TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
structure of the dioxygenase asqj: mechanistic insights into a one-pot multistep quinolone antibiotic biosynthesis.multienzymatic cascades are responsible for the biosynthesis of natural products and represent a source of inspiration for synthetic chemists. the fe(ii)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase asqj from aspergillus nidulans is outstanding because it stereoselectively catalyzes both a ferryl-induced desaturation reaction and epoxidation on a benzodiazepinedione. interestingly, the enzymatically formed spiro epoxide spring-loads the 6,7-bicyclic skeleton for non-enzymatic rearrangement into the 6,6 ...201626553478
effect of biotransformation by liver s9 enzymes on the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of melanin extracted from aspergillus nidulans.a mutant that exhibited increased melanin pigment production was isolated from aspergillus nidulans fungus. this pigment has aroused biotechnological interest due to its photoprotector and antioxidant properties. in a recent study, we showed that melanin from a. nidulans also inhibits no and tnf-α production.201626459656
small heat shock proteins, phylogeny in filamentous fungi and expression analyses in aspergillus nidulans.small heat shock proteins (shsps) have been characterized in organisms from all three domains of life and viruses and are involved in a wide range of biological functions. however, the evolution and function of shsp in aspergillus species are largely unknown. in the present work, shsps were identified in 31 filamentous fungi, including species from aspergillus, penicillium, fusarium and magnaporthe, as well as botrytis cinerea and neurospora crassa. phylogenetic analysis revealed high level of d ...201626403724
the aspergillus nidulans syntaxin pepa(pep12) is regulated by two sec1/munc-18 proteins to mediate fusion events at early endosomes, late endosomes and vacuoles.syntaxins are target-snares that crucially contribute to determine membrane compartment identity. three syntaxins, tlg2p, pep12p and vam3p, organize the yeast endovacuolar system. remarkably, filamentous fungi lack the equivalent of the yeast vacuolar syntaxin vam3p, making unclear how these organisms regulate vacuole fusion. we show that the nearly essential aspergillus nidulans syntaxin pepa(pep12) , present in all endocytic compartments between early endosomes and vacuoles, shares features of ...201626395371
stress tolerances of nullmutants of function-unknown genes encoding menadione stress-responsive proteins in aspergillus nidulans.a group of menadione stress-responsive function-unkown genes of aspergillus nidulans (locus ids anid_03987.1, anid_06058.1, anid_10219.1, and anid_10260.1) was deleted and phenotypically characterized. importantly, comparative and phylogenetic analyses of the tested a. nidulans genes and their orthologs shed light only on the presence of a tango2 domain with nrde protein motif in the translated anid_06058.1 gene but did not reveal any recognizable protein-encoding domains in other protein sequen ...201626631869
seeing the world differently: variability in the photosensory mechanisms of two model fungi.light plays an important role for most organisms on this planet, serving either as a source of energy or information for the adaptation of biological processes to specific times of day. the fungal kingdom is estimated to contain well over a million species, possibly 10-fold more, and it is estimated that a majority of the fungi respond to light, eliciting changes in several physiological characteristics including pathogenesis, development and secondary metabolism. two model organisms for photobi ...201626373782
the creb deubiquitinating enzyme does not directly target the crea repressor protein in aspergillus nidulans.ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathways are now recognized as key components of gene regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotes. the major transcriptional repressor for carbon catabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans is crea, and mutational analysis led to the suggestion that a regulatory ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathway is involved. a key unanswered question is if and how this pathway, comprising creb (deubiquitinating enzyme) and hula (ubiquitin ligase) and other proteins, is involved in ...201627878624
role of hxkc, a mitochondrial hexokinase-like protein, in fungal programmed cell death.apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death (pcd) that occurs during animal development and is also triggered by a variety of signals including nutrient or oxidative stress, hypoxia, dna damage, viral infection and oncogenic transformation. though apoptotic-like pcd also occurs in plants and fungi, genes encoding several of the key players in mammalian apoptosis (p53 and bh-domain proteins) have not been identified in these kingdoms. in this report we investigated whether hxkc, a mitochondrial ...201627836782
the mechanism of peroxisome motility in filamentous fungi.peroxisomes (pos) are an essential part of the fungal cell's inventory. they are involved in cellular lipid homeostasis, reactive oxygen metabolism and in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. these functions are thought to require frequent organelle-organelle interactions and the even-distribution of pos in fungal hypha. recent work in the basidiomycete ustilago maydis and the ascomycete aspergillus nidulans reveals a crucial role of early endosomes (ees) in the dynamic behavior of pos requir ...201627825929
acute hepatic necrosis and death in a subadult southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) associated with exposure to sterigmatocystin in forage contaminated with aspergillus nidulans.a young male southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum), which was resident in a zoo as part of a multi-rhinoceros group, died suddenly. necropsy and histopathological findings supported a diagnosis of death from acute hepatic necrosis. the microscopic distribution of liver lesions was suggestive of hepatotoxicosis. further investigation revealed potential exposure to a mycotoxin, sterigmatocystin, present in spoiled lucerne hay contaminated with aspergillus nidulans. it was concluded that ...201627785798
design and synthesis of purine analogues as highly specific ligands for fcyb, a ubiquitous fungal nucleobase the course of our study on fungal purine transporters, a number of new 3-deazapurine analogues have been rationally designed, based on the interaction of purine substrates with the aspergillus nidulans fcyb carrier, and synthesized following an effective synthetic procedure. certain derivatives have been found to specifically inhibit fcyb-mediated [(3)h]-adenine uptake. molecular simulations have been performed, suggesting that all active compounds interact with fcyb through the formation of ...201627720327
wd40-repeat protein mocrec is essential for carbon repression and is involved in conidiation, growth and pathogenicity of magnaporthe oryzae.carbon catabolite repression (ccr) is a common regulatory mechanism used by microorganisms to prioritize use of a preferred carbon source (usually glucose). the crec wd40-repeat protein is a major component of the ccr pathway in aspergillus nidulans. to clarify the function of the crec ortholog from magnaporthe oryzae in regulating gene expression important for pathogenesis, mocrec was identified and genetically characterized. the vegetative growth rate of the mocrec deletion mutant on various c ...201627909797
engineering fungal nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like enzymes by heterologous expression and domain swapping.a facile genetic methodology in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans allowed the exchange of various domains in nonribosomal peptide synthase (nrps)-like enzymes from aspergillus terreus. the newly generated engineered enzymes are capable of producing compounds with different chemical structures than its parent enzyme in vivo. this work provides insight in the programing of nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis in filamentous fungi.201627978657
a case of aspergillus nidulans causing white granule mycetoma. 201626900232
live cell imaging of actin dynamics in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.hyphal cells of filamentous fungi grow at their tips in a method analogous to pollen tube and root hair elongation. this process, generally referred to as tip growth, requires precise regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and characterizing the various actin structures in these cell types is currently an active area of research. here, the actin marker lifeact was used to document actin dynamics in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. contractile double rings were observed at septa, and a ...201626879694
cloning and characterization of filamentous fungal s-nitrosoglutathione reductase from aspergillus nidulans.s-nitrosoglutathione reductase (gsnor) metabolizes s-nitrosoglutathione (gsno) and has been shown to play important roles in regulating cellular signaling and formulating host defense by modulating intracellular nitric oxide levels. the enzyme has been found in bacterial, yeast, mushroom, plant, and mammalian cells. however, to date, there is still no evidence of its occurrence in filamentous fungi. in this study, we cloned and investigated a gsnor-like enzyme from the filamentous fungus aspergi ...201626869606
cytotoxicity and colloidal behavior of polystyrene latex nanoparticles toward filamentous fungi in isotonic solutions.the effects of surface physicochemical properties of functionalized polystyrene latex (psl) nanoparticles (nps) and model filamentous fungi aspergillus oryzae and aspergillus nidulans cultivated in different environment (aqueous and atmospheric environment) on the colloidal behavior and cytotoxicity were investigated in different isotonic solutions (154 mm nacl and 292 mm sucrose). when the liquid cultivated fungal cells were exposed to positively charged psl nps in 154 mm nacl solution, the nps ...201626855210
characterization of the product of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like (nrps-like) gene using the doxycycline dependent tet-on system in aspergillus terreus.genome sequencing of the fungus aspergillus terreus uncovered a number of silent core structural biosynthetic genes encoding enzymes presumed to be involved in the production of cryptic secondary metabolites. there are five nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps)-like genes with the predicted a-t-te domain architecture within the a. terreus genome. among the five genes, only the product of pgna remains unknown. the tet-on system is an inducible, tunable and metabolism-independent expression syste ...201626851300
cooperation of aspergillus nidulans enzymes increases plant polysaccharide saccharification.efficient polysaccharide degradation depends on interaction between enzymes acting on the main chain and the side chains. previous studies demonstrated cooperation between several enzymes, but not all enzyme combinations have been explored. a better understanding of enzyme cooperation would enable the design of better enzyme mixtures, optimally profiting from synergistic effects. in this study, we analyzed the cooperation of several enzymes involved in the degradation of xylan, glucan, xylogluca ...201626848939
characterization of the aoda, dnma, mnsod and pima genes in aspergillus nidulans.mitochondria play key roles in cellular energy generation and lifespan of most eukaryotes. to understand the functions of four nuclear-encoded genes predicted to be related to the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function in aspergillus nidulans, systematic characterization was carried out. the deletion and overexpression mutants of aoda, dnma, mnsod and pima encoding alternative oxidase, dynamin related protein, manganese superoxide dismutase and lon protease, respectively, were gene ...201626846452
genotoxic investigation of a thiazolidinedione pparγ agonist using the in vitro micronucleus test and the in vivo homozygotization assay.pioglitazone (ptz) is an oral antidiabetic agent whose anti-cancer properties have been described recently. since ptz increases the production of reactive oxygen species in mammalian cells, the aim of current study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of ptz using respectively the in vitro mitotic index assay and the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test in human peripheral lymphocytes, and the in vivo homozygotization assay in aspergillus nidulans, which detec ...201626825076
peroxisomes move by hitchhiking on early endosomes using the novel linker protein pxda.eukaryotic cells use microtubule-based intracellular transport for the delivery of many subcellular cargos, including organelles. the canonical view of organelle transport is that organelles directly recruit molecular motors via cargo-specific adaptors. in contrast with this view, we show here that peroxisomes move by hitchhiking on early endosomes, an organelle that directly recruits the transport machinery. using the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans we found that hitchhiking is mediated ...201626811422
apical control of conidiation in aspergillus nidulans.the infection cycle of filamentous fungi consists of two main stages: invasion (growth) and dispersion (development). after the deposition of a spore on a host, germination, polar extension and branching of vegetative cells called hyphae allow a fast and efficient invasion. under suboptimal conditions, genetic reprogramming of hyphae results in the generation of asexual spores, allowing dissemination to new hosts and the beginning of a new infection cycle. in the model filamentous fungus aspergi ...201626782172
an aspergillus nidulans gh26 endo-β-mannanase with a novel degradation pattern on highly substituted galactomannans.the activity and substrate degradation pattern of a novel aspergillus nidulans gh26 endo-β-mannanase (anman26a) was investigated using two galactomannan substrates with varying amounts of galactopyranosyl residues. the anman26a was characterized in parallel with the gh26 endomannanase from podospora anserina (paman26a) and three gh5 endomannanases from a. nidulans and trichoderma reesei (anman5a, anman5c and trman5a). the initial rates and the maximal degree of enzymatically catalyzed conversion ...201626777252
changes of global gene expression and secondary metabolite accumulation during light-dependent aspergillus nidulans development.fungal development and secondary metabolite production are coordinated by regulatory complexes as the trimeric velvet complex. light accelerates asexual but decreases sexual development of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. changes in gene expression and secondary metabolite accumulation in response to environmental stimuli have been the focus of many studies, but a comprehensive comparison during entire development is lacking. we compared snapshots of transcript and metabolite profile ...201626773375
function and regulation of fungal amino acid transporters: insights from predicted structure.amino acids constitute a major nutritional source for probably all fungi. studies of model species such as the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae and the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans have shown that they possess multiple amino acid transporters. these proteins belong to a limited number of superfamilies, now defined according to protein fold in addition to sequence criteria, and differ in subcellular location, substrate specificity range, and regulation. structural models of several of th ...201626721271
a global view of gene expression of aspergillus nidulans on responding to the deficiency in soluble potassium.many researchers have suggested that microbes can accelerate the weathering of silicate minerals. however, many genes and metabolic pathways related to microorganisms obtaining potassium (k) from silicate remain undiscovered. it is feasible to detect the gene expression within the scope of the whole genome through high-throughput sequencing. surprisingly, only a few reports have shown fungal weathering of silicate using this technology. this study explored differences in gene expression of asper ...201626693724
qualitative ubiquitome unveils the potential significances of protein lysine ubiquitination in hyphal growth of aspergillus nidulans.protein ubiquitination is an evolutionarily conserved post-translational modification process in eukaryotes, and it plays an important role in many biological processes. aspergillus nidulans, a model filamentous fungus, contributes to our understanding of cellular physiology, metabolism and genetics, but its ubiquitination is not completely revealed. in this study, the ubiquitination sites in the proteome of a. nidulans were identified using a highly sensitive mass spectrometry combined with imm ...201626328806
an overproduction of astellolides induced by genetic disruption of chromatin-remodeling factors in aspergillus oryzae.the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae is an important industrial mold. recent genomic analysis indicated that a. oryzae has a large number of biosynthetic genes for secondary metabolites (sms), but many of the sms they produce have not been identified. for better understanding of sms production by a. oryzae, we screened a gene-disruption library of transcription factors including chromatin-remodeling factors and found two gene disruptions that show similarly altered sm production profiles. o ...201626126743
spectroscopic evidence for the two c-h-cleaving intermediates of aspergillus nidulans isopenicillin n synthase.the enzyme isopenicillin n synthase (ipns) installs the β-lactam and thiazolidine rings of the penicillin core into the linear tripeptide l-δ-aminoadipoyl-l-cys-d-val (acv) on the pathways to a number of important antibacterial drugs. a classic set of enzymological and crystallographic studies by baldwin and co-workers established that this overall four-electron oxidation occurs by a sequence of two oxidative cyclizations, with the β-lactam ring being installed first and the thiazolidine ring se ...201627193226
new natural products isolated from metarhizium robertsii arsef 23 by chemical screening and identification of the gene cluster through engineered biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans rapidly identify novel natural products and their associated biosynthetic genes from underutilized and genetically difficult-to-manipulate microbes, we developed a method that uses (1) chemical screening to isolate novel microbial secondary metabolites, (2) bioinformatic analyses to identify a potential biosynthetic gene cluster and (3) heterologous expression of the genes in a convenient host to confirm the identity of the gene cluster and the proposed biosynthetic mechanism. the chemical sc ...201627189118
stereospecific capillary electrophoresis assays using pentapeptide substrates for the study of aspergillus nidulans methionine sulfoxide reductase a and mutant enzymes.stereospecific capillary electrophoresis-based methods for the analysis of methionine sulfoxide [met(o)]-containing pentapeptides were developed in order to investigate the reduction of met(o)-containing peptide substrates by recombinant aspergillus nidulans methionine sulfoxide reductase a (msra) as well as enzymes carrying mutations in position glu99 and asp134. the separation of the diastereomers of the n-acetylated, c-terminally 2,4-dinitrophenyl (dnp)-labeled pentapeptides ac-lys-phe-met(o) ...201627145186
production of 10r-hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids from hempseed oil hydrolyzate by recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing ppoc from aspergillus nidulans.the first and second preferred substrates of recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing 10r-dioxygenase (ppoc) from aspergillus nidulans and the purified enzyme were linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively. ppoc in cells showed higher thermal and reaction stabilities compared to purified ppoc. thus, 10r-hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids were produced from linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, and hempseed oil hydrolyzate containing linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid as substrates by whole r ...201627129531
engineering aspergillus nidulans for heterologous ent-kaurene and gamma-terpinene production.terpenes are a large and varied group of natural products with a wide array of bioactivities and applications. the chemical production of industrially relevant terpenes can be expensive and time-consuming due to the structural complexity of these compounds. here, we studied aspergillus nidulans as a heterologous host for monoterpene and diterpene production. previously, we identified a novel diterpene gene cluster in a. nidulans and showed that overexpression of the cluster-specific transcriptio ...201627098256
the first case of fungal endophthalmitis caused by emericella nidulans after cataract surgery.emericella nidulans is a species that has only rarely been implicated in human disease after cataract surgery. here, we report the first postoperative case in the literature, as far as we know. the patient was a 50-year-old patient presented with mild anterior uveitis one week after cataract surgery, and hypopion developed over the next two days. first microbiological evaluation and the results of direct microscopy and cultures of the anterior chamber and vitreous samples were found to be negati ...201627091580
structure of eukaryotic purine/h(+) symporter uapa suggests a role for homodimerization in transport activity.the uric acid/xanthine h(+) symporter, uapa, is a high-affinity purine transporter from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. here we present the crystal structure of a genetically stabilized version of uapa (uapa-g411vδ1-11) in complex with xanthine. uapa is formed from two domains, a core domain and a gate domain, similar to the previously solved uracil transporter uraa, which belongs to the same family. the structure shows uapa in an inward-facing conformation with xanthine bound to re ...201627088252
a family of aa9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in aspergillus nidulans is differentially regulated by multiple substrates and at least one is active on cellulose and xyloglucan.fungal genomes contain multiple genes encoding aa9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (lpmos), a recently discovered class of enzymes known to be active on cellulose and expressed when grown on biomass. because of extensive genetic and biochemical data already available, aspergillus nidulans offers an excellent model system to study the need for multiple aa9 lpmos and their activity during oxidative degradation of biomass. we provide the first report on regulation of the entire family of aa9 lp ...201627075737
transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of ionic liquid stimuli unveils enhanced secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.the inherent potential of filamentous fungi, especially of ascomycota, for producing diverse bioactive metabolites remains largely silent under standard laboratory culture conditions. innumerable strategies have been described to trigger their production, one of the simplest being manipulation of the growth media composition. supplementing media with ionic liquids surprisingly enhanced the diversity of extracellular metabolites generated by penicillia. this finding led us to evaluate the impact ...201627072538
multiple effects of a commercial roundup® formulation on the soil filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans at low doses: evidence of an unexpected impact on energetic metabolism.soil microorganisms are highly exposed to glyphosate-based herbicides (gbh), especially to roundup® which is widely used worldwide. however, studies on the effects of gbh formulations on specific non-rhizosphere soil microbial species are scarce. we evaluated the toxicity of a commercial formulation of roundup® (r450), containing 450 g/l of glyphosate (gly), on the soil filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, an experimental model microorganism. the median lethal dose (ld50) on solid media was ...201627068896
palmitoylation of the cysteine residue in the dhhc motif of a palmitoyl transferase mediates ca2+ homeostasis in aspergillus.finely tuned changes in cytosolic free calcium ([ca2+]c) mediate numerous intracellular functions resulting in the activation or inactivation of a series of target proteins. palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification involved in membrane protein trafficking between membranes and in their functional modulation. however, studies on the relationship between palmitoylation and calcium signaling have been limited. here, we demonstrate that the yeast palmitoyl transferase scakr1p h ...201627058039
the adenylate-forming enzymes afea and tmpb are involved in aspergillus nidulans self-communication during asexual development.aspergillus nidulans asexual sporulation (conidiation) is triggered by different environmental signals and involves the differentiation of specialized structures called conidiophores. the elimination of genes flba-e, flug, and tmpa results in a fluffy phenotype characterized by delayed conidiophore development and decreased expression of the conidiation essential gene brla. while flba-e encode regulatory proteins, flug and tmpa encode enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of independent signals n ...201627047469
enhancement of echinocandin b production by a uv- and microwave-induced mutant of aspergillus nidulans with precursor- and biotin-supplying strategy.echinocandin b belongs to lipopeptide antifungal antibiotic bearing five types of direct precursor amino acids including proline, ornithine, tyrosine, threonine, and leucine. the objective of this study is to screen over-producing mutant in order to improve echinocandin b production; a stable mutant aspergillus nidulans zjb12073, which can use fructose as optimal carbon source instead of expensive mannitol, was selected from thousand isolates after several cycles of uv and microwave irradiation ...201627039401
development and validation of a custom microarray for global transcriptome profiling of the fungus aspergillus nidulans.transcriptome profiling is a powerful tool for identifying gene networks from whole genome expression analysis in many living species. here is described the first extensively characterized platform using agilent microarray technology for transcriptome analysis in the filamentous fungus aspergillus (emericella) nidulans. we developed and validated a reliable gene expression microarray in 8 × 15 k format, with predictive and experimental data establishing its specificity and sensitivity. either on ...201627038308
calcineurin and calcium channel ccha coordinate the salt stress response by regulating cytoplasmic ca2+ homeostasis in aspergillus nidulans.the eukaryotic calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin is crucial for the environmental adaption of fungi. however, the mechanism of coordinate regulation of the response to salt stress by calcineurin and the high-affinity calcium channel ccha in fungi is not well understood. here we show that the deletion of ccha suppresses the hyphal growth defects caused by the loss of calcineurin under salt stress in aspergillus nidulans additionally, the hypersensitivity of the δcnaa st ...201627037124
diverse regulation of the crea carbon catabolite repressor in aspergillus nidulans.carbon catabolite repression (ccr) is a process that selects the energetically most favorable carbon source in an environment. ccr represses the use of less favorable carbon sources when a better source is available. glucose is the preferential carbon source for most microorganisms because it is rapidly metabolized, generating quick energy for growth. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, ccr is mediated by the transcription factor crea, a c2h2 finger domain dna-binding protein. the ai ...201627017621
accelerated nucleation of hydroxyapatite using an engineered hydrophobin fusion protein.calcium phosphate mineralization is of particular interest in dental repair. a biomimetic approach using proteins or peptides is a highly promising way to reconstruct eroded teeth. in this study, the screening of several proteins is described for their binding and nucleating activities toward hydroxyapatite. out of 27 tested candidates, only two hydrophobin fusion proteins showed binding abilities to hydroxyapatite in a mouthwash formulation and an increased nucleation in artificial saliva. usin ...201627010648
development of a candida glabrata dominant nutritional transformation marker utilizing the aspergillus nidulans acetamidase gene (amds).the gene encoding aspergillus nidulans acetamidase (amds) was placed under control of candida albicans act1 promoter and terminator sequences and then cloned into a plasmid containing c. glabrata ars10,cen8 or ars10+cen8 sequences. all plasmids transformed c. glabrata wild-type cells to acetamide+, with the ars-only containing plasmid transforming cells at the highest frequencies (>1.0 × 10(4) transformants μg(-1)). plasmids were rapidly lost under non-selective conditions with the frequency dep ...201626975388
thiamine synthesis regulates the fermentation mechanisms in the fungus aspergillus nidulans.thiamine pyrophosphate (tpp) is a critical cofactor and its biosynthesis is under the control of tpp availability. here we disrupted a predicted thia gene of the fungus aspergillus nidulans and demonstrated that it is essential for synthesizing cellular thiamine. the thiamine riboswitch is a post-transcriptional mechanism for tpp to repress gene expression and it is located on a. nidulans thia pre-messenger rna. the thia riboswitch was not fully derepressed under thiamine-limited conditions, and ...201626967817
involvement of an srf-mads protein mcma in regulation of extracellular enzyme production and asexual/sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.srf-mads proteins are transcription factors conserved among eukaryotes that regulate a variety of cellular functions; however, their physiological roles are still not well understood in filamentous fungi. effects of a mutation in mcma gene that encodes the sole srf-mads protein in the fungus aspergillus nidulans were examined by rna sequencing. sequencing data revealed that expression levels of cellulase genes were significantly decreased by the mutation as reported previously. however, expressi ...201626967516
emerging roles of nudc family: from molecular regulation to clinical implications.nuclear distribution gene c (nudc) was first found in aspergillus nidulans as an upstream regulator of nudf, whose mammalian homolog is lissencephaly 1 (lis1). nudc is conserved from fungi to mammals. vertebrate nudc has three homologs: nudc, nudc-like protein (nudcl), and nudc-like protein 2 (nudcl2). all members of the nudc family share a conserved p23 domain, which possesses chaperone activity both in conjunction with and independently of heat shock protein 90 (hsp90). our group and the other ...201626965524
laser capture microdissection to identify septum-associated proteins in aspergillus spatially resolve genetic differences at the cellular level, the laser-capture microdissection technique was developed. with this method cells can be cut from tissues with a laser beam and analyzed for dna, rna or protein composition. here we adapted the technique to isolate septal microtubule-organizing center (mtoc)-associated proteins in aspergillus nidulans about 3000 septa were collected and subjected to peptide fingerprinting by mass-spectrometric analysis. we identified the microtubule ...201626951366
regulation of genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes by pal-pacc signaling in aspergillus nidulans.cellulosic biomass represents a valuable potential substitute for fossil-based fuels. as such, there is a strong need to develop efficient biotechnological processes for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass via the optimization of cellulase production by fungi. ambient ph is an important factor affecting the industrial production of cellulase. in the present study, we demonstrate that several aspergillus nidulans genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes are regulated by pal-pacc-mediated ph ...201626946171
atp citrate lyase mediated cytosolic acetyl-coa biosynthesis increases mevalonate production in saccharomyces cerevisiae.with increasing concern about the environmental impact of a petroleum based economy, focus has shifted towards greener production strategies including metabolic engineering of microbes for the conversion of plant-based feedstocks to second generation biofuels and industrial chemicals. saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive host for this purpose as it has been extensively engineered for production of various fuels and chemicals. many of the target molecules are derived from the central metabol ...201626939608
characterization of a second physiologically relevant lactose permease gene (lacpb) in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans, uptake rather than hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step of lactose catabolism. deletion of the lactose permease a-encoding gene (lacpa) reduces the growth rate on lactose, while its overexpression enables faster growth than wild-type strains are capable of. we have identified a second physiologically relevant lactose transporter, lacpb. glycerol-grown mycelia from mutants deleted for lacpb appear to take up only minute amounts of lactose during the first 60 h after a med ...201626935851
the golgi apparatus: insights from filamentous fungi.cargo passage through the golgi, albeit an undoubtedly essential cellular function, is a mechanistically unresolved and much debated process. although the main molecular players are conserved, diversification of the golgi among different eukaryotic lineages is providing us with tools to resolve standing controversies. during the past decade the golgi apparatus of model filamentous fungi, mainly aspergillus nidulans, has been intensively studied. here an overview of the most important findings in ...201626932185
roles of aspergillus nidulans cdc42/rho gtpase regulators in hyphal morphogenesis and development.the rho-related family of gtpases are pivotal regulators of morphogenetic processes in diverse eukaryotic organisms. in the filamentous fungi two related members of this family, cdc42 and rac1, perform particularly important roles in the establishment and maintenance of hyphal polarity. the activity of these gtpases is tightly controlled by two sets of regulators: guanine nucleotide exchange factors (gefs) and gtpase-activating proteins (gaps). despite the importance of cdc42 and rac1 in polariz ...201626932184
a wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein is involved in endocytosis in aspergillus nidulans.endocytosis is vital for hyphal tip growth in filamentous fungi and is involved in the tip localization of various membrane proteins. to investigate the function of a wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein (wasp) in endocytosis of filamentous fungi, we identified a wasp ortholog-encoding gene, wspa, in aspergillus nidulans and characterized it. the wspa product, wspa, localized to the tips of germ tubes during germination and actin rings in the subapical regions of mature hyphae. wspa is essential for ...201626927610
generation and characterization of indoor fungal aerosols for inhalation the indoor environment, people are exposed to several fungal species. evident dampness is associated with increased respiratory symptoms. to examine the immune responses associated with fungal exposure, mice are often exposed to a single species grown on an agar medium. the aim of this study was to develop an inhalation exposure system to be able to examine responses in mice exposed to mixed fungal species aerosolized from fungus-infested building materials. indoor airborne fungi were sampled ...201626921421
bsda(bsd2) -dependent vacuolar turnover of a misfolded version of the uapa transporter along the secretory pathway: prominent role of selective autophagy.transmembrane proteins translocate cotranslationally in the endoplasmic reticulum (er) membrane and traffic as vesicular cargoes, via the golgi, in their final membrane destination. misfolding in the er leads to protein degradation basically through the erad/proteasome system. here, we use a mutant version of the purine transporter uapa (δr481) to show that specific misfolded versions of plasma membrane cargoes undergo vacuolar turnover prior to localization in the plasma membrane. we show that ...201626917498
identification and characterization of putative xylose and cellobiose transporters in aspergillus nidulans.the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels (second-generation biofuel production) is an environmentally friendlier alternative to petroleum-based energy sources. enzymatic deconstruction of lignocellulose, catalyzed by filamentous fungi such as aspergillus nidulans, releases a mixture of mono- and polysaccharides, including hexose (glucose) and pentose (xylose) sugars, cellodextrins (cellobiose), and xylooligosaccharides (xylobiose). these sugars can subsequently be fermented by yeast ...201627708711
antimutagenicity and antigenotoxicity of aloe arborescens miller and aloe barbadensis miller in aspergillus nidulans and wistar rats.medicinal plants such as aloe arborescens miller and aloe barbadensis miller are used by the general population to treat various diseases. therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimutagenicity of these two species using a methg1 system in aspergillus nidulans and the comet assay in rats. the animals were treated with the plants at concentrations of 360 and 720 mg/kg body weight (1 and 2, respectively) by gavage for 14 days, followed by the administration of etoposide on treatment ...201627706687
a plastic vegetative growth threshold governs reproductive capacity in aspergillus nidulans.ontogenetic phases separating growth from reproduction are a common feature of cellular life. long recognized for flowering plants and animals, early literature suggests this life-history component may also be prevalent among multicellular fungi. we establish the basis of developmental competence-the capacity to respond to induction of asexual development-in the filamentous saprotroph aspergillus nidulans, describing environmental influences, including genotype-by-environment interactions among ...201627672092
a mitotic nuclear envelope tether for gle1 also impacts nuclear and nucleolar architecture.during aspergillus nidulans mitosis peripheral nuclear pore complex (npc) proteins (nups) disperse from the core npc structure. unexpectedly, one predicted peripheral nup, gle1, remains at the mitotic ne via an unknown mechanism. gle1 affinity purification identified mtga ( m: itotic t: ether for g: le1), which tethers gle1 to the ne during mitosis, but not during interphase when gle1 is at npcs. mtga is the ortholog of the schizosaccharomyces pombe telomere-anchoring inner nuclear membrane prot ...201627630260
d-galactose catabolism in penicillium chrysogenum: expression analysis of the structural genes of the leloir this study, we analyzed the expression of the structural genes encoding the five enzymes comprising the leloir pathway of d-galactose catabolism in the industrial cell factory penicillium chrysogenum on various carbon sources. the genome of p. chrysogenum contains a putative galactokinase gene at the annotated locus pc13g10140, the product of which shows strong structural similarity to yeast galactokinase that was expressed on lactose and d-galactose only. the expression profile of the galact ...201627630054
plant defensins nad1 and nad2 induce different stress response pathways in fungi.nicotiana alata defensins 1 and 2 (nad1 and nad2) are plant defensins from the ornamental tobacco that have antifungal activity against a variety of fungal pathogens. some plant defensins interact with fungal cell wall o-glycosylated proteins. therefore, we investigated if this was the case for nad1 and nad2, by assessing the sensitivity of the three aspergillus nidulans (an) o-mannosyltransferase (pmt) knockout (ko) mutants (an∆pmta, an∆pmtb, and an∆pmtc). an∆pmta was resistant to both defensin ...201627598152
the creb deubiquitinating enzyme does not directly target the crea repressor protein in aspergillus nidulans.ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathways are now recognized as key components of gene regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotes. the major transcriptional repressor for carbon catabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans is crea, and mutational analysis led to the suggestion that a regulatory ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathway is involved. a key unanswered question is if and how this pathway, comprising creb (deubiquitinating enzyme) and hula (ubiquitin ligase) and other proteins, is involved in ...201627589970
mcma-dependent and -independent regulatory systems governing expression of clrb-regulated cellulase and hemicellulase genes in aspergillus nidulans.fungal cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes are promising tools for industrial hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass; however, the regulatory network underlying their production is not well understood. the recent discovery of the transcriptional activators clrb and mcma in aspergillus nidulans implied a novel regulatory mechanism driven by their interaction, experimental evidence for which was obtained from transcriptional and dna-binding analyses in this study. it was found that clrb was essent ...201627588830
isoindolone-containing meroperpenoids from the endophytic fungus emericella nidulans hdn12-249.six isoindolone containing meroterpenoids, emericellolides a-c (1-3) and emeriphenolicins e-g (4-6), were isolated from a plant endophytic fungus emericella nidulans hdn12-249. emericellolides a-c (1-3) feature the unprecedented macrolide skeleton composed of an unusual l-glutamate fragment, an isoindolone unit, and a sesquiterpene moiety, while structures of emeriphenolicins e-g (4-6) with two farnesyl groups attached to one isoindolone unit are rare in isoindolone-derived meroterpenoids. these ...201627588428
lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases and other oxidative enzymes are abundantly secreted by aspergillus nidulans grown on different starches.starch is the second most abundant plant-derived biomass and a major feedstock in non-food industrial applications and first generation biofuel production. in contrast to lignocellulose, detailed insight into fungal degradation of starch is currently lacking. this study explores the secretomes of aspergillus nidulans grown on cereal starches from wheat and high-amylose (ha) maize, as well as legume starch from pea for 5 days.201627588040
fungi use the saka (hoga) pathway for phytochrome-dependent light signalling.stress-sensing in fungi depends on a signalling cascade comprised of a two-component phosphorylation relay plus a subsequent map kinase cascade to trigger gene expression. besides osmotic or oxidative stress, fungi sense many other environmental factors, one of which is light(1,2). light controls morphogenetic pathways but also the production of secondary metabolites such as penicillin. here we show that phytochrome-dependent light signalling in aspergillus nidulans involves the stress-sensing a ...201627572639
key role of laea and velvet complex proteins on expression of β-lactam and pr-toxin genes in penicillium chrysogenum: cross-talk regulation of secondary metabolite pathways.penicillium chrysogenum is an excellent model fungus to study the molecular mechanisms of control of expression of secondary metabolite genes. a key global regulator of the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites is the laea protein that interacts with other components of the velvet complex (vela, velb, velc, vosa). these components interact with laea and regulate expression of penicillin and pr-toxin biosynthetic genes in p. chrysogenum. both laea and vela are positive regulators of the penicilli ...201627565675
immobilization of lccc laccase from aspergillus nidulans on hard surfaces via fungal hydrophobins.fungal hydrophobins are small amphiphilic proteins that can be used for coatings on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. through the formation of monolayers, they change the hydrophobicity of a given surface. especially, the class i hydrophobins are interesting for biotechnology, because their layers are stable at high temperatures and can only be removed with strong solvents. these proteins self-assemble into monolayers under physiological conditions and undergo conformational changes that sta ...201627565614
diminishing-returns epistasis among random beneficial mutations in a multicellular fungus.adaptive evolution ultimately is fuelled by mutations generating novel genetic variation. non-additivity of fitness effects of mutations (called epistasis) may affect the dynamics and repeatability of adaptation. however, understanding the importance and implications of epistasis is hampered by the observation of substantial variation in patterns of epistasis across empirical studies. interestingly, some recent studies report increasingly smaller benefits of beneficial mutations once genotypes b ...201627559062
molecular components of the neurospora crassa ph signaling pathway and their regulation by ph and the pac-3 transcription factor.environmental ph induces a stress response triggering a signaling pathway whose components have been identified and characterized in several fungi. neurospora crassa shares all six components of the aspergillus nidulans ph signaling pathway, and we investigate here their regulation during an alkaline ph stress response. we show that the n. crassa pal mutant strains, with the exception of δpal-9, which is the a. nidulans pali homolog, exhibit low conidiation and are unable to grow at alkaline ph. ...201627557053
kdmb, a jumonji histone h3 demethylase, regulates genome-wide h3k4 trimethylation and is required for normal induction of secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.histone posttranslational modifications (hptms) are involved in chromatin-based regulation of fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis (smb) in which the corresponding genes-usually physically linked in co-regulated clusters-are silenced under optimal physiological conditions (nutrient-rich) but are activated when nutrients are limiting. the exact molecular mechanisms by which hptms influence silencing and activation, however, are still to be better understood. here we show by a combined approac ...201627548260
evaluation of biosynthetic pathway and engineered biosynthesis of alkaloids.varieties of alkaloids are known to be produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi and plants, as secondary metabolites that exhibit useful bioactivities. however, understanding of how those metabolites are biosynthesized still remains limited, because most of these compounds are isolated from plants and at a trace level of production. in this review, we focus on recent efforts in identifying the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of those nitrogen-containing natural products an ...201627548127
nitrogen metabolism and growth enhancement in tomato plants challenged with trichoderma harzianum expressing the aspergillus nidulans acetamidase amds gene.trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. in addition to the direct application of trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. the amds gene, encoding an acetamidase of aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the trans ...201627536277
botrytis cinerea can import and utilize nucleosides in salvage and catabolism and bcent functions as high affinity nucleoside transporter.nucleotide de novo synthesis is an essential pathway in nearly all organisms. transport processes as well as salvage and catabolism of nucleotides and pathway intermediates are required to balance nucleotide pools. we have analysed the genome of the fungal plant pathogen botrytis cinerea for genes involved in nucleotide metabolism and found a complete set of genes necessary for purine and pyrimidine uptake and salvage based on homology of the gene products to corresponding proteins from aspergil ...201627521624
mapping n-linked glycosylation of carbohydrate-active enzymes in the secretome of aspergillus nidulans grown on lignocellulose.the genus aspergillus includes microorganisms that naturally degrade lignocellulosic biomass, secreting large amounts of carbohydrate-active enzymes (cazymes) that characterize their saprophyte lifestyle. aspergillus has the capacity to perform post-translational modifications (ptm), which provides an additional advantage for the use of these organisms as a host for the production of heterologous proteins. in this study, the n-linked glycosylation of cazymes identified in the secretome of asperg ...201627508003
echinocandin b biosynthesis: a biosynthetic cluster from aspergillus nidulans nrrl 8112 and reassembly of the subclusters ecd and hty from aspergillus pachycristatus nrrl 11440 reveals a single coherent gene cluster.echinocandins are nonribosomal lipopeptides produced by ascommycete fungi. due to their strong inhibitory effect on fungal cell wall biosynthesis and lack of human toxicity, they have been developed to an important class of antifungal drugs. since 2012, the biosynthetic gene clusters of most of the main echinocandin variants have been characterized. especially the comparison of the clusters allows a deeper insight for the biosynthesis of these complex structures.201627502607
in vivo analysis of septin heteropolymer rods and higher-order structures in filamentous fungi.individual septins from separate phylogenetic groups assemble into heteropolymer rods with defined compositions. heteropolymer rods can in turn assemble into larger higher-order structures (hos). using a combination of immunoprecipitation and fluorescence microscopy in aspergillus nidulans wild-type and septin-mutant strains, we have shown that even when septin hos are not visible by fluorescence microscopy, heteropolymer rods can still be present and that a septin found largely in filamentous f ...201627473907
post-synthetic defucosylation of agp by aspergillus nidulans α-1,2-fucosidase expressed in arabidopsis apoplast induces compensatory upregulation of α-1,2-fucosyltransferases.cell walls are essential components of plant cells which perform a variety of important functions for the different cell types, tissues and organs of a plant. besides mechanical function providing cell shape, cell walls participate in intercellular communication, defense during plant-microbe interactions, and plant growth. the plant cell wall consists predominantly of polysaccharides with the addition of structural glycoproteins, phenolic esters, minerals, lignin, and associated enzymes. alterat ...201627448235
increased enzyme production under liquid culture conditions in the industrial fungus aspergillus oryzae by disruption of the genes encoding cell wall α-1,3-glucan synthase.under liquid culture conditions, the hyphae of filamentous fungi aggregate to form pellets, which reduces cell density and fermentation productivity. previously, we found that loss of α-1,3-glucan in the cell wall of the fungus aspergillus nidulans increased hyphal dispersion. therefore, here we constructed a mutant of the industrial fungus a. oryzae in which the three genes encoding α-1,3-glucan synthase were disrupted (tripleδ). although the hyphae of the tripleδ mutant were not fully disperse ...201627442340
rnaseq reveals hydrophobins that are involved in the adaptation of aspergillus nidulans to lignocellulose.sugarcane is one of the world's most profitable crops. waste steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (seb) is a cheap, abundant, and renewable lignocellulosic feedstock for the next-generation biofuels. in nature, fungi seldom exist as planktonic cells, similar to those found in the nutrient-rich environment created within an industrial fermenter. instead, fungi predominantly form biofilms that allow them to thrive in hostile environments.201627437031
dissection of transporter function: from genetics to structure.transporters are transmembrane proteins mediating the selective uptake or efflux of solutes, metabolites, drugs, or ions across cellular membranes. despite their immense biological importance in cell nutrition, communication, signaling, and homeostasis, their study remains technically difficult mostly due to their lipid-embedded nature. the study of eukaryotic transporters presents additional complexity due to multiple subcellular control mechanisms that operate to ensure proper membrane traffic ...201627430403
heterologous expression of fungal secondary metabolite pathways in the aspergillus nidulans host system.heterologous expression of fungal secondary metabolite genes allows for the product formation of otherwise silent secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways. it also allows facile expression of mutants or combinations of genes not found in nature. this capability makes model fungi an ideal platform for synthetic biology. in this chapter a detailed description is provided of how to heterologously express any fungal secondary metabolite gene(s) in a well-developed host strain of aspergillus nidula ...201627417927
a robust analytical pipeline for genome-wide identification of the genes regulated by a transcription factor: combinatorial analysis performed using gselex-seq and rna-seq.for identifying the genes that are regulated by a transcription factor (tf), we have established an analytical pipeline that combines genomic systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (gselex)-seq and rna-seq. here, selex was used to select dna fragments from an aspergillus nidulans genomic library that bound specifically to amyr, a tf from a. nidulans. high-throughput sequencing data were obtained for the dnas enriched through the selection, following which various in silico ana ...201627411092
selective natural induction of laccases in pleurotus sajor-caju, suitable for application at a biofuel cell cathode at neutral ph.laccases are multicopper oxidoreductases with broad substrate specificity and are applied in biofuel cells at the cathode to improve its oxygen reduction performance. however, the production of laccases by e.g. fungi is often accompanied by the need of synthetic growth supplements for increased enzyme production. in this study we present a strategy for the white-rot fungus pleurotus sajor-caju for natural laccase activity induction using lignocellulose substrates and culture supernatant of asper ...201627393835
a wdr gene is a conserved member of a chitin synthase gene cluster and influences the cell wall in aspergillus nidulans.wd40 repeat (wdr) proteins are pleiotropic molecular hubs. we identify a wdr gene that is a conserved genomic neighbor of a chitin synthase gene in ascomycetes. the wdr gene is unique to fungi and plants, and was called fungal plant wd (fpwd). fpwd is within a cell wall metabolism gene cluster in the ascomycetes (pezizomycotina) comprising chsd, a chs activator and a gh17 glucanase. the fpwd, an1556.2 locus was deleted in aspergillus nidulans strain saa.111 by gene replacement and only heterokar ...201627367684
light governs asexual differentiation in the grey mould fungus botrytis cinerea via the putative transcription factor bcltf2.botrytis cinerea is a plant pathogenic fungus known for its utilization of light as environmental cue to regulate asexual differentiation: conidia are formed in the light, while sclerotia are formed in the dark. as no orthologues of known regulators of conidiation (e.g., aspergillus nidulans brla, neurospora crassa fl) exist in the leotiomycetes, we initiated a de novo approach to identify the functional counterpart in b. cinerea. the search revealed the light-responsive c2h2 transcription facto ...201627347834
recombinant expression of a gh12 β-glucanase carrying its own signal peptide from stachybotrys atra in yeast and filamentous fungi.the β-glucanase cel12a gene from stachybotrys atra has been cloned and heterologously expressed in aspergillus nidulans and saccharomyces cerevisiae. the recombinant strains constructed, contained the exonic sequence of cel12a including its own signal peptide coding sequence. sds-page and zymography revealed that recombinant cel12a has a molecular mass of 24 kda which agrees with that deduced from its amino acid sequence, indicating that it is expressed in the non-glycosylated active form. recom ...201627339304
new aspercryptins, lipopeptide natural products, revealed by hdac inhibition in aspergillus nidulans.unlocking the biochemical stores of fungi is key for developing future pharmaceuticals. through reduced expression of a critical histone deacetylase in aspergillus nidulans, increases of up to 100-fold were observed in the levels of 15 new aspercryptins, recently described lipopeptides with two noncanonical amino acids derived from octanoic and dodecanoic acids. in addition to two nmr-verified structures, ms/ms networking helped uncover an additional 13 aspercryptins. the aspercryptins break the ...201627310134
ndel1 and reelin maintain postnatal ca1 hippocampus the integrity of laminar structures in the postnatal brain is maintained impacts neuronal functions. ndel1, the mammalian homolog of nude from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, is an atypical microtubule (mt)-associated protein that was initially investigated in the contexts of neurogenesis and neuronal migration. constitutive knock-out mice for ndel1 are embryonic lethal, thereby necessitating the creation a conditional knock-out to probe the roles of ndel1 in postnatal brains. h ...201627307241
status epilepticus stimulates ndel1 expression via the creb/cre pathway in the adult mouse brain.nuclear distribution element-like 1 (ndel1/nudel) is a mammalian homolog of the aspergillus nidulans nuclear distribution molecule nude. ndel1 plays a critical role in neuronal migration, neurite outgrowth and neuronal positioning during brain development; however within the adult central nervous system, limited information is available regarding ndel1 expression and functions. here, the goal was to examine inducible ndel1 expression in the adult mouse forebrain. immunolabeling revealed ndel1 wi ...201627298008
resistance gene-guided genome mining: serial promoter exchanges in aspergillus nidulans reveal the biosynthetic pathway for fellutamide b, a proteasome inhibitor.fungal genome projects are revealing thousands of cryptic secondary metabolism (sm) biosynthetic gene clusters that encode pathways that potentially produce valuable compounds. heterologous expression systems should allow these clusters to be expressed and their products obtained, but approaches are needed to identify the most valuable target clusters. the inp cluster of aspergillus nidulans contains a gene, inpe, that encodes a proteasome subunit, leading us to hypothesize that the inp cluster ...201627294372
mutational analysis of the aspergillus ambient ph receptor palh underscores its potential as a target for antifungal compounds.the pal/rim ambient ph signalling pathway is crucial for the ability of pathogenic fungi to infect hosts. the aspergillus nidulans 7-tmd receptor palh senses alkaline ph, subsequently facilitating ubiquitination of the arrestin palf. ubiquitinated palf triggers downstream signalling events. the mechanism(s) by which palh transduces the alkaline ph signal to palf is poorly understood. we show that palh is phosphorylated in a signal dependent manner, resembling mammalian gpcrs, although palh phosp ...201627279148
the functional properties of a xyloglucanase (gh12) of aspergillus terreus expressed in aspergillus nidulans may increase performance of biomass degradation.filamentous fungi are attractive hosts for heterologous protein expression due to their capacity to secrete large amounts of enzymes into the extracellular medium. xyloglucanases, which specifically hydrolyze xyloglucan, have been recently applied in lignocellulosic biomass degradation and conversion in many other industrial processes. in this context, this work aimed to clone, express, and determine the functional properties of a recombinant xyloglucanase (atxeg12) from aspergillus terreus, and ...201627245677
dynamics of actin cables in polarized growth of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.highly polarized growth of filamentous fungi requires a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the hyphal tip. this transport is managed by vesicle trafficking via the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and their associated motor proteins. particularly, actin cables originating from the hyphal tip are essential for hyphal growth. although, specific marker proteins have been developed to visualize actin cables in filamentous fungi, the exact organization and dynamics of actin cables has rem ...201627242709
characterization and biotechnological application of recombinant xylanases from aspergillus nidulans.two xylanases from aspergillus nidulans, xlnb and xlnc, were expressed in pichia pastoris, purified and characterized. xlnb and xlnc achieved maximal activities at 60°c and ph 7.5 and at 50°c and ph 6.0, respectively. xlnb showed to be very thermostable by maintaining 50% of its original activity after 49h incubated at 50°c. xlnb had its highest activity against wheat arabinoxylan while xlnc had the best activity against beechwood xylan. both enzymes were completely inhibited by sds and hgcl2. x ...201627235731
gln3 is a main regulator of nitrogen assimilation in candida glabrata.after candida albicans, the yeast candida glabrata ranks second as an aetiological agent of candidaemia and is the most frequently encountered non-candida albicans species in patients with invasive candidiasis. transcriptome analysis in c. albicans, c. glabrata and cryptoccocus neoformans has revealed that, when engulfed by macrophages, these yeasts upregulate genes involved in nutrient acquisition, including nitrogen transporters such as the general amino acid permease gap1, the dicarboxylic am ...201627222014
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