TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
sequence and centromere proximal location of a transformation enhancing fragment ans1 from aspergillus nidulans.the aspergillus nidulans sequence ans1, previously known to enhance transformation frequencies of pyr4-based vectors, was shown to enhance the efficiency of argb and trpc-based vectors. increased efficiencies could be obtained by constructing vectors containing argb and ans1 or by cotransforming selectable plasmids (containing argb, trpc, or pyr4) with the non-selectable ans1 sequence. the preponderance of evidence suggests that the mechanism of ans1 activity does not involve homologous recombin ...19872825130
functional organization of the aspergillus nidulans trpc promoter.we investigated the functional organization of the aspergillus nidulans trpc promoter by the sequential removal of sequences upstream of the major trpc mrna cap site (+1). dna fragments containing promoter mutations were fused to the escherichia coli lacz gene, and a novel method was used to select for integration of the fusion gene at the aspergillus argb locus. beta-galactosidase assays and s1 nuclease protection experiments demonstrated that the promoter mutations affected gene expression in ...19873039345
phycocyanin alpha-subunit gene of anacystis nidulans r2: cloning, nucleotide sequencing and expression in escherichia coli.the cloning and nucleotide sequence determination of the anacystis nidulans r2 phycocyanin (pc) alpha-subunit gene are described. a 3.0-kb psti fragment of anacystis nidulans r2 genomic dna cloned in plasmid puc8 was found to hybridize with a heptadecameric oligodeoxynucleotide probe. sequencing using synthetic primers revealed the presence of the pc alpha-subunit gene and the 3' proximal end of the beta-subunit gene. the alpha-gene is separated from the upstream beta-gene by a spacer length of ...19873036657
site-directed mutagenesis of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from anacystis nidulans.using oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of the gene encoding the small subunit (rbcs) from anacystis nidulans mutant enzymes have been generated with either trp-54 of the small subunit replaced by a phe residue, or with trp-57 replaced by a phe residue, whereas both trp-54 and trp-57 have been replaced by phe residues in a double mutant. trp-54 and trp-57 are conserved in all amino acid sequences or the small subunit (s) that are known at present. the wild-type and mutant forms of rubisco hav ...19873030746
the nucleotide sequence of the amds gene of aspergillus nidulans and the molecular characterization of 5' mutations.the structure of the amds gene of aspergillus nidulans has been determined by nucleotide sequence analysis. the coding sequence is interrupted by three small introns with splicing signals consistent with other fungal genes. possible tata and caat elements are found upstream of the start point of transcription. sequence changes in mutations in the 5' region of the gene have been determined. two deletions including the start point of transcription abolish detectable transcripts. a series of mutati ...19873036667
selectable genes for transformation of the fungal plant pathogen glomerella cingulata f. sp. phaseoli (colletotrichum lindemuthianum).glomerella cingulata f. sp. phaseoli (gcp) was transformed using either of two selectable markers: the amds + gene of aspergillus nidulans, which encodes acetamidase and permits growth on acetamide as the sole nitrogen source and the hygbr gene of escherichia coli which encodes hygromycin b (hy) phosphotransferase and permits growth in the presence of the antibiotic hy. the amds+ gene functioned in gcp under control of a. nidulans regulatory signals and hygbr was expressed after fusion to a prom ...19873038698
cloning and characterization of the alda gene of aspergillus nidulans.we have cloned and sequenced the alda (encoding aldehyde dehydrogenase) gene of aspergillus nidulans. the gene contains two introns which are similar in size and structure to other fungal introns. the amino acid sequence of aldehyde dehydrogenase (497 residues) shows a significant level of homology with analogous sequences in other organisms. comparison of the primary structure of the active sites of the mammalian cytosolic and mitochondrial enzymes shows that the aspergillus enzyme closely rese ...19873036652
nucleotide sequence of the arg3 gene of the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding ornithine carbamoyltransferase. comparison with other carbamoyltransferases.the complete nucleotide sequence of the arg3 structural gene encoding the monomer of the trimeric ornithine carbamoyltransferase (otcase) (ec has been determined. it consists of 338 codons with a corresponding molecular mass of 37842 da. comparing otcases from escherichia coli, yeast, aspergillus, rat and man emphasizes peculiarities of the yeast enzyme but also brings to light an important degree of conservation between these proteins. comparing the various otcases with e. coli asparta ...19873038540
cloning of the ribob locus of aspergillus nidulans.we have complemented the ribob2 mutation of aspergillus nidulans by transformation with a plasmid library of wild-type (wt) sequences. we have isolated, by marker rescue from a ribob+ transformant, a plasmid that complements ribob2 efficiently. from this plasmid we have subcloned an a. nidulans sequence that complements ribob2 efficiently and that integrates by homologous recombination at a site closely linked to the ribob locus. we conclude that this sequence contains the wt ribob+ allele.19873038695
cloning and characterization of the isopenicillin n synthetase gene mediating the formation of the beta-lactam ring in aspergillus nidulans.genomic clones containing an aspergillus nidulans isopenicillin n synthetase (ipns) gene have been identified by heterologous hybridization with a cephalosporium acremonium dna probe. the open reading frame encodes a 331 amino acid polypeptide with extensive homology with the genes of other beta-lactam-producing fungi. the gene product has been overexpressed in escherichia coli and shown to have activity of ipns. this represents the first evidence at the molecular level that the biosynthesis of ...19873319778
chemical and biological characterization of hazardous industrial waste. ii. eukaryotic bioassay of a wood-preserving bottom sediment.the eukaryotic haploid and diploid forms of aspergillus nidulans were used to detect gene mutations and various types of chromosome damage, respectively, in the acid, base and neutral fractions of a wood-preserving bottom sediment. the corresponding response to prokaryotic mutagenicity assays and major chemical constituents of the 3 waste fractions were described by donnelly et al. (1987). the haploid methionine system detected genotoxic compounds in all 3 primary waste fractions without metabol ...19873306353
nitrate starvation induces homeoviscous regulation of lipids in the cell envelope of the blue-green alga, anacystis nidulans.replacement of the normal culture liquid to a nitrate-free medium resulted in an immediate drop in the ratio of protein to lipid in isolated cell envelopes of anacystis nidulans cells. the relative fluidity of the envelope membranes or liposomes, made from the extracted lipids of the envelope, was estimated by measuring the steady-state fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. a thermotrophic phase transition of lipids within the cytoplasmic membrane of intact cells was also r ...19873109903
demonstration of an altered phenylalanyl-trna synthetase in an analogue-resistant mutant of aspergillus nidulans.we have isolated and characterized a new class of p-fluorophenylalanine (fpa)-resistant mutant in aspergillus nidulans using a phena strain as the wild type, by optimizing the conditions of growth. all four spontaneous mutants selected on a medium containing fpa were found to be recessive to their wild-type alleles in heterozygous diploids. complementation analyses and linkage data showed that they were allelic and mapped at a single locus (fpau) in the faca-ribod interval on the right arm of li ...19873312953
a versatile transformation system for the cellulolytic filamentous fungus trichoderma efficient transformation system for the cellulolytic filamentous fungus trichoderma reesei has been developed. transformation was obtained with plasmid carrying the dominant selectable marker amds or the argb gene of aspergillus nidulans, which was found to complement the respective argb mutation of t. reesei. the transformation frequency can be up to 600 transformants per microgram of transforming dna. the efficiency of co-transformation with unselected dna was high (approx. 80%). the transf ...19873127274
transformation of penicillium chrysogenum using the aspergillus nidulans amds gene as a dominant selective marker.the aspergillus nidulans acetamidase gene (amds) has been used to transform penicillium chrysogenum at low frequency. several transformants were tested and shown to be mitotically stable. southern blot analysis indicated that transforming dna had integrated into the chromosomal dna, possibly at multiple sites.19873131026
uptake and expression of bacterial and cyanobacterial genes by isolated cucumber etioplasts.the uptake and expression by plastids isolated from dark-grown cucumber cotyledons (etioplasts) of two puc derivatives, pcs75 and puc9-cm, respectively carrying genes for the large small subunits of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of anacystis nidulans or chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, is reported. untreated etioplasts take up only 3% as much dna as that taken up by edta-washed etioplasts after 2 hr of incubation with nick-translated [32p]-pcs75. the presence or absence of light ...19873114748
nucleotide sequence of the gene from the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans r2 encoding the mn-stabilizing protein involved in photosystem ii water oxidation.the gene for the mn-stabilizing protein (msp; the so-called extrinsic 33-kda protein) that is involved in photosystem ii water oxidation was cloned and sequenced from the genome of the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans r2. the gene (here designated woxa) was shown to be present in a single copy. the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the translation product consisted of 277 amino acid residues with a mr of 29,306. the comparison of the sequence with that of mature msp from spinach chloro ...19873120187
comparison of the cis-acting control regions of two coordinately controlled genes involved in ethanol utilization in aspergillus nidulans.the alca and alda genes of aspergillus nidulans are regulated in exactly the same manner, being subject to positive control by the product of the alcr gene. we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the alca gene and its 5' non-coding region, preliminary localization of the region involved in the regulation of alca expression, and a detailed comparison of this region to the 5' non-coding region of alda (pickett et al., 1987). the 5' flanking regions of the genes contain six similar sequence ...19873297923
the role of the n-terminus of the large subunit of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase investigated by construction and expression of chimaeric genes.the genes for the large and small subunits of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) from anacystis nidulans have been expressed in escherichia coli under the control of the lac promoter to produce active enzyme. the enzyme can be purified from the cells to yield up to 200 mg rubisco/l cultured bacteria, and is indistinguishable from the enzyme extracted from a. nidulans. in order to investigate the role of the n-terminus of the large subunit in catalysis, chimaeric genes were con ...19873121325
fixing on an enigma. 19873153172
evaluation of commercial serologic test reagents for immunoidentification of medically important aspergilli.we evaluated commercial serodiagnostic test reagents from greer laboratories (gl), lenoir, nc; immuno-mycologics, inc. (imi), norman, ok; and scott laboratories (sl), fiskville, ri; for their ability to detect aspergillus spp. exoantigens and group them in their proper series. we detected 87 culture extracts from coded cultures of aspergillus groups and heterologous fungi against anti-a. fumigatus, a. flavus, a. nidulans, a. niger, and a. terreus sera in the presence of their corresponding antig ...19873126020
saprophytic fungi isolated from animal and bird pens in egypt.forty-four samples collected from animal and bird pens were screened for their content of saprophytic fungi by using the dilution plate method. 76 species in addition to one variety of aspergillus flavus belonging to 33 genera were recovered on three types of media: 20 genera and 49 species on littman-oxgall agar, 19 genera and 41 species on cellulose- and 19 genera and 43 species on glucose-czapek's agar. the most frequent genera were aspergillus (21 species), scopulariopsis (4 species) and pen ...19873130473
isolation and characterization of the positively acting regulatory gene quta from aspergillus nidulans.the positively acting regulator gene quta from aspergillus nidulans has been identified and located within a cluster of quinic acid utilisation (qut) genes isolated within a recombinant phage lambda (lambda q1). the dna sequence of the quta gene reveals a single uninterrupted reading frame coding for a protein of mw 90.416 kd. the quta protein sequence has a protein motif in the form of a putative "dna finger" that shows strong homology to other such motifs in the gal4, ppr1, argrii, lac9 and qa ...19873313276
13c-nmr analysis of aspergillus mutants disturbed in pyruvate metabolism.the metabolic consequences of two defects in pyruvate metabolism of the hyphal fungus aspergillus nidulans have been investigated by natural abundance 13c-nmr spectroscopy. a pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (pdh) mutant, grown on acetate, accumulates alanine upon starvation which is derived from mannitol reserves. the l-alanine level increases further upon incubation with the non-permissive substrate d-glucose. l-glutamate is absent from these spectra as it is required both for the transamination ...19873315006
[modern electron microscopy at cellular and macromolecular levels. strategies for preparation, imaging and image interpretation].conventional electron microscopy has significantly contributed to the understanding of structure-function relationships in living systems on cellular and macromolecular levels. new approaches and strategies will provide further insight into the organization of life. these new developments include cryopreparation and imaging techniques, x-ray microanalysis on frozen samples, electron energy loss spectroscopy, electron spectroscopic imaging, electron microscopic immunocytochemistry, preparation an ...19873317069
the unique histone h2a gene of aspergillus nidulans contains three introns.the histone h2a gene of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans has been cloned and sequenced. there is a single h2a gene in the genome of a. nidulans, and it contains three introns. the introns are 51 nucleotides (nt), 56 nt and 50 nt in length and split codons for amino acids (aa) 18, 48 and 116 of the predicted protein. the transcriptional start and termination points have been determined using an s1 nuclease protection assay. the predicted protein is 132 aa residues in length and surpris ...19873319784
monoclonal antibody probes for the niad specified subunit in the nadph-nitrate reductase from aspergillus aspergillus nidulans, the nitrate assimilatory pathway is regulated by a variety of agents, one being the autogenous enzyme nitrate reductase. a major subunit of the enzyme which is specified by the niad structural gene and is implicated in autogenous control exhibits both nitrate inducible diaphorase activity and ammonium repression. the former was used to test the extent to which alterations in the niad specified protomer might affect its formation in selected niad point and deletion mutant ...19873323853
an endogenous inducer of sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.during development of the homothallic ascomycete aspergillus nidulans, asexual sporulation is followed by sexual sporulation. we report here the detection of a solvent-extractable activity which inhibits asexual sporulation and stimulates premature sexual sporulation. this activity, called precocious sexual inducer (psi), is overproduced by certain mutants that are blocked in both modes of sporulation. using partially purified preparations of psi, biological response could be elicited with as li ...19873309182
cotransformation of aspergillus nidulans: a tool for replacing fungal genes.when a non-selected dna sequence was added during the transformation of amds320 deletion strains of aspergillus nidulans with a vector containing the wild-type amds gene the amds+ transformants were cotransformed at a high frequency. cotransformation of an amds320, trpc801 double mutant strain showed that both the molar ratio of the two vectors and the concentration of the cotransforming vector affected the cotransformation frequency. the maximum frequency obtained was defined by the gene chosen ...19873312958
proteolysis by toxigenic aspergillus nidulans from nigerian palm produce.the submerged cultures of aspergillus nidulans had optimal growth and protease production at 37 degrees c and within 6 days of incubation. a rapid drop in ph of the growth medium from 6.9 to 4.8 and a subsequent gradual rise was recorded with the period of incubation. the acid-protease produced was purified by a combination of ethanolic precipitation, ultrafiltration and fractionation on deae-cellulose and sephadex g-200. a single peak showing protease activity was subsequently obtained with a 1 ...19873302717
differential riboflavin deposition in white and variegated white mutants of drosophila hydei.riboflavin deposition in organs of drosophila hydei was studied by means of a growth test using a riboflavin-deficient strain of the fungus aspergillus nidulans. in wild-type animals, riboflavin is deposited in malpighian tubules (mt) and testes but not in adult eyes. certain white (w) mutants do not contain riboflavin, whereas intermediately colored w mutants contain minor amounts of the substance. riboflavin-containing mt cells contain special globules that can be fixed and stained with the re ...19873502968
emericella nidulans in a maxillary sinus fungal mass.sexual reproductive stages of fungi are very rarely found within mammalian tissues. we report here coexistence of cleistothecia associated with emericella nidulans and its conidial state, aspergillus nidulans, in a fungal mass which developed in a maxillary sinus.19873323452
induction and isolation of mutants in fungi at low mutagen doses.since the yield of mutants per surviving cell increases in general with increasing dose of mutagen, it has often been concluded in the literature that it is the most efficient to apply high mutagen doses so that most spores are killed. as high doses of mutagen produce chromosome rearrangements and unnoticed mutations which disturb the genetic background, the relationship between mutant frequency and survival was analyzed with aspergillus nidulans as a model. it is shown that for different types ...19873329055
regulation of the mrna levels of nima, a gene required for the g2-m transition in aspergillus nidulans.the temperature-sensitive cell cycle mutation nima5 causes nuclei of aspergillus nidulans to be blocked in late g2 at restrictive temperature. under these conditions the spindle pole body divides but does not separate and the mitotic index drops to zero. if nima5 is blocked for more than one doubling time and then shifted from restrictive to permissive temperature, nuclei immediately enter mitosis, the mitotic spindle forms, and the chromosomes condense (oakley, b. r., and n. r. morris, 1983, j. ...19873294854
on the mechanism of mitotic segregation induction in aspergillus nidulans by benzene hydroxy metabolites.the principal hydroxy-metabolites of benzene--hydroquinone, catechol and phenol--were assayed in tests for mitotic segregation induction in aspergillus nidulans diploid strain 19. hydroquinone was the most effective chemical, increasing the frequency of mitotic segregants up to 10-fold at 1-3 mm. catechol was similarly active at 10-20 mm and phenol was weakly positive at 15 mm. genetic characterization of induced abnormal segregating colonies by replating and complementary assays with haploid st ...19873325750
chemical and physical agents assayed in tests for mitotic intergenic and intragenic recombination in aspergillus nidulans diploid from aspergillus nidulans mitotic recombination assays published over the period 1960-1986 are briefly reviewed. the results of the testing of 104 chemical agents and three physical agents are summarized. a tentative comparison of the performance of recombinational, mutational and aneuploidy assays in a. nidulans suggests that the former can effectively detect dna-damaging agents which either induce true genetic recombination (intergenic or intragenic crossing-over) or mimic it by inducing ...19873328037
cloning, mapping and molecular analysis of the pyrg (orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase) gene of aspergillus nidulans.we have modified the transformation procedures of ballance et al. [biochem. biophys. res. commun. 112 (1983) 284-289] to give increased rates of transformation in aspergillus nidulans. with the modified procedures we have been able to complement pyrg89, a mutation in the orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase gene of a. nidulans, by transformation with a library of wild-type (wt) sequences in pbr329. we have recovered, by marker rescue from one such transformant, a plasmid (pjr15) that carries an ...19873328733
conditionally lethal tuba alpha-tubulin mutations in aspergillus nidulans.we have mapped 17 extragenic suppressors of bena33, a heat-sensitive beta-tubulin mutation of aspergillus nidulans, to the tuba alpha tubulin locus. fifteen of these tuba mutations cause cold sensitivity in a genetic background with bena33 and appear to cause lethality in a background with the wild-type bena allele. we examined the microtubule-mediated processes, nuclear division and nuclear migration, in seven different cold-sensitive double mutants, each carrying bena33 and a different cold-se ...19873302605
antisuppressor mutations in aspergillus nidulans: cold-resistant revertants of suppressor suac109. 19873305170
transformation of aspergillus nidulans by the argb gene.aspergillus nidulans argb mutant was transformed with the plasmid dna containing the argb gene. analysis of transformants revealed that transformation was due to integration of either argb gene alone or the whole plasmid dna into the a. nidulans genome. in 5 out of 23 transformants studied, integration took place in the locus different than the original argb locus. the amplification of integrated sequences was often observed. integrated dna was found to be mitotically stable, while the meiotic s ...19872442970
heat shock phenomena in aspergillus nidulans. ii. combined effect of heat and bleomycin to heat shock protein synthesis, survival rate and induction of mutations.the combined action of hyperthermia and bleomycin on aspergillus nidulans was studied at three different levels: mycelial protein synthesis, spore viability and induction of mutations. it was found that bleomycin treatment of preincubated mycelia during the heat shock enhances the incorporation of 35s-methionine into heat shock bands. furthermore, simultaneous treatment with hyperthermia (43 degrees c) and bleomycin results in greater cytotoxic activity in spores and in a higher induction rate o ...19872452026
fungal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins share properties with plant and vertebrate u-snrnps.snrnas with properties closely related to those of the major vertebrate u-snrnas are present in the fungi aspergillus nidulans, neurospora crassa and schizosaccharomyces pombe. these rnas possess a tri-methyl guanosine cap structure and a subset cross-hybridizes with human u1 and u2 clones. in the form of snrnps, snrnas from these fungi as well as from saccharomyces cerevisiae and pea plants are immunoprecipitated by human and anti-sm or anti-(u1)rnp autoimmune antibodies. on micro-injection int ...19872953599
the pentafunctional arom enzyme of saccharomyces cerevisiae is a mosaic of monofunctional domains.the nucleotide sequence of the saccharomyces cerevisiae aro1 gene which encodes the arom multifunctional enzyme has been determined. the protein sequence deduced for the pentafunctional arom polypeptide is 1588 amino acids in length and has a calculated mr of 174555. functional regions within the polypeptide chain have been identified by comparison with the sequences of the five monofunctional escherichia coli enzymes whose activities correspond with those of the arom multifunctional enzyme. the ...19872825635
the involvement of glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase in ammonia assimilation by aspergillus nidulans.wild-type aspergillus nidulans grew equally well on nh4cl, kno3 or glutamine as the only nitrogen source. nadp+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (ec and glutamine synthetase (gs; ec activities varied with the type and concentration of nitrogen source supplied. glutamate synthase (gogat) activity (ec was detected but it was almost unaffected by the type and concentration of nitrogen source supplied. ion exchange chromatography showed that the gogat activity was due to ...19872888838
instability of tn5 inserts in cyanobacterial cloning vectors.transposon tn5 was used to produce random insertions in two hybrid cloning vectors for the unicellular cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans. the transposon-containing plasmids were used to localize essential replication functions and to characterize the stability of large inserts in these vectors. the effect of the insertions on plasmid function was tested by transformation into a derivative of a. nidulans that had been cured of the endogenous plasmid used to construct the vectors. a region of appr ...19872820923
the mitochondrial genome of the fission yeast, schizosaccharomyces pombe. sequence of the large-subunit ribosomal rna gene, comparison of potential secondary structure in fungal mitochondrial large-subunit rrnas and evolutionary considerations.the dna sequence of the mitochondrial large subunit (lsu) rrna gene of schizosaccharomyces pombe has been determined. in the direction of transcription, this gene is located between the gene coding for subunit ii of cytochrome oxidase and a cluster of three trna genes. both the 5' and 3' ends of the lsu rrna have been mapped precisely: whereas the 5' end can be assigned unambiguously to a single nucleotide position, multiple 3' ends occur within a run of eight u residues. based on these results, ...19872446871
calmodulin-dependent multifunctional protein kinase in aspergillus nidulans.a ca2+/calmodulin (cam)-dependent multifunctional protein kinase has been isolated from aspergillus nidulans and purified to homogeneity. unlike any cam-dependent multifunctional protein kinase described previously, the native enzyme from aspergillus behaves as a monomer. the calculated molecular weight is 41,200. nadodso4/page reveals a single protein band with an apparent mr of 51,000. two-dimensional isoelectric focusing/nadodso4/page of the purified enzyme showed one major and one minor more ...19882835766
cloning and nucleotide sequence of the aroa gene of bordetella pertussis.the aroa locus of bordetella pertussis, encoding 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase, has been cloned into escherichia coli by using a cosmid vector. the gene is expressed in e. coli and complemented an e. coli aroa mutant. the nucleotide sequence of the b. pertussis aroa gene was determined and contains an open reading frame encoding 442 amino acids, with a calculated molecular weight for 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase of 46,688. the amino acid sequence derived from the nuc ...19882897356
repair of alkylation damage in the fungus aspergillus nidulans.the repair of alkylation damage in aspergillus nidulans was investigated. we have assayed soluble protein fractions for enzymes known to be involved in the repair of this type of damage in dna. the presence of a glycosylase activity that can remove 3-methyladenine from dna was demonstrated, as well as a dna methyltransferase activity that appears to act against o6-methylguanine. in addition to this approach, a series of mutants were isolated which display increased sensitivity to alkylating agen ...19882452348
an amds-lacz fusion for studying gene regulation in aspergillus.a translational fusion has been constructed between the amds gene of aspergillus nidulans and the lacz gene of escherichia coli. sequencing across the fusion junction confirmed the generation of an in-frame fusion at amino acid 34 of amds and a novel protein has been detected in transformants carrying the fusion plasmid. transformants of a. nidulans and aspergillus niger carrying the fusion plasmid were obtained by co-transformation with a second selectable plasmid. these transformants were read ...19882838387
do metal ions promote the re-activation of the 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutases?it has been reported [smith, mcwilliams & hass (1986) biochem. biophys. res. commun. 136, 336-340] that addition of certain metal ions, notably co2+ and mn2+, promoted the refolding of denatured phosphoglycerate mutase from wheat germ. we have re-investigated these experiments and have shown that, when precautions are taken to avoid artefacts in the assay system, the metal ions do not promote any re-activation of the denatured wheat-germ or aspergillus nidulans enzymes. an alternative explanatio ...19882844142
distinction of cnxh cofactor gene-specified protomers with monoclonal antibodies to aspergillus nitrate reductase.the nitrate reductase (nadph) (ec from aspergillus nidulans is influenced directly by mutations in the structural gene (niad) for the major subunit of the enzyme and indirectly by mutation in any of several molybdenum cofactor loci (cnx). the cnxe-14 and the cnxh-3 mutants have been noted to contain the enzyme in two distinct forms following induction with nitrate. with the cnxh-3 as a prototype cnxh mutant, 10 other cnxh were found to be devoid of the assembled (dimeric) form of the en ...19882454152
developmental characterization and chromosomal mapping of the 5-azacytidine-sensitive fluf locus of aspergillus aspergillus nidulans, a fungus that possesses negligible, if any, levels of methylation in its genome, low concentrations of 5-azacytidine (5-ac) convert a high percentage of the cell population to fluffy phenotypic variants through a heritable modification of a single nuclear gene (m. tamame, f. antequera, j. r. villanueva, and t. santos, mol. cell. biol. 3:2287-2297, 1983). this new 5-ac-altered locus, designated here fluf1, was mapped as the closest marker to the centromere that has been i ...19882463470
brla is necessary and sufficient to direct conidiophore development in aspergillus nidulans.the brla gene of a. nidulans mediates the developmental switch from the indeterminate, apical growth pattern of vegetative cells to the budding growth pattern of conidiophores. brla encodes a 432 amino acid polypeptide containing two directly repeated motifs resembling the zn(ii) coordination sites first recognized in xenopus tfiiia. misscheduled expression of brla in vegetative cells results in transcriptional activation of developmentally regulated genes, cessation of unidirectional hyphal gro ...19883293800
developmental regulation of a conidiation specific beta-tubulin in aspergillus nidulans.a beta-tubulin gene previously suggested to participate in conidial development in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans is shown to be developmentally regulated in its expression. a quantitative s1 assay was used to show that the abundance of the tubc messenger rna increases during conidial development relative to the bena messenger rna. morphological analysis of cultures, used to prepare rna for the s1 analysis, demonstrated that the increase in tubc messenger rna was directly correlated ...19883294063
unusual evolutionary conservation of 5s rrna pseudogenes in aspergillus nidulans: similarity of the dna sequence associated with the pseudogenes with the mouse immunoglobulin switch region.all aspergillus nidulans 5s rrna pseudogenes known so far are the result of integration of an approx. 0.2-kbp-long dna sequence into the 5s rrna genes. this sequence, called block c, is present in at least five copies in the a. nidulans genome and seems to be associated either with 5s rrna genes or pseudogenes. in contrast to the 78% sequence conservation of the c-block in pseudogenes, the truncated 5' halves of the pseudogenes are very highly conserved (96.9-100%). we postulate that the 5s rrna ...19883148732
a new gene controlling sulphite reductase in aspergillus nidulans. 19883284789
similarity of nucleotide sequences at splicing sites. 19883287170
isozyme polymorphism of beta-glucosidase in aspergillus nidulans.electrophoretic analysis of the distribution of various electromorphs at different beta-glucosidase zones was carried out in natural populations of a. nidulans, the a. nidulans group, and various species belonging to the genus aspergillus from diverse geographical areas of india. the data show the existence of three segregating zones for beta-glucosidase, designated beta-glui, beta-gluii, and beta-gluiii. all three zones are present in wild isolates of a. nidulans, and only two, i.e., beta-glui ...19883145736
differential expression of ustilago maydis dna sequences during induction of nitrate reductase enzyme activity.a differential hybridisation screen of an ustilago maydis genomic dna library was used to identify dna sequences transcribed at higher levels under growth conditions which induce nitrate reductase activity. after two rounds of screening, four different sequences showed a strongly enhanced hybridisation signal with an induced cdna probe relative to a repressed cdna probe. the sequence in plasmid pmh3007 hybridised to a u. maydis rna transcript of a 4.2 kb. this is identical in size to a transcrip ...19883224386
a phosphate-repressible acid phosphatase gene from aspergillus niger: its cloning, sequencing and transcriptional analysis.the cloning and sequencing of an aspergillus niger gene encoding a secreted form of phosphate-repressible acid phosphatase by complementation of a paca (phosphate-repressible acid phosphatase) mutant of aspergillus nidulans is described. the gene contains two introns, 201 and 265 nt in length, and codes for a 1.6-kb transcript. both phosphate concentration and ph of the growth medium affect the level of expression of the gene in a. niger. similar regulation is observed in a. nidulans transforman ...19883224828
nuclear migration in a nud mutant of aspergillus nidulans is inhibited in the presence of a quantitatively normal population of cytoplasmic microtubules.nuclear migration was studied in germinating conidia of a temperature-sensitive mutant of the fungus aspergillus nidulans. at the restrictive temperature motility was demonstrably impaired because significantly fewer nuclei migrated into the germ tube relative to a population of similarly sized germlings grown at the permissive temperature. further comparison of these populations showed that the mutant was leaky in that an increasing number of nuclei migrated as the total nuclear content increas ...19883279053
behaviour of a replicating mitochondrial dna sequence from aspergillus amstelodami in saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus amplified sequence of mitochondrial dna from a ragged (rgd) mutant of aspergillus amstelodami has been shown to exist in multimeric circular form, suggesting that it is excised from the genome and can exist independently of it. this sequence has replicative (ars) activity in saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a subfragment responsible for this activity has been identified and sequenced. a homologous sequence from aspergillus nidulans mtdna also has ars activity in s. cerevisiae. both a. amstelodam ...19883042169
transformation of penicillium chrysogenum using dominant selection markers and expression of an escherichia coli lacz fusion industrial penicillium chrysogenum strain was transformed using two dominant selection markers, namely the bacterial gene for phleomycin resistance (ble) fused to a fungal promoter, and the acetamidase (amds) gene from aspergillus nidulans. transformation frequencies of up to 20 transformants per microgram of dna were obtained with the ble system. with the amds marker the frequency was up to 120 transformants. cotransformation was very efficient when using amds as a selection marker. the intr ...19883131191
aspergillus in pulmonary infections. 19883133316
chronic granulomatous disease of childhood. an unusual case of infection with aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus.aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus was the sole agent cultured from the left lung, a paraspinal abscess, left ribs, and thoracic vertebral bodies from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. hyphal elements were present in histologic sections of lung, vertebral bodies, and infected ribs along with granuloma formation. the patient was treated with two debridement procedures and insertion of a harrington rod followed by a long course of amphotericin b, flucytosine, and daily white blood c ...19883046321
mitotic gene conversion, reciprocal recombination and gene replacement at the bena, beta-tubulin, locus of aspergillus nidulans.we have developed a procedure for determining the rates of mitotic recombination of an interrupted duplication created by integration of transforming plasmid sequences at the bena, beta-tubulin, locus of aspergillus nidulans. transformation of a strain carrying a benomyl-resistant bena allele with plasmid aipgm4, which carries the wild-type bena allele and the pyr4 (orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase) gene of neurospora crassa, creates an interrupted duplication with plasmid sequences flanked ...19883054484
characterization of a cyanobacterial iron stress-induced gene similar to psbc.recently we have reported that the flavodoxin gene from the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans r2 is transcribed as part of an iron stress-induced operon containing multiple mrna species (d. e. laudenbach, m. e. reith, and n. a. straus, j. bacteriol. 170: 258-265, 1988). here we report that nucleotide sequence analyses of dna located immediately upstream of the flavodoxin gene revealed an open reading frame of 1,026 bases (designated isia; iron stress inducible) with a deduced amino acid sequence ...19883141374
every ribosomal suppressor mutation in aspergillus nidulans has a unique and highly pleiotropic phenotype.18 suppressors of alcr125 have been selected in aspergillus nidulans. they have been located in genes as follows: 12 in suaa, 1 in suab and 5 in suac. suppressors have been examined to see whether their phenotype is diagnostic for their genotype. several new traits are described: conidial viability, cycloheximide resistance, fertility, suppression of niad500, niad501 and fwa1. these tests, added to those already in use, provide a battery of tests suitable for assigning suppressor mutations to ph ...19883046761
cloning and analysis of the positively acting regulatory gene amdr from aspergillus nidulans.the positively acting regulatory gene amdr of aspergillus nidulans coordinately regulates the expression of four unlinked structural genes involved in acetamide (amds), omega amino acid (gata and gaba), and lactam (lama) catabolism. by the use of dna-mediated transformation of a. nidulans, the amdr regulatory gene was cloned from a genomic cosmid library. southern blot analysis of dna from various loss-of-function amdr mutants revealed the presence of four detectable dna rearrangements, includin ...19883062382
isolation and characterization of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of aspergillus nidulans.the isolation and characterization of the highly expressed glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd)-coding gene (gpda) of aspergillus nidulans is described. the gene was isolated from an a. nidulans lambda gene library with a saccharomyces cerevisiae gpd-coding gene as a probe. unlike many other eukaryotes, a. nidulans contains only one gpd-coding gene. at the amino acid level, homology with other gpd enzymes is extensive. the a. nidulans gene contains seven introns, one of which is positi ...19883066699
evaluation of the mutagenic activity of leucinostatins, a novel class of antibiotic peptides produced by paecilomyces marquandii, in the modul aspergillus nidulans.leucinostatins a, b, c, d, e, g, h, and k were thoroughly investigated for their genotoxic activity using the modul aspergillus nidulans as the test organism. the results of assays for gene mutation (8-azaguanine resistance and methionine suppressors), gene conversion, mitotic crossing-over and mitotic aneuploidy induction suggest that these peptide antibiotics lack significant mutagenicity and that non-genotoxic mechanism(s) underlie their cytotoxic properties.19883063923
prevalence of airborne aspergillus flavus in khartoum (sudan) airspora with reference to dusty weather and inoculum survival in simulated summer conditions.khartoum air was scanned for airborne aspergillus flavus for 12 months using the horizontal gravitational settling method. frequency of occurrence was related to total fungal catch and dusty weather. the aspergilli were prevalent (68% of total isolated/plate/month) and a. flavus constituted 31% of the total aspergilli. in june (hot, dry & dusty) aspergilli constituted 79% of the total isolates, whilst a. flavus represented 30% from amongst the other aspergilli. a. flavus, a. niger, a. nidulans ( ...19883148861
isolation of a phytoalexin-detoxification gene from the plant pathogenic fungus nectria haematococca by detecting its expression in aspergillus nidulans.detoxification of the pea phytoalexin pisatin via demethylation, mediated by a cytochrome p-450 monooxygenase, is thought to be important for pathogenicity of the fungus nectria haematococca on pea. to isolate a fungal gene encoding pisatin demethylating activity (pda), we transformed aspergillus nidulans with a genomic library of n. haematococca dna constructed in a cosmid which carried the a. nidulans trpc gene. transformants were selected for trp+ and then screened for pda. one transformant a ...19883065148
induction of chromosome malsegregation by halogenated organic solvents in aspergillus nidulans: unspecific or specific mechanism?three chloromethanes (dichloromethane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) and 8 chlorinated ethanes (1,1- and 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,1,1,2- and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, pentachloroethane and hexachloroethane) were assayed in tests for the induction of mitotic segregation in aspergillus nidulans diploid strain p1. eight of the 11 compounds assayed (dichloromethane, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1- and 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,1,1,2- a ...19883050490
cell-cycle modulation of mpm-2-specific spindle pole body phosphorylation in aspergillus nidulans.mpm-2 is a monoclonal antibody that interacts with mitosis-specific phosphorylated proteins in many different organisms. immunocytochemistry of tissue culture cells has shown that mpm-2 stains centrosomes, chromosomes, kinetochores, and spindles. in this paper, we demonstrate that mpm-2 staining colocalizes with the spindle pole body (spb) of aspergillus nidulans and that spb staining varies during the mitotic cycle. in an unsynchronized population, about one-fourth to one-third of the cells sta ...19883052873
glycerol uptake mutants of the hyphal fungus aspergillus nidulans.a new class of glycerol non-utilizing mutants, designated glcc, has been isolated. the glcc gene was mapped in linkage group vi and mutants were found to complement the reference strains glca1 (linkage group v) and glcb33 (linkage group i) in diploids. the new mutants were unable to grow on glycerol. however, in contrast to the glca and glcb phenotype these mutants did grow well on dihydroxyacetone and d-galacturonate. by in vivo 13c nmr spectroscopy it was shown that the glcc mutant did not tak ...19883053975
molecular cloning, identification and transcriptional analysis of genes involved in acetate utilization in neurospora crassa.four neurospora crassa genomic clones have been selected as hybridizing much more strongly to labelled mrna isolated from acetate-grown mycelium than to mrna from sucrose-grown mycelium. hybridization of restriction fragments with acetate-specific mrna or cdna has been used to delimit the transcribed region(s) of each clone. the transcription of all four clones is strongly induced by transfer of growing mycelium from sucrose to acetate as sole carbon source. in wild-type mycelium, mrnas correspo ...19883054423
regulatory region of the aspergillus nidulans argb gene.we have constructed a series of deletion plasmids which contain the aspergillus nidulans argb gene for ornithine carbamoyltransferase (otc). these deletions comprise the 5' upstream sequence of the argb gene. the pro- arg- strain of a. nidulans was transformed with the above plasmids. several arg+ transformants of integration types i and ii, obtained using each of the deletion plasmids, were studied, and their ability to de-repress otc level by proline starvation was compared. it was concluded t ...19883066508
microorganisms associated with mouldiness of dried yam chips and their prevention.the broad objective of this study was to isolate and identify the microorganisms causing mouldiness of stored yam chips and to look for ways of preventing the problem. microorganisms isolated included aspergillus flavus, a. glaucus, a. nidulans, a. niger, a. ochraceous, a. tamarii, a. candidus, penicillium oxalicum, trichoderma longibrachyatum, rhizopus nigricans, cylindrocarpon radicicola, neurospora crassa, botryodiplodia theobromae, bacillus subtilis, bacillus cereus, erwinia carotovora and s ...19883231261
interpretation of uv-survival curves of aspergillus conidiospores.semi-logarithmic dose-response curves for survival of uv-irradiated conidiospores of a. nidulans have an initial shoulder (at low doses) followed by a decline which becomes linear. to explain the initial shoulder and the resulting extrapolation number (log s intercept of the linear extrapolation line) a general model is presented, which includes multi-target (n) and multi-hit (h) effects and allows for the effect of initial repair and of a compound parameter k, which stands for inherent sensitiv ...19883275884
spindle formation and chromatin condensation in cells blocked at interphase by mutation of a negative cell cycle control aspergillus nidulans the temperature-sensitive cell cycle mutation bime7 causes chromosome condensation and pre-anaphase spindle formation to occur at restrictive temperature. by constructing double mutants between bime7 and s phase or g2 phase mutants and blocking dna replication with hydroxyurea, we demonstrate that bime7 can cause chromatin condensation and spindle formation in cells held in s or g2. thus bime7 overrides normal control systems that prevent mitosis from prematurely occurrin ...19883277718
the ethanol regulon in aspergillus nidulans: characterization and sequence of the positive regulatory gene alcr.the regulatory gene, alcr, of aspergillus nidulans, encodes a protein that induces the expression of the alca and alda genes. the alcr gene is inducible, autoregulated, and subject to carbon catabolite repression. we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the alcr gene and its 5' and 3' non-coding regions. in the 5' flanking region of the alcr gene, several repeats and inverted repeats were found, and small sequence similarities were also found with the 5' flanking regions of the alca and al ...19883072264
on the mutagenic and recombinogenic activity of certain herbicides in salmonella typhimurium and in aspergillus nidulans.the plant growth-regulating hormones indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) and indole-3-butyric acid (iba), both strong recombinogens in aspergillus nidulans, were tested in salmonella typhimurium strains for his revertants at a range of concentrations from 1 to 2000 micrograms/plate with and without metabolic activation and were found negative. also 3 herbicides of the chlorophenoxy group, 2,4-(dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-d), 2,4-(dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid (2,4-db) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacet ...19883280995
mutants of aspergillus nidulans with increased resistance to the alkylating agent, n-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine.the isolation and characterisation of mutants of aspergillus nidulans showing resistance to mnng is described. such isolates were stable through prolonged subculture in the absence of the selective agent, and resistance segregated as an allele of a single gene in meiotic and mitotic analysis. mnng-resistant strains showed an increase in resistance to ems and uv irradiation but no cross-resistance to mms was detected. possible mechanisms of resistance to alkylating agents are discussed.19883283539
an uvsb mutant of aspergillus nidulans with high variable spontaneous mutation and intergenic mitotic recombination uv-sensitive mutant has been isolated with a new technique which allows isolation of uv-sensitive and uv-non-mutable mutants in aspergillus nidulans. this mutant is an allele of the known uvsb gene but shows some features not previously described in the alleles so far isolated. its more important characteristics are: (1) frequency of mitotic intergenic recombination is strongly increased in uvs/uvs diploids and it is highly variable in different clones: it varies from a minimum of 40-fold to ...19883283545
location and biosynthetic regulation of endo-1,4-beta-glucanase in aspergillus nidulans.the location and biosynthetic regulation of endo-1,4-beta-glucanase were studied in aspergillus nidulans. the enzyme was found to be extracellular, but low intracellular activity was also detected at the beginning of enzyme induction. the synthesis of the enzyme was regulated by carbon catabolite repression as well as specific induction. beta-1,4-linked carbohydrates, such as carboxymethylcellulose, cellobiose and lactose, induced the enzyme synthesis, while 2-deoxyglucose and readily metaboliza ...19883054436
transformation of penicillium chrysogenum with a dominant selectable marker.we have cloned a mutant oligomycin resistance allele of the mitochondrial atp synthase subunit 9 gene from the filamentous fungus penicillium chrysogenum. the gene was isolated using the equivalent gene from aspergillus nidulans as a hybridisation probe. using the cloned gene it is possible to select for oligomycin resistance in p. chrysogenum transformation experiments. this transformation system was used to introduce further copies of the p. chrysogenum isopenicillin n synthetase gene, which w ...19883135949
comparative study on the evolution of chloroplast ribosomal 5s rna of a living fossil plant, cycas revoluta thumb.the complete nucleotide sequence of cycas revoluta thunb chloroplast 5 s rrna was determined. it consists of 122 nucleotides. this is the only known 5 s rrna sequence in gymnospermae. it is highly homologous with chloroplast 5 s rrna of higher plants (92-97%), but less homologous (about 54%) with those of lower plants. there is however 67% homology between cycas and a procaryote a. nidulans. the chloroplast 5 s rrnas of angiospermae are nearly identical with each other (95-97%). s. oligorhize an ...19883136036
nadph generation in aspergillus nidulans: is the mannitol cycle involved?a cyclic pathway of nadph generation involving interconversion of mannitol and fructose has been proposed to occur in fungi. in aspergillus nidulans three enzymes of this proposed mannitol cycle (hexokinase, nadp-mannitol dehydrogenase and mannitol-l-phosphate phosphatase) were shown to be localized exclusively in the cytosol. two isoenzymes of the fourth enzyme (mannitol-l-phosphate dehydrogenase) were detected and shown to be localized respectively in the mitochondrion and the cytosol. the mit ...19883141571
the amidases from a brevibacterium strain: study and applications. 19883142225
isolation, sequence analysis, and transcriptional studies of the flavodoxin gene from anacystis nidulans r2.the nonheme, iron-sulfur protein ferredoxin is the terminal constituent of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. under conditions of iron stress, many cyanobacteria and eucaryotic algae replace ferredoxin with the flavoprotein flavodoxin. the gene for flavodoxin was cloned from the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans r2 by using three mixed oligonucleotide probes derived from the partial synechococcus sp. strain pcc 6301 amino acid sequence. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed a 513-base- ...19883121586
ammonium ion sensitivity is a ribosomal phenotype associated with suppressor mutations in the suac gene of aspergillus nidulans.ammonium ions are selectively toxic to strains containing mutations in the suac gene which can mutate to a suppressor phenotype. this phenotype is associated with increased ribosomal misreading in vitro (zamir and martinelli 1987) and altered ribosomal proteins (harvey and martinelli 1983). such ammonium-sensitivity is a feature of both strong and weak suppressor alleles, and segregates with suppressor ability in crosses. suppressor mutations in the suab and suad genes are not affected, nor are ...19883066509
an adaptive response to alkylating agents in aspergillus nidulans.a simple method is described for demonstrating adaptation to alkylation damage in aspergillus nidulans. one wild type, two mnng-sensitive, and one mnng-resistant strain all showed improvement in colony growth when challenged with mnng following appropriate inducing pretreatments. other alkylating agents (mms, ems) could also adapt mycelium to later mnng challenge, while 4nqo and uv could not. the inducible effect was not transmissible through conidia. a standard reversion assay based upon methg ...19883066510
changes in sulfate transport characteristics and protein composition of anacystis nidulans r2 during sulfur deprivation.sulfur-starved cells of anacystis nidulans have an increased capacity to take up sulfate. the apparent vmax for sulfate uptake increased at least 10-fold after 24 h of sulfur deprivation, whereas the k1/2 remained unchanged at approximately 1.35 microm. the initial rate of sulfate uptake increased between 2 and 6 h after transfer of the cells to sulfur-free medium, in concert with elevated levels of three cytoplasmic membrane polypeptides with molecular masses of 43, 42, and 36 kilodaltons (kda) ...19883123460
[investigation on sterigmatocystin-producing species of aspergillus in china]. 19883073929
genetic regulation of development in aspergillus nidulans. 19883076298
structure of the aspergillus nidulans pyruvate kinase gene.the complete nucleotide sequence of the aspergillus nidulans pyruvate kinase gene, including its flanking sequences, is presented. the gene has a 1,578 bp coding sequence that encodes a protein of 526 amino acids; the latter is strongly homologous to the pyruvate kinases found in saccharomyces cerevisiae (66%) and mammals (53%). the gene is interrupted by seven introns, three of which are in a conserved position compared to those present in the mammalian pyruvate kinase genes sequenced thus far. ...19883072099
an efficient cell-free translation system from aspergillus nidulans and in vitro translocation of prepro-alpha-factor across aspergillus microsomes.we describe the preparation of an in vitro translation system from heat shock-treated aspergillus nidulans, capable of supporting efficient and faithful synthesis of proteins from natural and in vitro transcribed eukaryotic messages. in vitro synthesized prepro-alpha-factor was translocated across aspergillus nidulans microsomal membranes in either the homologous a. nidulans or a yeast cell-free system. the translocated prepro-alpha-factor was protected from digestion by protease and glycosylate ...19883072100
molecular organisation of the quinic acid utilization (qut) gene cluster in aspergillus nidulans.the functional integrity of the qutb gene (encoding quinate dehydrogenase) has been confirmed by transformation of a qutb mutant strain. the dna sequence of the contiguous genes qutd (quinate permease), qutb and qutg (function unknown) has been determined and analysed, together with that of qute (catabolic 3-dehydroquinase). the qutb sequence shows significant homology with the shikimate dehydrogenase function of the complex arom locus of aspergillus nidulans, and with the qa-3 quinate dehydroge ...19882976880
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