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the nuclear migration protein nudf/lis1 forms a complex with nudc and bnfa at spindle pole bodies.nuclear migration depends on microtubules, the dynein motor complex, and regulatory components like lis1 and nudc. we sought to identify new binding partners of the fungal lis1 homolog nudf to clarify its function in dynein regulation. we therefore analyzed the association between nudf and nudc in aspergillus nidulans. nudf and nudc directly interacted in yeast two-hybrid experiments via nudf's wd40 domain. nudc-green fluorescent protein (nudc-gfp) was localized to immobile dots in the cytoplasm ...200818390647
quantifying metabolic activity of filamentous fungi using a colorimetric xtt assay.the filamentous nature and robust cell walls of many fungi render traditional measurements of active biomass (e.g., turbidity, dry cell weight) ineffective for most fungal bioprocesses. to overcome this challenge, an assay for quantification of overall metabolic activity is developed using 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenly)-5-[(phenylamino) carbonyl]-2h-tetrazolium hydroxide (xtt), which in the presence of active mitochondria is converted to a water-soluble formazan derivative that absorbs ...200818386938
the aspergillus nidulans fcyb cytosine-purine scavenger is highly expressed during germination and in reproductive compartments and is downregulated by endocytosis.we cloned and characterized an aspergillus nidulans gene, called fcyb, encoding the closest homologue to the yeast fcy2p/fcy21p permeases. deletion of fcyb (deltafcyb) does not affect growth, development, reproduction or bulk purine uptake, but eliminates the leaky growth on purines of deltaazgadeltauapcdeltauapa strains, lacking all known purine transporters, and confers resistance to the antifungal 5-fluorocytosine. kinetic analyses showed fcyb is a low-capacity, high-affinity, cytosine-purine ...200818384518
influence of farnesol on the morphogenesis of aspergillus niger.farnesol was the first quorum-sensing regulator to be found in eukaryotic cells. in candida albicans, a dimorphic fungal human pathogen, farnesol blocks the yeast-to-filamentous growth transition. here we show that in aspergillus niger farnesol acts as an inhibitor of conidiation: colonies grown on media containing farnesol were unable to develop conidia. although farnesol treated a. niger cultures exhibited a colony morphology resembling the "fluffy" phenotype of a. nidulans, which is caused by ...200818383232
screening of aspergillus species for occurrence of lectins and their characterization.ten species of aspergillus were screened for occurrence of lectins. each of the species was investigated for the occurrence of extracellular, surface-bound and intracellular lectin activities. as many as four species namely, aspergillus niger, aspergillus versicolor, aspergillus rugulosus and aspergillus nidulans, were found to possess intracellular lectin activities, while none of the species showed extracellular or surface-bound lectin activities. each of the lectin was characterized with resp ...200818383222
aspergillus nidulans natural product biosynthesis is regulated by mpkb, a putative pheromone response mitogen-activated protein kinase.the aspergillus nidulans putative mitogen-activated protein kinase encoded by mpkb has a role in natural product biosynthesis. an mpkb mutant exhibited a decrease in sterigmatocystin gene expression and low mycotoxin levels. the mutation also affected the expression of genes involved in penicillin and terrequinone a synthesis. mpkb was necessary for normal expression of laea, which has been found to regulate secondary metabolism gene clusters.200818378656
norsolorinic acid from aspergillus nidulans inhibits the proliferation of human breast adenocarcinoma mcf-7 cells via fas-mediated pathway.norsolorinic acid, isolated from the aspergillus nidulans, was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in human breast adenocarcinoma mcf-7 cells. to identity the anticancer mechanism of norsolorinic acid, we assayed its effect on apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and levels of p53, p21/waf1, fas/apo-1 receptor and fas ligand. the results showed that norsolorinic acid induced apoptosis of mcf-7 cells without mediation of p53 and p21/waf1. we suggest that fas/fas ligand apoptotic system ...200818346044
characterization of fusarium graminearum mes1 reveals roles in cell-surface organization and virulence.the surfaces of fungal hyphae are mosaics of carbohydrates and cell-surface proteins. presently, very little is known about the role of these proteins and their organization at the cell surface. here, we characterize two fusarium graminearum genes implicated in cell-surface organization, mes1 (fgsg_06680) and pls1 (fgsg_08695). mes1 is a homologue of mesa, which is required for the formation of stable polarity axes in aspergillus nidulans. pls1 encodes a tetraspanin, which belongs to a class of ...200818339563
a trispecies aspergillus microarray: comparative transcriptomics of three aspergillus species.the full-genome sequencing of the filamentous fungi aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus niger, and aspergillus oryzae has opened possibilities for studying the cellular physiology of these fungi on a systemic level. as a tool to explore this, we are making available an affymetrix genechip developed for transcriptome analysis of any of the three above-mentioned aspergilli. transcriptome analysis of triplicate batch cultivations of all three aspergilli on glucose and xylose media was used to validat ...200818332432
the role of actin, fimbrin and endocytosis in growth of hyphae in aspergillus nidulans.filamentous fungi are ideal systems to study the process of polarized growth, as their life cycle is dominated by hyphal growth exclusively at the cell apex. the actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in this growth. until now, there have been no tools to visualize actin or the actin-binding protein fimbrin in live cells of a filamentous fungus. we investigated the roles of actin (acta) and fimbrin (fima) in hyphal growth in aspergillus nidulans. we examined the localization of acta::gfp and ...200818331474
characterization of an acyl-coa: carboxylate coa-transferase from aspergillus nidulans involved in propionyl-coa detoxification.filamentous fungi metabolize toxic propionyl-coa via the methylcitrate cycle. disruption of the methylcitrate synthase gene leads to an accumulation of propionyl-coa and attenuates virulence of aspergillus fumigatus. however, addition of acetate, but not ethanol, to propionate-containing medium strongly reduces the accumulation of propionyl-coa and restores growth of the methylcitrate synthase mutant. therefore, the existence of a coa-transferase was postulated, which transfers the coash moiety ...200818331473
efficacy of female culex quinquefasciatus with entomopathogenic fungus fusarium pallidoroseum.this study was conducted to isolate and identify natural entomopathogenic fungi from female culex quinquefasciatus and to test their adulticidal activity. field-collected female c. quinquefasciatus died early and were placed on a saboraud's dextrose agar plates for growth and isolation of natural entomopathogenic fungi. the plates were maintained in an incubator at 24+/-2 degrees c for 3 days. four fungal species were isolated in two genera namely, aspergillus and fusarium. the identified fungal ...200818327611
[homology-dependent inactivation of ltr retrotransposons in genomes of aspergillus fumigatus and a. nidulans].repeat-induced point mutation (rip) is the most intriguing among the known mechanisms of repeated sequences inactivation because of its ability to produce irreversible mutation of repeated dna. discovered for the first time in neurospora crassa, rip is characterized by c:g to t:a transitions in duplicated sequences. the mechanisms and distribution of rip are still purely investigated. mobile elements are a common target for the processes which lead to homology-dependent silencing because of thei ...200718318114
foly: an integrated database for the classification and functional annotation of fungal oxidoreductases potentially involved in the degradation of lignin and related aromatic compounds.the breakdown of lignin by fungi is a key step during carbon recycling in terrestrial ecosystems. this process is of great interest for green and white biotechnological applications. given the importance of these enzymatic processes, we have classified the enzymes potentially involved in lignin catabolism into sequence-based families and integrated them in a newly developed database, designated fungal oxidative lignin enzymes (foly). families were defined after sequence similarity searches start ...200818308593
functional characterization of residues within the carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase rx2panaaxf distinct motif.the mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier (cac) is characterized by the presence of a distinct motif, rxxpanaaxf, within its sixth transmembrane alpha-helix. in this study, we analysed the role of the amino acids of this motif in the structure-function relationships of the human cac by using two complementary approaches. first, we performed functional analysis in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans of selected mutations with structural and functional relevance. second, similar mutant h ...200818307102
ndel1 controls the dynein-mediated transport of vimentin during neurite outgrowth.ndel1, the mammalian homologue of the aspergillus nidulans nude, is emergently viewed as an integrator of the cytoskeleton. by regulating the dynamics of microtubules and assembly of neuronal intermediate filaments (ifs), ndel1 promotes neurite outgrowth, neuronal migration, and cell integrity (1-6). to further understand the roles of ndel1 in cytoskeletal dynamics, we performed a tandem affinity purification of ndel1-interacting proteins. we isolated a novel ndel1 molecular complex composed of ...200818303022
acpa, a member of the gpr1/fun34/yaah membrane protein family, is essential for acetate permease activity in the hyphal fungus aspergillus nidulans.in a previous study, alcs, a gene of the aspergillus nidulans alc cluster, was shown to encode a protein that belongs to the gpr1/fun34/yaah membrane protein family. blast screening of the a. nidulans genome data identified additional genes encoding hypothetical proteins that could belong to this family. in this study we report the functional characterization of one of them, an5226. its expression is induced by ethanol and ethyl acetate (two inducers of the alc genes) and is mediated by the spec ...200818302536
functional characterization of the aspergillus fumigatus crz1 homologue, crza.the protein phosphatase calcineurin is an important mediator connecting calcium-dependent signalling to various cellular responses in multiple organisms. in fungi calcineurin acts largely through regulating crz1p-like transcription factors. here we characterize an aspergillus fumigatus crz1 homologue, crza and demonstrate its mediation of cellular tolerance to increased concentrations of calcium and manganese. in addition to acute sensitivity to these ions, and decreased conidiation, the crza nu ...200818298443
investigations into the taxonomy of the mushroom pathogen verticillium fungicola and its relatives based on sequence analysis of nitrate reductase and its regions.the full sequence of the nitrate reductase gene was obtained from a type isolate of verticilliumfungicola var. fungicola and used for phylogenetic analysis against other ascomycete fungi. sequencing obtained 2749 bp of coding region, 668 bp of 5' flanking sequence and 731 bp of 3' flanking sequence. in silico analysis indicated that the coding region contains a single intron and translates into an 893 amino acid protein, with blast analysis identifying five conserved nitrate reductase domains wi ...200718297878
germination, duplication cycle and septum formation are altered by caffeine, caffeic acid and cinnamic acid in aspergillus nidulans.phenolic and benzene compounds from vegetables have been described as being responsible for many biological activities including antifungal effects. caffeine, cinnamic and caffeic acids were here investigated for their action on a model fungus, aspergillus nidulans, at its initial stage of germination. conidia did not germinate in the presence of (1 mm) cinnamic acid. caffeine and caffeic acid exerted a negative effect on germination, on the nuclear duplication cycle and on first septum formatio ...200718297875
nucleosome positioning and histone h3 acetylation are independent processes in the aspergillus nidulans prnd-prnb bidirectional promoter.in aspergillus nidulans, proline can be used as a carbon and nitrogen source, and its metabolism requires the integration of three signals, including proline induction and nitrogen and carbon metabolite derepression. we have previously shown that the bidirectional promoter in the prnd-prnb intergenic region undergoes drastic chromatin rearrangements such that proline induction leads to the loss of positioned nucleosomes, whereas simultaneous carbon and nitrogen metabolite repression results in t ...200818296621
functional and physical interaction of blue- and red-light sensors in aspergillus nidulans.light sensing is very important for organisms in all biological kingdoms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. it was discovered recently that plant-like phytochrome is involved in light sensing in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans[1]. here, we show that phytochrome (fpha) is part of a protein complex containing lrea (wc-1) and lreb (wc-2) [2, 3], two central components of the neurospora crassa blue-light-sensing system. we found that fpha represses sexual development and myco ...200818291652
a defect of ligd (human lig4 homolog) for nonhomologous end joining significantly improves efficiency of gene-targeting in aspergillus oryzae.gene-targeting by homologous recombination occurs rarely during transformation since nonhomologous recombination is predominant in aspergillus oryzae. to develop a highly efficient gene-targeting system for a. oryzae, we constructed disrupted strains harboring a gene (ligd) encoding human dna ligase iv homolog that is involved in the final step of dna nonhomologous end joining. the a. oryzae ligd disruptants showed no apparent defect in vegetative growth and/or conidiation, and exhibited increas ...200818282727
cloning and sequence characterization of a non-reducing polyketide synthase gene from the lichen xanthoparmelia semiviridis.lichens produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites that have shown various biological activities. of particular interest are the coupled phenolics that originate from polyketide pathways, such as depsides, depsidones and usnic acids, which are produced almost solely by lichens. based on the presumed catalytic domains required for the synthesis of the key intermediates beta-orsellinic acid and methylphloroacetophenone, two pairs of degenerate primers were designed to target specifically the ...200818280724
sumoylation in aspergillus nidulans: sumo inactivation, overexpression and live-cell imaging.sumoylation, the reversible covalent attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (sumo) peptides has emerged as an important regulator of target protein function. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, but not in schizosaccharyomes pombe, deletion of the gene encoding sumo peptides is lethal. we have characterized the sumo-encoding gene, sumo, in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. the sumo gene was deleted in a diploid and sumodelta haploids were recovered. the mutant was viable but exhibited im ...200818262811
gfp-tagged expression analysis revealed that some histidine kinases of aspergillus nidulans show temporally and spatially different expression during the life cycle.his-asp phosphorelays are signal transduction mechanisms widely found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. the phosphorelay comprises three types of signal transducers: a sensor with histidine kinase (hk), a response regulator containing a phospho-accepting receiver (rr), and a histidine-containing phosphotransmitter (hpt). in this study, we examined hk expression using a green fluorescent protein (gfp) reporter driven by hk promoters in aspergillus nidulans. all the transformants showed fluoresc ...200818256501
novel promoter sequence required for inductive expression of the aspergillus nidulans endoglucanase gene egla.expression of the egla gene, encoding for a major endoglucanse eg a in aspergillus nidulans, is induced by cellulose and cellobiose, but not by xylose. this suggests that induction is independent of xlnr, a transcriptional activator of xylanolytic and cellulolytic genes in aspergillus. mutational analysis of the egla promoter was performed to identify the novel cis-element responsible for xlnr-independent induction. the region spanning -153 to -138 (ccgtacctttttagga), designated cere(cellulose r ...200818256482
aspergillus nidulans hypb encodes a sec7-domain protein important for hyphal morphogenesis.aspergillus nidulans strains containing the hypb5 temperature sensitive allele have a restrictive phenotype of wide, highly-branched hyphae. the hypb locus was cloned by phenotype complementation using a genomic plasmid library. hypb5 is predicted gene an6709 in the a. nidulans genome database, which encodes a putative sec7 domain protein, likely to act early in copi-mediated vesicle formation for retrograde golgi to er transport. the a. nidulans hypb5 allele has a single mutation, cytosine to g ...200818248749
biochemical and molecular characterization of a putative endoglucanase in magnaporthe grisea.microbial pathogens secrete an array of cell wall-degrading enzymes to break down the structure of the host cell wall to facilitate colonization of the host tissue. to better understand their role in the pathogenesis, a putative endoglucanase from magnaporthe grisea was characterized in this paper. signalp-3.0 analysis indicates that the protein encoded by gene mgg_02532.5 in m. grisea (named mgegl1 for m. grisea endoglucanase 1) contains a secretory signal peptide. multiple alignment shows that ...200818247030
a novel screening method for cell wall mutants in aspergillus niger identifies udp-galactopyranose mutase as an important protein in fungal cell wall biosynthesis.to identify cell wall biosynthetic genes in filamentous fungi and thus potential targets for the discovery of new antifungals, we developed a novel screening method for cell wall mutants. it is based on our earlier observation that the aspergillus niger agsa gene, which encodes a putative alpha-glucan synthase, is strongly induced in response to cell wall stress. by placing the agsa promoter region in front of a selectable marker, the acetamidase (amds) gene of a. nidulans, we reasoned that cell ...200818245853
genetic analysis of the role of peroxisomes in the utilization of acetate and fatty acids in aspergillus nidulans.peroxisomes are organelles containing a diverse array of enzymes. in fungi they are important for carbon source utilization, pathogenesis, development, and secondary metabolism. we have studied aspergillus nidulans peroxin (pex) mutants isolated by virtue of their inability to grow on butyrate or by the inactivation of specific pex genes. while all pex mutants are able to form colonies, those unable to import pts1 proteins are partially defective in asexual and sexual development. the pex mutant ...200818245820
genetic interactions of the aspergillus nidulans atmaatm homolog with different components of the dna damage response pathway.ataxia telangiectasia mutated (atm) is a phosphatidyl-3-kinase-related protein kinase that functions as a central regulator of the dna damage response in eukaryotic cells. in humans, mutations in atm cause the devastating neurodegenerative disease ataxia telangiectasia. previously, we characterized the homolog of atm (atma) in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. in addition to its expected role in the dna damage response, we found that atma is also required for polarized hyphal growth. ...200818245360
mating type protein mat1-2 from asexual aspergillus fumigatus drives sexual reproduction in fertile aspergillus nidulans.the lack of an experimentally amenable sexual genetic system in aspergillus fumigatus is a major limitation in the study of the organism's pathogenesis. a recent comparative genome analysis revealed evidence for potential sexuality in a. fumigatus. homologs of mating type genes as well as other genes of the "sexual machinery" have been identified in anamorphic a. fumigatus. the mat1-2 gene encodes a homolog of mata, an hmg box mating transcriptional factor (mat(hmg)) that regulates sexual develo ...200818245277
[ltr retrotransposons from genomes of aspergillus fumigatus and a. nidulans].fungi aspergillus spp. are able to infect all tissues and organs and often cause invasive mycosis (aspergillosis), which is usually a fatal disease, especially in the patients with compromised immune system. microbiological monitoring of these infectious agents is necessary in modem medical facilities. mobile elements can be used as markers for identification of species and strains of aspergillus found indoors as well as in aspergillosis diagnostics. genomic sequences of two representative asper ...200718240565
characterisation of aspergillus nidulans polarisome component bema.bema, the orthologue of saccharomyces cerevisiae bem1p, was identified through genome sequence comparison. we have shown that it plays a similar role to bem1p in yeast, acting as a cell growth protein. deletion of the gene produced a moderately abnormal hyphal tip morphology, and had an extremely detrimental effect on conidiospore production, with development stalling after conidiophore vesicle production. it was also shown that bema is required for vacuole fusion, similar to bem1p. this role is ...200818234530
functional analyses of heterotrimeric g protein g alpha and g beta subunits in gibberella zeae.the homothallic ascomycete fungus gibberella zeae (anamorph: fusarium graminearum) is a major toxigenic plant pathogen that causes head blight disease on small-grain cereals. the fungus produces the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (don) and zearalenone (zea) in infected hosts, posing a threat to human and animal health. despite its agricultural and toxicological importance, the molecular mechanisms underlying its growth, development and virulence remain largely unknown. to better understand such mecha ...200818227243
identification of biomarkers for genotyping aspergilli using non-linear methods for clustering and classification.in the present investigation, we have used an exhaustive metabolite profiling approach to search for biomarkers in recombinant aspergillus nidulans (mutants that produce the 6- methyl salicylic acid polyketide molecule) for application in metabolic engineering.200818226195
purification and biochemical characterization of a broad substrate specificity thermostable alkaline protease from aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans pw1 produces an extracellular carboxylesterase activity that acts on several lipid esters when cultured in liquid media containing olive oil as a carbon source. the enzyme was purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. it has an apparent mw and pi of 37 kda and 4.5, respectively. the enzyme efficiently hydrolyzed all assayed glycerides, but showed preference toward short- and medium-length chain fatty acid esters. maximum activity was obtained at ph 8.5 at 4 ...200818224318
the tip growth apparatus of aspergillus nidulans.hyphal tip growth in fungi is important because of the economic and medical importance of fungi, and because it may be a useful model for polarized growth in other organisms. we have investigated the central questions of the roles of cytoskeletal elements and of the precise sites of exocytosis and endocytosis at the growing hyphal tip by using the model fungus aspergillus nidulans. time-lapse imaging of fluorescent fusion proteins reveals a remarkably dynamic, but highly structured, tip growth a ...200818216285
inhibition of fusarium graminearum growth and development by farnesol.the isoprenoid farnesol was previously shown to induce morphological features characteristic of apoptosis in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. this study demonstrates that under similar liquid media growth conditions, farnesol also triggers apoptosis in the plant pathogenic fungus fusarium graminearum. however, unlike a. nidulans, f. graminearum spores treated with farnesol exhibited altered germination patterns and most (>60%) lysed upon prolonged exposure. given the economic importa ...200818201191
implication of a regulator of g protein signalling (bbrgs1) in conidiation and conidial thermotolerance of the insect pathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana.beauveria bassiana is an insect pathogenic fungus widely used as a biocontrol agent to infect and control insect pests. the conidium initiates pathogenesis and mediates disease transmission, however, little is known about genetic elements that control conidiation. here, the cloning and characterization of a regulatory g protein-signalling (rgs) gene bbrgs1 from b. bassiana is reported. phylogenetic analysis showed that bbrgs1 was orthologous to the rgs protein, flba from aspergillus nidulans. th ...200818201190
reciprocal oxylipin-mediated cross-talk in the aspergillus-seed pathosystem.in aspergilli, mycotoxin production and sporulation are governed, in part, by endogenous oxylipins (oxygenated, polyunsaturated fatty acids and metabolites derived therefrom). in aspergillus nidulans, oxylipins are synthesized by the dioxygenase enzymes ppoa, ppob and ppoc. structurally similar oxylipins are synthesized in seeds via the action of lipoxygenase (lox) enzymes. previous reports have shown that exogenous application of seed oxylipins to aspergillus cultures alters sporulation and myc ...200818181962
preferential localization of the endocytic internalization machinery to hyphal tips underlies polarization of the actin cytoskeleton in aspergillus nidulans.abpa, slab and ampa, three demonstrated components of the endocytic internalization machinery, are strongly polarized in aspergillus nidulans hyphae, forming a ring that embraces the hyphal tip, leaving an area of exclusion at the apex. abpa, a prototypic endocytic internalization marker, localizes to highly motile and transient (average half life, 24 +/- 5 s) peripheral punctate structures overlapping with actin patches, which also predominate in the tip. slab also localizes to peripheral patch ...200818179595
rna silencing gene truncation in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.the genus aspergillus is ideally suited for the investigation of rna silencing evolution because it includes species that have experienced a variety of rna silencing gene changes. our work on this subject begins here with the model species aspergillus nidulans. filamentous ascomycete fungi generally each encode two of the core rna silencing proteins, dicer and argonaute, but a. nidulans appears to have lost one of each to gene truncation events. although a role in growth, development, or rna sil ...200818065653
aspergillus mycoviruses are targets and suppressors of rna silencing.rna silencing can function as a virus defense mechanism in a diverse range of eukaryotes, and many viruses are capable of suppressing the silencing machinery targeting them. however, the extent to which this occurs between fungal rna silencing and mycoviruses is unclear. here, three aspergillus dsrna mycoviruses were partially characterized, and their relationship to rna silencing was investigated. aspergillus virus 1816 is related to agaricus bisporus white button mushroom virus 1 and suppresse ...200818065651
crea-mediated repression in aspergillus nidulans does not require transcriptional auto-regulation, regulated intracellular localisation or degradation of crea.the major regulatory protein in carbon repression in aspergillus nidulans is crea. strains constitutively over-expressing crea show normal responses to carbon repression, indicating that auto-regulation of crea is not essential for crea-mediated regulation. in these strains, high levels of crea are present whether cells are grown in repressing or derepressing conditions, indicating large-scale degradation of crea does not play a key role. crea is located in the nucleus and cytoplasm in cells whe ...200818063396
an eleven amino acid residue deletion expands the substrate specificity of acetyl xylan esterase ii (axe ii) from penicillium purpurogenum.the soft-rot fungus penicillium purpurogenum secretes to the culture medium a variety of enzymes related to xylan biodegradation, among them three acetyl xylan esterases (axe i, ii and iii). axe ii has 207 amino acids; it belongs to family 5 of the carbohydrate esterases and its structure has been determined by x-ray crystallography at 0.9 a resolution (pdb 1g66). the enzyme possesses the alpha/beta hydrolase fold and the catalytic triad typical of serine esterases (ser90, his187 and asp175). ax ...200818060506
functional characterization of the putative aspergillus nidulans dna damage binding protein homologue ddba.nucleotide excision repair (ner) eliminates helix-distorting dna base lesions. seven xp-deficient genetic complementation groups (xpa to xpg) have already been identified in mammals, and their corresponding genes have been cloned. hereditary defects in ner are associated with several diseases, including xeroderma pigmentosum (xp). uv-ddb (xpe) is formed by two associated subunits, ddb1 and ddb2. uv-ddb was identified biochemically as a protein factor that exhibits very strong and specific bindin ...200818060432
the nada gene of aspergillus nidulans, encoding adenine deaminase, is subject to a unique regulatory pattern.the adenine deaminase of a. nidulans, encoded by nada, can be considered both as a catabolic and a purine salvage enzyme. we show that its transcriptional regulation reflects this double metabolic role. as all other genes involved in purine utilisation it is induced by uric acid, and this induction is mediated by the uay transcription factor. however, it is also independently and synergistically induced by adenosine by a uay-independent mechanism. at variance with all other enzymes of purine cat ...200818055231
identification of nutrient-dependent changes in extracellular ph and acid phosphatase secretion in aspergillus nidulans.the present study was designed to identify nutrient-dependent changes in extracellular ph and acid phosphatase secretion in the bia1 palc4 mutant strain of aspergillus nidulans. the palc4 mutant was selected as lacking alkaline phosphatase, but having substantially increased acid phosphatase activity when grown on solid minimal medium under phosphate starvation, ph 6.5. gene palc was identified as a putative member of a conserved signaling cascade involved in ambient alkaline sensing whose sole ...200718050093
ras gtpase-activating protein regulation of actin cytoskeleton and hyphal polarity in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans gapa1, a mutation leading to compact, fluffy colonies and delayed polarity establishment, maps to a gene encoding a ras gtpase-activating protein. domain organization and phylogenetic analyses strongly indicate that gapa regulates one or more "true" ras proteins. a gapadelta strain is viable. gapa colonies are more compact than gapa1 colonies and show reduced conidiation. gapadelta strains have abnormal conidiophores, characterized by the absence of one of the two layers of ...200818039943
improved protocols for functional analysis in the pathogenic fungus aspergillus flavus.an available whole genome sequence for aspergillus flavus provides the opportunity to characterize factors involved in pathogenicity and to elucidate the regulatory networks involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. functional analysis of genes within the genome is greatly facilitated by the ability to disrupt or mis-express target genes and then evaluate their result on the phenotype of the fungus. large-scale functional analysis requires an efficient genetic transformation system and the ability to ...200718039373
characterization of active site variants of xanthine hydroxylase from aspergillus nidulans.xanthine/alpha-ketoglutarate (alphakg) dioxygenase (xana) is a non-heme mononuclear fe(ii) enzyme that decarboxylates alphakg to succinate and co(2) while hydroxylating xanthine to generate uric acid. in the absence of a xana crystal structure, a homology model was used to target several putative active site residues for mutagenesis. wild-type xana and ten enzyme variants were purified from recombinant escherichia coli cells and characterized. the h149a and d151a variants were inactive and the h ...200818036331
overexpression of the plg1 gene encoding pectin lyase in penicillium griseoroseum.the pectin lyase (pl) is an industrially important enzyme since it is used for maceration and clarification in the process of fruit juice production in food industries. in order to increase the yields of pectin lyase we cloned the plg1 (pectin lyase 1) from penicillium griseoroseum gene under the control of the strong constitutive promoter of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpda) and the terminator region of the tryptophan synthetase (trpc) gene from aspergillus nidulans (plas ...200818030511
the aspergillus nidulans enzyme tdib catalyzes prenyltransfer to the precursor of bioactive asterriquinones.the asterriquinones represent a class of ascomycete metabolic products whose significance stems from remarkable and useful pharmacological activities, among those antiretroviral (e.g., against the hi-virus), antitumor, and antidiabetes properties. recently, the first genetic locus for an asterriquinone, the clustered terrequinone genes tdia-e, was identified during a genome-wide screen in aspergillus nidulans for "orphan" natural product biosynthesis loci. here, we describe overexpression and ch ...200818029206
nitrite transport is mediated by the nitrite-specific high-affinity nita transporter and by nitrate transporters nrta, nrtb in aspergillus nidulans.disruption of the aspergillus nidulans high-affinity nitrate transporter genes (nrta and nrtb) prevents growth on nitrate but not nitrite. we identified a distinct nitrite transporter (k(m)=4.2+/-1 microm, v(max)=168+/-21 nmolmg(-1)dw(-1)h(-1)), designated nita. disruption of nrta, nrtb and nita blocked growth on nitrite, despite low rates of nitrite depletion we ascribe to passive nitrous acid permeation. growth of the single mutant nita16 on nitrite was wild-type, suggesting that nrta and/or n ...200818024100
regulation of hyphal morphogenesis by cdc42 and rac1 homologues in aspergillus nidulans.the ability of filamentous fungi to form hyphae requires the establishment and maintenance of a stable polarity axis. based on studies in yeasts and animals, the gtpases cdc42 and rac1 are presumed to play a central role in organizing the morphogenetic machinery to enable axis formation and stabilization. here, we report that cdc42 (moda) and rac1 (raca) share an overlapping function required for polarity establishment in aspergillus nidulans. nevertheless, cdc42 appears to have a more important ...200718005099
apical sterol-rich membranes are essential for localizing cell end markers that determine growth directionality in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.in filamentous fungi, hyphal extension depends on the continuous delivery of vesicles to the growing tip. here, we describe the identification of two cell end marker proteins, teaa and tear, in aspergillus nidulans, corresponding to tea1 and mod5 in schizosaccharomyces pombe. deletion of teaa or tear caused zig-zag-growing and meandering hyphae, respectively. the kelch-repeat protein teaa, the putatively prenylated tear protein, and the formin sepa were highly concentrated in the spitzenkörper, ...200818003978
expression of the fluorescence markers dsred and gfp fused to a nuclear localization signal in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus glomus intraradices.here, arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi were monitored in vivo introducing the fluorescent reporters dsred and gfp (green fluorescent protein) in glomus intraradices using a biolistic approach and agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. both reporter genes were fused to the nuclear localization signal of the aspergillus nidulans transcription factor stua to target fluorescence to nuclei. expression of dsred was driven by two glomus mosseae promoters highly expressed during early symbi ...200817995919
basic-zipper-type transcription factor flbb controls asexual development in aspergillus nidulans.the fungal colony is a complex multicellular unit consisting of various cell types and functions. asexual spore formation (conidiation) is integrated through sensory and regulatory elements into the general morphogenetic plan, in which the activation of the transcription factor brla is the first determining step. a number of early regulatory elements acting upstream of brla (flug and flba-e) have been identified, but their functional relations remain to be further investigated. in this report we ...200817993569
a protein kinase c-encoding gene, pkca, is essential to the viability of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.a protein kinase c (pkc)-encoding gene (pkca) was isolated from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. although we attempted to isolate pkca deletion mutants, we obtained only heterokaryons that had both deltapkca and pkca(+) nuclei. conidia produced by the heterokaryon germinated. the germ tubes, however, lysed frequently and no colony formation was observed, indicating that the pkca gene is essential to the viability of a. nidulans. we constructed conditional mutants (alca(p)-pkca mutant ...200717986778
copa:gfp localizes to putative golgi equivalents in aspergillus nidulans.the golgi complex is a main component of the eukaryotic secretory system and functions to modify nascent proteins sent from the endoplasmic reticulum. ultrastructural studies of filamentous fungi have shown golgi to be individual smooth membrane cisternae that are referred to as golgi equivalents or dictyosomes. the aspergillus nidulans copa gene encodes a homolog of mammalian coat protein (alpha-cop), a constituent of the golgi-localized copi vesicle coat. here, the localization of a. nidulansa ...200717986089
the neurospora crassa uvs-3 epistasis group encodes homologues of the atr/atrip checkpoint control system.the mutagen sensitive uvs-3 and mus-9 mutants of neurospora show mutagen and hydroxyurea sensitivity, mutator effects and duplication instability typical of recombination repair and dna damage checkpoint defective mutants. to determine the nature of these genes we used cosmids from a genomic library to clone the uvs-3 gene by complementation for mms sensitivity. mutation induction by transposon insertion and rip defined the coding sequence. rflp analysis confirmed that this sequence maps in the ...200817983847
the aspergillus nidulans esdc (early sexual development) gene is necessary for sexual development and is controlled by vea and a heterotrimeric g protein.the esdc (early sexual development) gene was isolated by using an expressed sequence tag (est) as a probe from a genomic library of the early sexual developmental stage mycelia of aspergillus nidulans. the sequence analysis revealed that the esdc gene contains a 59bp intron and encodes a 266 amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular weight of 29.4kda. the esdc protein is conserved among filamentous fungi and has a domain with similarity to a glycogen binding domain conserved in the beta ...200817977758
isolation of four pepsin-like protease genes from aspergillus niger and analysis of the effect of disruptions on heterologous laccase expression.four new aspartic protease genes pepaa, pepab, pepac and pepad from aspergillus niger were identified using a comparative genomic approach. all four gene products have highly conserved attributes that are characteristic of aspartic proteases; however, each one has novel sequence features. the pepaa protease appears to represent an ortholog of a pepsin-type aspartic protease previously identified from talaromyces emersonii and scleotinia sclerotiorum. the pepab protease appears to be an ortholog ...200817977034
transcriptional regulation of genes on the non-syntenic blocks of aspergillus oryzae and its functional relationship to solid-state cultivation.transcriptome analysis revealed close relationship between solid-state cultivation and the transcriptional regulation of the genes on the non-syntenic blocks (nsbs), which were characterized by the comparison of aspergillus oryzae genome with those of aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus nidulans. average expression ratio of the genes on nsbs in solid-state cultivation was significantly higher than that on the syntenic blocks (sbs). of the induced genes, the genes relating to metabolism, which ...200817967552
the penicillium chrysogenum antifungal protein paf, a promising tool for the development of new antifungal therapies and fungal cell biology studies.in recent years the interest in antimicrobial proteins and peptides and their mode of action has been rapidly increasing due to their potential to prevent and combat microbial infections in all areas of life. a detailed knowledge about the function of such proteins is the most important requirement to consider them for future application. our research in recent years has been focused on the low molecular weight, cysteine-rich and cationic antifungal protein paf from penicillium chrysogenum, whic ...200817965829
establishment of the ambient ph signaling complex in aspergillus nidulans: pali assists plasma membrane localization of palh.the aspergillus nidulans ambient ph signaling pathway involves two transmembrane domain (tmd)-containing proteins, palh and pali. we provide in silico and mutational evidence suggesting that pali is a three tmd (3-tmd) protein with an n-terminal signal peptide, and we show that pali localizes to the plasma membrane. pali is not essential for the proteolytic conversion of the pacc translation product into the processed 27-kda form, but its absence markedly reduces the accumulation of the 53-kda i ...200717951518
in vitro susceptibilities of aspergillus spp. causing otomycosis to amphotericin b, voriconazole and itraconazole.otomycosis is worldwide in distribution and most commonly caused by aspergillus species. amphotericin b, itraconazole and voriconazole are used for the treatment of aspergillosis, but recently an increase in resistance to these agents has been reported. we aimed at investigating the in vitro activities of amphotericin b, voriconazole and itraconazole against aspergillus isolates causing otomycosis. mycological analysis of samples from the ear canals of patients was performed by culturing onto sa ...200717944704
time fluctuations and imaging in the sers spectra of fungal hypha grown on nanostructured substrates.surface-enhanced raman scattering (sers) spectroscopy is an emerging technique in biomolecular analysis that can have a tremendous impact in the life sciences. we report on the sers imaging of fungal hyphae grown on nanostructured sers active substrates engineered using semiconductor technologies. time fluctuations in the intensity and band position in the sers spectra measured on the same sample position with 1 s integration time have been observed indicating that the sers signal arises from a ...200717944510
in vitro analysis of his-asp phosphorelays in aspergillus nidulans: the first direct biochemical evidence for the existence of his-asp phosphotransfer systems in filamentous fungi.his-asp phosphorelays are widespread signal transduction mechanisms in bacteria, fungi, and higher plants. in order to investigate a his-asp phosphorelay network in filamentous fungi, which has been genetically characterized in part, we attempted to construct an in vitro phosphotransfer network in aspergillus nidulans comprising all the necessary components. as a first step, we established an in vitro phosphotransfer system with a histidine-containing phosphotransmitter ypda, a response regulato ...200717928704
self-fertility: the genetics of sex in lonely fungi.the genome of the fungus aspergillus nidulans encodes both of the mating-type regulators of sexuality, thus allowing self-fertility. pheromone signaling genes are induced during sexual development, as found in outcrossing species, but, surprisingly, the regulators do not control expression of these genes.200717925212
a novel regulator couples sporogenesis and trehalose biogenesis in aspergillus nidulans.trehalose is a compatible osmolyte produced by bacteria, fungi, insects and plants to protect the integrity of cells against various environmental stresses. spores, the reproductive, survival and infection bodies of fungi require high amounts of trehalose for long-term survival. here, via a gain-of-function genetic screen, we identify the novel regulator vosa that couples the formation of spores and focal trehalose biogenesis in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans. the vosa gene is expressed s ...200717912349
evidence for the direct involvement of the proteasome in the proteolytic processing of the aspergillus nidulans zinc finger transcription factor pacc.the 72-kda zinc finger transcription factor pacc, distantly related to ci/gli developmental regulators, undergoes two-step proteolytic processing in response to alkaline ambient ph. "signaling protease" cleavage of pacc(72) removes a processing-inhibitory c-terminal domain, making its truncated pacc(53) product accessible to a second "processing" protease, yielding pacc(27). features of the processing proteolysis suggested the proteasome as a candidate protease. we constructed, using gene replac ...200717911112
identification of dioxygenases required for aspergillus development. studies of products, stereochemistry, and the reaction mechanism.aspergillus sp. contain ppoa, ppob, and ppoc genes, which code for fatty acid oxygenases with homology to fungal linoleate 7,8-diol synthases (7,8-lds) and cyclooxygenases. our objective was to identify these enzymes, as ppo gene replacements show critical developmental aberrancies in sporulation and pathogenicity in the human pathogen aspergillus fumigatus and the genetic model aspergillus nidulans. the ppoas of a. fumigatus and a. nidulans were identified as (8r)-dioxygenases with hydroperoxid ...200717906293
aspergillus volatiles regulate aflatoxin synthesis and asexual sporulation in aspergillus parasiticus.aspergillus parasiticus is one primary source of aflatoxin contamination in economically important crops. to prevent the potential health and economic impacts of aflatoxin contamination, our goal is to develop practical strategies to reduce aflatoxin synthesis on susceptible crops. one focus is to identify biological and environmental factors that regulate aflatoxin synthesis and to manipulate these factors to control aflatoxin biosynthesis in the field or during crop storage. in the current stu ...200717890344
napa and napb are the aspergillus nidulans nap/set family members and napb is a nuclear protein specifically interacting with importin alpha.in eukaryotic cells, importin alpha is the major carrier for transport protein cargoes into the nucleus. we characterize here kapa, the single aspergillus nidulans gene encoding an importin alpha. using an affinity approach, we identify six potential interactors of kapa(50), a deleted version of kapa lacking the autoinhibitory importin-beta-binding domain. one such interactor is napb, the a. nidulans orthologue of saccharomyces cerevisiae vps75p, a histone chaperone member of the nap/set family ...200817890114
isolation of aspergillus nidulans from a case of fungal rhinosinusitis: a case report.a rare species i.e. a. nidulans is reported as a causative agent of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis in this study. it is an increasingly recognized type of chronic recurring hypertrophic sinus disease. there are more than 185 species of aspergillus and over 95% of all infections are caused by a. fumigatus, a. flavus and a. niger. a. fumigatus alone accounts for the large majority of cases of both invasive and non invasive aspergillosis. a young immunocompetent lady presented with bilateral nasal ...200717883183
characterization and kinetics of the major purine transporters in aspergillus fumigatus.three genes encoding putative purine transporters have been identified in silico in the genome of aspergillus fumigatus by their very close similarity of their translation products to well-studied homologues in a. nidulans. two of these transporters, called afuapc and afazga, were found responsible for bulk uptake of purines and studied in detail herein. genetic knock-out analysis, regulation of transcription, direct purine uptake assays and heterologous expression in a. nidulans have unequivoca ...200817881254
transcriptome analysis of the aspergillus nidulans atma (atm, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) null mutant.atm is a phosphatidyl-3-kinase-related protein kinase that functions as a central regulator of dna damage response in eukaryotes. in humans, mutations in atm cause the devastating neurodegenerative disease ataxia-telangiectasia. previously, we characterized the homologue of atm (atma) in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. in addition to its expected role in the dna damage response, we found that atma is also required for polarized hyphal growth. our results suggested that atma probably ...200717880424
evaluation of thermophilic fungal consortium for paddy straw composting.out of 10 thermophilic fungi isolated from wheat straw, farm yard manure, and soil, only three showed highest cellobiase, carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and fpase activities. they were identified as aspergillus nidulans (th(4)), scytalidium thermophilum (th(5)), and humicola sp. (th(10)). a fungal consortium of these three fungi was used to compost a mixture (1:1) of silica rich paddy straw and lignin rich soybean trash. the composting of paddy straw for 3 months, during summer period in nor ...200817874191
effect of selected natural dyes in reduction on colour changes of egyptian linen textiles by fungi.linen is the most historical egyptian textile fibre liable to fungal deterioration. fungal deterioration of dyed linen textiles may appear as undesirable different stains. in order to success in removing of fungal stains from biodeteriorated historical egyptian dyed linen textiles, it is necessary to understand the nature and causes of these stains, hence their subsequent removal. so this paper aims to investigate the effect of fungi on dyed linen textiles. in this study linen textile samples we ...200717867537
transcriptional control of nmra by the bzip transcription factor meab reveals a new level of nitrogen regulation in aspergillus nidulans.fungi can use a diverse range of nitrogen sources. some nitrogen sources sustain a rapid growth rate and are used in preference to less readily metabolized nitrogen sources. the mechanisms involved in this control of nitrogen utilization have been studied in the model filamentous ascomycete, aspergillus nidulans. the gata transcription factor area is necessary for the expression of nitrogen-catabolic permeases and enzymes. area activity is controlled by multiple mechanisms including regulated ar ...200717854403
lissencephaly and lis1: insights into the molecular mechanisms of neuronal migration and development.lissencephaly is a severe human neuronal migration defect characterized by a smooth cerebral surface, mental retardation and seizures. lis1 was first gene cloned in an organism important for neuronal migration, as it was deleted or mutated in patients with lissencephaly in a heterozygous fashion. studies in model organisms, particularly aspergillus nidulans, as well as those in the mouse, have uncovered an evolutionarily conserved pathway that involves lis1 and cytoplasmic dynein. this pathway c ...200717850624
one enzyme makes a fungal pathogen, but not a saprophyte, virulent on a new host plant.certain genes of nectria haematococca, a fingal pathogen of pea (pisum sativum), encode pisatin demethylase (pda), a cytochrome p-450 monoxygenase that detoxifies the phytoalexin pisatin. because pda is required by n.haematococca for pathogenicity on pea, pisatin helps defend pea against n. haematococca. the possibility that pisatin is a general defense factormicrothat is, that pda can confer pathogenicity to fungi not normally pathogenic on peamicrowas investigated. genes encoding pda were tran ...198917839018
effect of caspofungin on metabolite profiles of aspergillus species determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.invasive aspergillosis remains a potentially life-threatening infection, the incidence of which is increasing. current methods used to determine the susceptibilities of aspergillus strains to antifungal drugs are often unreliable. nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy can identify the metabolic complement of microorganisms while monitoring nutrient utilization from the incubation medium. we used 600-mhz (1)h nmr spectroscopy to monitor the metabolic responses of five aspergillus species ...200717785514
fungal nucleobase transporters.early genetic and physiological work in bacteria and fungi has suggested the presence of highly specific nucleobase transport systems. similar transport systems are now known to exist in algae, plants, protozoa and metazoa. within the last 15 years, a small number of microbial genes encoding nucleobase transporters have been cloned and studied in great detail. the sequences of several other putative proteins submitted to databases are homologous to the microbial nucleobase transporters but their ...200717784857
the pan-ac assay: a single-reaction real-time pcr test for quantitative detection of a broad range of aspergillus and candida species.in view of the growing incidence and the high mortality of invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis, adequate diagnostic techniques permitting timely onset of treatment are of paramount importance. more than 90 % of all invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised individuals can be attributed to candida and aspergillus species. to date, standardized techniques permitting rapid, sensitive and, no less importantly, economic screening for the clinically most relevant fungi are lacking. in the pre ...200717761478
mitotic regulation by nima-related kinases.abstract: the nima-related kinases represent a family of serine/threonine kinases implicated in cell cycle control. the founding member of this family, the nima kinase of aspergillus nidulans, as well as the fission yeast homologue fin1, contribute to multiple aspects of mitotic progression including the timing of mitotic entry, chromatin condensation, spindle organization and cytokinesis. mammals contain a large family of eleven nima-related kinases, named nek1 to nek11. of these, there is now ...200717727698
role of the transcriptional activator xlnr of fusarium oxysporum in regulation of xylanase genes and virulence.fungal infection of plants involves degradation of the host cell wall through the action of lytic enzymes secreted by the pathogen. the role of these enzymes in virulence is difficult to determine due to their functional redundancy and, therefore, remains controversial. here, we have studied xlnr, a zinc-finger transcription factor from the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum that is orthologous to the major transcriptional activator of xylanase genes in aspergillus spp. transcription of t ...200717722701
arginine catabolism in aspergillus nidulans is regulated by the rrma gene coding for the rna-binding protein.expression of aspergillus nidulans arginine catabolism genes, agaa and otaa, is regulated at the level of transcription by a specific induction and two global carbon and nitrogen repression systems. post-transcriptional and/or post-translational mechanisms have also been proposed to operate additionally. gene tagging with transposon impala allowed us to select the rrma gene. rrma protein contains three conserved rrm domains, typical for rna-binding proteins. the gene has a complex structure with ...200717719249
terrequinone a biosynthesis through l-tryptophan oxidation, dimerization and bisprenylation.the antitumor fungal metabolite terrequinone a, identified in extracts of aspergillus sp., is biosynthesized by the five-gene cluster tdia-tdie. in this work, we have overproduced all five proteins (tdia-tdie) in the bacterial host escherichia coli, fully reconstituting the biosynthesis of terrequinone a. this pathway involves aminotransferase activity, head-to-tail dimerization and bisprenylation of the scaffold to yield the benzoquinone natural product. we have established that tdid is a pyrid ...200717704773
transient disruption of non-homologous end-joining facilitates targeted genome manipulations in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.we have developed a transiently disrupted nkua system in aspergillus nidulans for efficient gene targeting. the nkua disruption was made by inserting a counter-selectable marker flanked by a direct repeat (dr) composed of nkua sequences. in the disrupted state, the non-homologous end-joining (nhej) activity is abolished and gene targeting can be performed with success rates identical to those obtained with permanent nkua knock-out strains. when gene targeting is complete, the functional nkua all ...200817703973
the aspergillus nidulans ceta and cala genes are involved in conidial germination and cell wall morphogenesis.the aspergillus nidulans genes ceta (an3079.2) and cala (an7619.2) encode a novel class of fungal thaumatin-like proteins of unknown function. deletion of ceta does not result in an observable phenotype [greenstein, s., shadkchan, y., jadoun, j., sharon, c., markovich, s., osherov, n., 2006. analysis of the aspergillus nidulans thaumatin-like ceta gene and evidence for transcriptional repression of pyr4 expression in the ceta-disrupted strain. fungal genet. biol. 43, 42-53]. we prepared knockout ...200817703972
femtochemistry in enzyme catalysis: dna photolyase.photolyase uses light energy to split uv-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in damaged dna. this photoenzyme encompasses a series of elementary dynamical processes during repair function from early photoinitiation by a photoantenna molecule to enhance repair efficiency, to in vitro photoreduction through aromatic residues to reconvert the cofactor to the active form, and to final photorepair to fix damaged dna. the corresponding series of dynamics include resonance energy transfer, intraprote ...200717703066
palc, one of two bro1 domain proteins in the fungal ph signalling pathway, localizes to cortical structures and binds vps32.palc, distantly related to saccharomyces cerevisiae peripheral endosomal sorting complexes required for transport iii (escrt-iii) component bro1p and one of six aspergillus nidulans ph signalling proteins, contains a bro1 domain. green fluorescent protein (gfp)-tagged palc is recruited to plasma membrane-associated punctate structures upon alkalinization, when ph signalling is active. palc recruitment to these structures is dependent on the seven transmembrane domain (7-tmd) receptor and likely ...200717696968
pina from aspergillus nidulans binds to ps/pt-p motifs using the same loop i and xp groove as mammalian pin1.binding of the cdc25c-t48 ligand to pina from aspergillus nidulans has been characterised by the identification of 15n and 1h resonances from 1h-15n hsqc nmr titration experiments using previous backbone assignments. it is shown that the binding site for the cdc25c-t48 ligand with pina is the same as in the mammalian protein pin1, although with a reduced binding affinity. it had previously been proposed that the arginine residue (r17) in the loop i region of the pin1 ww domain is essential for b ...200717693144
light represses conidiation in koji mold aspergillus oryzae.in the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae, there has been no report on photoreaction. here we investigated the effect of light in a. oryzae and found that conidiation was repressed by white light. this reaction is contrary to that of other aspergilli, which show abundant conidiation under light. moreover, red light also caused reduced conidiation. genome sequencing of a. oryzae indicated the existence of homologs of some light-related genes in other filamentous fungi. to approach the molecula ...200717690479
conrad: gene prediction using conditional random fields.we present conrad, the first comparative gene predictor based on semi-markov conditional random fields (smcrfs). unlike the best standalone gene predictors, which are based on generalized hidden markov models (ghmms) and trained by maximum likelihood, conrad is discriminatively trained to maximize annotation accuracy. in addition, unlike the best annotation pipelines, which rely on heuristic and ad hoc decision rules to combine standalone gene predictors with additional information such as ests ...200717690204
evidence for post-translational regulation of nrta, the aspergillus nidulans high-affinity nitrate transporter.here, influx and efflux of (13)no(3)(-), and net fluxes of (14)no(3)(-) and (14)no(2)(-), were measured in aspergillus nidulans mutants niad171 and niia5, devoid of nitrate reductase (nr) and nitrite reductase (nir) activities, respectively. transcript and protein abundances of nrta, the a. nidulans principal high-affinity no(3)(-) transporter, were determined using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blots, respectively. (13)no(3)(-) influx in niad171 wa ...200717688585
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