Publications

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establishment of crispr/cas9 in alternaria alternata.the filamentous fungus alternaria alternata is a potent producer of many secondary metabolites, some of which like alternariol or alternariol-methyl ether are toxic and/or cancerogenic. many alternaria species do not only cause post-harvest losses of food and feed, but are aggressive plant pathogens. despite the great economic importance and the large number of research groups working with the fungus, the molecular toolbox is rather underdeveloped. gene deletions often result in heterokaryotic s ...201728286319
matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for rapid identification of fungal rhinosinusitis pathogens.filamentous fungi are among the most important pathogens, causing fungal rhinosinusitis (frs). current laboratory diagnosis of frs pathogens mainly relies on phenotypic identification by culture and microscopic examination, which is time consuming and expertise dependent. although matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (maldi-tof) ms has been employed to identify various fungi, its efficacy in the identification of frs fungi is less clear.201728100314
a novel zn2-cys6 transcription factor atrr plays a key role in an azole resistance mechanism of aspergillus fumigatus by co-regulating cyp51a and cdr1b expressions.successful treatment of aspergillosis caused by aspergillus fumigatus is threatened by an increasing incidence of drug resistance. this situation is further complicated by the finding that strains resistant to azoles, the major antifungal drugs for aspergillosis, have been widely disseminated across the globe. to elucidate mechanisms underlying azole resistance, we identified a novel transcription factor that is required for normal azole resistance in aspergillus fungi including a. fumigatus, as ...201728052140
elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of natural products.during the last decade, we have revealed biosynthetic pathways responsible for the formation of important and chemically complex natural products isolated from various organisms through genetic manipulation. detailed in vivo and in vitro characterizations enabled elucidation of unexpected mechanisms of secondary metabolite biosynthesis. this personal account focuses on our recent efforts in identifying the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of spirotryprostatin, aspoquinolone, sch 210972, py ...201728387469
genetic studies on the physiological role of corvet in aspergillus nidulans.corvet and hops are protein complexes mediating the maturation of early endosomes (ees) into late endosomes (les)/vacuoles. these hetero-hexamers share four 'core' components, vps11, vps16, vps18 and vps33, and differ in two specific subunits, corvet vps8 and vps3 and hops vps39 and vps41. whereas ablating hops-specific components has minor growth effects, ablating any corvet constituent severely debilitates aspergillus nidulans growth, buttressing previous work indicating that maturation of ees ...201728379362
cpsa regulates mycotoxin production, morphogenesis and cell wall biosynthesis in the fungus aspergillus nidulans.the model fungus aspergillus nidulans synthesizes numerous secondary metabolites, including sterigmatocystin (st). the production of this toxin is positively controlled by the global regulator vea. in the absence of vea (δvea), st biosynthesis is blocked. previously we performed random mutagenesis in a δvea strain and identified revertant mutants able to synthesize st, among them rm1. complementation of rm1 with a genomic library revealed that the mutation occurred in a gene designated as cpsa. ...201728370587
gfsa is a β1,5-galactofuranosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the galactofuran side chain of fungal-type galactomannan inaspergillus fumigatus.previously, we reported that gfsa is a novel galactofuranosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of o-glycan, the proper maintenance of fungal morphology, the formation of conidia and anti-fungal resistance in aspergillus nidulans and a. fumigatus (komachi y et al., mol. microbiol. 90, 1054-1073, 2013). in the present paper, to gain an in depth-understanding of the enzymatic functions of gfsa in a. fumigatus (afgfsa), we established an in vitro assay to measure galactofuranosyltransferase a ...201728369326
the low affinity glucose transporter hxtb is also involved in glucose signalling and metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.one of the drawbacks during second-generation biofuel production from plant lignocellulosic biomass is the accumulation of glucose, the preferred carbon source of microorganisms, which causes the repression of hydrolytic enzyme secretion by industrially relevant filamentous fungi. glucose sensing, subsequent transport and cellular signalling pathways have been barely elucidated in these organisms. this study therefore characterized the transcriptional response of the filamentous fungus aspergill ...201728361917
nitrate assimilation in fusarium fujikuroi is controlled by multiple levels of regulation.secondary metabolite production of the phytopathogenic ascomycete fungus fusarium fujikuroi is greatly influenced by the availability of nitrogen. while favored nitrogen sources such as glutamine and ammonium are used preferentially, the uptake and utilization of nitrate is subject to a regulatory mechanism called nitrogen metabolite repression (nmr). in aspergillus nidulans, the transcriptional control of the nitrate assimilatory system is carried out by the synergistic action of the nitrate-sp ...201728352253
an amylase-like protein, amyd, is the major negative regulator for α-glucan synthesis in aspergillus nidulans during the asexual life cycle.α-glucan affects fungal cell-cell interactions and is important for the virulence of pathogenic fungi. interfering with production of α-glucan could help to prevent fungal infection. in our previous study, we reported that an amylase-like protein, amyd, could repress α-glucan accumulation in aspergillus nidulans. however, the underlying molecular mechanism was not clear. here, we examined the localization of amyd and found it was a membrane-associated protein. we studied amyd function in α-gluca ...201728346365
location and functional analysis of the aspergillus nidulans aurora kinase confirm mitotic functions and suggest non-mitotic roles.filamentous fungi have devastating negative impacts as pathogens and agents of food spoilage but also have critical ecological importance and are utilized for industrial applications. the characteristic multinucleate nature of filamentous fungi is facilitated by limiting if, when and where septation, the fungal equivalent of cytokinesis, occurs. in the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans septation does not occur immediately after mitosis and is an incomplete process resulting in the fo ...201728315405
biological evaluation of 3-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, an extrolite produced by aspergillus nidulans strain kzr-132.the aim of the study was to purify and characterize a bioactive compound from aspergillus nidulans strain kzr-132 and its biological evaluation.201728314049
air-borne genotype by genotype indirect genetic effects are substantial in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.genotype by genotype indirect genetic effects (g × g iges) occur when the phenotype of an individual is influenced by an interaction between its own genotype and those of neighbour individuals. little is known regarding the relative importance of g × g iges compared with other forms of direct and indirect genetic effects. we quantified the relative importance of iges in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, a species in which iges are likely to be important as air-borne social interaction ...201728295032
the function of the three phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase (prs) genes in hyphal growth and conidiation in aspergillus nidulans.phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase, which is encoded by the prs gene, catalyses the reaction of ribose-5-phosphate and adenine ribonucleotide triphosphate (atp) and has central importance in cellular metabolism. however, knowledge about how prs family members function and contribute to total 5-phosphoribosyl-α-1-pyrophosphate (prpp) synthetase activity is limited. in this study, we identified that the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans genome contains three prpp synthase-homologous gen ...201728277197
study on the glutathione metabolism of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.yeast protein sequence-based homology search for glutathione (gsh) metabolic enzymes and gsh transporters demonstrated that aspergillus nidulans has a robust gsh uptake and metabolic system with several paralogous genes. in wet laboratory experiments, two key genes of gsh metabolism, gcsa, and glra, encoding γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteine synthetase and glutathione reductase, respectively, were deleted. the gene gcsa was essential, and the δgcsa mutant required gsh supplementation at considerably highe ...201728263103
transgenic expression of fungal accessory hemicellulases in arabidopsis thaliana triggers transcriptional patterns related to biotic stress and defense response.the plant cell wall is an abundant and renewable resource for lignocellulosic applications such as the production of biofuel. due to structural and compositional complexities, the plant cell wall is, however, recalcitrant to hydrolysis and extraction of platform sugars. a cell wall engineering strategy to reduce this recalcitrance makes use of microbial cell wall modifying enzymes that are expressed directly in plants themselves. previously, we constructed transgenic arabidopsis thaliana constit ...201728253318
functional genomics-guided discovery of a light-activated phytotoxin in the wheat pathogen parastagonospora nodorum via pathway activation.parastagonospora nodorum is an important pathogen of wheat. the contribution of secondary metabolites to this pathosystem is poorly understood. a biosynthetic gene cluster (snog_08608-08616) has been shown to be upregulated during the late stage of p. nodorum wheat leaf infection. the gene cluster shares several homologues with the cercospora nicotianae ctb gene cluster encoding the biosynthesis of cercosporin. activation of the gene cluster by overexpression (oe) of the transcription factor gen ...201728251756
the ap-2 complex has a specialized clathrin-independent role in apical endocytosis and polar growth in fungi.filamentous fungi provide excellent systems for investigating the role of the ap-2 complex in polar growth. using aspergillus nidulans, we show that ap-2 has a clathrin-independent essential role in polarity maintenance and growth. this is in line with a sequence analysis showing that the ap-2 β subunit (β2) of higher fungi lacks a clathrin-binding domain, and experiments showing that ap-2 does not co-localize with clathrin. we provide genetic and cellular evidence that ap-2 interacts with endoc ...201728220754
transport of fungal rab11 secretory vesicles involves myosin-5, dynein/dynactin/p25, and kinesin-1 and is independent of kinesin-3.hyphal tip cells of the fungus aspergillus nidulans are useful for studying long-range intracellular traffic. post-golgi secretory vesicles (svs) containing the rab11 orthologue rabe engage myosin-5 as well as plus end- and minus end-directed microtubule motors, providing an experimental system with which to investigate the interplay between microtubule and actin motors acting on the same cargo. by exploiting the fact that depolymerization of f-actin unleashes svs focused at the apex by myosin-5 ...201728209731
functions of the magnaporthe oryzae flb3p and flb4p transcription factors in the regulation of conidiation.the magnaporthe oryzae genes flb3 and flb4, orthologues of the aspergillus nidulans regulators of conidiation flbc and flbd, were inactivated. these genes encode c2h2 zinc finger and myb-like transcription factors, respectively, in a. nidulans. analysis of the resultant mutants demonstrated that flb4 is essential for spore formation and that strains lacking this gene are fluffy in their colony morphology due to an inability to complete conidiophore formation. meanwhile, flb3 is required for norm ...201728164785
ancut2, a thermo-alkaline cutinase from aspergillus nidulans and its potential applications.biochemical characterization of purified ancut2 cutinase from aspergillus nidulans is described. the identified amino acid sequence differs from that predicted in aspergillus genomic databases in amino acids not relevant for catalysis. the enzyme is thermo-alkaline, showing its maximum activity at ph 9 and 60 °c, and it retains more than 60% of its initial activity after incubation for 1 h at 60 °c for ph values between 6 and 10. ancut2 is more active towards long-chain esters and it hydrolyzes ...201728124733
overexpression of a three-gene conidial pigment biosynthetic pathway in aspergillus nidulans reveals the first nrps known to acetylate tryptophan.fungal nonribosomal peptide synthetases (nrpss) are megasynthetases that produce cyclic and acyclic peptides. in aspergillus nidulans, the nrps ivoa (an10576) has been associated with the biosynthesis of grey-brown conidiophore pigments. another gene, ivob (an0231), has been demonstrated to be an n-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan oxidase that putatively acts downstream of ivoa. a third gene, ivoc, has also been predicted to be involved in pigment biosynthesis based on publicly available genomic and t ...201728108400
the aspergillus nidulans pbp1 homolog is required for normal sexual development and secondary metabolism.p bodies and stress granules are rna-containing structures governing mrna degradation and translational arrest, respectively. saccharomyces cerevisiae pbp1 protein localizes to stress granules and promotes their formation and is involved in proper polyadenylation, suppression of rna-dna hybrids, and preventing aberrant rdna recombination. a genetic screen for aspergillus nidulans mutants aberrant in secondary metabolism identified the pbp1 homolog, pbpa. using dcp1 (mrna decapping) as a marker f ...201728089630
cloning, heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a non-specific endoglucanase family 12 from aspergillus terreus nih2624.the cellulases from glycoside hydrolyses family 12 (gh12) play an important role in cellulose degradation and plant cell wall deconstruction being widely used in a number of bioindustrial processes. aiming to contribute toward better comprehension of these class of the enzymes, here we describe a high-yield secretion of a endoglucanase gh12 from aspegillus terreus (atgh12), which was cloned and expressed in aspergillus nidulans strain a773. the purified protein was used for complete biochemical ...201728088615
clathrin localization and dynamics in aspergillus nidulans.cell growth necessitates extensive membrane remodeling events including vesicle fusion or fission, processes that are regulated by coat proteins. the hyphal cells of filamentous fungi concentrate both exocytosis and endocytosis at the apex. this investigation focuses on clathrin in aspergillus nidulans, with the aim of understanding its role in membrane remodeling in growing hyphae. we examined clathrin heavy chain (clah-gfp) which localized to three distinct subcellular structures: late golgi ( ...201727741567
cryptic purine transporters in aspergillus nidulans reveal the role of specific residues in the evolution of specificity in the ncs1 family.ncs1 proteins are h(+) or na(+) symporters responsible for the uptake of purines, pyrimidines or related metabolites in bacteria, fungi and some plants. fungal ncs1 are classified into two evolutionary and structurally distinct subfamilies, known as fur- and fcy-like transporters. these subfamilies have expanded and functionally diversified by gene duplications. the fur subfamily of the model fungus aspergillus nidulans includes both major and cryptic transporters specific for uracil, 5-fluorour ...201727741561
the flippase dnfb is cargo of fimbrin-associated endocytosis in aspergillus nidulans, and likely recycles through the late golgi. 201727195062
discovery of an extended austinoid biosynthetic pathway in aspergillus calidoustus.filamentous fungi produce a wide range of natural products that are commonly used in various industrial contexts (e.g., pharmaceuticals and insecticides). meroterpenoids are natural products of interest because of their various biological activities. among the meroterpenoids, there is a group of insecticidal compounds known as the austinoids. these compounds have also been studied because of their intriguing spiro-lactone ring formation along with various modifications. here, we present an exten ...201728233494
the function of the three phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate synthetase (prs) genes in hyphal growth and conidiation in aspergillus nidulans.phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase, which is encoded by the prs gene, catalyzes the reaction of ribose-5-phosphate and adenine ribonucleotide triphosphate (atp) and has central importance in cellular metabolism. however, knowledge about how prs family members function and contribute to total prpp synthetase activity is limited. in this study, we identified that the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans genome contains three 5-phosphoribosyl-α-1-pyrophosphate (prpp) synthase-homologous gen ...201728086070
microtubules are reversibly depolymerized in response to changing gaseous microenvironments within aspergillus nidulans biofilms.how microtubules (mts) are regulated during fungal biofilm formation is unknown. by tracking mt +end-binding proteins (+tips) in aspergillus nidulans, we find that mts are regulated to depolymerize within forming fungal biofilms. during this process, eb1, dynein, and clipa form transient fibrous and then bar-like structures, novel configurations for +tips. cells also respond in an autonomous manner, with cells separated by a septum able to maintain different mt dynamics. surprisingly, all cells ...201728057761
the mitotic kinesin-14 klpa contains a context-dependent directionality switch.kinesin-14s are commonly known as nonprocessive minus end-directed microtubule motors that function mainly for mitotic spindle assembly. here we show using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy that klpa-a kinesin-14 from aspergillus nidulans-is a context-dependent bidirectional motor. klpa exhibits plus end-directed processive motility on single microtubules, but reverts to canonical minus end-directed motility when anchored on the surface in microtubule-gliding experiments or inter ...201728051135
an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional activator-repressor module controls expression of genes for d-galacturonic acid utilization in aspergillus niger.the expression of genes encoding extracellular polymer-degrading enzymes and the metabolic pathways required for carbon utilization in fungi are tightly controlled. the control is mediated by transcription factors that are activated by the presence of specific inducers, which are often monomers or monomeric derivatives of the polymers. a d-galacturonic acid-specific transcription factor named gaar was recently identified and shown to be an activator for the expression of genes involved in galact ...201728049705
phospholipid flippases dnfa and dnfb exhibit differential dynamics within the a. nidulans spitzenkörper.the spitzenkörper is a structure at the apex of growing cells in many filamentous fungi. ultrastructural studies indicate that the spitzenkörper is an organized mass of secretory vesicles, with different types of vesicles present in outer and inner layers. here, we used live-cell imaging to demonstrate that the phospholipid flippases dnfa and dnfb, which preferentially localize to the outer and inner layers, respectively, exhibit different dynamics in the spitzenkörper of aspergillus nidulans. a ...201728034798
functional characterization of two novel purine transporters from the basidiomycota phanerochaete chrysosporium.purine transporters as substrate entry points in organisms, are involved in a number of cellular processes such as nitrogen source uptake, energy metabolism and synthesis of nucleic acids. in this study, two nucleobase transporter genes (phz, phu) from phanerochaete chrysosporium were cloned, identified, and functionally characterized. our results show that phz is a transporter of adenine and hypoxanthine, and a protein belonging to the azga-like family, whilst phu belongs to the nat/ncs2 family ...201727923672
analysis of the ionic interaction between the hydrophobin roda and two cutinases of aspergillus nidulans obtained via an aspergillus oryzae expression system.hydrophobins are amphipathic secretory proteins with eight conserved cysteine residues and are ubiquitous among filamentous fungi. in the fungus aspergillus oryzae, the hydrophobin rola and the polyesterase cutl1 are co-expressed when the sole available carbon source is the biodegradable polyester polybutylene succinate-co-adipate (pbsa). rola promotes the degradation of pbsa by attaching to the particle surface, changing its structure and interacting with cutl1 to concentrate cutl1 on the pbsa ...201727917435
self-excising cre/mutant lox marker recycling system for multiple gene integrations and consecutive gene deletions in aspergillus oryzae.in this study, we developed a self-excising cre/loxp-mediated marker recycling system with mutated lox sequences to introduce a number of biosynthetic genes into aspergillus oryzae. to construct the self-excising marker cassette, both the selectable marker, the aspergillus nidulans adea gene, and the cre recombinase gene (cre), conditionally expressed by the xylanase-encoding gene promoter, were designed to be located between the mutant lox sequences, lox66 and lox71. however, construction of th ...201728011085
high-yield production of aryl alcohol oxidase under limited growth conditions in small-scale systems using a mutant aspergillus nidulans strain.aryl alcohol oxidase (mtgloa) is an enzyme that belongs to the ligninolytic consortium and can play an important role in the bioenergy industry. this study investigated production of an mtgloa client enzyme by a mutant strain of aspergillus nidulans unable to synthesize its own pyridoxine. pyridoxine limitation can be used to control cell growth, diverting substrate to protein production. in agitated culture, enzyme production was similar when using media with 1 mg/l and without pyridoxine (26.6 ...201727999967
methylotrophic yeast pichia pastoris as a chassis organism for polyketide synthesis via the full citrinin biosynthetic pathway.with the rapid development of synthetic biology, exploring various chassis organisms has become necessary to improve the heterologous biosynthesis of natural products and pharmaceuticals. in this study, we tested the potential of the industrial methylotrophic yeast strain pichia pastoris for the heterologous synthesis of polyketides. a recombinant p. pastoris gs-pksct-npga carrying the monascus purpureus citrinin polyketide synthase gene pksct and the aspergillus nidulans phosphopantetheinyl tra ...201727913218
phylogenetic studies, gene cluster analysis, and enzymatic reaction support anthrahydroquinone reduction as the physiological function of fungal 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-hsdcl) from the filamentous fungus curvularia lunata (teleomorph cochliobolus lunatus) catalyzes nadp(h)-dependent oxidoreductions of androgens and estrogens. despite detailed biochemical and structural characterization of 17β-hsdcl, its physiological function remains unknown. on the basis of amino acid sequence alignment, phylogenetic studies, and the recent identification of the physiological substrates of the homologous mdpc from aspergillus nidulans and ...201727906500
genomics of compensatory adaptation in experimental populations of aspergillus nidulans.knowledge of the number and nature of genetic changes responsible for adaptation is essential for understanding and predicting evolutionary trajectories. here, we study the genomic basis of compensatory adaptation to the fitness cost of fungicide resistance in experimentally evolved strains of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans the original selection experiment tracked the fitness recovery of lines founded by an ancestral strain that was resistant to fludioxonil, but paid a fitness cost ...201727903631
discovery of mcra, a master regulator of aspergillus secondary metabolism.fungal secondary metabolites (sms) are extremely important in medicine and agriculture, but regulation of their biosynthesis is incompletely understood. we have developed a genetic screen in aspergillus nidulans for negative regulators of fungal sm gene clusters and we have used this screen to isolate mutations that upregulate transcription of the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene required for nidulanin a biosynthesis. several of these mutations are allelic and we have identified the mutant ...201727775185
sporulation: how to survive on planet earth (and beyond).sporulation is a strategy widely utilized by a wide variety of organisms to adapt to changes in their individual environmental niches and survive in time and/or space until they encounter conditions acceptable for vegetative growth. the spores produced by bacteria have been the subjects of extensive studies, and several systems such as bacillus subtilis have provided ample opportunities to understand the molecular basis of spore biogenesis and germination. in contrast, the spores of other microb ...201728421279
in vitro activity of the novel antifungal compound f901318 against difficult-to-treat aspergillus isolates.f901318 is a new antifungal agent with a novel mechanism of action with activity against aspergillus species. we investigated the in vitro activity of f901318 against a collection of aspergillus isolates.201728605488
proteomics as a tool to identify new targets against aspergillus and scedosporium in the context of cystic fibrosis.cystic fibrosis (cf) is a genetic disorder that increases the risk of suffering microbial, including fungal, infections. in this paper, proteomics-based information was collated relating to secreted and cell wall proteins with potential medical applications from the most common filamentous fungi in cf, i.e., aspergillus and scedosporium/lomentospora species. among the aspergillus fumigatus secreted allergens, β-1,3-endoglucanase, the alkaline protease 1 (alp1/oryzin), asp f 2, asp f 13/15, chiti ...201728484941
aspergillus flavus aswa, a gene homolog of aspergillus nidulans oefc, regulates sclerotial development and biosynthesis of sclerotium-associated secondary metabolites.aspergillus flavus aswa (afla_085170) is a gene encoding a zn(ii)2cys6 dna-binding domain and a transcriptional activation domain, duf3468. disruption of aswa yielded strains that made a truncated gene transcript and generated a fungus that produced a greatly increased number of sclerotia. these sclerotia were odd-shaped and non-pigmented (white) and different from oval and pigmented (dark brown to black) mature sclerotia. transcriptomic analysis of the δaswa strain grown on potato dextrose agar ...201728442441
evaluation of the in vitro activity of isavuconazole and comparator voriconazole against 2635 contemporary clinical candida and aspergillus isolates.the in vitro activity of isavuconazole was determined for 1677 candida and 958 aspergillus isolates from 2012 to 2014 with voriconazole as comparator.201728373148
coupling the pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass by the expression of beta-xylosidases.thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis are the areas contributing most to the operational costs of second generation ethanol in lignocellulosic biorefineries. the improvement of lignocellulosic enzyme cocktails has been significant in the recent years. although the needs for the reduction of the energy intensity and chemical consumption in the pretreatment step are well known, the reduction of the severity of the process strongly affects the enzymatic hydrolysis yield. to explore t ...201728710860
antifungal activity against filamentous fungi of ts1, a multifunctional toxin from tityus serrulatus scorpion venom.antimicrobial peptides (amps) are ubiquitous and multipotent components of the innate immune defense arsenal used by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. the search for new amps has increased in recent years, due to the growing development of microbial resistance to therapeutical drugs. in this work, we evaluate the effects of tityus serrulatus venom (tsv), its fractions and its major toxin ts1, a beta-neurotoxin, on fungi growth. the fractions were obtained by ion-exchange chromatography ...201728634472
the quinoline bromoquinol exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal activity and induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in aspergillus fumigatus.over the last 30 years, the number of invasive fungal infections among immunosuppressed patients has increased significantly, while the number of effective systemic antifungal drugs remains low. the aim of this study was to identify and characterize antifungal compounds that inhibit fungus-specific metabolic pathways not conserved in humans.201728475687
rtfa controls development, secondary metabolism, and virulence in aspergillus fumigatus.invasive aspergillosis by aspergillus fumigatus is a leading cause of infection-related mortality in immune-compromised patients. in order to discover potential genetic targets to control a. fumigatus infections we characterized rtfa, a gene encoding a putative rna polymerase ii transcription elongation factor-like protein. our recent work has shown that the rtfa ortholog in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans regulates morphogenesis and secondary metabolism. the present study on the opportuni ...201728453536
aspergillus nidulans baph is a rab11 effector that connects membranes in the spitzenkörper with basal autophagy.using affinity chromatography we identified the aspergillus nidulans f-bar-and-ph domain-containing protein baph as a rabe(rab11) effector. baph localizes to the spitzenkörper (spk) in an f-actin- and sec7-dependent manner, becoming cytosolic after inactivation of trs120 in trappii, the oligomeric gef for rabe(rab11) . therefore rabe(rab11) contributes to the recruitment of baph to secretory vesicles in vivo. baph has a close homologue, slma, which is related to yeast slm1p/slm2p, localizes to e ...201728857357
molecular cloning, structural modeling and production of recombinant aspergillus terreusl. asparaginase in escherichia coli.l-asparaginase (ec 3.5.1.1) is an important medical enzyme that catalysis the hydrolysis of l-asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonium. for over four decades l. asparaginase utic agent for the treatment of a variety of lymphoproliferative disorders and lymphoma such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia. in the present study a. terreus full length l. asparaginase gene, 1179bp was optimized for expression in escherichia coli bl21 (de3) plyss. the full length a. terreusl. asparaginase gene encoding a pr ...201728851634
microtubule-organizing centers of aspergillus nidulans are anchored at septa by a disordered protein.microtubule-organizing centers (mtocs) are large, multi-subunit protein complexes. schizosaccharomyces pombe harbors mtocs at spindle pole bodies, transient mtocs in the division plane (emtocs) and nuclear-envelope associated mtocs in interphase cells (imtocs). in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans spbs and septum-associated mtocs were described. although comparable to s. pombe emtocs, a. nidulans smtocs are permanent septum-associated structures. the composition of smtocs is poorly und ...201728787538
transcriptome-based modeling reveals that oxidative stress induces modulation of the atfa-dependent signaling networks in aspergillus nidulans.to better understand the molecular functions of the master stress-response regulator atfa in aspergillus nidulans, transcriptomic analyses of the atfa null mutant and the appropriate control strains exposed to menadione sodium bisulfite- (msb-), t-butylhydroperoxide- and diamide-induced oxidative stresses were performed. several elements of oxidative stress response were differentially expressed. many of them, including the downregulation of the mitotic cell cycle, as the msb stress-specific upr ...201728770220
molecular basis for the unusual ring reconstruction in fungal meroterpenoid biogenesis.trt14 from aspergillus terreus is involved in unusual skeletal reconstruction during the biosynthesis of the fungal meroterpenoid terretonin. detailed in vitro characterization revealed that this novel multifunctional enzyme catalyzes not only the d-ring expansion via intramolecular methoxy rearrangement, but also the hydrolysis of the expanded d-ring. the x-ray crystal structures of trt14, in complex with substrate or product, and two trt14 homologs, aush and prhc from aspergillus nidulans and ...201728759016
boron tolerance in aspergillus nidulans is sustained by the slta pathway through the slc-family transporters sbta and sbtb.microbial cells interact with the environment by adapting to external changes. signal transduction pathways participate in both sensing and responding in the form of modification of gene expression patterns, enabling cell survival. the filamentous fungal-specific slta pathway regulates tolerance to alkalinity, elevated cation concentrations and, as shown in this work, also stress conditions induced by borates. growth of slta(-) mutants is inhibited by increasing millimolar concentrations of bori ...201728753996
a matter of scale and dimensions: chromatin of chromosome landmarks in the fungi.chromatin and chromosomes of fungi are highly diverse and dynamic, even within species. much of what we know about histone modification enzymes, rna interference, dna methylation, and cell cycle control was first addressed in saccharomyces cerevisiae, schizosaccharomyces pombe, aspergillus nidulans, and neurospora crassa. here, we examine the three landmark regions that are required for maintenance of stable chromosomes and their faithful inheritance, namely, origins of dna replication, telomere ...201728752814
mitotic nuclear pore complex segregation involves nup2 in aspergillus nidulans.transport through nuclear pore complexes (npcs) during interphase is facilitated by the nucleoporin nup2 via its importin α- and ran-binding domains. however, aspergillus nidulans and vertebrate nup2 also locate to chromatin during mitosis, suggestive of mitotic functions. in this study, we report that nup2 is required for mitotic npc inheritance in a. nidulans interestingly, the role of nup2 during mitotic npc segregation is independent of its importin α- and ran-binding domains but relies on a ...201728747316
defensive repertoire of drosophila larvae in response to toxic fungi.chemical warfare including insecticidal secondary metabolites is a well-known strategy for environmental microbes to monopolize a food source. insects in turn have evolved behavioural and physiological defences to eradicate or neutralize the harmful microorganisms. we studied the defensive repertoire of insects in this interference competition by combining behavioural and developmental assays with whole-transcriptome time-series analysis. confrontation with the toxic filamentous fungus aspergill ...201728746736
prevention of melanin formation during aryl alcohol oxidase production under growth-limited conditions using an aspergillus nidulans cell factory.an aspergillus nidulans cell factory was genetically engineered to produce an aryl alcohol oxidase (aao). the cell factory initiated production of melanin when growth-limited conditions were established using stationary plates and shaken flasks. this phenomenon was more pronounced when the strain was cultured in a trickle bed reactor (tbr). this study investigated different approaches to reduce melanin formation in fungal mycelia and liquid medium in order to increase the enzyme production yield ...201728738504
deletion of the cela gene in aspergillus nidulans triggers overexpression of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes.although much progress has been made in the study of cell wall biosynthetic genes in the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, there are still targets awaiting characterization. an example is the gene cela (ania_08444) encoding a putative mixed linkage glucan synthase. to characterize the role of cela, we deleted it in a. nidulans, analyzed the phenotype of the mycelium and performed rna-seq. the strain shows a very strong phenotype, namely "balloons" along the hyphae and aberrant conid ...201728729615
a robust high-throughput fungal biosensor assay for the detection of estrogen activity.estrogenic active compounds are present in a variety of sources and may alter biological functions in vertebrates. therefore, it is crucial to develop innovative analytical systems that allow us to screen a broad spectrum of matrices and deliver fast and reliable results. we present the adaptation and validation of a fungal biosensor for the detection of estrogen activity in cow derived samples and tested the clinical applicability for pregnancy diagnosis in 140 mares and 120 cows. as biosensor ...201728712952
steroid 11-alpha-hydroxylation by the fungi aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus ochraceus.steroids are a group of natural compounds derived from the cyclopentane-perhydro-phenantrene nucleus that have a great interest for the pharmaceutical industries as a consequence of their physiological effects. among their functions are anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, or contraceptive activities. nowadays, microbial transformation of steroid precursors is winning relevance opposite to the chemical synthesis, since it allows for decreasing time, expenses, and environmental pollution. pharma ...201728710635
the gata-type transcription factor csm1 regulates conidiation and secondary metabolism in fusarium fujikuroi.gata-type transcription factors (tfs) such as the nitrogen regulators area and areb, or the light-responsive tfs wc-1 and wc-2, play global roles in fungal growth and development. the conserved gata tf nsdd is known as an activator of sexual development and key repressor of conidiation in aspergillus nidulans, and as light-regulated repressor of macroconidia formation in botrytis cinerea. in the present study, we functionally characterized the nsdd ortholog in fusarium fujikuroi, named csm1. del ...201728694801
sirtuin a regulates secondary metabolite production by aspergillus nidulans.late-stage cultures of filamentous fungi under nutrient starvation produce valuable secondary metabolites such as pharmaceuticals and pigments, as well as deleterious mycotoxins, all of which have remarkable structural diversity and wide-spectrum bioactivity. the fungal mechanisms regulating the synthesis of many of these compounds are not fully understood, but sirtuin a (sira) is a key factor that initiates production of the secondary metabolites, sterigmatocystin and penicillin g, by aspergill ...201728674377
the aspergillus nidulans velvet-interacting protein, vipa, is involved in light-stimulated heme biosynthesis.filamentous fungi are able to differentiate morphologically and adapt the metabolism to internal and external cues. one major regulator is the so-called velvet protein, vea, best studied in aspergillus nidulans. the protein interacts with several other proteins to regulate light sensing, the balance between asexual and sexual development, penicillin biosynthesis or mycotoxin production. here, we characterized a novel vea-interacting protein, vipa. the 334 amino acid long protein comprises a far1 ...201728657694
copper resistance in aspergillus nidulans relies on the pi-type atpase crpa, regulated by the transcription factor acea.copper homeostasis has been extensively studied in mammals, bacteria, and yeast, but it has not been well-documented in filamentous fungi. in this report, we investigated the basis of copper tolerance in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans. three genes involved in copper homeostasis have been characterized. first, crpa the a. nidulans ortholog of candida albicans cacrp1 gene encoding a pi-type atpase was identified. the phenotype of crpa deletion led to a severe sensitivity to cu(+2) toxicity ...201728611736
identification and heterologous production of a benzoyl-primed tricarboxylic acid polyketide intermediate from the zaragozic acid a biosynthetic pathway.zaragozic acid a (1) is a potent cholesterol lowering, polyketide natural product made by various filamentous fungi. the reconstitution of enzymes responsible for the initial steps of the biosynthetic pathway of 1 is accomplished using an engineered fungal heterologous host. these initial steps feature the priming of a benzoic acid starter unit onto a highly reducing polyketide synthase (hrpks), followed by oxaloacetate extension and product release to generate a tricarboxylic acid containing pr ...201728605916
a scalable platform to identify fungal secondary metabolites and their gene clusters.the genomes of filamentous fungi contain up to 90 biosynthetic gene clusters (bgcs) encoding diverse secondary metabolites-an enormous reservoir of untapped chemical potential. however, the recalcitrant genetics, cryptic expression, and unculturability of these fungi prevent scientists from systematically exploiting these gene clusters and harvesting their products. as heterologous expression of fungal bgcs is largely limited to the expression of single or partial clusters, we established a scal ...201728604695
a mechanism for a single nucleotide intron shift.spliceosomal introns can occupy nearby rather than identical positions in orthologous genes (intron sliding or shifting). stwintrons are complex intervening sequences, where an 'internal' intron interrupts one of the sequences essential for splicing, generating after its excision, a newly formed canonical intron defined as 'external'. in one experimentally demonstrated configuration, two alternatively excised internal introns, overlapping by one g, disrupt respectively the donor and the acceptor ...201728595329
expression system for heterologous protein expression in the filamentous fungus aspergillus unguis.heterologous protein expression in filamentous fungi is advantageous, especially in the context of large scale production of high volume low value recombinant proteins. however, such systems are rare and not available in public domain. a novel filamentous fungus - aspergillus unguis nii 08123 was used as host for developing a protein expression system. an expression cassette was assembled using a. nidulans glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase promoter (pgapd), tryptophan synthase transcripti ...201728578805
cop9 signalosome subunit pfcsne regulates secondary metabolism and conidial formation in pestalotiopsis fici.the cop9 signalosome (csn) is a highly conserved multiprotein complex in all eukaryotes and involved in regulation of organism development. in filamentous fungi, several lines of evidence indicate that fungal development and secondary metabolism (sm) are mediated by the fifth subunit of csn, called csne. here we uncover a connection with csne and conidial formation as well as sm regulation in the plant endophytic fungus pestalotiopsis fici. a homology search of the p. fici genome with csne, invo ...201728550524
the lectin chaperone calnexin is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response by regulating ca(2+) homeostasis in aspergillus nidulans.the ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway is crucial for environmental adaptation in fungi. here we show that calnexin, a molecular chaperone located in the endoplasmic reticulum (er), plays an important role in regulating the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([ca(2+)]c) in aspergillus nidulans inactivation of calnexin (clxa) in a. nidulans caused severe defects in hyphal growth and conidiation under er stress caused by the er stress-inducing agent dithiothreitol (dtt) or high temperature. impor ...201728550061
erratum: differential control of asexual development and sterigmatocystin biosynthesis by a novel regulator in aspergillus nidulans. 201728548131
a cryptic pigment biosynthetic pathway uncovered by heterologous expression is essential for conidial development in pestalotiopsis fici.spore pigmentation is very common in the fungal kingdom. the best studied pigment in fungi is melanin which coats the surface of single cell spores. what and how pigments function in a fungal species with multiple cell conidia is poorly understood. here, we identified and deleted a polyketide synthase (pks) gene pfmae and showed that it is essential for multicellular conidial pigmentation and development in a plant endophytic fungus, pestalotiopsis fici. to further characterize the melanin pathw ...201728517364
nmea, a novel efflux transporter specific for nucleobases and nucleosides, contributes to metal resistance in aspergillus nidulans.through minos transposon mutagenesis we obtained a. nidulans mutants resistant to 5-fluorouracil due to insertions into the upstream region of the uncharacterized gene nmea, encoding a major facilitator superfamily (mfs) transporter. minos transpositions increased nmea transcription, which is otherwise extremely low under all conditions tested. to dissect the function of nmea we used strains overexpressing or genetically lacking the nmea gene. strains overexpressing nmea are resistant to toxic p ...201728509393
pulses of ca(2+) coordinate actin assembly and exocytosis for stepwise cell extension.many eukaryotic cells grow by extending their cell periphery in pulses. the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not yet fully understood. here we present a comprehensive model of stepwise cell extension by using the unique tip growth system of filamentous fungi. live-cell imaging analysis, including superresolution microscopy, revealed that the fungus aspergillus nidulans extends the hyphal tip in an oscillatory manner. the amount of f-actin and secretory vesicles (sv) accumulating ...201728507141
structure and function of a broad-specificity chitin deacetylase from aspergillus nidulans fgsc a4.enzymatic conversion of chitin, a β-1,4 linked polymer of n-acetylglucosamine, is of major interest in areas varying from the biorefining of chitin-rich waste streams to understanding how medically relevant fungi remodel their chitin-containing cell walls. although numerous chitinolytic enzymes have been studied in detail, relatively little is known about enzymes capable of deacetylating chitin. we describe the structural and functional characterization of a 237 residue deacetylase (ancda) from ...201728496100
the role of vosa/velb-activated developmental gene vada in aspergillus nidulans.the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans primarily reproduces by forming asexual spores called conidia, the integrity of which is governed by the nf-κb type velvet regulators vosa and velb. the vosa-velb hetero-complex regulates the expression of spore-specific structural and regulatory genes during conidiogenesis. here, we characterize one of the vosa/velb-activated developmental genes, called vada, the expression of which in conidia requires activity of both vosa and velb. vada (an5709) is ...201728481894
sirtuin e is a fungal global transcriptional regulator that determines the transition from the primary growth to the stationary phase.in response to limited nutrients, fungal cells exit the primary growth phase, enter the stationary phase, and cease proliferation. although fundamental to microbial physiology in many environments, the regulation of this transition is poorly understood but likely involves many transcriptional regulators. these may include the sirtuins, which deacetylate acetyllysine residues of histones and epigenetically regulate global transcription. therefore, we investigated the role of a nuclear sirtuin, si ...201728465348
conservation and diversity of the regulators of cellulolytic enzyme genes in ascomycete fungi.in the past decade, various transcriptional activators of cellulolytic enzyme genes have been identified in ascomycete fungi. the regulatory system of cellulolytic enzymes is not only partially conserved, but also significantly diverse. for example, trichoderma reesei has a system distinct from those of aspergillus and neurospora crassa-the former utilizes xyr1 (the aspergillus xlnr ortholog) as the major regulator of cellulolytic enzyme genes, while the latter uses clr-2/clrb/manr orthologs. xl ...201728451846
napa mediates a redox regulation of the antioxidant response, carbon utilization and development in aspergillus nidulans.the redox-regulated transcription factors (tfs) of the bzip ap1 family, such as yeast yap1 and fission yeast pap1, are activated by peroxiredoxin proteins (prxs) to regulate the antioxidant response. previously, aspergillus nidulans mutants lacking the yap1 ortholog napa have been characterized as sensitive to h2o2 and menadione. here we study napa roles in relation to tfs srra and atfa, also involved in oxidant detoxification, showing that these tfs play different roles in oxidative stress resi ...201728424666
interrelationships of vel1 and env1 in light response and development in trichoderma reesei.sexual development is regulated by a complex regulatory mechanism in fungi. for trichoderma reesei, the light response pathway was shown to impact sexual development, particularly through the photoreceptor envoy. moreover, t. reesei communicates chemically with a potential mating partner in its vicinity, a response which is mediated by the velvet family protein vel1 and its impact on secondary metabolism. we therefore studied the regulatory interactions of env1 and vel1 with a focus on sexual de ...201728423024
differential control of asexual development and sterigmatocystin biosynthesis by a novel regulator in aspergillus nidulans.the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans primarily reproduces by forming asexual spores called conidia and produces the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (st), the penultimate precursor of aflatoxins. it has been known that asexual development and st production are tightly co-regulated by various regulatory inputs. here, we report that the novel regulator asla with a c2h2 domain oppositely regulates development and st biosynthesis. nullifying asla resulted in defective conidiation and reduced expres ...201728422127
comparative transcriptome sequence analysis of sporulation-related genes of aspergillus cristatus in response to low and high osmolarity.aspergillus cristatus undergoes sexual and asexual development under conditions of low and high osmotic pressure, respectively. in this study, the expression levels of 107 genes associated with sexual and asexual development were analysed under conditions of low and high osmotic pressure by rna sequencing. the results showed that 37 genes were up-regulated and other genes were down-regulated under conditions of high osmotic pressure, with most of the up-regulated genes associated with asexual de ...201728417188
involvement of a velvet protein clvelb in the regulation of vegetative differentiation, oxidative stress response, secondary metabolism, and virulence in curvularia lunata.the ortholog of aspergillus nidulans velb, which is known as clvelb, was studied to gain a broader insight into the functions of a velvet protein in curvularia lunata. with the expected common and specific functions of clvelb, the deletion of clvelb results in similar though not identical phenotypes. the pathogenicity assays revealed that δclvelb was impaired in colonizing the host tissue, which corresponds to the finding that clvelb controls the production of conidia and the methyl 5-(hydroxyme ...201728393907
hisb as novel selection marker for gene targeting approaches in aspergillus niger.for aspergillus niger, a broad set of auxotrophic and dominant resistance markers is available. however, only few offer targeted modification of a gene of interest into or at a genomic locus of choice, which hampers functional genomics studies. we thus aimed to extend the available set by generating a histidine auxotrophic strain with a characterized hisb locus for targeted gene integration and deletion in a. niger.201728274204
fungal quorum sensing molecules: role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity.when microorganisms live together in high numbers, they need to communicate with each other. to achieve cell-cell communication, microorganisms secrete molecules called quorum-sensing molecules (qsms) that control their biological activities and behaviors. fungi secrete qsms such as farnesol, tyrosol, phenylethanol, and tryptophol. the role of qsms in fungi has been widely studied in both yeasts and filamentous fungi, for example in candida albicans, c. dubliniensis, aspergillus niger, a. nidula ...201626972663
aspergillus mulundensis sp. nov., a new species for the fungus producing the antifungal echinocandin lipopeptides, mulundocandins.the invalidly published name aspergillus sydowii var. mulundensis was proposed for a strain of aspergillus that produced new echinocandin metabolites designated as the mulundocadins. reinvestigation of this strain (y-30462=dsmz 5745) using phylogenetic, morphological, and metabolic data indicated that it is a distinct and novel species of aspergillus sect. nidulantes. the taxonomic novelty, aspergillus mulundensis, is introduced for this historically important echinocandin-producing strain. the ...201626464011
an efficient arabinoxylan-debranching α-l-arabinofuranosidase of family gh62 from aspergillus nidulans contains a secondary carbohydrate binding site.an α-l-arabinofuranosidase of gh62 from aspergillus nidulans fgsc a4 (anabf62a-m2,3) has an unusually high activity towards wheat arabinoxylan (wax) (67 u/mg; k cat = 178/s, k m = 4.90 mg/ml) and arabinoxylooligosaccharides (axos) with degrees of polymerisation (dp) 3-5 (37-80 u/mg), but about 50 times lower activity for sugar beet arabinan and 4-nitrophenyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside. α-1,2- and α-1,3-linked arabinofuranoses are released from monosubstituted, but not from disubstituted, xylose in wa ...201626946172
proteomics of survival structures of fungal pathogens.fungal pathogens are causal agents of numerous human, animal, and plant diseases. they employ various infection modes to overcome host defense systems. infection mechanisms of different fungi have been subjected to many comprehensive studies. these investigations have been facilitated by the development of various '-omics' techniques, and proteomics has one of the leading roles in this regard. fungal conidia and sclerotia could be considered the most important structures for pathogenesis as thei ...201626777984
laea negatively regulates dothistromin production in the pine needle pathogen dothistroma septosporum.in filamentous fungi both pathway-specific and global regulators regulate genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. laea is a global regulator that was named for its mutant phenotype, loss of aflr expression, due to its effect on the aflatoxin-pathway regulator aflr in aspergillus spp. the pine needle pathogen dothistroma septosporum produces a polyketide virulence factor, dothistromin, that is chemically related to aflatoxin and whose pathway genes are also regulated by an or ...201627818262
comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the fuzhuan brick tea-fermentation fungus aspergillus cristatus.aspergillus cristatus is the dominant fungus involved in the fermentation of chinese fuzhuan brick tea. aspergillus cristatus is a homothallic fungus that undergoes a sexual stage without asexual conidiation when cultured in hypotonic medium. the asexual stage is induced by a high salt concentration, which completely inhibits sexual development. the taxon is therefore appropriate for investigating the mechanisms of asexual and sexual reproduction in fungi. in this study, de novo genome sequencin ...201627267057
diversity, molecular phylogeny and fingerprint profiles of airborne aspergillus species using random amplified polymorphic dna.in the present study, diversity and phylogenetic relationship of aspergillus species isolated from tehran air was studied using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd)-polymerase chain reaction (rapd-pcr). thirty-eight aspergillus isolates belonging to 12 species i.e. a. niger (28.94 %, 11 isolates), a. flavus (18.42 %, 7 isolates), a. tubingensis (13.15 %, 5 isolates), a. japonicus (10.52 %, 4 isolates), a. ochraceus (10.52 %, 4 isolates), and 2.63 %, 1 isolate from each a. nidulans, a. amstelo ...201627116962
functional characterization of the aspergillus nidulans glucosylceramide pathway reveals that lcb δ8-desaturation and c9-methylation are relevant to filamentous growth, lipid raft localization and psd1 defensin activity.c8-desaturated and c9-methylated glucosylceramide (glccer) is a fungal-specific sphingolipid that plays an important role in the growth and virulence of many species. in this work, we investigated the contribution of aspergillus nidulans sphingolipid δ8-desaturase (sdea), sphingolipid c9-methyltransferases (smta/smtb) and glucosylceramide synthase (gcsa) to fungal phenotypes, sensitivity to psd1 defensin and galleria mellonella virulence. we showed that δsdea accumulated c8-saturated and unmethy ...201627479571
carbon regulation of environmental ph by secreted small molecules that modulate pathogenicity in phytopathogenic fungi.fruit pathogens can contribute to the acidification or alkalinization of the host environment. this capability has been used to divide fungal pathogens into acidifying and/or alkalinizing classes. here, we show that diverse classes of fungal pathogens-colletotrichum gloeosporioides, penicillium expansum, aspergillus nidulans and fusarium oxysporum-secrete small ph-affecting molecules. these molecules modify the environmental ph, which dictates acidic or alkaline colonizing strategies, and induce ...201626666972
the creb deubiquitinating enzyme does not directly target the crea repressor protein in aspergillus nidulans.ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathways are now recognized as key components of gene regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotes. the major transcriptional repressor for carbon catabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans is crea, and mutational analysis led to the suggestion that a regulatory ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathway is involved. a key unanswered question is if and how this pathway, comprising creb (deubiquitinating enzyme) and hula (ubiquitin ligase) and other proteins, is involved in ...201627878624
role of hxkc, a mitochondrial hexokinase-like protein, in fungal programmed cell death.apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death (pcd) that occurs during animal development and is also triggered by a variety of signals including nutrient or oxidative stress, hypoxia, dna damage, viral infection and oncogenic transformation. though apoptotic-like pcd also occurs in plants and fungi, genes encoding several of the key players in mammalian apoptosis (p53 and bh-domain proteins) have not been identified in these kingdoms. in this report we investigated whether hxkc, a mitochondrial ...201627836782
the mechanism of peroxisome motility in filamentous fungi.peroxisomes (pos) are an essential part of the fungal cell's inventory. they are involved in cellular lipid homeostasis, reactive oxygen metabolism and in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. these functions are thought to require frequent organelle-organelle interactions and the even-distribution of pos in fungal hypha. recent work in the basidiomycete ustilago maydis and the ascomycete aspergillus nidulans reveals a crucial role of early endosomes (ees) in the dynamic behavior of pos requir ...201627825929
acute hepatic necrosis and death in a subadult southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) associated with exposure to sterigmatocystin in forage contaminated with aspergillus nidulans.a young male southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum), which was resident in a zoo as part of a multi-rhinoceros group, died suddenly. necropsy and histopathological findings supported a diagnosis of death from acute hepatic necrosis. the microscopic distribution of liver lesions was suggestive of hepatotoxicosis. further investigation revealed potential exposure to a mycotoxin, sterigmatocystin, present in spoiled lucerne hay contaminated with aspergillus nidulans. it was concluded that ...201627785798
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