TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
structural and functional characterisation of the dna binding domain of the aspergillus nidulans gene regulatory protein area.the 876-aa protein area regulates the expression of numerous genes involved in nitrogen metabolism in aspergillus nidulans, and interacts with gata sequences upstream of the relevant genes. we have carried out limited proteolysis of the c-terminal domain of the area protein in order to identify possible structural domains within the protein. a stable 156-amino-acid fragment was identified that contained the zinc finger region, and this sequence was cloned and expressed in e. coli. fluorescence s ...200312758150
molecular genetics of fungal siderophore biosynthesis and uptake: the role of siderophores in iron uptake and acquire iron, all species have to overcome the problems of iron insolubility and toxicity. in response to low iron availability in the environment, most fungi excrete ferric iron-specific chelators--siderophores--to mobilize this metal. siderophore-bound iron is subsequently utilized via the reductive iron assimilatory system or uptake of the siderophore-iron complex. furthermore, most fungi possess intracellular siderophores as iron storage compounds. molecular analysis of siderophore biosyn ...200312759789
catalases of aspergillus fumigatus.upon infection of a host, the pathogenic fungus aspergillus fumigatus is attacked by the reactive oxygen species produced by phagocytic cells. detoxification of hydrogen peroxide by catalases was proposed as a way to overcome this host response. a. fumigatus produces three active catalases; one is produced by conidia, and two are produced by mycelia. the mycelial catalase cat1p was studied previously. here we characterized the two other catalases, their genes, and the phenotypes of gene-disrupte ...200312761140
molecular characterisation and expression analysis of the first hemicellulase gene (bxl1) encoding beta-xylosidase from the thermophilic fungus talaromyces emersonii.the gene coding for beta-xylosidase, bxl1, has been cloned from the thermophilic filamentous fungus, talaromyces emersonii. this is the first report of a hemicellulase gene from this novel source. at the genomic level, bxl1 consists of an open reading frame of 2388 nucleotides with no introns that encodes a putative protein of 796 amino acids. the bxl1 translation product contains a signal peptide of 21 amino acids that yields a mature protein of 775 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass ...200312763033
the negative transcriptional regulator nmra discriminates between oxidized and reduced dinucleotides.nmra, a transcription repressor involved in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism in aspergillus nidulans,is a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase reductase superfamily. isothermal titration calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry have been used to show nmra binds nad+ and nadp+ with similar affinity (average kd 65 microm) but has a greatly reduced affinity for nadh and nadph (average kd 6.0 mm). the structure of nmra in a complex with nadp+ reveals how repositioning a his-37 side ...200312764138
in vitro analysis of the relationship between endonuclease and maturase activities in the bi-functional group i intron-encoded protein, i-anii.the ancob group i intron from aspergillus nidulans encodes a homing dna endonuclease called i-anii which also functions as a maturase, assisting in ancob intron rna splicing. in this investigation we biochemically characterized the endonuclease activity of i-anii in vitro and utilized competition assays to probe the relationship between the rna- and dna-binding sites. despite functioning as an rna maturase, i-anii still retains several characteristic properties of homing endonucleases including ...200312654010
tupa, the penicillium marneffei tup1p homologue, represses both yeast and spore development.fungal pathogenesis is frequently associated with dimorphism - morphological changes between yeast and filamentous forms. penicillium marneffei, an opportunistic human pathogen, exhibits temperature-dependent dimorphism, with growth at 25 degrees c as filamentous multinucleate hyphae switching at 37 degrees c to uninucleate yeast cells associated with intracellular pathogenesis. the filamentous hyphae also undergo asexual development generating uninucleate spores, the infectious propagules. both ...200312657047
the npga/ cfwa gene encodes a putative 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase which is essential for penicillin biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans.non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, polyketides and fatty acid synthetases have a modular organisation of multi-enzymatic activities. in all of them, the acyl or peptidyl carrier proteins have 4'-phosphopantetheine (p-pant) as an essential prosthetic group. this is added by 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferases (pptases) that derive the p-pant group from coenzyme a. while many pptases of varying specificity have now been isolated from a number of bacteria, a filamentous fungal pptase has yet to be ...200312664133
activation of chsc transcription by abaa during asexual development of aspergillus nidulans.the temporal and spatial regulation of chitin synthesis plays an important role in morphogenesis during fungal growth and development. northern blot analysis showed that the transcription level of chsa, chsc, and chsd was significantly decreased in an aspergillus nidulans abaa mutant. electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that abaa bound tightly to all three ares (abaa response elements) in the chsc promoter region. experiments with the saccharomyces cerevisiae heterologous expression s ...200312670687
role for nudc, a dynein-associated nuclear movement protein, in mitosis and cytokinesis.nudc, a nuclear movement protein that associates with dynein, was originally cloned as a mitogen-inducible early growth response gene. nudc forms a biochemical complex with components of the dynein/dynactin complex and is suggested to play a role in translocation of nuclei in proliferating neuronal progenitors as well as in migrating neurons in culture. here, we show that nudc plays multiple roles in mitosis and cytokinesis in cultured mammalian cells. altering nudc levels by either small interf ...200312679384
femoral osteomyelitis due to aspergillus nidulans in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease.13 cases of osteomyelitis caused by aspergillus nidulans have been previously reported in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (cgd). all of them have been associated with simultaneous pulmonary infection and have had an extremely poor outcome. we report an unusual case of femoral osteomyelitis due to a. nidulans in a 16-year-old male with cgd, without pulmonary involvement. treatment with liposomal amphotericin b and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor as well as extensive surgical deb ...200312682820
ph regulation in aspergillus and parallels with higher eukaryotic regulatory systems.all organisms respond to their environment to some extent, and for many microbes the variation in environment can be enormous. an important asset for coping with environmental variation is physiological versatility--a hallmark of many fungi. the ability of fungi to thrive over a wide range of ph is partly due to a genetic regulatory system that tailors gene expression to the ambient ph. here we focus on the ph regulatory system of aspergillus nidulans, where a novel signal transduction (pal) pat ...200312683976
circadian and light-induced expression of luciferase in neurospora crassa.we have constructed a plasmid vector for expressing firefly luciferase in neurospora crassa under control of the light- and clock-regulated ccg-2 (eas) promoter. the sequence of the luciferase gene in the vector has been modified to reflect the n. crassa codon bias. both light-induced activity and circadian activity are demonstrated. expression of luciferase in strains carrying mutant frequency alleles shows appropriate period length alterations. these data demonstrate that luciferase is a sensi ...200312684022
nuclear import of zinc binuclear cluster proteins proceeds through multiple, overlapping transport aspergillus nidulans, the high transcriptional level of the ethanol utilization pathway genes (alc) is regulated by the specific activator alcr. here we have analyzed the mechanism of the nuclear import of alcr, as well as that of other proteins belonging to the zn(2)cys(6) binuclear cluster family. the nuclear localization signal of alcr maps within the n-terminal 75 amino acid residues and overlaps with its dna-binding domain. it consists of five clusters rich in basic residues. four of the ...200312684370
a circadian oscillator in aspergillus spp. regulates daily development and gene expression.we have established the presence of a circadian clock in aspergillus flavus and aspergillus nidulans by morphological and molecular assays, respectively. in a. flavus, the clock regulates an easily assayable rhythm in the development of sclerotia, which are large survival structures produced by many fungi. this developmental rhythm exhibits all of the principal clock properties. the rhythm is maintained in constant environmental conditions with a period of 33 h at 30 degrees c, it can be entrain ...200312684372
accumulation of cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin at microtubule plus ends in aspergillus nidulans is kinesin dependent.the mechanism(s) by which microtubule plus-end tracking proteins are targeted is unknown. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, both cytoplasmic dynein and nudf, the homolog of the lis1 protein, localize to microtubule plus ends as comet-like structures. herein, we show that nudm, the p150 subunit of dynactin, also forms dynamic comet-like structures at microtubule plus ends. by examining proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein in different loss-of-function mutants, we demonstra ...200312686603
clnr1, the area/nit2-like global nitrogen regulator of the plant fungal pathogen colletotrichum lindemuthianum is required for the infection cycle.nitrogen starvation is generally assumed to be encountered by biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogens at the beginning of their infection cycle. we tested whether nitrogen starvation constitutes a cue regulating genes that are required for pathogenicity of colletotrichum lindemuthianum, a fungal pathogen of common bean. the clnr1 (c. lindemuthianumnitrogen regulator 1) gene, the area/nit-2 orthologue of c. lindemuthianum, was isolated. the predicted clnr1 protein exhibits high amino ...200312694611
the ph signalling transcription factor pacc controls virulence in the plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum.gene expression in fungi by ambient ph is regulated via a conserved signalling cascade whose terminal component is the zinc finger transcription factor pacc/rim1p. we have identified a pacc orthologue in the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum that binds the consensus 5'-gccaag-3' sequence and is proteolytically processed in a similar way to pacc from aspergillus nidulans. pacc transcript levels were elevated in f. oxysporum grown in alkaline conditions and almost undetectable at extreme a ...200312694620
promoter analysis of the avirulence gene avr9 of the fungal tomato pathogen cladosporium fulvum in the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.the promoter of avirulence gene avr9 of the fungal tomato pathogen cladosporium fulvum contains 12 sequences within a region of 0.6 kb that are reminiscent of the binding sequences of the gata-type regulator involved in nitrogen utilisation of the filamentous fungi aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa. mutational analysis of this 0.6-kb promoter region, fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene, revealed that two regions, each containing two tagata boxes in inverted orientation and ove ...200312695849
telomeric repeat sequence of aspergillus oryzae consists of dodeca-nucleotides.four telomeres in the chromosomes of aspergillus oryzae nfri1599 were cloned and sequenced. the telomeric repeat sequence of a. oryzae consisted of dodeca-nucleotides: ttagggtcaaca. the length of the telomeric repeat tract was 114-136 bp, which corresponds to 9-11 repeats of the dodeca-nucleotide sequence. compared to a chromosome internal control (18s rdna), the telomeric sequences were found to be sensitive to bal31 exonuclease digestion, thus proving that the identified telomeric repeat seque ...200312698283
mycotoxins of aspergilli: exposure and health effects.mycotoxins derived from aspergilli can be encountered both in domestic and occupational environments, and the exposure may lead to severe health hazards. several aspergillus species are associated with mycotoxin production: a. ochraceus with ochratoxin a, a. fumigatus with fumitremorgins, gliotoxin and verrucologen, a. versicolor with sterigmatocystin, and a. flavus and a. parasiticus with aflatoxins. sterigmatocystin may also be produced by a. flavus, a. nidulans, a. rugulosus, and a. unguis. e ...200312700107
the isopenicillin n acyltransferases of aspergillus nidulans and penicillium chrysogenum differ in their ability to maintain the 40-kda alphabeta heterodimer in an undissociated form.the isopenicillin n acyltransferases (iats) of aspergillus nidulans and penicillium chrysogenum differed in their ability to maintain the 40-kda proacyltransferase alphabeta heterodimer in an undissociated form. the native a. nidulans iat exhibited a molecular mass of 40 kda by gel filtration. the p. chrysogenum iat showed a molecular mass of 29 kda by gel filtration (corresponding to the beta subunit of the enzyme) but the undissociated 40-kda heterodimer was never observed even in crude extrac ...200312709055
in vitro susceptibility of aspergillus spp. clinical isolates to albendazole.the in vitro antifungal activity of albendazole, a benzimidazole widely used as an antihelmintic drug in humans, was investigated and assessed for its activity against aspergillus spp. forty-eight isolates, representing the most frequent species found in human pathology [aspergillus fumigatus (n = 27), aspergillus flavus (n = 10), aspergillus terreus (n = 7), aspergillus nidulans (n = 3) and aspergillus niger (n = 1)], and one quality control strain (a. niger atcc 9804 83435) were tested accordi ...200312716778
heterologous expression of laccase cdna from ceriporiopsis subvermispora yields copper-activated apoprotein and complex isoform patterns.analysis of genomic clones encoding a putative laccase in homokaryon strains of ceriporiopsis subvermispora led to the identification of an allelic variant of the previously described lcs-1 gene. a cdna clone corresponding to this gene was expressed in aspergillus nidulans and in aspergillus niger. enzyme assays and western blots showed that both hosts secreted active laccase. relative to the isozymic forms of the native c. subvermispora enzyme, the a. niger-produced laccase had a higher molecul ...200312724379
in vitro susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi: comparison of etest and reference m38-a microdilution methods for determining posaconazole mics.the performance of the etest for posaconazole susceptibility testing of 72 isolates of filamentous fungi was assessed in comparison with the national committee for clinical laboratory standards (nccls) approved standard broth microdilution method (m38-a). the nccls method employed rpmi 1640 broth medium, and mics were read after incubation for 48h at 35 degrees c. etest mics were determined with rpmi agar containing 2% glucose and were read after incubation for 48h at 35 degrees c. the isolates ...200312729993
deletion of mdmb impairs mitochondrial distribution and morphology in aspergillus nidulans.mitochondria form a dynamic network of interconnected tubes in the cells of saccharomyces cerevisiae or filamentous fungi such as aspergillus nidulans, neurospora crassa, or podospora anserina. the dynamics depends on the separation of mitochondrial fragments, their movement throughout the cell, and their subsequent fusion with the other parts of the organelle. interestingly, the microtubule network is required for the distribution in n. crassa and s. pombe, while s. cerevisiae and a. nidulans a ...200312740872
never say never. the nima-related protein kinases in mitotic control.mitosis sees a massive reorganization of cellular architecture. the microtubule cytoskeleton is reorganized to form a bipolar spindle between duplicated microtubule organizing centers, the chromosomes are condensed, attached to the spindle at their kinetochores, and, through the action of multiple molecular motors, the chromosomes are segregated into two daughter cells. mitosis also sees a substantial wave of protein phosphorylation, controlling signaling events that coordinate mitotic processes ...200312742165
specific induction and carbon/nitrogen repression of arginine catabolism gene of aspergillus nidulans--functional in vivo analysis of the otaa promoter.the arginine catabolism gene otaa encoding ornithine transaminase (otase) is specifically induced by arginine and is under the control of the broad-domain carbon and nitrogen repression systems. arginine induction is mediated by a product of arca gene coding for zn(2)c(6) activator. we have identified a region responsible for arginine induction in the otaa promoter (anuas(arg)). deletions within this region result in non-inducibility of otase by arginine, whether in an arca(+) strain or in the p ...200312620254
mutation in a calpain-like protease affects the posttranslational mannosylation of phosphatases in aspergillus this communication, we show that the palb7 mutation drastically reduced the mannose and n-acetylgalactosamine content of the paca-encoded acid phosphatase secreted by the fungus aspergillus nidulans at ph 5.0, compared to a control strain. by using mrna differential display reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction, we isolated two cdnas from the control pabaa1 strain that were not detected in the palb7 mutant strain that encode a mannosyl transferase and a nadh-ubiquinone oxidoredu ...200312620258
expression of the mnpa gene that encodes the mannoprotein of aspergillus nidulans is dependent on fada and flba as well as vea.the single copy mnpa gene that encodes a mannoprotein of aspergillus nidulans and its cdna were isolated from the genomic and cdna libraries, respectively. the determined nucleotide sequences of the genomic dna and its cdna revealed that the gene has an open-reading frame of 261 amino acids without introns. the deduced amino acid sequence showed a 60% identity to that of aspegillus fumigatus galactomannoprotein mp1. the mnpa gene was expressed more abundantly in the wild-type than in the vea-nul ...200312620259
conidial hydrophobins of aspergillus fumigatus.the surface of aspergillus fumigatus conidia, the first structure recognized by the host immune system, is covered by rodlets. we report that this outer cell wall layer contains two hydrophobins, rodap and rodbp, which are found as highly insoluble complexes. the roda gene was previously characterized, and deltaroda conidia do not display a rodlet layer (n. thau, m. monod, b. crestani, c. rolland, g. tronchin, j. p. latgé, and s. paris, infect. immun. 62:4380-4388, 1994). the rodb gene was clone ...200312620846
the mapkk kinase stec regulates conidiophore morphology and is essential for heterokaryon formation and sexual development in the homothallic fungus aspergillus nidulans.environmental signals can be transduced into intracellular responses by the action of map kinase cascades. sequential phosphorylation results in the transient activation of a map kinase, which in turn activates certain transcription factors and thus a set of pathway-specific genes. many steps in this cascade are conserved, and homologues have been discovered from yeast to human. we have characterized the mapkk kinase, stec, a homologue of saccharomyces cerevisiae ste11, in the filamentous fungus ...200312622813
in vitro susceptibility testing of aspergillus spp.: comparison of etest and reference microdilution methods for determining voriconazole and itraconazole mics.the performance of the etest for voriconazole and for itraconazole susceptibility testing of 376 isolates of aspergillus spp. was assessed in comparison with the national committee for clinical laboratory standards (nccls) proposed standard microdilution broth method. the nccls method employed rpmi 1640 broth medium, and mics were read after incubation for 48 h at 35 degrees c. etest mics were determined with rpmi agar containing 2% glucose and were read after incubation for 48 h at 35 degrees c ...200312624040
roles of nude and nudf proteins of aspergillus nidulans: insights from intracellular localization and overexpression effects.the nudf protein of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans functions in the cytoplasmic dynein pathway. it binds several proteins, including the nude protein. green fluorescent protein-tagged nudf and nuda (dynein heavy chain) localize to linearly moving dashes ("comets") that coincide with microtubule ends. herein, deletion of the nude gene did not eliminate the comets of nudf and nuda, but affected the behavior of nuda. comets were also observed with the green fluorescent protein-tagged n ...200312631710
area directly mediates nitrogen regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis in gibberella fujikuroi, but its activity is not affected by nmr.area (nit2) is a general transcription factor involved in derepression of numerous genes responsible for nitrogen utilization in gibberella fujikuroi and many other fungi. we have previously shown that the deletion of area-gf resulted in mutants with significantly reduced gibberellin (ga) production. here we demonstrate that the expression level of six of the seven ga biosynthesis genes is drastically reduced in mutants lacking area. furthermore, we show that, despite the fact that gas are nitro ...200312581353
activation mechanisms of the hac1-mediated unfolded protein response in filamentous fungi.the unfolded protein response (upr) is a regulatory pathway activating genes involved in multiple functions related to folding, quality control and transport of secreted proteins. characterization of the hac1/haca genes encoding the upr transcription factors from the filamentous fungi trichoderma reesei and aspergillus nidulans is described in this article. the corresponding gene in saccharomyces cerevisiae is activated through a non-spliceosomal intron-splicing reaction. the t. reesei hac1 and ...200312581366
expression of the ech42 (endochitinase) gene of trichoderma atroviride under carbon starvation is antagonized via a brla-like cis-acting element.expression of the endochitinase encoding ech42 gene of the mycoparasite trichoderma atroviride is subject to control by several environmental signals, including derepression by carbon starvation. in order to identify promoter areas involved in control by this condition, we prepared fusions of several mutant forms of the ech42 promoter to the aspergillus niger goxa gene as a reporter. removal of a 130-bp fragment comprising a binding site for the carbon catabolite repressor cre1, an agggg element ...200312586401
ypxl/i is a protein interaction motif recognized by aspergillus pala and its human homologue, aip1/alix.the zinc finger transcription factor pacc undergoes two-step proteolytic activation in response to alkaline ambient ph. pala is a component of the fungal ambient ph signal transduction pathway. its mammalian homologue aip1/alix interacts with the apoptosis-linked protein alg-2. we show that both pala and aip1/alix recognize a protein-protein binding motif that we denote ypxl/i, where tyr, pro, and leu/ile are crucial for its interactive properties. two such motifs flanking the signaling protease ...200312588984
deletion of aspergillus nidulans aroc using a novel blaster module that combines et cloning and marker rescue.blaster cassettes are of significant value in functional genomics, as they represent tools with which to inactivate duplicated or homologous genes in an individual organism. we have constructed a novel blaster module which allows repeated gene deletion in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. because bacterial resistance marker cassettes are employed as flanking repeats in direct orientation, the blaster cassette is suited for recombinogenic engineering by et cloning in escherichia coli. ...200312589442
impact of the cross-pathway control on the regulation of lysine and penicillin biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans.the non-proteinogenic amino acid, alpha-aminoadipate, defines the biosynthetic branch-point of lysine and penicillin biosynthesis in the filamentous fungus, aspergillus nidulans. regulation of both pathways was analysed in response to amino acid limitation. the lysf-encoded homoaconitase acts upstream of the alpha-aminoadipate branch point, whereas the lysa gene product, saccharopine dehydrogenase, catalyses the ultimate step of the lysine-specific branch. the lysa gene from a. nidulans was iden ...200312589472
development of a transformation system for crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom in cocoa plants.protoplasts of the pathogenic plant fungus, crinipellis perniciosa, were transformed to hygromycin b resistance using the pan7-1 plasmid, which contains the escherichia coli hph gene under the control of aspergillus nidulans regulatory sequences. the pan7-1 plasmid was introduced by peg/cacl(2) treatment. transformation frequencies of 1.6-2.5 transformants/microg of dna were achieved. about 54% of the transformants were abortive and 40 analyzed transformants were mitotically stable and showed di ...200312589475
broad and complex antifungal activity among environmental isolates of lactic acid bacteria.more than 1200 isolates of lactic acid bacteria isolated from different environments were screened for antifungal activity in a dual-culture agar plate assay. approximately 10% of the isolates showed inhibitory activity and 4% showed strong activity against the indicator mould aspergillus fumigatus. the antifungal spectra for 37 isolates with strong activity and five isolates with low or no activity were determined. several of the strains showed strong inhibitory activity against the moulds a. f ...200312594034
glycosphingolipids of the model fungus aspergillus nidulans: characterization of gipcs with oligo-alpha-mannose-type glycans.aspergillus nidulans is a well-established nonpathogenic laboratory model for the opportunistic mycopathogen, a. fumigatus. some recent studies have focused on possible functional roles of glycosphingolipids (gsls) in these fungi. it has been demonstrated that biosynthesis of glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (gipcs) is required for normal cell cycle progression and polarized growth in a. nidulans (cheng, j., t.-s. park, a. s. fischl, and x. s. ye. 2001. mol. cell biol. 21: 6198-6209); howeve ...200312923229
mitochondrial rnase p rnas in ascomycete fungi: lineage-specific variations in rna secondary structure.the rna subunit of mitochondrial rnase p (mtp-rna) is encoded by a mitochondrial gene (rnpb) in several ascomycete fungi and in the protists reclinomonas americana and nephroselmis olivacea. by searching for universally conserved structural elements, we have identified previously unknown rnpb genes in the mitochondrial dnas (mtdnas) of two fission yeasts, schizosaccharomyces pombe and schizosaccharomyces octosporus; in the budding yeast pichia canadensis; and in the archiascomycete taphrina defo ...200312923256
tina interacts with the nima kinase in aspergillus nidulans and negatively regulates astral microtubules during metaphase arrest.the tina gene of aspergillus nidulans encodes a protein that interacts with the nima mitotic protein kinase in a cell cycle-specific manner. highly similar proteins are encoded in neurospora crassa and aspergillus fumigatus. tina and nima preferentially interact in interphase and larger forms of tina are generated during mitosis. localization studies indicate that tina is specifically localized to the spindle pole bodies only during mitosis in a microtubule-dependent manner. deletion of tina alo ...200312925754
antifungal agents from the roots of cudrania cochinchinensis against candida, cryptococcus, and aspergillus species.bioassay-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of four antifungal agents from the roots of cudrania cochinchinensis. two of these were new compounds, cudraxanthone s [1, 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-2-(1,1-dimethyl-2-propenyl)xanthone] and cudraflavanone b (2, 2',4',5,7-tetrahydroxy-6-prenylflavanone). the remaining two compounds were known compounds, toxyloxanthone c (3) and wighteone (4). among these compounds, 1, 3, and 4 exhibited antifungal activities against cryptococcus neoformans, asper ...200312932139
branching is coordinated with mitosis in growing hyphae of aspergillus nidulans.filamentous fungi like aspergillus nidulans can effectively colonize their surroundings by the formation of new branches along the existing hyphae. while growth conditions, chemical perturbations, and mutations affecting branch formation have received great attention during the last decades, the mechanisms that regulates branching is still poorly understood. in this study, a possible relation between cell cycle progression and branching was studied by testing the effect of a nuclei distribution ...200312948510
genomics reveals sexual secrets of aspergillus. 200312949156
red fluorescent protein (dsred2) as a novel reporter in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.pan-dsred2 vector was constructed for constitutive cytoplasmic expression of the red fluorescent protein (dsred2) under control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene promoter from aspergillus nidulans. dsred2-transformation of two fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strains pathogenic against tomato host resulted in bright red cytoplamic fluorescence of the fungus. the transformants were screened based on the hygromycin b resistance, brightness, stability and rate of appearance ...200312951257
transcriptional regulation of methionine synthase by homocysteine and choline in aspergillus nidulans.roles played by homocysteine and choline in the regulation of ms (methionine synthase) have been examined in fungi. the aspergillus nidulans meth gene encoding ms was cloned and characterized. its transcription was not regulated by methionine, but was enhanced by homocysteine and repressed by choline and betaine. ms activity levels were regulated in a similar way. the repression by betaine was due to its metabolic conversion to choline, which was found to be very efficient in a. nidulans. betain ...200312954077
production and secretion of aspergillus nidulans catalase b in filamentous fungi driven by the promoter and signal peptide of the cladosporium fulvum hydrophobin gene hcf-1.we describe here the use of sequences from the hydrophobin gene hcf-1 of cladosporium fulvum to construct pcatbex, a vector for high-level expression and secretion of catb, a catalase from aspergillus nidulans. transformation of c. fulvum with pcatbex results in a 60-fold increase in the mycelial activity in the fungus and the appearance of up to 5.4 mkat/l of catalase in the growth medium. the levels of catalase in the supernatant increased dramatically following removal of nitrogen from the me ...200312955453
protein prenyltransferases: anchor size, pseudogenes and parasites.lipid modification of eukaryotic proteins by protein prenyltransferases is required for critical signaling pathways, cell cycle progression, cytoskeleton remodeling, induction of apoptosis and vesicular trafficking. this review analyzes the influence of distinct states of sequential posttranslational processing that can be obtained after single or double prenylation, reversible palmitoylation, proteolytic cleavage of the c-terminus and possible reversible carboxymethylation. this series of modif ...200312956414
homologous expression of a mutated beta-tubulin gene does not confer benomyl resistance on trichoderma clone the beta-tubulins and to induce resistance to benzimidazoles in the biocontrol fungus trichoderma virens through site-directed mutagenesis.200312969302
the sclerotinia sclerotiorum pac1 gene is required for sclerotial development and virulence.the synergistic activities of oxalic acid and endopolygalacturonases are thought to be essential for full virulence of sclerotinia sclerotiorum and other oxalate-producing plant pathogens. both oxalic acid production and endopolygalacturonase activity are regulated by ambient ph. since many gene products with ph-sensitive activities are regulated by the pacc transcription factor in aspergillus nidulans, we functionally characterized a pacc gene homolog, pac1, from s. sclerotiorum. mutants with l ...200312971602
cdna cloning, expression and characterization of an allergenic l3 ribosomal protein of aspergillus fumigatus.aspergillus fumigatus (afu) is an important fungal pathogen causing allergic and invasive respiratory disorders. a plethora of multi-functional allergens/antigens secreted by afu have been implicated in pathogenesis. the present study was undertaken to identify and characterize novel afu allergen/antigen by cdna library approach. cdna library of afu was immunoscreened with pooled sera of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (abpa) patients. the cdna clone, ts1, reacting significantly with spe ...200312974759
use of green fluorescent protein to quantify the growth of colletotrichum during infection of develop a quantitative assay of fungal growth inside plant tissues, strains of colletotrichum destructivum and colletotrichum orbiculare were transformed with a modified green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene fused with a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter from aspergillus nidulans. transformants expressed gfp in culture and had the same growth rate and general appearance as the wild type. gfp was observed in all fungal structures during infection of leaves of nicotiana benthamia ...200312609730
ligand-induced conformational changes and a mechanism for domain closure in aspergillus nidulans dehydroquinate order to investigate systematically substrate and cofactor-induced conformational changes in the enzyme dehydroquinate synthase (dhqs), eight structures representing a series of differently liganded states have been determined in a total of six crystal forms. dhqs in the absence of the substrate analogue carbaphosphonate, either unliganded or in the presence of nad or adp, is in an open form where a relative rotation of 11-13 degrees between n and c-terminal domains occurs. analysis of torsio ...200312614613
control of morphogenesis and actin localization by the penicillium marneffei rac homolog.rac proteins control polarized growth in many organisms but the specific function of these proteins remains undefined. in this study, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of a rac homolog, cflb, from the dimorphic fungus penicillium marneffei. p. marneffei produces asexual spores on complex structures (conidiophores) and switches between hyphal and yeast growth. cflb colocalizes with actin at the tips of vegetative hyphal cells and at sites of cell division. deletion of cflb r ...200312615967
primary structure of cytochrome c gene from the white root rot fungus rosellinia necatrix.the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome c (cytc) gene of the white root rot fungus rosellinia necatrix was analyzed. the structure of this gene, which had three introns in the coding region, was similar to that of aspergillus nidulans. the second intron of the r. necatrix cytc gene was not present in neurospora crassa or fusarium oxysporum. however, the amino acid sequence of r. necatrix was most similar to that of neurospora crassa. thus, it seemed that the second intron of the r. necatrix cy ...200312619691
multiple gata sites: protein binding and physiological relevance for the regulation of the proline transporter gene of aspergillus aspergillus nidulans, proline can serve both as a carbon and a nitrogen source. the transcription of the prnb gene, encoding the proline transporter, is efficiently repressed only by the simultaneous presence of ammonium and glucose. thus, repression of this gene demands the activation of the crea repressor and the inactivation of the positive-acting gata factor area. repression of all other prn structural genes results largely from inducer exclusion. in an area null mutation background, prnb ...200314507380
4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase-encoding npga is essential for siderophore biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans produces two major siderophores: it excretes triacetylfusarinine c to capture iron and contains ferricrocin as an intracellular iron-storage compound. siderophore biosynthesis involves the enzymatic activity of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (nrps). nrps contain 4'-phosphopantetheine as an essential prosthetic group, which is attached by 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferases. a. nidulans appears to possess at least one gene, npga, encoding such an enzyme. using a strain carr ...200314508603
discrimination between gene expression patterns in the invasive margin and the tumour core of malignant melanomas.genes that determine the invasive capacity of the invasive front of malignant melanomas (mm) have not yet been systematically investigated in vivo. therefore, we combined laser pressure catapulting (lpc) microdissection with cdna microarray technology (dermarray, research genetics, representing about 5700 genes) to systematically analyse differences in gene expression profiles between the invasive margin and the tumour centre in nine cases of vertical growth phase mm. signal-to-noise statistical ...200314512792
the aspergillus nidulans alca promoter drives tightly regulated conditional gene expression in aspergillus fumigatus permitting validation of essential genes in this human pathogen.aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive aspergillosis, a mycosis that is usually fatal in immunocompromised patients. functional genomics in this fungus will aid the discovery of novel antifungal drugs to treat invasive aspergillosis. however, there is still a need for appropriate molecular genetic tools to facilitate such functional studies. here, we describe the use of a conditional gene expression system allowing the identification of novel therapeutic targets through validation of essential ge ...200314516763
diversity of polyketide synthase gene sequences in aspergillus species.fungal polyketide synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of several mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites. the aim of our work was to investigate the diversity of polyketide synthases in aspergillus species using two approaches: pcr amplification using oligonucleotide primers, and bioinformatics. ketosynthase domain probes amplified dna fragments of about 700 bp in each examined isolate. sequences of these domains were aligned and analyzed by phylogenetic methods. the ketosynthase d ...200314527661
the kinesin family member bimc contains a second microtubule binding region attached to the n terminus of the motor domain.the kinesin family member bimc has a highly positively charged domain of approximately 70 amino acids at the n terminus of the motor domain. motor domain constructs of bimc were prepared with and without this extra domain to determine its influence. the level of microtubules needed for half saturation of the atpase of bimc motor domain constructs is reduced by approximately 7000-fold at low ionic strength upon addition of this extra n-terminal extension. although the change in microtubule affini ...200314530265
a novel extracellular multicopper oxidase from phanerochaete chrysosporium with ferroxidase activity.lignin degradation by the white rot basidiomycete phanerochaete chrysosporium involves various extracellular oxidative enzymes, including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and a peroxide-generating enzyme, glyoxal oxidase. recent studies have suggested that laccases also may be produced by this fungus, but these conclusions have been controversial. we identified four sequences related to laccases and ferroxidases (fet3) in a search of the publicly available p. chrysosporium database. one ...200314532088
viability of dried vegetative cells or filaments, survivability and/or reproduction under water and light stress, and following heat and uv exposure in some blue-green and green algae.vegetative cells in dried, mucilagenous mass of gloeocapsa aeruginosa and aphanothece nidulans, reticulum of hydrodictyon reticulatum, mucilagenous mass of chroococcus minor, and filaments of oedogonium sp. and scytonema hofmanni died within 1/2, 1/2, 1/2, 1, 3 and 6 h, respectively, while dried vegetative filaments of phormidium foveolarum retained under similar storage conditions viability for 4 d. p. foveolarum tolerated 1 mol/l nacl. the resistance to desiccation in p. foveolarum exhibited s ...200314533482
cloning and expression analysis of the atp-binding cassette transporter gene mfabc1 and the alternative oxidase gene mfaox1 from monilinia fructicola.brown rot, caused by moniliniafructicola (g wint) honey, is a serious disease of peach in all commercial peach production areas in the usa, including south carolina where it has been primarily controlled by pre-harvest application of 14-alpha demethylation (dmi) fungicides for more than 15 years. recently, the qo fungicide azoxystrobin was registered for brown rot control and is currently being investigated for its potential as a dmi fungicide rotation partner because of its different mode of ac ...200314561072
the serine/threonine kinase nek6 is required for cell cycle progression through mitosis.the aspergillus nidulans protein nima (never in mitosis, gene a) is a protein kinase required for the initiation of mitosis, whereas its inactivation is necessary for mitotic exit. here, we demonstrate that human nima-related kinase 6 (nek6) is required for mitotic progression of human cells. nek6 is phosphorylated and activated during m phase. inhibition of nek6 function by either overexpression of an inactive nek6 mutant or elimination of endogenous nek6 by sirna arrests cells in m phase and t ...200314563848
genetic transformation of monascus purpureus dsm1379.monascus purpureus was transformed into hygromycin b resistance with hygromycin b phosphotransferase (hph) fused to aspergillus nidulans trpc or a putative monascus purpureus gpd1 promoter by electroporation. among five strains, only m. purpureus dsm1397 was a competent recipient. normal growth and sporulation on media containing up to 500 mg hygromycin b l(-1) occurred up to five generations. upon transformation of the strain with the green fluorescent protein gene (sgfp) as a model gene and hp ...200314571974
the aspergillus nidulans swoc1 mutant shows defects in growth and development.previous work identified swoc1 as a single-gene mutant with defects in polarity establishment. in this study swoc1 was shown to have defects in endocytosis, compartmentation, nuclear distribution, and conidiation. temperature-shift experiments showed that the swoc1 mutant establishes multiple random sites of germ tube emergence. surprisingly, these experiments also showed that even a slight delay in polarity establishment causes defects in later vegetative growth and asexual reproduction. the sw ...200314573468
mutational analysis of the major proline transporter (prnb) of aspergillus nidulans.prnb, the l-proline transporter of aspergillus nidulans, belongs to the amino acid polyamine organocation (apc) transporter family conserved in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. in silico analysis and limited biochemical evidence suggest that apc transporters comprise 12 transmembrane segments (tms) connected with relatively short hydrophilic loops (l). however, very little is known on the structure-function relationships in apc transporters. this work makes use of the a. nidulans prnb transporter to ...200314578044
induction of apoptosis by sphingoid long-chain bases in aspergillus nidulans.sphingolipid metabolism is implicated to play an important role in apoptosis. here we show that dihydrosphingosine (dhs) and phytosphingosine (phs), two major sphingoid bases of fungi, have potent fungicidal activity with remarkably high structural and stereochemical specificity against aspergillus nidulans. in fact, only naturally occurring dhs and phs are active. further analysis revealed that dhs and phs induce rapid dna condensation independent of mitosis, large-scale dna fragmentation, and ...200312482970
sequence comparison of aflr from different aspergillus species provides evidence for variability in regulation of aflatoxin production.aflatoxin contamination of foods and feeds is a world-wide agricultural problem. aflatoxin production requires expression of the biosynthetic pathway regulatory gene, aflr, which encodes a cys6zn2-type dna-binding protein. homologs of aflr from aspergillus nomius, bombycis, parasiticus, flavus, and pseudotamarii were compared to investigate the molecular basis for variation among aflatoxin-producing taxa in the regulation of aflatoxin production. variability was found in putative promoter consen ...200312553937
testing the limits of biological tolerance to arsenic in a fungus isolated from the river tinto.the tinto river in spain, with its high acidity and heavy metal concentrations (as, cu, cr, zn), is an example of an environment hostile to life. yet despite these extreme conditions, the site possesses a great diversity of eukaryotic life forms. we report the isolation of a filamentous fungus able to grow at 200 mm arsenic ( approximately 15 000 p.p.m.), i.e. a concentration 20-fold above that withstood by the reference microorganisms escherichia coli, saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus n ...200312558596
in plants the alc gene expression system responds more rapidly following induction with acetaldehyde than with has recently been proposed that acetaldehyde is the physiological inducer of the alc gene system and hence indirectly the activator of the alca promoter in aspergillus nidulans. here we show that this chemical induces expression of a gus (beta-d-glucuronidase) reporter under the control of the alc gene system in transgenic potato tubers more rapidly than ethanol allowing tighter control of transgene expression. furthermore by analysis of metabolite levels we demonstrate that the application o ...200312560092
cloning and expression analysis of the pcbab-pcbc beta-lactam genes in the marine fungus kallichroma we report the identification of the beta-lactam biosynthesis genes pcbab and pcbc from a cosmid genomic dna library of the marine fungus kallichroma tethys. a blast homology search showed that they share high sequence identity with the delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine (acv) synthetases and isopenicillin n synthases, respectively, of various fungal and bacterial beta-lactam producers, while phylogenetic analysis indicated a close relationship with homologous genes of the ceph ...200312571064
the transcription factor rim101p governs ion tolerance and cell differentiation by direct repression of the regulatory genes nrg1 and smp1 in saccharomyces cerevisiae.environmental ph changes have broad consequences for growth and differentiation. the best-understood eukaryotic ph response pathway acts through the zinc-finger transcription factor pacc of aspergillus nidulans, which activates alkaline ph-induced genes directly. we show here that saccharomyces cerevisiae rim101p, the ph response regulator homologous to pacc, functions as a repressor in vivo. chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that rim101p is associated in vivo with the promoters of seven ...200312509465
evaluation of broth microdilution testing parameters and agar diffusion etest procedure for testing susceptibilities of aspergillus spp. to caspofungin acetate (mk-0991).the nccls m38-a document does not describe guidelines for testing caspofungin acetate (mk-0991) and other echinocandins against molds. this study evaluated the susceptibilities of 200 isolates of aspergillus fumigatus, a. flavus, a. nidulans, a. niger, and a. terreus to caspofungin (mics and minimum effective concentrations [mecs]) by using standard rpmi 1640 (rpmi) and antibiotic medium 3 (m3), two inoculum sizes (10(3) and 10(4) cfu/ml), and two mic determination criteria (complete [mics-0] an ...200312517880
the requirement of the lc8 dynein light chain for nuclear migration and septum positioning is temperature dependent in aspergillus the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, the multisubunit motor complex cytoplasmic dynein plays essential roles in nuclear migration and septum positioning. the 8 kda light chain, lc8, the smallest subunit, is conserved among eukaryotic organisms. besides being a component in the dynein complex, lc8 also interacts with a wide spectrum of mammalian and viral proteins. to date, the function of this small polypeptide is not well understood. to address this issue, we have created a deletion ...200312519184
onset of carbon catabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans. parallel involvement of hexokinase and glucokinase in sugar signaling.the role of hexose phosphorylating enzymes in the signaling of carbon catabolite repression was investigated in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. a d-fructose non-utilizing, hexokinase-deficient (hxka1, formerly designated fra1) strain was utilized to obtain new mutants lacking either glucokinase (glka4) or both hexose kinases (hxka1/glka4). d-glucose and d-fructose phosphorylation is completely abolished in the double mutant, which consequently cannot grow on either sugar. the glucok ...200312519784
carbon and ph modulate the expression of the fungal glucose repressor encoding genes.the phytopathogenic necrotrophic fungus sclerotinia sclerotiorum secretes large amounts of oxalic acid and cell wall-degrading enzymes (cwde). enzyme synthesis is ph dependent and subject to carbon catabolite repression. because of the possible involvement of the glucose repressor cre1 in the transcriptional control of the cwde encoding genes, we studied crel expression with respect to the nature of the extracellular carbon source and the value of the external ph. comparative analysis of the cre ...200312520371
a cellulose-binding module of the trichoderma reesei beta-mannanase man5a increases the mannan-hydrolysis of complex substrates.endo-beta-1,4-d-mannanases (beta-mannanase; ec are endohydrolases that participate in the degradation of hemicellulose, which is closely associated with cellulose in plant cell walls. the beta-mannanase from trichoderma reesei (man5a) is composed of an n-terminal catalytic module and a c-terminal carbohydrate-binding module (cbm). in order to study the properties of the cbm, a construct encoding a mutant of man5a lacking the part encoding the cbm (man5adeltacbm), was expressed in t. re ...200312523968
interaction of the mitotic inhibitor monastrol with human kinesin eg5.the microtubule-dependent kinesin-like protein eg5 from homo sapiens is involved in the assembly of the mitotic spindle. it shows a three-domain structure with an n-terminal motor domain, a central coiled coil, and a c-terminal tail domain. in vivo hseg5 is reversibly inhibited by monastrol, a small cell-permeable molecule that causes cells to be arrested in mitosis. both monomeric and dimeric eg5 constructs have been examined in order to define the minimal monastrol binding domain on hseg5. nmr ...200312525161
a new identity for mlk3 as an nima-related, cell cycle-regulated kinase that is localized near centrosomes and influences microtubule organization.although conserved counterparts for most proteins involved in the g(2)/m transition of the cell cycle have been found in all eukaryotes, a notable exception is the essential but functionally enigmatic fungal kinase nima. while a number of vertebrate kinases have been identified with catalytic domain homology to nima, none of these resemble nima within its extensive noncatalytic region, a region critical for nima function in aspergillus nidulans. we used a bioinformatics approach to search for pr ...200312529434
the antifungal protein from aspergillus giganteus causes membrane permeabilization.we investigated the inhibitory effects of the antifungal protein (afp) from aspergillus giganteus on the growth of several filamentous fungi. for this purpose, the mics of afp were determined and ranged from 0.1 micro g/ml for fusarium oxysporum to 200 micro g/ml for aspergillus nidulans. the antifungal activity of afp was diminished in the presence of cations. we were able to show that incubation of afp-sensitive fungi with the protein resulted in membrane permeabilization using an assay based ...200312543664
characterization of anrp-mediated negative regulation of the xylanase gene, cgxa, from chaetomium gracile in aspergillus vivo regulatory features of anrp, a repressor for the cgxa gene, were characterized.200312485344
characterization of the aspergillus nidulans transporters for the siderophores enterobactin and triacetylfusarinine c.the filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans produces three major siderophores: fusigen, triacetylfusarinine c, and ferricrocin. biosynthesis and uptake of iron from these siderophores, as well as from various heterologous siderophores, is repressed by iron and this regulation is mediated in part by the transcriptional repressor srea. recently we have characterized a putative siderophore-transporter-encoding gene ( mira ). here we present the characterization of two further srea- and iron-reg ...200312487628
cloning and characterization of a second alpha-amylase gene (lka2) from lipomyces kononenkoae igc4052b and its expression in saccharomyces cerevisiae.lipomyces kononenkoae secretes a battery of highly effective amylases (i.e. alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, isoamylase and cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase activities) and is therefore considered as one of the most efficient raw starch-degrading yeasts known. previously, we have cloned and characterized genomic and cdna copies of the lka1 alpha-amylase gene from l. kononenkoae igc4052b (cbs5608t) and expressed them in saccharomyces cerevisiae and schizosaccharomyces pombe. here we report on the ...200312489127
the azga purine transporter of aspergillus nidulans. characterization of a protein belonging to a new phylogenetic cluster.the azga gene of aspergillus nidulans encodes a hypoxanthine-adenine-guanine transporter. it has been cloned by a novel transposon methodology. the null phenotype of azga was defined by a number of mutations, including a large deletion. in mycelia, the azga gene is, like other genes of purine catabolism, induced by uric acid and repressed by ammonium. its transcription depends on the pathway-specific uay zinc binuclear cluster protein and the broad domain area gata factor. azga is not closely re ...200414597637
the effect of crea in glucose and xylose catabolism in aspergillus nidulans.the catabolism of glucose and xylose was studied in a wild type and crea deleted (carbon catabolite de-repressed) strain of aspergillus nidulans. both strains were cultivated in bioreactors with either glucose or xylose as the sole carbon source, or in the presence of both sugars. in the cultivations on single carbon sources, it was demonstrated that xylose acted as a carbon catabolite repressor (xylose cultivations), while the enzymes in the xylose utilisation pathway were also subject to repre ...200412920487
parameiosis in aspergillus nidulans in response to doxorubicin.the recombinagenic effect of doxorubicin (an anticancer agent that impairs dna synthesis and causes chromosome breaks) was used to induce parameiotic events in aspergillus nidulans. heterokaryons formed with master strains and uvs mutants were inoculated with and without doxorubicin. haploid segregants (parameiotics and parents) and aneuploids were selected as heterokaryon-derived visible sectors. among parameiotic segregants, recombinants by intergenic mitotic crossing-over and recombinants by ...200415881406
synthesis and biological evaluations of sulfa derivatives bearing heterocyclic moieties.some new sulfa derivatives bearing a heterocyclic moieties fural, pyrimidinone, thiazolidinone, benzimidazole and 1,2,4-triazinone and the related compounds 2-19 have been synthesized from treatment of sulfa drugs with thioisocyanate, acid chlorides, 3-chloro-1,2,4-triazines, aldehydes, esters and/or 2-methylbenzoxazole followed by ring closure reactions. structures of the products have been deduced from their elemental analysis and spectral data. significant antimicrobial activities were observ ...200415881802
mitochondrial beta-oxidation in aspergillus nidulans.beta-oxidation (beta-ox) occurs exclusively in the peroxisomes of saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts, leading to the supposition that fungi lack mitochondrial beta-ox. here we present unequivocal evidence that the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans houses both peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-ox. while growth of a peroxisomal beta-ox disruption mutant (deltafoxa) was eliminated on a very long-chain fatty acid (c(22:1)), growth was only partially impeded on a long-chain fatty acid ( ...200415554960
partial nuclear pore complex disassembly during closed mitosis in aspergillus nidulans.many organisms undergo closed mitosis and locate tubulin and mitotic kinases to nuclei only during mitosis. how this is regulated is unknown. interestingly, the nima kinase of aspergillus nidulans interacts with two nuclear pore complex (npc) proteins and nima is required for mitotic localization of the cdk1 kinase to nuclei. therefore, we wished to define the mechanism by which the npc is regulated during a. nidulans' closed mitosis.200415556859
patterns of intron gain and loss in fungi.little is known about the patterns of intron gain and loss or the relative contributions of these two processes to gene evolution. to investigate the dynamics of intron evolution, we analyzed orthologous genes from four filamentous fungal genomes and determined the pattern of intron conservation. we developed a probabilistic model to estimate the most likely rates of intron gain and loss giving rise to these observed conservation patterns. our data reveal the surprising importance of intron gain ...200415562318
alcohol-mediated haemolysis in yeast.although yeast are generally non-haemolytic, we have found that addition of alcohol vapour confers haemolytic properties on many strains of yeast and other fungi. we have called this phenomenon 'microbial alcohol-conferred haemolysis' (mach). mach is species- and strain-specific: whereas all six candida tropicalis strains tested were haemolytic in the presence of ethanol, none among 10 c. glabrata strains tested exhibited this phenomenon. among 27 c. albicans strains and 11 saccharomyces cerevis ...200415565638
local induction of the alc gene switch in transgenic tobacco plants by acetaldehyde.the alc promoter system, derived from the filamentous fungi aspergillus nidulans, allows chemically regulated gene expression in plants and thereby the study of gene function as well as metabolic and developmental processes. in addition to ethanol, this system can be activated by acetaldehyde, described as the physiological inducer in a. nidulans. here, we show that in contrast to ethanol, acetaldehyde allows tissue-specific activation of the alc promoter in transgenic tobacco plants. soil drenc ...200415574832
expression of a cephalosporin c esterase gene in acremonium chrysogenum for the direct production of deacetylcephalosporin c.a recombinant fungal microorganism capable of producing deacetylcephalosporin c was constructed by transforming a cephalosporin c esterase gene from rhodosporidium toruloides into acremonium chrysogenum. the cephalosporin c esterase gene can be expressed from its endogenous r. toruloides promoter or from the aspergillus nidulans trpc promoter under standard acremonium chrysogenum fermentation conditions. the expression of an active cephalosporin c esterase enzyme in a. chrysogenum results in the ...200415672283
ferrichrome in schizosaccharomyces pombe--an iron transport and iron storage compound.schizosaccharomyces pombe has been assumed not to produce siderophores. nevertheless, the genomic sequence of this fission yeast revealed the presence of siderophore biosynthetic genes for hydroxamates. applying a bioassay based on an aspergillus nidulans strain deficient in siderophore biosynthesis, and using reversed-phase hplc and mass spectrometry analysis, we demonstrate that s. pombe excretes and accumulates intracellularly the hydroxamate-type siderophore ferrichrome. under iron-limiting ...200415689108
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