TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
vea and mvla repression of the cryptic orsellinic acid gene cluster in aspergillus nidulans involves histone 3 acetylation.a perplexing aspect of fungal secondary metabolite gene clusters is that most clusters remain 'silent' under common laboratory growth conditions where activation is obtained through gene manipulation or encounters with environmental signals. few proteins have been found involved in repression of silent clusters. through multicopy suppressor mutagenesis, we have identified a novel cluster suppressor in aspergillus nidulans, mvla (modulator of vea loss). genetic assessment of mvla mutants revealed ...201323841751
rrma regulates the stability of specific transcripts in response to both nitrogen source and oxidative stress.differential regulation of transcript stability is an effective means by which an organism can modulate gene expression. a well-characterized example is glutamine signalled degradation of specific transcripts in aspergillus nidulans. in the case of area, which encodes a wide-domain transcription factor mediating nitrogen metabolite repression, the signal is mediated through a highly conserved region of the 3' utr. utilizing this rna sequence we isolated rrma, an rna recognition motif protein. di ...201323841692
role of the zinc finger transcription factor slta in morphogenesis and sterigmatocystin biosynthesis in the fungus aspergillus nidulans.potassium, a widely accepted macronutrient, is vital for many physiological processes such as regulation of cell volume, maintenance of intracellular ph, synthesis of proteins and activation of enzymes in filamentous fungi. another cation, calcium, plays an essential role in many signaling processes from lower to higher eukaryotes. imbalance in the intracellular ionic levels of potassium or calcium causes adverse effects on cell growth, morphology and development, and eventually death. previous ...201323840895
deletion of creb in aspergillus oryzae increases secreted hydrolytic enzyme activity.aspergillus oryzae has been used in the food and beverage industry for centuries, and industrial strains have been produced by multiple rounds of selection. targeted gene deletion technology is particularly useful for strain improvement in such strains, particularly when they do not have a well-characterized meiotic cycle. phenotypes of an aspergillus nidulans strain null for the creb deubiquitinating enzyme include effects on growth and repression, including increased activity levels of various ...201323835170
the aspergillus nidulans peripheral er: disorganization by er stress and persistence during mitosis.the genetically amenable fungus aspergillus nidulans is well suited for cell biology studies involving the secretory pathway and its relationship with hyphal tip growth by apical extension. we exploited live-cell epifluorescence microscopy of the er labeled with the translocon component sec63, endogenously tagged with gfp, to study the organization of 'secretory' er domains. the sec63 a. nidulans er network includes brightly fluorescent peripheral strands and more faintly labeled nuclear envelop ...201323826221
xylh encodes a xylose/h+ symporter from the highly related yeast species debaryomyces fabryi and debaryomyces hansenii.the closely related yeasts debaryomyces fabryi and debaryomyces hansenii are excellent xylose consumers. we previously described the activity of a high-affinity xylose/h(+) symport from an industrial strain of d. hansenii subsequently reclassified as d. fabryi. we now report the identification of the gene encoding this permease, ay347871.2. this was retrieved from d. fabryi gdna using a degenerate primer pcr strategy, based on conserved regions from the amino acid sequences of three well-charact ...201323809840
functional characterisation of the non-essential protein kinases and phosphatases regulating aspergillus nidulans hydrolytic enzyme production.despite recent advances in the understanding of lignocellulolytic enzyme regulation, less is known about how different carbon sources are sensed and the signaling cascades that result in the adaptation of cellular metabolism and hydrolase secretion. therefore, the role played by non-essential protein kinases (npk) and phosphatases (npp) in the sensing of carbon and/or energetic status was investigated in the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.201323800192
a structural model of ppoa derived from saxs-analysis-implications for substrate plants and mammals, oxylipins may be synthesized via multi step processes that consist of dioxygenation and isomerization of the intermediately formed hydroperoxy fatty acid. these processes are typically catalyzed by two distinct enzyme classes: dioxygenases and cytochrome p450 enzymes. in ascomycetes biosynthesis of oxylipins may proceed by a similar two-step pathway. an important difference, however, is that both enzymatic activities may be combined in a single bifunctional enzyme. these t ...201323797010
allopurinol and xanthine use different translocation mechanisms and trajectories in the fungal uapa aspergillus nidulans uapa is a h(+)-driven transporter specific for xanthine, uric acid and several analogues. here, genetic and physiological evidence is provided showing that allopurinol is a high-affinity, low-capacity, substrate for uapa. surprisingly however, transport kinetic measurements showed that, uniquely among all recognized uapa substrates, allopurinol is transported by apparent facilitated diffusion and exhibits a paradoxical effect on the transport of physiological substrates. ...201323791789
metformin's performance in in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicology studies.metformin is a hypoglycemiant drug prescribed for the treatment and control of the type 2 diabetes mellitus. recently, the potential efficacy of this antidiabetic drug as an anticancer agent has been demonstrated in various mammalian cancer cells. this report evaluates the mutagenic as well as the recombinogenic potentials of the metformin drug in therapeutically relevant plasma concentrations (12.5 µm, 25.0 µm or 50.0 µm). since the loss of heterozygosity is a process associated with carcinogen ...201323788173
immobilization and biochemical properties of the enantioselective recombinant nstci esterase of aspergillus nidulans.the recombinant nstci a. nidulans esterase was adsorbed on accurel mp1000, where protein yield and immobilization efficiency were 42.48% and 81.94%, respectively. storage stability test at 4°c and rt showed 100% of residual activity after 40 days at both temperatures. the biocatalyst retains more than 70% of its initial activity after 3 cycles of repeated use. biochemical properties of this new biocatalyst were obtained. maximum activity was achieved at ph 11 and 30°c, while the best stability w ...201323781330
phospho-regulation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of crza in response to calcium and alkaline-ph stress in aspergillus nidulans.tolerance to abiotic stresses by microorganisms require of appropriate signalling and regulatory pathways. calcineurin phosphatases mediate calcium-dependent signalling pathways which are widely distributed among phylogeny. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcineurin mediates the post-translational modification of downstream effectors, most of them transcription factors, being the best-characterized calcineurin-regulated zinc-finger factor 1, crz1p. here we study the signalling process of crza, a f ...201323772954
analysis of a conserved cellulase transcriptional regulator reveals inducer-independent production of cellulolytic enzymes in neurospora crassa.cellulose is recalcitrant to deconstruction to glucose for use in fermentation strategies for biofuels and chemicals derived from lignocellulose. in neurospora crassa, the transcriptional regulator, clr-2, is required for cellulolytic gene expression and cellulose deconstruction. to assess conservation and divergence of cellulase gene regulation between fungi from different ecological niches, we compared clr-2 function with its ortholog (clrb) in the distantly related species, aspergillus nidula ...201323766336
the spt-ada-gcn5 acetyltransferase (saga) complex in aspergillus nidulans.a mutation screen in aspergillus nidulans uncovered mutations in the acdx gene that led to altered repression by acetate, but not by glucose. acdx of a. nidulans is highly conserved with spt8p of saccharomyces cerevisiae, and since spt8p is a component of the spt-ada-gcn5 acetyltransferase (saga) complex, the saga complex may have a role in acetate repression in a. nidulans. we used a bioinformatic approach to identify genes encoding most members of the saga complex in a. nidulans, and a proteom ...201323762321
co-immobilization of fungal endo-xylanase and α-l-arabinofuranosidase in glyoxyl agarose for improved hydrolysis of arabinoxylan.plant cell-wall arabinoxylans have a complex structure that requires the action of a pool of debranching (arabinofuranosidases) and depolymerizing enzymes (endo-xylanase). two aspergillus nidulans strains over-secreting endo-xylanase and arabinofuranosidase were inoculated in defined 2% maltose-minimum medium resulting in the simultaneously production of these enzymes. to study the synergistic hydrolysis was used arabinoxylan with 41% of arabinose and 59% of xylose residues. thus, it was adopted ...201323756760
uridylation prevents 3' trimming of oligoadenylated mrnas.degradation of mrnas is usually initiated by deadenylation, the shortening of long poly(a) tails to oligo(a) tails of 12-15 as. deadenylation leads to decapping and to subsequent 5' to 3' degradation by xrn proteins, or alternatively 3' to 5' degradation by the exosome. decapping can also be induced by uridylation as shown for the non-polyadenylated histone mrnas in humans and for several mrnas in schizosaccharomyces pombe and aspergillus nidulans. here we report a novel role for uridylation in ...201323748567
highly glucose tolerant β-glucosidase from aspergillus unguis: nii 08123 for enhanced hydrolysis of biomass.aspergillus unguis nii-08123, a filamentous fungus isolated from soil, was found to produce β-glucosidase (bgl) activity with high glucose tolerance. cultivation of the fungus in different carbon sources resulted in the secretion of different isoforms of the enzyme. a low molecular weight isoform, which retained ~60 % activity in the presence of 1.5 m glucose, was purified to homogeneity and the purified enzyme exhibited a temperature and ph optima of 60 °c and 6, respectively. the k(m) and v(ma ...201323732694
strain improvement by overexpression of the laea gene in monascus pilosus for the production of monascus-fermented rice.monascus species have been used to produce fermented rice called monascus-fermented rice (mfr). to improve a monascus strain via activation of secondary metabolite (sm) gene clusters for use in the production of mfr, we overexpressed an ortholog of the laea gene, which encodes a global positive regulator of secondary metabolism under the control of the strong heterologous aspergillus nidulans alca promoter in monascus pilosus. the oe::laea transformant produced more sms, including those not dete ...201323727802
live-cell imaging of aspergillus nidulans autophagy: rab1 dependence, golgi independence and er involvement.we exploited the amenability of the fungus aspergillus nidulans to genetics and live-cell microscopy to investigate autophagy. upon nitrogen starvation, gfp-atg8-containing pre-autophagosomal puncta give rise to cup-shaped phagophores and circular (0.9-μm diameter) autophagosomes that disappear in the vicinity of the vacuoles after their shape becomes irregular and their gfp-atg8 fluorescence decays. this 'autophagosome cycle' gives rise to characteristic cone-shaped traces in kymographs. autoph ...201323722157
acute inactivation of the aspergillus nidulans golgi membrane fusion machinery: correlation of apical extension arrest and tip swelling with cisternal disorganization.the mechanisms governing traffic across the golgi are incompletely understood. we studied, by live-cell microscopy, the consequences of disorganizing the aspergillus nidulans golgi, using an extended set of fluorescent protein markers to resolve early from late cisternae. the early golgi syntaxin sedv(sed) (5) and the rabo(rab) (1) regulatory gtpase play essential roles in secretion, cooperating in the er-golgi interface. following a temperature shift-up 'on-the-stage', hyphae carrying engineere ...201323714354
molecular genetic characterization of the biosynthesis cluster of a prenylated isoindolinone alkaloid aspernidine a in aspergillus nidulans.aspernidine a is a prenylated isoindolinone alkaloid isolated from the model fungus aspergillus nidulans. a genome-wide kinase knockout library of a. nidulans was examined, and it was found that a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, mpka, deletion strain produces aspernidine a. targeted gene deletions were performed in the kinase deletion background to identify the gene cluster for aspernidine a biosynthesis. intermediates were isolated from mutant strains which provided information about the ...201323706169
neurospora crassa nkin2, a kinesin-3 motor, transports early endosomes and is required for polarized growth.biological motors are molecular nanomachines, which convert chemical energy into mechanical forces. the combination of mechanoenzymes with structural components, such as the cytoskeleton, enables eukaryotic cells to overcome entropy, generate molecular gradients, and establish polarity. hyphae of filamentous fungi are among the most polarized cells, and polarity defects are most obvious. here, we studied the role of the kinesin-3 motor, nkin2, in neurospora crassa. we found that nkin2 localizes ...201323687116
differences in composition of honey samples and their impact on the antimicrobial activities against drug multiresistant bacteria and pathogenic fungi.antibiotic multiresistant microbes represent a challenging problem. because honey has a potent antibacterial property, the antimicrobial effects of different honey samples against multiresistant pathogens and their compositions were investigated.201323684665
genetic bypass of aspergillus nidulans crza function in calcium homeostasis.after dephosphorylation by the phosphatase calcineurin, the fungal transcription factor crza enters the nucleus and activates the transcription of genes responsible for calcium homeostasis and many other calcium-regulated activities. a lack of crza confers calcium-sensitivity to the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. to further understand calcium signaling in filamentous fungi and to identify genes that interact genetically with crza, we selected for mutations that were able to suppress cr ...201323665873
base composition and nucleosome density in exonic and intronic regions in genes of the filamentous ascomycetes aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus oryzae.we sequenced nucleosomal dna fragments of the filamentous ascomycetes aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus oryzae and then mapped those sequences on their genomes. we compared the gc content and nucleosome density in the exonic and intronic regions in the genes of a. nidulans and a. oryzae. although the gc content and nucleosome density in the exonic regions tended to be higher than those in the intronic regions, the difference in the distribution of the gc content was more notable than that of ...201323664982
identification of metabolic pathways influenced by the g-protein coupled receptors gprb and gprd in aspergillus nidulans.heterotrimeric g-protein-mediated signaling pathways play a pivotal role in transmembrane signaling in eukaryotes. our main aim was to identify signaling pathways regulated by a. nidulans gprb and gprd g-protein coupled receptors (gpcrs). when these two null mutant strains were compared to the wild-type strain, the δgprb mutant showed an increased protein kinase a (pka) activity while growing in glucose 1% and during starvation. in contrast, the δgprd has a much lower pka activity upon starvatio ...201323658706
conf and conj contribute to conidia germination and stress response in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.light induces various responses in fungi including formation of asexual and sexual reproductive structures. the formation of conidia in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans is regulated by red and blue light receptors. expression of conidia associated con genes, which are widely spread in the fungal kingdom, increases upon exposure to light. we have characterized the light-inducible conf and conj genes of a. nidulans which are homologs of con-6 and con-10 of neurospora crassa. con genes a ...201323644150
β-glucan synthase gene overexpression and β-glucans overproduction in pleurotus ostreatus using promoter swapping.mushroom β-glucans are potent immunological stimulators in medicine, but their productivities are very low. in this study, we successfully improved its production by promoter engineering in pleurotus ostreatus. the promoter for β-1,3-glucan synthase gene (gls) was replaced by the promoter of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of aspergillus nidulans. the homologous recombination fragment for swapping gls promoter comprised five segments, which were fused by two rounds of combined touc ...201323637884
pyrg is required for maintaining stable cellular uracil level and normal sporulation pattern under excess uracil stress in aspergillus nidulans.tight control of the intracellular uracil level is believed to be important to reduce the occurrence of uracil incorporation into dna. the pyrg gene of aspergillus nidulans encodes orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase, which catalyzes the conversion of orotidine monophosphate (omp) to uridine monophosphate (ump). in this study, we found that pyrg is critical for maintaining uracil at a low concentration in a. nidulans cells in the presence of exogenous uracil. excess uracil and its derivatives h ...201323633078
an efficient system for heterologous expression of secondary metabolite genes in aspergillus nidulans.fungal secondary metabolites (sms) are an important source of medically valuable compounds. genome projects have revealed that fungi have many sm biosynthetic gene clusters that are not normally expressed. to access these potentially valuable, cryptic clusters, we have developed a heterologous expression system in aspergillus nidulans . we have developed an efficient system for amplifying genes from a target fungus, placing them under control of a regulatable promoter, transferring them into a. ...201323621425
comprehensive annotation of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes and gene clusters of aspergillus nidulans, a. fumigatus, a. niger and a. oryzae.secondary metabolite production, a hallmark of filamentous fungi, is an expanding area of research for the aspergilli. these compounds are potent chemicals, ranging from deadly toxins to therapeutic antibiotics to potential anti-cancer drugs. the genome sequences for multiple aspergilli have been determined, and provide a wealth of predictive information about secondary metabolite production. sequence analysis and gene overexpression strategies have enabled the discovery of novel secondary metab ...201323617571
vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess due to aspergillus nidulans resulting in spinal cord compression: case report and literature review.vertebral osteomyelitis caused by aspergillus nidulans is rare and usually affects immunocompromised patients. this report presents a case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis with epidural abscesses due to a. nidulans in a 40-year-old immunocompetent female who presented with back pain, numbness and weakness of both lower limbs. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated osteomyelitis involving the thoracic (t)1-t3 vertebral bodies with epidural abscesses, resulting in spinal compression. the patie ...201323569017
proteomic alterations induced by ionic liquids in aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa.this study constitutes the first attempt to understand at the proteomic level the fungal response to ionic liquid stress. ascomycota are able to grow in media supplemented with high concentrations of an ionic liquid, which, in turn, lead to major alterations in the fungal metabolic footprint. herein, we analysed the differential accumulation of mycelial proteins in aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa after their exposure to two of the most commonly used ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylimid ...201324120530
involvement of the anucleate primary sterigmata protein fgapsb in vegetative differentiation, asexual development, nuclear migration, and virulence in fusarium graminearum.the protein apsb has been shown to play critical roles in the migration and positioning of nuclei and in the development of conidiophores in aspergillus nidulans. the functions of apsb in fusarium graminearum, a causal agent of fusarium head blight in china, are largely unknown. in this study, we used the blastp program at the broad institute to identify fgapsb, an f. graminearum homolog of a. nidulansapsb. the functions of fgapsb were evaluated by constructing a deletion mutant of fgapsb, desig ...201324117691
elucidation of substrate specificity in aspergillus nidulans udp-galactose-4-epimerase.the frequency of invasive fungal infections has rapidly increased in recent years. current clinical treatments are experiencing decreased potency due to severe host toxicity and the emergence of fungal drug resistance. as such, new targets and their corresponding synthetic pathways need to be explored for drug development purposes. in this context, galactofuranose residues, which are employed in fungal cell wall construction, but are notably absent in animals, represent an appealing target. here ...201324116166
penicillium decumbens brla extensively regulates secondary metabolism and functionally associates with the expression of cellulase genes.penicillium decumbens has been used in the industrial production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in china for more than 15 years. conidiation is essential for most industrial fungi because conidia are used as starters in the first step of fermentation. to investigate the mechanism of conidiation in p. decumbens, we generated mutants defective in two central regulators of conidiation, flug and brla. deletion of flug resulted in neither "fluffy" phenotype nor alteration in conidiation, indicating pos ...201324113825
the cell-end marker teaa and the microtubule polymerase alpa contribute to microtubule guidance at the hyphal tip cortex of aspergillus nidulans to provide polarity the absence of landmark proteins, hyphae of aspergillus nidulans lose their direction of growth and show a zigzag growth pattern. here, we show that the cell-end marker protein teaa is important for localizing the growth machinery at hyphal tips. the central position of teaa at the tip correlated with the convergence of the microtubule (mt) ends to a single point. conversely, in the absence of teaa, the mts often failed to converge to a single point at the cortex. further analysis suggested a ...201324101725
4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolone derivatives from aspergillus nidulans ma-143, an endophytic fungus isolated from the mangrove plant rhizophora stylosa.six new 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolone derivatives (1-6) along with the related aflaquinolone a (7) were isolated and identified from the cultures of aspergillus nidulans ma-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the fresh leaves of the marine mangrove plant rhizophora stylosa. their structures including absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic analysis and electronic circular dichroism experiments, and the structure of compound 1 was confirmed by single-crystal x-ray crystallogr ...201324099304
bzip transcription factor smjlb1 regulates autophagy-related genes smatg8 and smatg4 and is required for fruiting-body development and vegetative growth in sordaria macrospora.autophagy is a precisely controlled degradation process in eukaryotic cells, during which the bulk of the cytoplasm is engulfed by a double membrane vesicle, the autophagosome. fusion of the autophagosome with the vacuole leads to breakdown of its contents, such as proteins and organelles, and the recycling of nutrients. earlier studies of autophagic genes of the core autophagic machinery in the filamentous ascomycete sordaria macrospora elucidated the impact of autophagy on fungal viability, ve ...201324095659
novel and cost-effective 6-plex isobaric tagging reagent, diart, is effective for identification and relative quantification of complex protein mixtures using pqd fragmentation.deuterium isobaric amine reactive tag (diart) reagents facilitate relative quantification during proteomic analysis in a functionally similar manner to commercially available isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (itraq) and tandem mass tag (tmt) reagents. in contrast to itraq and tmt, diart reagents incorporate deuterium isotopes which significantly reduce the number of required synthesis steps and hence have potential to significantly reduce reagent production cost. we examined t ...201324078244
fungal metabolic plasticity and sexual development mediate induced resistance to arthropod fungivory.prey organisms do not tolerate predator attack passively but react with a multitude of inducible defensive strategies. although inducible defence strategies are well known in plants attacked by herbivorous insects, induced resistance of fungi against fungivorous animals is largely unknown. resistance to fungivory is thought to be mediated by chemical properties of fungal tissue, i.e. by production of toxic secondary metabolites. however, whether fungi change their secondary metabolite compositio ...201324068353
the putative c2h2 transcription factor mtfa is a novel regulator of secondary metabolism and morphogenesis in aspergillus nidulans.secondary metabolism in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans is controlled by the conserved global regulator vea, which also governs morphological differentiation. among the secondary metabolites regulated by vea is the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (st). the presence of vea is necessary for the biosynthesis of this carcinogenic compound. we identified a revertant mutant able to synthesize st intermediates in the absence of vea. the point mutation occurred at the coding region of a gene encoding a ...201324066102
in situ analysis of apoptosis in aspergillus nidulans with ethidium bromide and acridine orange.apoptosis and necrosis are among several types of cell death. we stained the nuclei of aspergillus nidulans grown in micro-colonies with ethidium bromide and acridine orange to detect in situ apoptosis. suspensions of conidia from 5-day-old colonies of the a. nidulans strains bia1methg1, g422, clc100, and clb3 were each put into two tubes. the suspension of one tube was irradiated with ultraviolet light for 20 s, whereas the other tube was not exposed to irradiation. the two suspensions were ino ...201324065645
abaa regulates conidiogenesis in the ascomycete fungus fusarium graminearum.fusarium graminearum (teleomorph gibberella zeae) is a prominent pathogen that infects major cereal crops such as wheat, barley, and maize. both sexual (ascospores) and asexual (conidia) spores are produced in f. graminearum. since conidia are responsible for secondary infection in disease development, our objective of the present study was to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in f. graminearum based on the framework previously described in aspergillus nidulans. in this s ...201324039821
the mpkb map kinase plays a role in autolysis and conidiation of aspergillus nidulans.the mpkb gene of aspergillus nidulans encodes a map kinase homologous to fus3p of saccharomyces cerevisiae which is involved in conjugation process. mpkb is required for completing the sexual development at the anastomosis and post-karyogamy stages. the mpkb deletion strain could produce conidia under the repression condition of conidiation such as sealing and even in the submerged culture concomitant with persistent brla expression, implying that mpkb might have a role in timely regulation of b ...201324161728
fatty acids with in vitro binding affinity for human opioid receptors from the fungus emericella nidulans.bioassay-guided fractionation of the etoac extracts of the epiphytic fungus emericella nidulans resulted in the isolation of a mixture of two fatty acids. this mixture showed 98% binding affinity to human δ opioid receptor. these two fatty acids were identified as palmitic (pam), 1, and linoleic acids (lna), 2, by 1d nmr as well as by gc/ms analysis, after their methylation. we found that different ratio mixtures of 1 and 2 showed variations in selective binding activities to human δ opioid rece ...201324147790
cost-effective isobaric tagging for quantitative phosphoproteomics using diart reagents.we describe the use of an isobaric tagging reagent, deuterium isobaric amine reactive tag (diart), for quantitative phosphoproteomic experiments. using diart tagged custom mixtures of two phosphorylated peptides from alpha casein and their non-phosphorylated counterparts, we demonstrate the compatibility of diart with tio2 affinity purification of phosphorylated peptides. comparison of theoretical vs. experimental reporter ion ratios reveals accurate quantification of phosphorylated peptides ove ...201324129742
transcriptome analysis of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans directed to the global identification of promoters.the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans has been a tractable model organism for cell biology and genetics for over 60 years. it is among a large number of aspergilli whose genomes have been sequenced since 2005, including medically and industrially important species. in order to advance our knowledge of its biology and increase its utility as a genetic model by improving gene annotation we sequenced the transcriptome of a. nidulans with a focus on 5' end analysis.201324299161
development of a pyrg mutant of aspergillus oryzae strain s1 as a host for the production of heterologous proteins.the ease with which auxotrophic strains and genes that complement them can be manipulated, as well as the stability of auxotrophic selection systems, are amongst the advantages of using auxotrophic markers to produce heterologous proteins. most auxotrophic markers in aspergillus oryzae originate from chemical or physical mutagenesis that may yield undesirable mutations along with the mutation of interest. an auxotrophic a. oryzae strain s1 was generated by deleting the orotidine-5'-monophosphate ...201324381522
cytoplasmic dynamics of the general nuclear import machinery in apically growing syncytial cells.karyopherins are transporters involved in the bidirectional, selective and active transport of macromolecules through nuclear pores. importin-β1 is the paradigm of karyopherins and, together with its cargo-adapter importin-α, mediates the general nuclear import pathway. here we show the existence of different cellular pools of both importin-α and -β1 homologues, kapa and kapb, in the coenocytic ascomycete aspergillus nidulans. fluorescence analysis of haploid and diploid strains expressing kapb: ...201324376868
sensitivity of aspergillus nidulans to the cellulose synthase inhibitor dichlobenil: insights from wall-related genes' expression and ultrastructural hyphal morphologies.the fungal cell wall constitutes an important target for the development of antifungal drugs, because of its central role in morphogenesis, development and determination of fungal-specific molecular features. fungal walls are characterized by a network of interconnected glycoproteins and polysaccharides, namely α-, β-glucans and chitin. cell walls promptly and dynamically respond to environmental stimuli by a signaling mechanism, which triggers, among other responses, modulations in wall biosynt ...201324312197
intestinal retransplant in a patient after fungal sepsis: considerations and adolescent female received an isolated intestinal transplant. she developed severe exfoliative rejection and required complete enterectomy. the patient developed a septic hip and lung lesions with biopsy-proven aspergillus nidulans and was treated with caspofungin, ambiosome, and voriconizole. after completing a year of treatment and extensive physical therapy, the patient requested retransplant. the case was presented to the ethics committee, which determined that the patient demonstrated un ...201324311401
a p53-like transcription factor similar to ndt80 controls the response to nutrient stress in the filamentous fungus, aspergillus nidulans.the aspergillus nidulans xprg gene encodes a putative transcriptional activator that is a member of the ndt80 family in the p53-like superfamily of proteins. previous studies have shown that xprg controls the production of extracellular proteases in response to starvation. we undertook transcriptional profiling to investigate whether xprg has a wider role as a global regulator of the carbon nutrient stress response. our microarray data showed that the expression of a large number of genes, inclu ...201324358888
assessing the effects of light on differentiation and virulence of the plant pathogen botrytis cinerea: characterization of the white collar complex.organisms are exposed to a tough environment, where acute daily challenges, like light, can strongly affect several aspects of an individual's physiology, including pathogenesis. while several fungal models have been widely employed to understand the physiological and molecular events associated with light perception, various other agricultural-relevant fungi still remain, in terms of their responsiveness to light, in the dark. the fungus botrytis cinerea is an aggressive pathogen able to cause ...201324391918
a putative apses transcription factor is necessary for normal growth and development of aspergillus nidulans.the nsdd gene encoding a gata type transcription factor positively controls sexual development in aspergillus nidulans. according to microarray data, 20 genes that were upregulated by deleting nsdd during various life cycle stages were randomly selected and deleted for functional analysis. none of the mutants showed apparent changes in growth or development compared with those of the wild-type except the an3154 gene that encodes a putative apses transcription factor and is an ortholog of sacchar ...201324385358
topical application of preparations containing dna repair enzymes prevents ultraviolet-induced telomere shortening and c-fos proto-oncogene hyperexpression in human skin: an experimental pilot study.the exposure to ultraviolet radiation (uvr) is one of the most important risk factors for skin aging and increases the risk of malignant transformation. telomere shortening and an altered expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos are among the key molecular mechanisms associated with photoaging and tumorigenesis. photolyase from a. nidulans and endonuclease from m. luteus are xenogenic dna repair enzymes which can reverse the molecular events associated with skin aging and carcinogenosis caused by ...201324002149
engineering fungal nonreducing polyketide synthase by heterologous expression and domain swapping.we reannotated the a. niger nr-pks gene, e_gw1_19.204, and its downstream r domain gene, est_gwplus_c_190476, as a single gene which we named dtba. heterologous expression of dtba in a. nidulans demonstrated that dtba protein produces two polyketides, 2,4-dihydroxy-3,5,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde (1) and 6-ethyl-2,4-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde (2). generation of dtbaδr+te chimeric pkss by swapping the dtba r domain with the ausa (austinol biosynthesis) or anid_06448 te domain enabled the prod ...201323368695
stabilizing the heterologously expressed uric acid-xanthine transporter uapa from the lower eukaryote aspergillus nidulans.despite detailed genetic and mutagenic analysis and a recent high-resolution structure of a bacterial member of the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat) family, understanding of the mechanism of action of eukaryotic nats is limited. preliminary studies successfully expressed and purified wild-type uapa to high homogeneity; however, the protein was extremely unstable, degrading almost completely after 48 h at 4°c. in an attempt to increase uapa stability we generated a number of single point mu ...201322694048
functional analysis of abp1p-interacting proteins involved in endocytosis of the mcc component in aspergillus oryzae.we have investigated the functions of three endocytosis-related proteins in the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae. yeast two-hybrid screening using the endocytic marker protein aoabp1 (a.oryzae homolog of saccharomyces cerevisiae abp1p) as a bait identified four interacting proteins named aip (aoabp1 interacting proteins). in mature hyphae, egfp (enhanced green fluorescent protein) fused to aips colocalized with aoabp1 at the hyphal tip region and the plasma membrane, suggesting that aips fu ...201323597630
interactions between naturally occurring antifungal agents.pairwise interactions between four antifungal compounds were studied. the β-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor echinocandin b (ecb) showed synergistic effect with the cell wall hydrolase chib chitinase and enga β-1,3-glucanase on saccharomyces cerevisiae, candida albicans, aspergillus rugulosus and a. fumigatus. the antifungal protein of penicillium chrysogenum (paf) did not influence the antifungal activity of chib or enga, but showed antagonistic effect with ecb on a. nidulans, a. rugulosus and a. ...201324275596
light regulation on growth, development, and secondary metabolism of marine-derived filamentous fungi.effects of different light conditions on development, growth, and secondary metabolism of three marine-derived filamentous fungi were investigated. darkness irritated sexual development of aspergillus glaucus hb1-19, while white, red, and blue lights improved its asexual behavior. the red and blue lights improved asexual stroma formation of xylaria sp. (no. 2508), but the darkness and white light inhibited it. differently, development of halorosellinia sp. (no. 1403) turned out to be insensitive ...201323546832
model and test in a fungus of the probability that beneficial mutations survive drift.determining the probability of fixation of beneficial mutations is critically important for building predictive models of adaptive evolution. despite considerable theoretical work, models of fixation probability have stood untested for nearly a century. however, recent advances in experimental and theoretical techniques permit the development of models with testable predictions. we developed a new model for the probability of surviving genetic drift, a major component of fixation probability, fo ...201322740642
morphological changes induced by class iii chitin synthase gene silencing could enhance penicillin production of penicillium chrysogenum.chitin synthases catalyze the formation of β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds between n-acetylglucosamine residues to form the unbranched polysaccharide chitin, which is the major component of cell walls in most filamentous fungi. several studies have shown that chitin synthases are structurally and functionally divergent and play crucial roles in the growth and morphogenesis of the genus aspergillus although little research on this topic has been done in penicillium chrysogenum. we used blast to find the ...201323179625
transcriptome changes initiated by carbon starvation in aspergillus nidulans.carbon starvation is a common stress for micro-organisms both in nature and in industry. the carbon starvation stress response (cssr) involves the regulation of several important processes including programmed cell death and reproduction of fungi, secondary metabolite production and extracellular hydrolase formation. to gain insight into the physiological events of cssr, dna microarray analyses supplemented with real-time rt-pcr (rrt-pcr) experiments on 99 selected genes were performed. these da ...201323154970
bzip transcription factors affecting secondary metabolism, sexual development and stress responses in aspergillus nidulans.the eukaryotic basic leucine zipper (bzip) transcription factors play critical roles in the organismal response to the environment. recently, a novel yap-like bzip, restorer of secondary metabolism a (rsma), was found in a suppressor screen of an aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolism (sm) mutant in which overexpression of rsma was found to partially remediate loss of sm in velvet complex mutants. the velvet complex is a conserved fungal transcriptional heteromer that couples sm with sexual d ...201323154967
involvement of bcvea and bcvelb in regulating conidiation, pigmentation and virulence in botrytis cinerea.the heterotrimeric velvet complex vea/velb/laea is involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes in aspergillus nidulans. in this work, we investigated functions of two velvet-like genes bcvea and bcvelb in botrytis cinerea. morphological characterization of bcvea and bcvelb deletion mutants showed that the deletion of bcvea and bcvelb led to increased conidiation and melanin biosynthesis. bcvea and bcvelb deletion mutants also showed increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. pathoge ...201323147398
analysis of the structure and conformational states of dewa gives insight into the assembly of the fungal hydrophobins.the hydrophobin dewa from the fungus aspergillus nidulans is a highly surface-active protein that spontaneously self-assembles into amphipathic monolayers at hydrophobic:hydrophilic interfaces. these monolayers are composed of fibrils that are a form of functional amyloid. while there has been significant interest in the use of dewa for a variety of surface coatings and as an emulsifier in biotechnological applications, little is understood about the structure of the protein or the mechanism of ...201323137797
intracellular trehalase activity is required for development, germination and heat-stress resistance of aspergillus niger conidia.the disaccharide trehalose is known as a stress protectant in several kinds of organisms, including fungi, where it is a major carbohydrate in resting structures, e.g. asexual conidia. the gene encoding the enzyme responsible for degradation of intracellular trehalose, treb, was deleted and the phenotype was analyzed in terms of morphology, trehalose content during conidial outgrowth and stress tolerance. the mutant conidiophores produced fewer and less viable spores, and during early stages of ...201323116628
evidence that two pcl-like cyclins control cdk9 activity during cell differentiation in aspergillus nidulans asexual development.cyclin-dependent protein kinases (cdks) are usually involved in cell cycle regulation. however, cdk9 is an exception and promotes rna synthesis through phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain (ctd) of the largest subunit of rna polymerase ii (rnapii). the ctd is comprised of repeating heptapeptides, in which serine residues at positions 2, 5, and 7 are of crucial importance. ser5 phosphorylation causes transcription initiation and promoter escape. however, rnapii pauses 20 to 50 bp downst ...201323104571
increasing oxidative stress tolerance and subculturing stability of cordyceps militaris by overexpression of a glutathione peroxidase other filamentous fungi, the medicinal ascomycete cordyceps militaris frequently degenerates during continuous maintenance in culture by showing loss of the ability to reproduce sexually or asexually. degeneration of fungal cultures has been related with cellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ros). in this study, an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase (gpx) gene from aspergillus nidulans was engineered into two c. militaris strains, i.e., the cm01 strain which can fruit normally a ...201322828981
putative cell wall integrity sensor proteins in aspergillus nidulans.the cell wall integrity (cwi) signal transduction pathway, which has been well-studied in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays an important role in the regulation of cell wall biogenesis. recently, we characterized the cwi stress sensor orthologs wsca and wscb in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. disruption of the wsca and wscb genes causes a change in the transcriptional levels of agsa and agsb, which encode α-1,3-glucan synthase, resulting in an increase in alkaline soluble cel ...201222808335
hydrolase controls cellular nad, sirtuin, and secondary metabolites.cellular levels of nad(+) and nadh are thought to be controlled by de novo and salvage mechanisms, although evidence has not yet indicated that they are regulated by nad(+) degradation. here we show that the conserved nudix hydrolase isozyme ndxa hydrolyzes and decreases cellular nad(+) and nadh in aspergillus nidulans. the ndxa-deficient fungus accumulated more nad(+) during the stationary growth phase, indicating that ndxa maintains cellular nad(+)/nadh homeostasis. the deficient strain also g ...201222801369
flbd, a myb transcription factor of aspergillus nidulans, is uniquely involved in both asexual and sexual the fungus aspergillus nidulans, inactivation of the flba to -e, flug, fluf, and tmpa genes results in similar phenotypes, characterized by a delay in conidiophore and asexual spore production. flbb to -d encode transcription factors needed for proper expression of the brla gene, which is essential for asexual development. however, recent evidence indicates that flbb and flbe also have nontranscriptional functions. here we show that fluf1 is an allele of flbd which results in an r47p substitu ...201222798393
comprehensive analysis of the dna-binding specificity of an aspergillus nidulans transcription factor, amyr, using a bead display system.the in vitro dna binding profile of aspergillus nidulans transcription factor amyr was analyzed by a novel approach employing a genetic library of beads and flow cytometry analysis. an artificial library with 22 randomized nucleotides was constructed and subjected to a protein-dna binding reaction with male-tagged amyr. dna fragments with potential amyr-binding sites were labeled with fluorescence-conjugated antibody to be enriched by flow cytometry through 5 rounds of successive selection. fina ...201222790934
vea-dependent rna-pol ii transcription elongation factor-like protein, rtfa, is associated with secondary metabolism and morphological development in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans the global regulatory gene vea is necessary for the biosynthesis of several secondary metabolites, including the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (st). in order to identify additional vea-dependent genetic elements involved in regulating st production, we performed a mutagenesis on a deletion vea (δvea) strain to obtain revertant mutants (rm) that regained the capability to produce toxin. genetic analysis and molecular characterization of one of the revertant mutants, rm3, reve ...201222783880
genetic control of asexual sporulation in filamentous fungi.asexual sporulation (conidiation) in the ascomycetous filamentous fungi involves the formation of conidia, formed on specialized structures called conidiophores. conidiation in filamentous fungi involves many common themes including spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression, specialized cellular differentiation, intra-/inter-cellular communications, and response to environmental factors. the commencement, progression and completion of conidiation are regulated by multiple positive and n ...201223092920
genetic analysis of the arabidopsis protein kinases map3kε1 and map3kε2 indicates roles in cell expansion and embryo development.map3kε1 and map3kε2 are a pair of arabidopsis thaliana genes that encode protein kinases related to cdc7p from saccharomyces cerevisiae. we have previously shown that the map3kε1;map3kε2 double-mutant combination causes pollen lethality. in this study, we have used an ethanol-inducible promoter construct to rescue this lethal phenotype and create map3kε1(-/-);map3kε2(-/-) double-mutant plants in order to examine the function of these genes in the sporophyte. these rescued double-mutant plants ca ...201223087695
a pericentrin-related protein homolog in aspergillus nidulans plays important roles in nucleus positioning and cell polarity by affecting microtubule organization.pericentrin is a large coiled-coil protein in mammalian centrosomes that serves as a multifunctional scaffold for anchoring numerous proteins. recent studies have linked numerous human disorders with mutated or elevated levels of pericentrin, suggesting unrecognized contributions of pericentrin-related proteins to the development of these disorders. in this study, we characterized anpcpa, a putative homolog of pericentrin-related protein in the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, and ...201223087372
cell cycle regulation by the nek family of protein kinases.genetic screens for cell division cycle mutants in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans led to the discovery of never-in-mitosis a (nima), a serine/threonine kinase that is required for mitotic entry. since that discovery, nima-related kinases, or neks, have been identified in most eukaryotes, including humans where eleven genetically distinct proteins named nek1 to nek11 are expressed. although there is no evidence that human neks are essential for mitotic entry, it is clear that several ...201223132929
improvement of gene targeting in aspergillus nidulans with excess non-homologous fragments.efficiency of gene targeting was increased more than 10-fold when an excess molar ratio of non-homologous fragments was added in the transformation of aspergillus nidulans. in the targeted transformants, integration of such fragments into the host chromosome was a rare event. hence, our approach proved practical in terms of producing successful targeting events without disturbing the host chromosomes.201223132572
microtubule-based transport in filamentous fungi.defects in microtubule-based transport are implicated in many neuropathologies. the filamentous fungi aspergillus nidulans and ustilago maydis are valuable models for studying transport owing to their yeast-like genetic and biochemical tractability and metazoan-like dependence on microtubule-based transport for cellular trafficking. in these organisms the role of microtubules in nuclear positioning is well studied, but recent work has expanded the range of cargos to include endosomes, messenger ...201223127389
antifungal activity of extracellular hydrolases produced by autolysing aspergillus nidulans cultures.carbon-starving aspergillus nidulans cultures produce high activities of versatile hydrolytic enzymes and, among these, chib endochitinase and enga β-1,3-endoglucanase showed significant antifungal activity against various fungal species. double deletion of enga and chib diminished the antifungal activity of the fermentation broths and increased conidiogenesis and long-term viability of a. nidulans, but decreased the growth rate on culture media containing weak carbon sources. production of chib ...201223124755
new insights into the biosynthesis of prenylated xanthones: xptb from aspergillus nidulans catalyses an o-prenylation of xanthones.gene-inactivation experiments have indicated that the putative prenyltransferase xptb from aspergillus nidulans was likely to be responsible for the prenylation of 1,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-8-hydroxymethylxanthone. recently, it was suggested that this enzyme might also accept as substrate the benzophenone arugosin h, which is assumed to be a precursor of prenylated xanthones. in this study, five benzophenones and ten xanthones were incubated with purified recombinant xptb in the presence of dimethy ...201223150454
saga complex components and acetate repression in aspergillus nidulans.alongside the well-established carbon catabolite repression by glucose and other sugars, acetate causes repression in aspergillus nidulans. mutations in crea, encoding the transcriptional repressor involved in glucose repression, also affect acetate repression, but mutations in creb or crec, encoding components of a deubiquitination system, do not. to understand the effects of acetate, we used a mutational screen that was similar to screens that uncovered mutations in crea, creb, and crec, excep ...201223173087
alanine scanning mutagenesis of a high-affinity nitrate transporter highlights the requirement for glycine and asparagine residues in the two nitrate signature motifs.common to all of the nitrate nitrite porter family are two conserved motifs in transmembrane helices 5 and 11 termed ns (nitrate signature) 1 and ns2. although perfectly conserved substrate-interacting arginine residues have been described in transmembrane helices 2 and 8, the role of nss has not been investigated. in the present study, a combination of structural modelling of nrta (nitrate transporter from aspergillus nidulans) with alanine scanning mutagenesis of residues within and around the ...201222738143
genetic and biosynthetic studies of the fungal prenylated xanthone shamixanthone and related metabolites in aspergillus spp. revisited.biosynthetic genes for the prenylated xanthone shamixanthone have been identified in the aspergillus nidulans genome; based on assignment of putative functions from sequence analyses and selected gene deletions, a pathway was proposed leading from the anthraquinone emodin via the benzophenone carboxylic acid monodictyphenone and the xanthone emericellin to shamixanthone. several aspects of this proposed pathway are inconsistent with previously identified biosynthetic intermediates: the anthraqui ...201222730213
lae1 regulates expression of multiple secondary metabolite gene clusters in fusarium verticillioides.the filamentous fungus fusarium verticillioides can cause disease of maize and is capable of producing fumonisins, a family of toxic secondary metabolites linked to esophageal cancer and neural tube defects in humans and lung edema in swine and leukoencephalomalacia in equines. the expression of fumonisin biosynthetic genes is influenced by broad-domain transcription factors (global regulators) and fum21, a pathway-specific transcription factor. laea is a global regulator that in aspergillus nid ...201222713715
fgvelb is associated with vegetative differentiation, secondary metabolism and virulence in fusarium graminearum.the velvet complex containing vea, velb and laea has been showed to play critical roles in the regulation of secondary metabolism and diverse cellular processes in aspergillus spp. in this study, we identified fgvelb, a homolog of aspergillus nidulans velb, from fusarium graminearum using the blastp program. disruption of fgvelb gene led to several phenotypic defects, including suppression of aerial hyphae formation, reduced hyphal hydrophobicity and highly increased conidiation. the mutant show ...201222713714
lis1 is an initiation factor for dynein-driven organelle transport.the molecular motor cytoplasmic dynein is responsible for most minus-end-directed, microtubule-based transport in eukaryotic cells. it is especially important in neurons, where defects in microtubule-based motility have been linked to neurological diseases. for example, lissencephaly is caused by mutations in the dynein-associated protein lis1. in this paper, using the long, highly polarized hyphae of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, we show that three morphologically and functionall ...201222711696
product patterns of a feruloyl esterase from aspergillus nidulans on large feruloyl-arabino-xylo-oligosaccharides from wheat bran.a purified feruloyl esterase (ec from aspergillus nidulans produced in pichia pastoris was used to study the de-esterification of large feruloyl oligosaccharides consisting of 4 to 20 pentose residues and (xylose plus arabinose) and one ferulic acid residue. the feruloyl oligosaccharides were prepared from total oligosaccharidic hydrolysates from wheat bran treated with a purified endoxylanase from thermobacillus xylanilyticus. the feruloyl esterase showed similar specific activity but ...201222770893
mutations in the basic loop of the zn binuclear cluster of the uay transcriptional activator suppress mutations in the dimerisation domain.uay is the specific znii(2)cys(6) transcriptional activator of the purine utilisation pathway in aspergillus nidulans. previous work has determined the consensus binding sequence by emsa and foot-printing. we determine here that it binds as a dimer to its cognate cgg-n(6)-ccg sites. we identify the uay109 mutation, which has been shown to affect differentially the expression of a number of uay-regulated genes, as a f112i substitution in the dna-binding motif dimerisation domain. we isolated back ...201222760060
disinfection efficacy of chlorine and peracetic acid alone or in combination against aspergillus spp. and candida albicans in drinking water.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the fungicidal activity of chlorine and peracetic acid in drinking water against various pathogenic aspergillus spp. and candida albicans strains. a. nidulans exhibited the greatest resistance, requiring 10 ppm of chlorine for 30 min contact time for a complete inactivation. under the same experimental conditions, peracetic acid was even less fungicidal. in this case, a. niger proved to be the most resistant species (50 ppm for 60 min for complete ina ...201222361698
in vitro interactions of amantadine hydrochloride, r-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride and valproic acid sodium salt with antifungal agents against filamentous fungal species causing central nervous system infection.the mortality rates of fungal infections that affect the central nervous system are high in consequence of the absence of effective antifungal drugs with good penetration across the blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. in the present work in vitro antifungal activities of three good penetrating non-antifungal drugs (amantadine hydrochloride, r-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride, valproic acid sodium salt) and their combinations with three antifungal agents (amphotericin b, itra ...201223134606
morphogenetic and developmental functions of the aspergillus nidulans homologues of the yeast bud site selection proteins bud4 and axl2.the yeast bud site selection system represents a paradigm for understanding how fungal cells regulate the formation of a polarity axis. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, bud4 and axl2 are components of the axial bud site marker. to address the possibility that these proteins regulate cellular morphogenesis in filamentous fungi, we have characterized homologues of bud4 and axl2 in aspergillus nidulans. our results show that bud4 is involved in septum formation in both hyphae and developing conidiophor ...201222651396
searching for gold beyond mitosis: mining intracellular membrane traffic in aspergillus nidulans.the genetically tractable filamentous ascomycete fungus aspergillus nidulans has been successfully exploited to gain major insight into the eukaryotic cell cycle. more recently, its amenability to in vivo multidimensional microscopy has fueled a potentially gilded second age of a. nidulans cell biology studies. this review specifically deals with studies on intracellular membrane traffic in a. nidulans. the cellular logistics are subordinated to the needs imposed by the polarized mode of growth ...201222645705
proteome analysis of the farnesol-induced stress response in aspergillus nidulans--the role of a putative dehydrin.the isoprenoid alcohol farnesol represents a quorum-sensing molecule in pathogenic yeasts, but was also shown to inhibit the growth of many filamentous fungi. in order to gain a deeper insight into the antifungal activity of farnesol, we performed 2d-differential gel electrophoretic analysis (2d-dige) of aspergillus nidulans exposed to farnesol. we observed an increased abundance of antioxidative enzymes and proteins involved in protein folding and the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. a s ...201222634043
cryptic peroxisomal targeting via alternative splicing and stop codon read-through in fungi.peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles important for the metabolism of long-chain fatty acids. here we show that in numerous fungal species, several core enzymes of glycolysis, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk), reside in both the cytoplasm and peroxisomes. we detected in these enzymes cryptic type 1 peroxisomal targeting signals (pts1), which are activated by post-transcriptional processes. notably, the molecular mechanisms that genera ...201222622582
an efficient method for transient gene expression in monocots applied to modify the brachypodium distachyon cell wall.agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used to produce insertions into plant genomes. there are a number of well-developed agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods for dicotyledonous plants, but there are few for monocotyledonous plants.201222589326
fungal s-adenosylmethionine synthetase and the control of development and secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans carries a single gene for the s-adenosylmethionine (sam) synthetase sasa, whereas many other organisms possess multiple sam synthetases. the conserved enzyme catalyzes the reaction of methionine and atp to the ubiquitous methyl group donor sam. sam is the main methyl group donor for methyltransferases to modify dna, rna, protein, metabolites, or phospholipid target substrates. we show here that the single a. nidulans sam synthetase encoding gene sasa i ...201222561085
correlation of mycelial growth rate with other phenotypic characters in evolved genotypes of aspergillus nidulans.fungal populations can adapt to their environment by the generation and fixation of spontaneous beneficial mutations. in this study we examined whether adaptation, measured as an increased mycelial growth rate, has correlated responses in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans with several other metric characters that could be important fitness components (colony forming units, germination speed, and biomass formation). studying 60 populations that had evolved over 800 generations by experi ...201222559923
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