TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
hypertonic conditions trigger transient plasmolysis, growth arrest and blockage of transporter endocytosis in aspergillus nidulans and saccharomyces using aspergillus nidulans strains expressing functional gfp-tagged transporters under hypertonic conditions, we noticed the rapid appearance of cortical, relatively static, fluorescent patches (0.5-2.3 μm). these patches do not correspond to transporter microdomains as they co-localize with other plasma membrane-associated molecules, such as the pleckstrin homology (ph) domain and the ssoa t-snare, or the lipophilic markers fm4-64 and filipin. in addition, they do not show characteristics of ...201020919858
thermotolerance of germlings and mycelium of the insect-pathogenic fungus metarhizium spp. and mycelial recovery after heat stress.the upper temperature limits for germination and growth were determined for metarhizium acridum (arsef 324, 3341 and 3609), m. robertsii (arsef 2575), m. anisopliae (arsef 5749), and aspergillus nidulans (atcc 10074). most of the metarhizium species germinated well at 35 and 36 degrees c; however, compared to 28 degrees c, the growth was very slow (except arsef 5749 from mexico, which germinated at 35 degrees c, but did not grow at 34 or 36 degrees c). germination was severely impaired at 38 and ...201020586069
involvement of the aspergillus nidulans protein kinase c with farnesol tolerance is related to the unfolded protein response.previously, we demonstrated that the aspergillus nidulans calc2 mutation in protein kinase c pkca was able to confer tolerance to farnesol (foh), an isoprenoid that has been shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis. here, we investigate in more detail the role played by a. nidulans pkca in foh tolerance. we demonstrate that pkca overexpression during foh exposure causes increased cell death. foh is also able to activate several markers of endoplasmic reticulum (er) stress and the unfo ...201021091509
homologue expression of a β-xylosidase from native aspergillus niger.xylan constitutes the second most abundant source of renewable organic carbon on earth and is located in the cell walls of hardwood and softwood plants in the form of hemicellulose. based on its availability, there is a growing interest in production of xylanolytic enzymes for industrial applications. β-1,4-xylan xylosidase (ec hydrolyses from the nonreducing end of xylooligosaccharides arising from endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity. this work reports the partial characterization of a purif ...201021116681
conserved components, but distinct mechanisms for the placement and assembly of the cell division machinery in unicellular and filamentous ascomycetes.cytokinesis is essential for cell proliferation, yet its molecular description is challenging, because >100 conserved proteins must be spatially and temporally co-ordinated. despite the high importance of a tight co-ordination of cytokinesis with chromosome and organelle segregation, the mechanism for determining the cell division plane is one of the least conserved aspects of cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells. budding and fission yeast have developed fundamentally distinct mechanisms to ensure pr ...201021091496
hapx positively and negatively regulates the transcriptional response to iron deprivation in cryptococcus neoformans.the fungal pathogen cryptococcus neoformans is a major cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals such as aids patients. the ability of the fungus to acquire nutrients during proliferation in host tissue and the ability to elaborate a polysaccharide capsule are critical determinants of disease outcome. we previously showed that the gata factor, cir1, is a major regulator both of the iron uptake functions needed for growth in host tissue and the key virulence factors such as capsule, melan ...201021124817
the cop9 signalosome mediates transcriptional and metabolic response to hormones, oxidative stress protection and cell wall rearrangement during fungal development.the cop9 signalosome complex (csn) is a crucial regulator of ubiquitin ligases. defects in csn result in embryonic impairment and death in higher eukaryotes, whereas the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans survives without csn, but is unable to complete sexual development. we investigated overall impact of csn activity on a. nidulans cells by combined transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis. absence of csn5/csne affects transcription of at least 15% of genes during development, inclu ...201021062371
survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats in the laccaria bicolor genome, with development of microsatellite is becoming clear that simple sequence repeats (ssrs) play a significant role in fungal genome organization, and they are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. we identified ssrs in the laccaria bicolor genome by in silico survey and analyzed their distribution in the different genomic regions. we also compared the abundance and distribution of ssrs in l. bicolor with those of the following fungal genomes: phanerochaete chrysosporium, coprinopsis cinerea, ...201021132299
functional characterization of a new member of the cdk9 family in aspergillus nidulans.cdk9-like kinases in complex with t-type cyclins are essential components of the eukaryotic transcription elongation machinery. the full spectrum of cdk9/cyclin t targets, as well as the specific consequences of phosphorylations, is still largely undefined. we identify and characterize here a cdk9 kinase (ptka) in the filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans. deletion of ptka had a lethal effect in later stages of vegetative growth and completely impeded asexual development. overexpression of ...201020952582
the fps1p aquaglyceroporin facilitates the use of small aliphatic amides as a nitrogen source by amidase-expressing yeasts.saccharomyces cerevisiae acquires a resistance to high, toxic levels of acetic acid by destabilizing fps1p, the plasma membrane aquaglyceroporin through which this acid - in its undissociated state - enters the cell. in this study, fps1p loss was shown to confer resistances to acetic acid, acrolein and allyl alcohol, not just in s. cerevisiae but also in the osmotolerant spoilage yeast zygosaccharomyces rouxii. however, in z. rouxii, the loss of fps1p severely compromised the use of acetamide an ...201020491941
laea control of velvet family regulatory proteins for light-dependent development and fungal cell-type specificity.vea is the founding member of the velvet superfamily of fungal regulatory proteins. this protein is involved in light response and coordinates sexual reproduction and secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans. in the dark, vea bridges velb and laea to form the velb-vea-laea (velvet) complex. the vea-like protein velb is another developmental regulator, and laea has been known as global regulator of secondary metabolism. in this study, we show that velb forms a second light-regulated developme ...201021152013
the l279p mutation of nuclear distribution gene c (nudc) influences its chaperone activity and lissencephaly protein 1 (lis1) stability.lis1, a gene mutated in classical lissencephaly, plays essential roles in cytoplasmic dynein regulation, mitosis and cell migration. however, the regulation of lis1 (lissencephaly protein 1) protein remains largely unknown. genetic studies in aspergillus nidulans have uncovered that the nud (nuclear distribution) pathway is involved in the regulation of cytoplasmic dynein complex and a temperature-sensitive mutation in the nudc gene (l146p) greatly reduces the protein levels of nudf, an aspergil ...201020675372
a set of aspartyl protease-deficient strains for improved expression of heterologous proteins in kluyveromyces lactis.secretion of recombinant proteins is a common strategy for heterologous protein expression using the yeast kluyveromyces lactis. however, a common problem is degradation of a target recombinant protein by secretory pathway aspartyl proteases. in this study, we identified five putative pfam00026 aspartyl proteases encoded by the k. lactis genome. a set of selectable marker-free protease deletion mutants was constructed in the prototrophic k. lactis gg799 industrial expression strain background us ...201021166768
adaptative and developmental responses to stress in aspergillus nidulan.development in the ascomycete a. nidulans is principally determined by environmental signals. adaptability to oxidative stimuli can derive in changes of growth patterns and /or the activation of sexual or asexual reproductive cycles but this model fungus might also respond to high osmotic or salt concentrations, the redox state, the availability and quantity of carbon or nitrogen sources and the degree or quality of illumination. since each cell within the colony follows a single morphogenetic p ...201021190514
nek1 silencing slows down dna repair and blocks dna damage-induced cell cycle arrest.never in mitosis a (nima)-related kinases (nek) are evolutionarily conserved proteins structurally related to the aspergillus nidulans mitotic regulator nima. nek1 is one of the 11 isoforms of the neks identified in mammals. different lines of evidence suggest the participation of nek1 in response to dna damage, which is also supported by the interaction of this kinase with proteins involved in dna repair pathways and cell cycle regulation. in this report, we show that cells with nek1 knockdown ...201020501547
aspergillus nidulans striatin (stra) mediates sexual development and localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum.striatin family proteins have been identified in animals and fungi and are considered to be scaffolding proteins. in fungi striatin orthologs have been associated with sexual development and virulence to plants. in this study, we characterized the functions and localization of the striatin ortholog, stra, in aspergillus nidulans. deltastra strains showed multiple defects in conidium germination, mycelial radial growth, production of diffusible red pigment, and reduced conidiation. the most strik ...201020601045
the extracellular β-1,3-endoglucanase enga is involved in autolysis of aspergillus elucidate the roles of the β-1,3-endoglucanase enga in autolysis of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans and to identify the common regulatory elements of autolytic hydrolases.201020602653
high-throughput screening of dna binding sites for transcription factor amyr from aspergillus nidulans using dna beads display system.we established a high-throughput screening method for the dna binding sequence of a eukaryotic transcription factor by using the bead display system with emulsion pcr and flow cytometry and applied it for identifying a eukaryotic transcriptional activator amyr, which is known to regulate amylolytic gene expression in aspergillus species. segmented parts of the binding site of amyr were randomized to make a dna library on beads, onto which male-tagged amyr protein and fluorescent anti-male tag an ...201020471587
urea, the major urea/h+ symporter in aspergillus nidulans.we report here the characterization of urea, a high-affinity urea/h+ symporter of aspergillus nidulans. the deletion of the encoding gene abolishes urea transport at low substrate concentrations, suggesting that in these conditions urea is the sole transport system specific for urea in a. nidulans. the urea gene is not inducible by urea or its precursors, but responds to nitrogen metabolite repression, necessitating for its expression the area gata factor. in contrast to what was observed for ot ...201020633690
unilateral ureteral obstruction caused by aspergillus, subgenus nidulantes in a patient on steroid therapy: a case report and review of the literature.urinary tract obstructions caused by aspergillus bezoars has been reported on rare occasions. we describe in this paper an unusual case caused by an isolate of the aspergillus nidulantes subgenus, and review the literature on 13 additional cases of ureteral obstruction due to renoureteric aspergillosis so as to provide the characteristics of this disease entity. our case presented with a unilateral ureteral obstruction and acute renal failure due to aspergillus bezoars. the patient was immunocom ...201019905965
design, synthesis and biological evaluation of carboxy analogues of arginine methyltransferase inhibitor 1 (ami-1).here we report the synthesis of a number of compounds structurally related to arginine methyltransferase inhibitor 1 (ami-1). the structural alterations that we made included: 1) the substitution of the sulfonic groups with the bioisosteric carboxylic groups; 2) the replacement of the ureidic function with a bis-amidic moiety; 3) the introduction of a n-containing basic moiety; and 4) the positional isomerization of the aminohydroxynaphthoic moiety. we have assessed the biological activity of th ...201020091730
aspernidine a and b, prenylated isoindolinone alkaloids from the model fungus aspergillus nidulans. 201020661238
the crystal structure of an lll-configured depsipeptide substrate analogue bound to isopenicillin n synthase.isopenicillin n synthase (ipns) is a non-heme iron(ii) oxidase, which catalyses the biosynthesis of isopenicillin n (ipn) from the tripeptide delta-l-alpha-aminoadipoyl-l-cysteinyl-d-valine (lld-acv) in a remarkable oxidative bicyclisation reaction. the natural substrate for ipns is the lld-configured tripeptide. lll-acv is not turned over by the enzyme, but inhibits turnover of the lld-tripeptide. the mechanism by which this inhibition takes place is not fully understood. recent studies have em ...201020024142
interaction of the aspergillus nidulans microtubule-organizing center (mtoc) component apsb with gamma-tubulin and evidence for a role of a subclass of peroxisomes in the formation of septal mtocs.peroxisomes are a diverse class of organelles involved in different physiological processes in eukaryotic cells. although proteins imported into peroxisomes carry a peroxisomal targeting sequence at the c terminus (pts1) or an alternative one close to the n terminus (pts2), the protein content of peroxisomes varies drastically. here we suggest a new class of peroxisomes involved in microtubule (mt) formation. eukaryotic cells assemble mts from distinct points in the cell. in the fungus aspergill ...201020348383
aspergillus nidulans contains six possible fatty acyl-coa synthetases with faab being the major synthetase for fatty acid degradation.aspergillus nidulans can use a variety of fatty acids as sole carbon and energy sources via its peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathways. prior to channelling the fatty acids into beta-oxidation, they need to be activated to their acyl-coa derivates. analysis of the genome sequence identified a number of possible fatty acyl-coa synthetases (fata, fatb, fatc, fatd, faaa and faab). faab was found to be the major long-chain synthetase for fatty acid degradation. faab was shown to local ...201020354844
septins aspa and aspc are important for normal development and limit the emergence of new growth foci in the multicellular fungus aspergillus nidulans.septins are cytoskeletal proteins found in fungi, animals, and microsporidia, where they form multiseptin complexes that act as scaffolds recruiting and organizing other proteins to ensure normal cell division and development. here we characterize the septins aspa and aspc in the multicellular, filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. mutants with deletions of aspa, aspc, or both aspa and aspc show early and increased germ tube and branch emergence, abnormal septation, and disorganized conidioph ...201019949047
spotlight on aspergillus nidulans photosensory systems.aspergilli are ubiquitous soil-borne fungi growing within or on the surface of numerous organic substrates. growth within a substrate or growth on the surface correlates to different growth conditions for the hyphae due to significant changes in oxygen or reactive oxygen species levels and variations in humidity or temperature. the production of air-borne spores is supported by the substrate-air interphase and also requires a sensing system to adapt appropriately. here we focus on light as impor ...201020573560
deletion of the ring-finger peroxin 2 gene in aspergillus nidulans does not affect meiotic development.peroxins are required for protein import into peroxisomes as well as for peroxisome biogenesis and proliferation. loss-of-function mutations in genes for the ring-finger peroxins pex2, pex10 and pex12 lead to a specific block in meiosis in the ascomycete podospora anserina. however, loss of protein import into peroxisomes does not result in this meiotic defect. therefore, it has been suggested that these peroxins have a specific function required for meiosis. to determine whether this role is co ...201020236327
wild-type mic distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for the triazoles and six aspergillus spp. for the clsi broth microdilution method (m38-a2 document).clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing. wild-type (wt) mic distributions (organisms in a species/drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish epidemiologic cutoff values (ecvs) for five aspergillus spp. and itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. also, we have expanded prior ecv data for aspergillus fumigatus. the number of available isolates varied according to the species/triazole combination as follows: 1 ...201020592159
transport-dependent endocytosis and turnover of a uric acid-xanthine this work we unmask a novel downregulation mechanism of the uric acid/xanthine transporter uapa, the prototype member of the ubiquitous nucleobase-ascorbate transporter family, directly related to its function. in the presence of substrates, uapa is endocytosed, sorted into the multivesicular body pathway and degraded in vacuoles. substrate-induced endocytosis, unlike ammonium-induced turnover, is absolutely dependent on uapa activity and several lines of evidence showed that the signal for i ...201020002879
molecular genetic analysis of the orsellinic acid/f9775 gene cluster of aspergillus nidulans.f-9775a and f-9775b are cathepsin k inhibitors that arise from a chromatin remodelling deletant strain of aspergillus nidulans. a polyketide synthase gene has been determined to be responsible for their formation and for the simpler, archetypical polyketide orsellinic acid. we have discovered simple culture conditions that result in the production of the three compounds, and this facilitates analysis of the genes responsible for their synthesis. we have now analysed the f9775/orsellinic acid gen ...201020174687
regulation of septum formation by the bud3-rho4 gtpase module in aspergillus nidulans.the ability of fungi to generate polarized cells with a variety of shapes likely reflects precise temporal and spatial control over the formation of polarity axes. the bud site selection system of saccharomyces cerevisiae represents the best-understood example of such a morphogenetic regulatory system. however, the extent to which this system is conserved in the highly polarized filamentous fungi remains unknown. here, we describe the functional characterization and localization of the aspergill ...201020176976
formate-nitrite transporters: optimisation of expression, purification and analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic representatives.the formate-nitrite transporter family is composed of integral membrane proteins that possess six to eight alpha-helical transmembrane domains. genes encoding these proteins are observed widely in prokaryotic genomes as well as certain groups of lower eukaryotes. thus far, no structural information is available for this transporter family. towards this aim, and to provide protein for biophysical studies, overexpression of a prokaryotic (tpnirc, from the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium thermofi ...201020006708
mitotic crossing-over induced by two commercial herbicides in diploid strains of the fungus aspergillus nidulans.some herbicides are suspected of promoting teratogenic, carcinogenic and mutagenic events. detection of induced mitotic crossing-over has proven to be an indirect way of testing the carcinogenic properties of suspicious substances, because mitotic crossing-over is involved in the multistep process of carcinogenesis. we examined mitotic crossing-over induced by two commercial herbicides (diuron and trifluralin) in diploid strains of aspergillus nidulans based on the homozygotization index. low do ...201020198578
proteome analysis of fungal and bacterial involvement in leaf litter decomposition.fungi and bacteria are key players in the decomposition of leaf litter, but their individual contributions to the process and their interactions are still poorly known. we combined semi-quantitative proteome analyses (1-d page-lc-ms/ms) with qualitative and quantitative analyses of extracellular degradative enzyme activities to unravel the respective roles of a fungus and a bacterium during litter decomposition. two model organisms, a mesophilic gram-negative bacterium (pectobacterium carotovoru ...201020198641
aspergillus nidulans udp-glucose-4-epimerase ugea has multiple roles in wall architecture, hyphal morphogenesis, and asexual development.aspergillus nidulans udp-glucose-4-epimerase ugea interconverts udp-glucose and udp-galactose and participates in galactose metabolism. the sugar moiety of udp-galactose is predominantly found as galactopyranose (galp, the six-membered ring form), which is the substrate for udp-galactopyranose mutase (encoded by ugma) to generate udp-galactofuranose (galf, the five-membered ring form) that is found in fungal walls. in a. fumigatus, galf residues appear to be important for virulence. the a. nidul ...201020211750
involvement of transposon-like elements in penicillin gene cluster regulation.subtelomeric secondary metabolite (sm) gene clusters are frequently surrounded by dna repeats and transposon-like elements. the aspergillus nidulans penicillin cluster, 30kb from the telomere of chromosome vi, is bordered by such elements. deletions of penicillin telomere proximal and distal border regions resulted in decreased penicillin production. a 3.7kb distal region called pbia, consisting of the putative transposable element dna-2, was examined further where its replacement by a pyrg mark ...201020219692
effect of light on growth, intracellular and extracellular pigment production by five pigment-producing filamentous fungi in synthetic medium.the competence of the living creatures to sense and respond to light is well known. the effect of darkness and different color light quality on biomass, extracellular and intracellular pigment yield of five potent pigment producers monascus purpureus, isaria farinosa, emericella nidulans, fusarium verticillioides and penicillium purpurogenum, with different color shades such as red, pink, reddish brown and yellow, were investigated. incubation in total darkness increased the biomass, extracellul ...201020226375
distinct roles for caf1, ccr4, edc3 and cuta in the co-ordination of transcript deadenylation, decapping and p-body formation in aspergillus nidulans.transcript degradation is a key step in gene regulation. in eukaryotes, mrna decay is generally initiated by removal of the poly(a) tail mediated by the ccr4-caf1-not complex. deadenylated transcripts are then rapidly degraded, primarily via the decapping-dependent pathway. components of this pathway can be localized into highly dynamic cytoplasmic foci, the mrna processing (p)-bodies. we have undertaken confocal fluorescence microscopy to monitor p-bodies in aspergillus nidulans. as in other or ...201020233300
heterochromatic marks are associated with the repression of secondary metabolism clusters in aspergillus nidulans.fungal secondary metabolites are important bioactive compounds but the conditions leading to expression of most of the putative secondary metabolism (sm) genes predicted by fungal genomics are unknown. here we describe a novel mechanism involved in sm-gene regulation based on the finding that, in aspergillus nidulans, mutants lacking components involved in heterochromatin formation show de-repression of genes involved in biosynthesis of sterigmatocystin (st), penicillin and terrequinone a. durin ...201020132440
genotoxic activity of eucalyptus globulus essential oil in aspergillus nidulans diploid cells.eucalyptus globulus essential oil was evaluated for its genotoxic potential using a somatic segregation assay and a diploid strain of the fungus aspergillus nidulans, heterozygous for nutritional and conidia color markers. the main compounds of the current essential oil sample were eucalyptol (49.0 %), alpha-pinene (8.9), beta-pinene (1.5), globulol (6.9), alpha-eudesmol (1.12), spathulenol (1.42), gamma-cadinene (1.45), trans-beta-elemenone (1.23) and aromandendrene (2.3), totaling 74 % of oil. ...201020140715
role of phospholipase c and protein kinase c in aspergillus nidulans during growth on pectin or glucose: effects on germination and duplication cycle.the effects of plc and pkc inhibitors on aspergillus nidulans depend on the carbon source. plc inhibitors spm and c48/80 delayed the first nuclear division in cultures growing on glucose, but stimulated it in media supplemented with pectin. less intense were these effects on the mutant transformed with plc-a gene rupture (ap27). neomycin also delayed the germination in cultures growing on glucose or pectin; however, on glucose, the nuclear division was inhibited whereas in pectin it was stimulat ...201020526834
asperfuranone from aspergillus nidulans inhibits proliferation of human non-small cell lung cancer a549 cells via blocking cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis.asperfuranone, a novel compound of genomic mining in aspergillus nidulans, was investigated for its anti-proliferative activity in human non-small cell lung cancer a549 cells. to identity the anti-cancer mechanism of asperfuranone, we assayed its effect on apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and levels of p53, p21 waf1/cip1, fas/apo-1 receptor and fas ligand. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the g0/g1 phase arrest might be due to p53-dependent induction of p21 waf1/cip1. an enhancem ...201020148857
antifungal activity of eugenol against penicillium, aspergillus, and fusarium species.the antifungal activity of eugenol in a model system against aspergilli (aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus, and emericella nidulans), penicilli (penicillium expansum, penicillium glabrum, and penicillium italicum), and fusaria (fusarium oxysporum and fusarium avenaceum) was investigated. minimum detection time (time to attain a colony diameter of 1 cm) and the kinetic parameters were evaluated. the effectiveness of the active compound seemed to be strain or genus dependent; 100 mg/liter rep ...201020537272
metabolic and developmental effects resulting from deletion of the cita gene encoding citrate synthase in aspergillus nidulans.citrate synthase is a central activity in carbon metabolism. it is required for the tricarboxylic acid (tca) cycle, respiration, and the glyoxylate cycle. in saccharomyces cerevisiae and arabidopsis thaliana, there are mitochondrial and peroxisomal isoforms encoded by separate genes, while in aspergillus nidulans, a single gene, cita, encodes a protein with predicted mitochondrial and peroxisomal targeting sequences (pts). deletion of cita results in poor growth on glucose but not on derepressin ...201020173036
self-protection against gliotoxin--a component of the gliotoxin biosynthetic cluster, glit, completely protects aspergillus fumigatus against exogenous gliotoxin.gliotoxin, and other related molecules, are encoded by multi-gene clusters and biosynthesized by fungi using non-ribosomal biosynthetic mechanisms. almost universally described in terms of its toxicity towards mammalian cells, gliotoxin has come to be considered as a component of the virulence arsenal of aspergillus fumigatus. here we show that deletion of a single gene, glit, in the gliotoxin biosynthetic cluster of two a. fumigatus strains, rendered the organism highly sensitive to exogenous g ...201020548963
the effect of resource quantity and resource stoichiometry on microbial carbon-use-efficiency.the carbon-use-efficiency (cue) of microorganisms is an important parameter in determining ecosystem-level carbon (c) cycling; however, little is known about how variance in resources affects microbial cue. to elucidate how resource quantity and resource stoichiometry affect microbial cue, we cultured four microorganisms - two fungi (aspergillus nidulans and trichoderma harzianum) and two bacteria (pectobacterium carotovorum and verrucomicrobium spinosum) - under 12 unique c, nitrogen (n) and ph ...201020550579
dynamic elements at both cytoplasmically and extracellularly facing sides of the uapa transporter selectively control the accessibility of substrates to their translocation the uapa uric acid-xanthine permease of aspergillus nidulans, subtle interactions between key residues of the putative substrate binding pocket, located in the tms8-tms9 loop (where tms is transmembrane segment), and a specificity filter, implicating residues in tms12 and the tms1-tms2 loop, are critical for function and specificity. by using a strain lacking all transporters involved in adenine uptake (deltaazga deltafcyb deltauapc) and carrying a mutation that partially inactivates the uapa ...201020188741
novel insights into the functional role of three protein arginine methyltransferases in aspergillus nidulans.protein arginine methylation has been implicated in different cellular processes including transcriptional regulation by the modification of histone proteins. here we demonstrate significant in vitro activities and multifaceted specificities of aspergillus protein arginine methyltransferases (prmts) and we provide evidence for a role of protein methylation in mechanisms of oxidative stress response. we have isolated all three aspergillus prmts from fungal extracts and could assign significant hi ...201020338257
characterization of aspergillus nidulans didb did2, a non-essential component of the multivesicular body pathway.escrt-iii heteropolymers mediate membrane protein cargo sorting into multivesicular endosomes for subsequent vacuolar degradation. we studied the localization of largely uncharacterized aspergillus nidulans escrt-iii using its key structural component vps32 and the 'associated' component didb(did2). vps32-gfp localizes to motile early endosomes as reported, but predominates in aggregates often associated with vacuoles due to inability to dissociate from endosomes. didb(did)(2) regulating vps4 (t ...201020362686
ppoc from aspergillus nidulans is a fusion protein with only one active aspergillus nidulans ppos [psi (precocious sexual inducer)-producing oxygenases] are required for the production of so-called psi factors, compounds that control the balance between the sexual and asexual life cycle of the fungus. the genome of a. nidulans harbours three different ppo genes: ppoa, ppob and ppoc. for all three enzymes two different haem-containing domains are predicted: a fatty acid haem peroxidase/dioxygenase domain in the n-terminal region and a p450 haem-thiolate domain in ...201019878096
identification of possible targets of the aspergillus fumigatus crz1 homologue, crza.calcineurin, a serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase, plays an important role in the control of cell morphology and virulence in fungi. calcineurin regulates localization and activity of a transcription factor called crz1. recently, we characterize aspergillus fumigatus crz1 homologue, afcrza. here, we investigate which pathways are influenced by a. fumigatus afcrza during a short pulse of calcium by comparatively determining the transcriptional profile of a. fumigatus wild type and delt ...201020078882
genome mining of mycosporine-like amino acid (maa) synthesizing and non-synthesizing cyanobacteria: a bioinformatics study.mycosporine-like amino acids (maas) are a family of more than 20 compounds having absorption maxima between 310 and 362 nm. these compounds are well known for their uv-absorbing/screening role in various organisms and seem to have evolutionary significance. in the present investigation we tested four cyanobacteria, e.g., anabaena variabilis pcc 7937, anabaena sp. pcc 7120, synechocystis sp. pcc 6803 and synechococcus sp. pcc 6301, for their ability to synthesize maa and conducted genomic and phy ...201019879348
the antifungal protein paf interferes with pkc/mpk and camp/pka signalling of aspergillus nidulans.the penicillium chrysogenum antifungal protein paf inhibits polar growth and induces apoptosis in aspergillus nidulans. we report here that two signalling cascades are implicated in its antifungal activity. paf activates the camp/protein kinase a (pka) signalling cascade. a pkaa deletion mutant exhibited reduced sensitivity towards paf. this was substantiated by the use of pharmacological modulators: paf aggravated the effect of the activator 8-br-camp and partially relieved the repressive activ ...201019889092
the transposon impala is activated by low temperatures: use of a controlled transposition system to identify genes critical for viability of aspergillus fumigatus.genes that are essential for viability represent potential targets for the development of anti-infective agents. however, relatively few have been determined in the filamentous fungal pathogen aspergillus fumigatus. a novel solution employing parasexual genetics coupled with transposon mutagenesis using the fusarium oxysporum transposon impala had previously enabled the identification of 20 essential genes from a. fumigatus; however, further use of this system required a better understanding of ...201020097738
lipoperoxidation affects ochratoxin a biosynthesis in aspergillus ochraceus and its interaction with wheat aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus flavus, and aspergillus parasiticus, lipoperoxidative signalling is crucial for the regulation of mycotoxin biosynthesis, conidiogenesis, and sclerotia formation. resveratrol, which is a lipoxygenase (lox) and cyclooxygenase inhibitor, downmodulates the biosynthesis of ochratoxin a (ota) in aspergillus ochraceus. in the genome of a. ochraceus, a lox-like sequence (aoloxa; national center for biotechnology information (ncbi) accession number: dq087531) for a l ...201020101489
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of two beta-n-acetylhexosaminidase homologs of coccidioides posadasii.two full-length cdnas were isolated from coccidioides posadasii that encode two deduced proteins (cphex1 and cphex2) with homology to the glycosyl hydrolase 20 family of beta-n-acetylhexosaminidases. cphex1 consists of 595 amino acids, has a predicted molecular mass of 68 kda and shares the highest identity with the n-acetylhexosaminidase (naga) of aspergillus nidulans, while cphex2 consists of 603 amino acids, has a predicted molecular mass of 68.5 kda and shares the highest identity with nag1 ...201020109094
cucu modification of mrna promotes decapping and transcript degradation in aspergillus eukaryotes, mrna decay is generally initiated by the shortening of the poly(a) tail mediated by the major deadenylase complex ccr4-caf1-not. the deadenylated transcript is then rapidly degraded, primarily via the decapping-dependent pathway. here we report that in aspergillus nidulans both the caf1 and ccr4 orthologues are functionally distinct deadenylases in vivo: caf1 is required for the regulated degradation of specific transcripts, and ccr4 is responsible for basal degradation. intriguin ...201019901075
the concerted action of bzip and cmyb transcription factors flbb and flbd induces brla expression and asexual development in aspergillus nidulans.fungi are capable of generating diverse cell types through developmental processes that stem from hyphae, acting as pluripotent cells. the formation of mitospores on emergence of hyphae to the air involves the participation of transcription factors, which co-ordinate the genesis of new cell types, eventually leading to spore formation. in this investigation, we show that bzip transcription factor flbb, which has been attributed to participate in transducing the aerial stimulus signal, activates ...201020132447
characterization of the aspergillus nidulans monodictyphenone gene cluster.deletion of ccla, a component of the compass complex of aspergillus nidulans, results in the production of monodictyphenone and emodin derivatives. through a set of targeted deletions in a ccla deletion strain, we have identified the genes required for monodictyphenone and emodin analog biosynthesis. identification of an intermediate, endocrocin, from an mdphdelta strain suggests that mdph might encode a decarboxylase. furthermore, by replacing the promoter of mdpa (a putative aflj homolog) and ...201020139316
erl1, a novel era-like gtpase from magnaporthe oryzae, is required for full root virulence and is conserved in the mutualistic symbiont glomus intraradices.comparative analyses of genome sequences from several plant-infecting fungi have shown conservation and expansion of protein families with plant disease-related functions. here, we show that this hypothesis can be extended to mutualistic symbiotic fungi. we have identified a gene encoding an era (escherichia coli ras)-like gtpase in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe oryzae and found that it is orthologous to the mature amino terminal part of the gin1 protein from the arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) ...201019958140
the ccaat-binding complex coordinates the oxidative stress response in eukaryotes.the heterotrimeric ccaat-binding complex is evolutionary conserved in eukaryotic organisms. the corresponding aspergillus nidulans ccaat-binding factor (ancf) consists of the subunits hapb, hapc and hape. all of the three subunits are necessary for dna binding. here, we demonstrate that ancf senses the redox status of the cell via oxidative modification of thiol groups within the histone fold motif of hapc. mutational and in vitro interaction analyses revealed that two of these cysteine residues ...201019965775
the conserved and divergent roles of carbonic anhydrases in the filamentous fungi aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus nidulans.carbon dioxide (co(2)) and its hydration product bicarbonate (hco(3)(-)) are essential molecules in various physiological processes of all living organisms. the reversible interconversion between co(2) and hco(3)(-) is in equilibrium. this reaction is slow without catalyst, but can be rapidly facilitated by zn(2+)-metalloenzymes named carbonic anhydrases (cas). to gain an insight into the function of multiple clades of fungal ca, we chose to investigate the filamentous fungi aspergillus fumigatu ...201020149101
overexpression of bacterial ethylene-forming enzyme gene in trichoderma reesei enhanced the production of order to efficiently utilize natural cellulose materials to produce ethylene, three expression vectors containing the ethylene-forming enzyme (efe) gene from pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea were constructed. the target gene was respectively controlled by different promoters: cbh i promoter from trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases i gene, gpd promoter from aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene and pgk i promoter from t. reesei 3-phosphoglycerate kinase i gene. ...201020150979
expression and purification of a functional uric acid-xanthine transporter (uapa).the nucleobase-ascorbate transporters (nats) family includes carriers with fundamental functions in uptake of key cellular metabolites, such as uric acid or vitamin c. the best studied example of a nat transporter is the uric acid-xanthine permease (uapa) from the model ascomycete aspergillus nidulans. detailed genetic and biochemical analyses have revealed much about the mechanism of action of this protein; however, the difficulties associated with handling eukaryotic membrane proteins have lim ...201020153431
evaluation of performance and community dynamics of microorganisms during treatment of distillery spent wash in a three stage bioreactor.the ability of emericella nidulans var. lata, neurospora intermedia and bacillus sp. to treat distillery spent wash in a three stage bioreactor was investigated. process parameters were optimized in shake flask cultures with the individual strains before treatment of the effluent in a 15-l bioreactor. treatment was first carried out by the fungi followed by bacteria. the treated effluent showed significant reduction in color (82%) and cod (93%) after 30 h. metabolites formed after degradation of ...201020156685
a cryptic role of a glycolytic-gluconeogenic enzyme (aldolase) in amino acid transporter turnover in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans the fbaa1013 mutation results in reduced or total loss of growth on glycolytic and gluconeogenic carbon sources, respectively. it also negatively affects growth on several amino acids (including l-proline, l-glutamate or l-aspartate) that the fungus can use as nitrogen source on glycolytic carbon sources. complementation of the fbaa1013 mutation using an a. nidulans genomic library resulted in cloning of the fbaa gene, which encodes a putative fructose 1,6-biphosphate ald ...201020026236
single-step affinity purification for fungal proteomics.a single-step protein affinity purification protocol using aspergillus nidulans is described. detailed protocols for cell breakage, affinity purification, and depending on the application, methods for protein release from affinity beads are provided. examples defining the utility of the approaches, which should be widely applicable, are included.201020363899
parp is involved in replicative aging in neurospora crassa.modification of proteins by the addition of poly(adp-ribose) is carried out by poly(adp-ribose) polymerases (parps). parps have been implicated in a wide range of biological processes in eukaryotes, but no universal function has been established. a study of the aspergillus nidulans parp ortholog (prpa) revealed that the protein is essential and involved in dna repair, reminiscent of findings using mammalian systems. we found that a neurospora parp orthologue (npo) is dispensable for cell surviva ...201020045739
aoxa is a major peroxisomal long chain fatty acyl-coa oxidase required for beta-oxidation in a. nidulans.filamentous fungi can use a variety of fatty acids (fa) as sole carbon and energy sources. aspergillus nidulans has been shown to possess both peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathways. in these studies, the major peroxisomal long chain fatty acyl coenzyme a oxidase aoxa was identified. aoxa was shown to be localised to peroxisomes and deletion of the aoxa gene leads to reduced growth on long chain fa, but not on short chain fa. aoxa is predicted to be part of the same peroxisomal be ...201020043225
[guideline based treatment of invasive aspergillosis].invasive fungus infections caused by aspergillus spp. occur most frequently in immunocompromised patients. a high infection-associated death rate of up to and over 50% is attributed even today to these fungi. the disease in humans is caused mainly by aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus and aspergillus niger. other species, for example, aspergillus terreus or aspergillus nidulans are quantitatively less prevalent. evidence based treatment of invasive aspergillosis has become safer and more ...201020433655
reaction coordinate of isopenicillin n synthase: oxidase versus oxygenase activity.isopenicillin n synthase (ipns) can have both oxidase and oxygenase activity depending on the substrate. for the native substrate, acv, oxidase activity exists; however, for the substrate analogue acov, which lacks an amide nitrogen, ipns exhibits oxygenase activity. the potential energy surfaces for the o-o bond elongation and cleavage were calculated for three different reactions: homolytic cleavage via traditional fenton chemistry, heterolytic cleavage, and nucleophilic attack. these surfaces ...201020078029
mechanism of de novo branched-chain amino acid synthesis as an alternative electron sink in hypoxic aspergillus nidulans cells.although branched-chain amino acids are synthesized as building blocks of proteins, we found that the fungus aspergillus nidulans excretes them into the culture medium under hypoxia. the transcription of predicted genes for synthesizing branched-chain amino acids was upregulated by hypoxia. a knockout strain of the gene encoding the large subunit of acetohydroxy acid synthase (ahas), which catalyzes the initial reaction of the synthesis, required branched-chain amino acids for growth and excrete ...201020081005
predicting the chemical composition and structure of aspergillus nidulans hyphal wall surface by atomic force fungi, cell wall plays an important role in growth and development. major macromolecular constituents of the aspergilli cell wall are glucan, chitin, and protein. we examined the chemical composition and structure of the aspergillus nidulans hyphal wall surface by an atomic force microscope (afm). to determine the composition of the cell wall surface, the adhesion forces of commercially available beta-glucan, chitin, and various proteins were compared to those of corresponding fractions prepa ...201020437158
analysis of a novel calcium auxotrophy in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans a combination of null mutations in hala, encoding a protein kinase, and slta, encoding a zinc-finger transcription factor having no yeast homologues, results in an elevated calcium requirement ('calcium auxotrophy') without impairing net calcium uptake. slta(-) (+/-hala(-)) mutations result in hypertrophy of the vacuolar system. in hala(-)slta(-) (and slta(-)) strains, transcript levels for pmca and pmcb, encoding vacuolar ca(2+)-atpase homologues, are highly elevated, su ...201020438880
in vitro susceptibility testing in aspergillus species: an update.aspergillus species are the most common causes of invasive mold infections in immunocompromised patients. the introduction of new antifungal agents and recent reports of resistance emerging during treatment of aspergillus infections have highlighted the need for in vitro susceptibility testing. various testing procedures have been proposed, including macro- and micro-dilution, disk diffusion, etest (ab biodisk, sweden) and other commercial tests. although aspergillus species are generally suscep ...201020441550
development of rapid and specific molecular discrimination methods for pathogenic emericella species.aspergillosis is an important mycosis caused primarily by aspergillus fumigatus and its relatives. the genus emericella is a teleomorph related to the aspergillus section nidulantes. the typical anamorphic stage species in this genus is aspergillus nidulans, which is sometimes a significant agent in chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) patients. the mortality rate of osteomyelitis in cgd patients due to a. nidulans ( e. nidulans ) is very high compared to that due to a. fumigatus. moreover, two e ...201020467199
regulation of ustilago maydis dimorphism, sporulation, and pathogenic development by a transcription factor with a highly conserved apses ustilago maydis, the causal agent of corn smut, the morphological transition from yeast to filamentous growth is inextricably linked to pathogenicity; budding haploid cells are saprobic and, upon mating of compatible strains, the fungus converts to dikaryotic filamentous growth and obligate parasitism. the filamentous dikaryon proliferates in the host plant, inducing tumor formation and undergoing additional morphological changes that eventually result in the production of melanized diploid t ...201020064064
core promoters of the penicillin biosynthesis genes and quantitative rt-pcr analysis of these genes in high and low production strain of penicillium chrysogenum.the transcription start points of the penicillin biosynthesis genes from penicillium chrysogenum were mapped using the primer extension method. for each of the three genes consensus sequences of the core promoter elements were identified, supporting the notion that the basal transcription of these genes is mediated separately. interestingly, transcription start of the pcbc gene is located within the potential inr element with no tata box-like sequence being found at expected position. this is in ...201020490754
photodynamic inactivation of conidia of the fungi metarhizium anisopliae and aspergillus nidulans with methylene blue and toluidine blue.antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (pdt) is a promising method that can be used to control localized mycoses or kill fungi in the environment. a major objective of the current study was to compare the conidial photosensitization of two fungal species (metarhizium anisopliae and aspergillus nidulans) with methylene blue (mb) and toluidine blue (tbo) under different incubation and light conditions. parameters examined were media, photosensitizer (ps) concentration and light source. pdt with mb a ...201020113427
atp-citrate lyase is required for production of cytosolic acetyl coenzyme a and development in aspergillus nidulans.acetyl coenzyme a (coa) is a central metabolite in carbon and energy metabolism and in the biosynthesis of cellular molecules. a source of cytoplasmic acetyl-coa is essential for the production of fatty acids and sterols and for protein acetylation, including histone acetylation in the nucleus. in saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida albicans acetyl-coa is produced from acetate by cytoplasmic acetyl-coa synthetase, while in plants and animals acetyl-coa is derived from citrate via atp-citrate ly ...201020495057
bioinspired deposition of tio2 thin films induced by hydrophobins.the deposition of ceramic thin films from aqueous solutions at low temperature using biopolymers as templates has attracted much attention due to economic and environmental benefits. titanium dioxide is one of the most attractive functional materials and shows a wide range of applications across vastly different areas because of its unique chemical, optical, and electrical properties. in the present work, we deposited smooth, nanocrystalline titania thin films by an aqueous deposition method on ...201020121159
atfa bzip-type transcription factor regulates oxidative and osmotic stress responses in aspergillus nidulans.the aim of the study was to demonstrate that the bzip-type transcription factor atfa regulates different types of stress responses in aspergillus nidulans similarly to atf1, the orthologous 'all-purpose' transcription factor of schizosaccharomyces pombe. heterologous expression of atfa in a s. pombe deltaatf1 mutant restored the osmotic stress tolerance of fission yeast in surface cultures to the same level as recorded in complementation studies with the atf1 gene, and a partial complementation ...201020131067
proteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination in aspergillus order to investigate proteins involved in early phase of conidia germination, proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2d-ge) in conjunction with maldi-tof mass spectrometry (ms). the expression levels of 241 proteins varied quantitatively with statistical significance (p<0.05) at the early phase of the germination stage. out of these 57 were identified by maldi-tof ms. through classification of physiological functions from conserved domain database analysis ...201019919853
adaptative and developmental responses to stress in aspergillus nidulan.development in the ascomycete a. nidulans is principally determined by environmental signals. adaptability to oxidative stimuli can derive in changes of growth patterns and /or the activation of sexual or asexual reproductive cycles but this model fungus might also respond to high osmotic or salt concentrations, the redox state, the availability and quantity of carbon or nitrogen sources and the degree or quality of illumination. since each cell within the colony follows a single morphogenetic p ...201021235506
methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase activity is involved in the plasma membrane redox system required for pigment biosynthesis in filamentous fungi.methylenetetrahydrofolate reductases (mthfrs) play a key role in biosynthesis of methionine and s-adenosyl-l-methionine (sam) via the recharging methionine biosynthetic pathway. analysis of 32 complete fungal genomes showed that fungi were unique among eukaryotes by having two mthfrs, met12 and met13. the met12 type contained an additional conserved sequence motif compared to the sequences of met13 and mthfrs from other eukaryotes and bacteria. targeted gene replacement of either of the two mthf ...201020543064
recruitment of the inhibitor cand1 to the cullin substrate adaptor site mediates interaction to the neddylation site.cand1 inhibits cullin ring ubiquitin ligases by binding unneddylated cullins. the cand1 n-terminus blocks the cullin neddylation site, whereas the c-terminus inhibits cullin adaptor interaction. these cand1 binding sites can be separated into two functional polypeptides which bind sequentially. c-terminal cand1 can directly bind to unneddylated cullins in the nucleus without blocking the neddylation site. the smaller n-terminal cand1 cannot bind to the cullin neddylation region without c-termina ...201021119001
gene knockdown by ihprna-triggering in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete fungus laccaria bicolor.ectomycorrhiza (ecm) is a mutualistic association between fungi and the roots of the vast majority of trees. these include numerous ecologically and economically relevant species and the participating fungal symbionts are predominantly filamentous basidiomycetes. in natural ecosystems the plant nutrient uptake from soil takes place via the extraradical mycelia of these ecm mycosimbionts as a trade for plant photosyntates. the symbiotic phase in the life cycle of ecm basidiomycetes is the dikaryo ...201021326837
enzymatic synthesis of β-xylosyl-oligosaccharides by transxylosylation using two β-xylosidases of glycoside hydrolase family 3 from aspergillus nidulans fgsc a4.two β-xylosidases of glycoside hydrolase family 3 (gh 3) from aspergillus nidulans fgsc a4, bxla and bxlb were produced recombinantly in pichia pastoris and secreted to the culture supernatants in yields of 16 and 118 mg/l, respectively. bxla showed about sixfold higher catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/k(m)) than bxlb towards para-nitrophenyl β-d-xylopyranoside (pnpx) and β-1,4-xylo-oligosaccharides (degree of polymerisation 2-6). for both enzymes k(cat)/k(m) decreased with increasing β-1,4-xylo-oli ...201021215963
horizontal transfer of a large and highly toxic secondary metabolic gene cluster between fungi.genes involved in intermediary and secondary metabolism in fungi are frequently physically linked or clustered. for example, in aspergillus nidulans the entire pathway for the production of sterigmatocystin (st), a highly toxic secondary metabolite and a precursor to the aflatoxins (af), is located in a ∼54 kb, 23 gene cluster. we discovered that a complete st gene cluster in podospora anserina was horizontally transferred from aspergillus. phylogenetic analysis shows that most podospora cluster ...201021194949
mitotic recombination: a genotoxic effect of the antidepressant citalopram in aspergillus nidulans.this report evaluates the potential of the antidepressant drug citalopram to induce homozygotization of genes previously present in a heterozygous condition, by homologous recombination. in order to address this question, a heterozygous diploid strain of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans and the homozygotization assay were utilized. non-cytotoxic concentrations of citalopram (50, 75 and 100 μmol/l) showed a strong recombinogenic effect in a. nidulans, inducing homozygosis of the diploi ...201020851831
activation of a silent fungal polyketide biosynthesis pathway through regulatory cross talk with a cryptic nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene cluster.filamentous fungi produce numerous natural products that constitute a consistent source of potential drug leads, yet it seems that the majority of natural products are overlooked since most biosynthesis gene clusters are silent under standard cultivation conditions. screening secondary metabolite genes of the model fungus aspergillus nidulans, we noted a silent gene cluster on chromosome ii comprising two nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps) genes, inpa and inpb, flanked by a regulatory gene t ...201020952652
the roles played by aspergillus nidulans apoptosis-inducing factor (aif)-like mitochondrial oxidoreductase (aifa) and nadh-ubiquinone oxidoreductases (ndea-b and ndia) in farnesol resistance.farnesol (foh) is a nonsterol isoprenoid produced by dephosphorylation of farnesyl pyrophosphate, a catabolite of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. these isoprenoids inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis. here, we show that aspergillus nidulans aifa encoding the apoptosis-inducing factor (aif)-like mitochondrial oxidoreductase plays a role in the function of the mitochondrial complex i. additionally, we demonstrated that ndea-b and ndia encode external and internal alternative nadh dehy ...201020654725
kin3 protein, a nima-related kinase of saccharomyces cerevisiae, is involved in dna adduct damage response.kin3 is a nonessential serine/threonine protein kinase of the budding yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae with unknown cellular role. it is an ortholog of the aspergillus nidulans protein kinase nima (never-in mitosis, gene a), which is involved in the regulation of g2/m phase progression, dna damage response and mitosis. the aim of this study was to determine whether kin3 is required for proper checkpoint activation and dna repair. here we show that kin3 gene deficient cells present sensitivity and ...201021577056
simple identification of vea1 mutation in aspergillus nidulans.the vea gene plays an important role in development of a homothallic filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. the vea1 phenotype can be difficult to distinguish from the wild-type vea. despite the importance of the vea allele, no efficient identification method has been reported besides dna sequencing. here, we present simple physiological and molecular biological ways to distinguish between the vea wild-type and vea1 allele. the novel approaches, which involve incubation in the presence of oxal ...201021221952
phg/psilbaγ vector system for efficient gene silencing in homobasidiomycetes: optimization of ihprna - triggering in the mycorrhizal fungus laccaria bicolor.psilbaγ silencing vector was constructed for efficient rna silencing triggering in the model mycorrhizal fungus laccaria bicolor. this cloning vector carries the agaricus bisporus gpdii promoter, two multiple cloning sites separated by a l. bicolor nitrate reductase intron and the aspergillus nidulans trpc terminator. psilbaγ allows an easy oriented two-step pcr cloning of hairpin sequences to be expressed in basidiomycetes. with one further cloning step into phg, a pcambia1300-based binary vect ...201021255319
aspergillus nidulans asexual development: making the most of cellular modules.asexual development in aspergillus nidulans begins in superficial hyphae as the programmed emergence of successive pseudohyphal modules, collectively known as the conidiophore, and is completed by a layer of specialized cells (phialides) giving rise to chains of aerial spores. a discrete number of regulatory factors present in hyphae play different stage-specific roles in pseudohyphal modules, depending on their cellular localization and protein-protein interactions. their multiple roles include ...201021035346
[comparison of genomes between aspergillus nidulans and 30 filamentous ascomycetes].to investigate the conserved homologs of filamentous ascomycetes genomes, the local fungal genome database used in this analysis was established, which consisted of 31 latest and complete genome data publicly available on the internet. an expectation value cutoff of 0.1 was used to identify significant hits. each complete gene set of the query genome aspergillus nidulans genome with 10,560 annotated genes was splitted into individual fasta files with seqverter and then compared separately agains ...201021513172
characterisation of the cipc-like protein afua_5g09330 of the opportunistic human pathogenic mould aspergillus fumigatus.aspergillus fumigatus is currently the major airborne fungal pathogen that menaces immunocompromised individuals. germination of inhaled conidia is a hallmark of the early infection process, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. the intention of our ongoing studies is the identification of a. fumigatus proteins that are differentially expressed during germination and may provide insights in the germination process. using a proteomic approach, we identified afua_5g09330 as a major ...201019486301
recombinantly produced hydrophobins from fungal analogues as highly surface-active performance proteins.hydrophobins are available from natural resources only in milligram amounts. basf succeeded in a recombinant production process, up-scaled to pilot plant production in kilogram scale. strain and protein optimization by modulation of gene expression and generation of fusion proteins finally leads to two class i hydrophobins called h*protein a and h*protein b. by analytical ultracentrifugation, we confirm that the self-association of h*proteins in solution is governed by their sequence, because ol ...201019290518
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