074
site-directed mutagenesis of selected residues at the active site of aryl-alcohol oxidase, an h2o2-producing ligninolytic enzyme.aryl-alcohol oxidase provides h(2)o(2) for lignin biodegradation, a key process for carbon recycling in land ecosystems that is also of great biotechnological interest. however, little is known of the structural determinants of the catalytic activity of this fungal flavoenzyme, which oxidizes a variety of polyunsaturated alcohols. different alcohol substrates were docked on the aryl-alcohol oxidase molecular structure, and six amino acid residues surrounding the putative substrate-binding site w ...200616999821
efficacy of caspofungin against aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, and aspergillus nidulans.the echinocandin caspofungin is a potent inhibitor of the activity of 1,3-beta-d-glucan synthase from aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, and aspergillus nidulans. in murine models of disseminated infection, caspofungin prolonged survival and reduced the kidney fungal burden. caspofungin was at least as effective as amphotericin b against these filamentous fungi in vivo.200617015628
glucose-mediated repression of autolysis and conidiogenesis in emericella nidulans.glucose-mediated repression of autolysis and sporulation was studied in submerged emericellanidulans (anam. aspergillus nidulans) cultures. null mutation of the crea gene, which encodes the major carbon catabolite repressor crea in e. nidulans, resulted in a hyperautolytic phenotype characterized by increased extracellular hydrolase production and dry cell mass declination. interestingly, glucose, as well as the glucose antimetabolite 2-deoxy-d-glucose, repressed autolysis and sporulation in bot ...200617018254
opposing signals differentially regulate transcript stability in aspergillus nidulans.a good model for gene regulation, requiring the organism to monitor a complex and changing environment and respond in a precise and rapid way, is nitrogen metabolism in aspergillus nidulans. this involves co-ordinated expression of hundreds of genes, many dependent on the transcription factor area, which monitors the nitrogen state of the cell. area activity is in part modulated by differential degradation of its transcript in response to intracellular glutamine. here we report that glutamine tr ...200617020584
a point mutation in the aspergillus nidulans sonbnup98 nuclear pore complex gene causes conditional dna damage sensitivity.the nuclear pore complex (npc) is embedded in the nuclear envelope where it mediates transport between the cytoplasm and nucleus and helps to organize nuclear architecture. we previously isolated sonb1, a mutation encoding a single amino acid substitution within the aspergillus nidulans sonbnnup98 npc protein (nucleoporin). here we demonstrate that this mutation causes marked dna damage sensitivity at 42 degrees . although sonbnnup98 has roles in the g2 transition, we demonstrate that the g2 dna ...200617028324
upstream and downstream regulation of asexual development in aspergillus fumigatus.the opportunistic human pathogen aspergillus fumigatus produces a large quantity of asexual spores (conidia), which are the primary agent causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. we investigated the mechanisms controlling asexual sporulation (conidiation) in a. fumigatus via examining functions of four key regulators, gpaa (galpha), afflba (rgs), afflug, and afbrla, previously studied in aspergillus nidulans. expression analyses of gpaa, afflba, afflug, afbrla, and afweta th ...200617030990
the intracellular siderophore ferricrocin is involved in iron storage, oxidative-stress resistance, germination, and sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.iron is required by most organisms, but an excess of this metal is potentially toxic. consequently, uptake and intracellular storage of iron are tightly controlled. the filamentous fungus a. nidulans lacks the iron storage compound ferritin but possesses an intracellular siderophore, which is accumulated in a highly regulated manner as iron-free desferri-ferricrocin or iron-containing ferricrocin via transcriptional regulation of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase sidc. biosynthesis of desferri ...200617030991
transcriptome analysis of aspergillus nidulans exposed to camptothecin-induced dna damage.we have used an aspergillus nidulans macroarray carrying sequences of 2,787 genes from this fungus to monitor gene expression of both wild-type and uvsb(atr) (the homologue of the atr gene) deletion mutant strains in a time course exposure to camptothecin (cpt). the results revealed a total of 1,512 and 1,700 genes in the wild-type and uvsb(atr) deletion mutant strains that displayed a statistically significant difference at at least one experimental time point. we characterized six genes that h ...200617030995
expression profile of amylolytic genes in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans possessed 16 putative amylolytic genes consisting of 7 alpha-glucosidase (agda-f), 7 alpha-amylase (amya-f), and 2 glucoamylase (glaa and b) genes on the genome. among them, the agda, agdb, agde, agdf, amya, amyb, amyf, and glab genes were induced by isomaltose. amyr, a zn(ii)(2)cys(6) transcription factor, was required for the induction. the isomaltose-inducible genes possessed at least one consensus sequence for amyr binding, 5'-cggn(8)cgg, on each promoter region. none of ...200617031028
discovery of aspoquinolones a-d, prenylated quinoline-2-one alkaloids from aspergillus nidulans, motivated by genome mining.motivated by the observation that the aspergillus nidulans genome bears multiple anthranilic acid synthase gene copies, the fungal metabolome was reinvestigated under various fermentation conditions, resulting in the discovery of novel prenylated quinolin-2-one alkaloids, two of which bear unprecedented terpenoid side chains.200617036148
isolation of cell wall mutants in aspergillus nidulans by screening for hypersensitivity to calcofluor a first step toward identifying novel genes of wall metabolism in filamentous fungi, we have screened a collection of aspergillus nidulans mutants for strains exhibiting hypersensitivity toward the chitin binding agent calcofluor white (cfw). this strategy has been used previously to identify cell wall mutants in saccharomyces cerevisiae. we have identified 10 mutants representing eight loci, designated cala through calh, for calcofluor hypersensitivity. all cal mutants are impaired for sporu ...200617040069
identification and analysis of essential aspergillus nidulans genes using the heterokaryon rescue the heterokaryon rescue technique, gene deletions are carried out using the pyrg nutritional marker to replace the coding region of target genes via homologous recombination in aspergillus nidulans. if an essential gene is deleted, the null allele is maintained in spontaneously generated heterokaryons that consist of two genetically distinct types of nuclei. one nuclear type has the essential gene deleted but has a functional pyrg allele (pyrg+). the other has the wild-type allele of the esse ...200617406500
fusion pcr and gene targeting in aspergillus nidulans.we describe a rapid method for the production of fusion pcr products that can be used, generally without band purification, to transform aspergillus nidulans. this technique can be used to replace genes; tag genes with fluorescent moeties or epitope tags; or replace endogenous promoters with regulatable promoters, by introducing an appropriate selective cassette (e.g., fluorescent protein + selectable marker). the relevant genomic fragments and cassette are first amplified separately by pcr usin ...200617406574
developmental regulation of the glyoxylate cycle in the human pathogen penicillium marneffei.penicillium marneffei is a thermally dimorphic opportunistic human pathogen with a saprophytic filamentous hyphal form at 25 degrees c and a pathogenic unicellular yeast form at 37 degrees c. during infection. p. marneffei yeast cells exist intracellularly in macrophages. to cope with nutrient deprivation during the infection process, a number of pathogens employ the glyoxylate cycle to utilize fatty acids as carbon sources. the genes which constitute this pathway have been implicated in pathoge ...200617427290
comparative studies of differential expression of chitinolytic enzymes encoded by chia, chib, chic and naga genes in aspergillus nidulans.n-acetyl-d-glucosamine, chito-oligomers and carbon starvation regulated chia, chib, and naga gene expressions in aspergillus nidulans cultures. the gene expression patterns of the main extracellular endochitinase chib and the n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase naga were similar, and the chib-naga enzyme system may play a morphological and/or nutritional role during autolysis. alterations in the levels of reactive oxygen species or in the glutathione-glutathione disulfide redox balance, characterist ...200617455791
eurotiomycetes: eurotiomycetidae and chaetothyriomycetidae.the class eurotiomycetes (ascomycota, pezizomycotina) is a monophyletic group comprising two major clades of very different ascomycetous fungi: (i) the subclass eurotiomycetidae, a clade that contains most of the fungi previously recognized as plectomycetes because of their mostly enclosed ascomata and prototunicate asci; and (ii) the subclass chaetothyriomycetidae, a group of fungi that produce ascomata with an opening reminiscent of those produced by dothideomycetes or sordariomycetes. in this ...200617486980
a defect in nir1, a nira-like transcription factor, confers morphological abnormalities and loss of pathogenicity in colletotrichum acutatum.summary a non-pathogenic mutant of colletotrichum acutatum, designated ca5, exhibited epiphytic hyphal growth and did not cause lesions on strawberry plants but grew necrotrophically when inoculated directly onto wounded stolons. in the absence of an external nitrogen source, the mutant exhibited extended germ-tube growth prior to appressorium formation. the deduced product of the impaired gene (nir1) is similar to nira, an aspergillus nidulans transcriptional regulator of nitrogen metabolism. i ...200620507451
in vitro activation, purification, and characterization of escherichia coli expressed aryl-alcohol oxidase, a unique h2o2-producing enzyme.aryl-alcohol oxidase (aao), a flavoenzyme with unique spectral and catalytic properties that provides h2o2 for fungal degradation of lignin, has been successfully activated in vitro after escherichia coli expression. the recombinant aao (aao*) protein was recovered from inclusion bodies of e. coli w3110 transformed with pflag1 containing the aao cdna from pleurotus eryngii. optimization of in vitro refolding yielded 75% active enzyme after incubation of aao* protein (10 microg/ml) for 80 h (at 1 ...200616039872
structure-activity relationships and enzyme inhibition of pantothenamide-type pantothenate kinase inhibitors.a set of novel pantothenamide-type analogues of the known staphylococcus aureus pantothenate kinase (sapank) inhibitors, n-pentyl, and n-heptylpantothenamide, was synthesized in three series. the first series of analogues (1-3) were designed as molecular probes of the pank binding site to elucidate important structure-activity relationships (sar). the second series of analogues (4-16) were designed using structural information obtained from the escherichia coli pank (ecpank) structure by targeti ...200616213731
regulation of hyphal morphogenesis and the dna damage response by the aspergillus nidulans atm homolog atma.ataxia telangiectasia (a-t) is an inherited disorder characterized by progressive loss of motor function and susceptibility to cancer. the most prominent clinical feature observed in a-t patients is the degeneration of purkinje motor neurons. numerous studies have emphasized the role of the affected gene product, atm, in the regulation of the dna damage response. however, in purkinje cells, the bulk of atm localizes to the cytoplasm and may play a role in vesicle trafficking. the nature of this ...200616415361
identification of the mste gene encoding a glucose-inducible, low affinity glucose transporter in aspergillus nidulans.the mste gene encoding a low affinity glucose transporter active during the germination of aspergillus nidulans conidia on glucose medium has been identified. mste expression also occurs in hyphae, is induced in the presence of other repressing carbon sources besides glucose, and is dependent on the function of the transcriptional repressor crea. the expression of mste and its subcellular distribution have been studied using a mste-sgfp fusion protein. concordant with data on mste expression, ms ...200616418173
farnesol-induced apoptosis in aspergillus nidulans reveals a possible mechanism for antagonistic interactions between fungi.the dimorphic fungus candida albicans secretes farnesol, which acts as a quorum-sensing molecule and prevents the yeast to mycelium conversion. in this study we examined the effect of farnesol in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. we show that externally added farnesol has no effect on hyphal morphogenesis; instead, it triggers morphological features characteristic of apoptosis. additional experiments suggest that mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ros) participate in farnesol-i ...200616420349
tmpa, a member of a novel family of putative membrane flavoproteins, regulates asexual development in aspergillus nidulans.asexual reproduction (conidiation) in aspergillus nidulans is induced by environmental signals like exposure to air or nutrient starvation, and depends on brla gene activation. the study of 'fluffy' mutants showing delayed asexual development and reduced brla expression has defined the flug pathway, involved in regulation of this differentiation process. genetic characterization of a 'fluffy' mutant identified tmpa as a new gene involved in regulation of conidiation. tmpa defines a new family of ...200616420356
oxylipins act as determinants of natural product biosynthesis and seed colonization in aspergillus nidulans.secreted, hormone-like lipogenic molecules, called oxylipins, mediate the balance of asexual to sexual spore ratio in aspergillus nidulans. oxylipin production in this fungus is dependent on developmental regulation of three conserved fatty acid oxygenases, ppoa, ppob and ppoc. here, we show that in addition to altering spore ratios, loss of ppo genes affect natural product biosynthesis and seed colonization. deltappoa;deltappoc and deltappoa;deltappob;deltappoc mutants were unable to produce th ...200616420358
a global view of metabolites.fungi are rich sources of medically useful, as well as toxic, secondary metabolites. in this issue of chemistry & biology, bok et al. show that, in aspergillus nidulans, microarray analysis and manipulation of a global regulator can identify novel metabolite genes.200616426964
genomic mining for aspergillus natural products.the genus aspergillus is renowned for its ability to produce a myriad of bioactive secondary metabolites. although the propensity of biosynthetic genes to form contiguous clusters greatly facilitates assignment of putative secondary metabolite genes in the completed aspergillus genomes, such analysis cannot predict gene expression and, ultimately, product formation. to circumvent this deficiency, we have examined aspergillus nidulans microarrays for expressed secondary metabolite gene clusters b ...200616426969
evaluation of agrobacterium-mediated transformation of agaricus bisporus using a range of promoters linked to hygromycin resistance.there is interest in establishing genetic modification technologies for the cultivated mushroom agaricus bisporus, both for improved crop characteristics and for molecular pharming. for these methods to be successful, it is necessary to establish a set of transformation systems that include robust and reliable vectors for gene manipulation. in this article, we report the evaluation of a series of promoters for driving expression of the escherichia coli hph gene encoding hygromycin phosphotransfe ...200616444014
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