TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
the srka kinase is part of the saka mitogen-activated protein kinase interactome and regulates stress responses and development in aspergillus nidulans.fungi and many other eukaryotes use specialized mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapk) of the hog1/p38 family to transduce environmental stress signals. in aspergillus nidulans, the mapk saka and the transcription factor atfa are components of a central multiple stress-signaling pathway that also regulates development. here we characterize srka, a putative mapk-activated protein kinase, as a novel component of this pathway. δsrka and δsaka mutants share a derepressed sexual development phenoty ...201525820520
large-scale metabolomics reveals a complex response of aspergillus nidulans to epigenetic perturbation.the microbial world offers a rich source of bioactive compounds for those able to sift through it. technologies capable of quantitatively detecting natural products while simultaneously identifying known compounds would expedite the search for new pharmaceutical leads. prior efforts have targeted histone deacetylases in fungi to globally activate the production of new secondary metabolites, yet no study has directly assessed its effects with minimal bias at the metabolomic level. using untargete ...201525815712
new interaction partners for nek4.1 and nek4.2 isoforms: from the dna damage response to rna splicing.neks are serine-threonine kinases that are similar to nima, a protein found in aspergillus nidulans which is essential for cell division. in humans there are eleven neks which are involved in different biological functions besides the cell cycle control. nek4 is one of the largest members of the nek family and has been related to the primary cilia formation and in dna damage response. however, its substrates and interaction partners are still unknown. in an attempt to better understand the role ...201525798074
identification and characterization of a novel gene encoding the nbs1 protein in pyricularia oryzae.the ascomycete pyricularia oryzae (teleomorph: magnaporthe oryzae) causes one of the most serious diseases known as rice blast. the nijmegen breakage syndrome protein (nbs1) is essential for dna repair; thus, we studied the p. oryzae nbs1 homolog (ponbs1). a ponbs1 null mutant exhibited high sensitivity to dna damage-inducing agents. the mutant also exhibited the retarded hyphal growth, and induced abnormal conidial germination and shape, but showed normal appressorium formation. the phenotypes ...201525774746
multiple phosphatases regulate carbon source-dependent germination and primary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans is an important mold and a model system for the study of fungal cell biology. in addition, invasive a. nidulans pulmonary infections are common in humans with chronic granulomatous disease. the morphological and biochemical transition from dormant conidia into active, growing, filamentous hyphae requires the coordination of numerous biosynthetic, developmental, and metabolic processes. the present study exhibited the diversity of roles performed by seven phosphatases in regu ...201525762568
mitogen-activated protein kinases mpka and mpkb independently affect micafungin sensitivity in aspergillus nidulans.the transcriptional regulation of the mapk mpka and cell wall-related genes in aspergillus nidulans differs from that of their counterparts in saccharomyces cerevisiae. the a. nidulans mapk mpkb is putatively orthologous to the yeast mapks kss1p and fus3p. to investigate mpkb and its contribution to cell wall integrity in a. nidulans, we constructed mpkb-disruptant (mpkb∆) strains. we previously showed that mpka∆ strains exhibited reduced colony growth and increased sensitivity to the β-1,3-gluc ...201525727969
two amino acid sequences direct aspergillus nidulans protein kinase c (pkca) localization to hyphal apices and septation sites.the aspergillus nidulans ortholog of protein kinase c (pkca) is involved in the organism's putative cell wall integrity (cwi) pathway, and pkca also is highly localized at growing tips and forming septa. in the present work we identify the regions within pkca that are responsible for its localization to hyphal tips and septation sites. to this end, we used serially truncated pkca constructs and expressed them as green fluorescent protein (gfp) chimeras and identified two regions that direct pkca ...201525724996
origin, diversification and substrate specificity in the family of ncs1/fur transporters.ncs1 proteins are h(+)/na(+) symporters specific for the uptake of purines, pyrimidines and related metabolites. in this article, we study the origin, diversification and substrate specificity of fungal ncs1 transporters. we show that the two fungal ncs1 sub-families, fur and fcy, and plant homologues originate through independent horizontal transfers from prokaryotes and that expansion by gene duplication led to the functional diversification of fungal ncs1. we characterised all fur proteins of ...201525712422
kdma, a histone h3 demethylase with bipartite function, differentially regulates primary and secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans kdma encodes a member of the kdm4 family of jumonji histone demethylase proteins, highly similar to metazoan orthologues both within functional domains and in domain architecture. this family of proteins exhibits demethylase activity towards lysines 9 and 36 of histone h3 and plays a prominent role in gene expression and chromosome structure in many species. mass spectrometry mapping of a. nidulans histones revealed that around 3% of bulk histone h3 carried trimethylated h3k ...201525712266
expression and specificity profile of the major acetate transporter acpa in aspergillus nidulans.acpa has been previously characterized as a high-affinity transporter essential for the uptake and use of acetate as sole carbon source in aspergillus nidulans. here, we follow the expression profile of acpa and define its substrate specificity. acpa-mediated acetate transport is detected from the onset of conidiospore germination, peaks at the time of germ tube emergence, and drops to low basal levels in germlings and young mycelia, where a second acetate transporter is also becoming apparent. ...201525708319
live cell imaging of endosomal trafficking in fungi.endosomes are multipurpose membranous carriers important for endocytosis and secretion. during membrane trafficking, endosomes transport lipids, proteins, and even rnas. in highly polarized cells such as fungal hyphae, they shuttle bidirectionally along microtubules mediated by molecular motors like kinesins and dynein. for in vivo studies of these highly dynamic protein/membrane complexes, advanced fluorescence microscopy is instrumental. in this chapter, we describe live cell imaging of endoso ...201525702128
beyond asexual development: modifications in the gene expression profile caused by the absence of the aspergillus nidulans transcription factor the model fungus aspergillus nidulans, asexual development is induced from vegetative hyphae by a set of early regulators including the bzip-type transcription factor flbb. to determine the range of genes under the influence of the transcriptional activity of flbb and to characterize their role in fungal development, we sequenced and compared the transcriptomes of a δflbb mutant and its isogenic wild-type strain at different developmental stages. results confirmed the activating role of flbb ...201525701285
continuous xylanase production with aspergillus nidulans under pyridoxine limitation using a trickle bed reactor.a trickle bed reactor (tbr) with recycle was designed and tested using aspergillus nidulans with a pyridoxine marker and over-expressing/secreting recombinant client xylanase b (xynb). the pyridoxine marker prevented the fungus from synthesizing its own pyridoxine and fungus was unable to grow when no pyridoxine was present in the medium; however, enzyme production was unaffected. uncontrolled mycelia growth that led to clogging of the tbr was observed when fungus without a pyridoxine marker was ...201525683507
construction of a shuttle vector for heterologous expression of a novel fungal α-amylase gene in aspergillus oryzae.the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae is a well-known expression host used to express homologous and heterologous proteins in a number of industrial applications. to facilitate higher yields of proteins of interest, we constructed the pasop vector to express heterologous proteins in a. oryzae. pasop carries a selectable marker, pyrg, derived from aspergillus nidulans, and a strong promoter and a terminator of the amyb gene derived from a. oryzae. pasop transformed a. oryzae efficiently via t ...201525674804
aspergillus nidulans causing primary cutaneous aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient. 201525671448
transient transformation of podosphaera xanthii by electroporation of conidia.powdery mildew diseases are a major phytosanitary issue causing important yield and economic losses in agronomic, horticultural and ornamental crops. powdery mildew fungi are obligate biotrophic parasites unable to grow on culture media, a fact that has significantly limited their genetic manipulation. in this work, we report a protocol based on the electroporation of fungal conidia, for the transient transformation of podosphaera fusca (synonym podosphaera xanthii), the main causal agent of cuc ...201525651833
a mutation in the converter subdomain of aspergillus nidulans myob blocks constriction of the actomyosin ring in cytokinesis.we have identified a mutant allele of the aspergillus nidulans homologue of myosin ii (myob; an4706), which prevents normal septum formation. this is the first reported myosin ii mutation in a filamentous fungus. strains expressing the myob(g843d) allele produce mainly aberrant septa at 30 °c and are completely aseptate at temperatures above 37 °c. conidium formation is greatly reduced at 30 °c and progressively impaired with increasing temperature. sequencing of the myob(g843d) allele identifie ...201525645080
functional characterization of nat/ncs2 proteins of aspergillus brasiliensis reveals a genuine xanthine-uric acid transporter and an intrinsically misfolded polypeptide.the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat) family includes members in nearly all domains of life. functionally characterized nat transporters from bacteria, fungi, plants and mammals are ion-coupled symporters specific for the uptake of purines, pyrimidines and related analogues. the characterized mammalian nats are specific for the uptake of l-ascorbic acid. in this work we identify in silico a group of fungal putative transporters, named uapd-like proteins, which represent a novel nat subfamil ...201525639910
the ß-importin kap8 (pse1/kap121) is required for nuclear import of the cellulase transcriptional regulator xyr1, asexual sporulation and stress resistance in trichoderma reesei.the ascomycete trichoderma reesei is an industrial producer of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes, and serves as a prime model for their genetic regulation. most of its (hemi-)cellulolytic enzymes are obligatorily dependent on the transcriptional activator xyr1. here, we investigated the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling mechanism that transports xyr1 across the nuclear pore complex. we identified 14 karyopherins in t. reesei, of which eight were predicted to be involved in nuclear import, and ...201525626518
negative regulation of the vacuole-mediated resistance to k(+) stress by a novel c2h2 zinc finger transcription factor encoded by asla in aspergillus fungi and plants, vacuoles function as a storage and sequestration vessel for a wide variety of ions and are responsible for cytosolic ion homeostasis and responses to ionic shock. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, however, little is known about the molecular genetic mechanisms of vacuolar biogenesis and function. in the present study, we analyzed the function of the asla gene (an5583) encoding a novel c2h2-type zinc finger transcription factor (tf) in relation to k(+) stress re ...201525626364
the velvet complex in the gray mold fungus botrytis cinerea: impact of bclae1 on differentiation, secondary metabolism, and virulence.botrytis cinerea, the gray mold fungus, is an important plant pathogen. field populations are characterized by variability with regard to morphology, the mode of reproduction (conidiation or sclerotia formation), the spectrum of secondary metabolites (sm), and virulence. natural variation in bcvel1 encoding the ortholog of aspergillus nidulans vea, a member of the velvet complex, was previously shown to affect light-dependent differentiation, the formation of oxalic acid (oa), and virulence. to ...201525625818
conserved and distinct functions of the “stunted” (stua)-homolog ust1 during cell differentiation in the corn smut fungus ustilago maydis.ustilago maydis, causal agent of corn smut, can proliferate saprobically in a yeast form but its infectious filamentous form is an obligate parasite. previously, we showed that ust1, the first apses (asm1p, phd1p, sok2p, efg1p, and stuap) transcription factor functionally characterized in the phylum basidiomycota, controlled morphogenesis and virulence in this species. here, we further analyzed ust1 function using multiple experimental approaches and determined that i) ust1 activity was able to ...201525208341
kinesin-3 in the basidiomycete ustilago maydis transports organelles along the entire microtubule array.the molecular motor kinesin-3 transports early endosomes along microtubules in filamentous fungi. it was reported that kinesin-3 from the ascomycete fungi aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa use a subset of post-translationally modified and more stable microtubules. here, i show that kinesin-3 from the basidiomycete ustilago maydis moves along all hyphal microtubules. this difference is likely due to variation in cell cycle control and associated organization of the microtubule array.201525459534
the aspergillus nidulans metz gene encodes a transcription factor involved in regulation of sulfur metabolism in this fungus and other aspergillus nidulans, expression of sulfur metabolism genes is activated by the metr transcription factor containing a basic region and leucine zipper domain (bzip). here we identified and characterized metz, a new transcriptional regulator in a. nidulans and other eurotiales. it contains a bzip domain similar to the corresponding region in metr and this similarity suggests that metz could potentially complement the metr deficiency. the metr and metz genes are interrupted by unusually long in ...201525391366
protein kinase c regulates the expression of cell wall-related genes in rlma-dependent and independent manners in aspergillus nidulans.a protein kinase c of aspergillus nidulans, pkca, is required for cell wall integrity (cwi) and is considered a major component of the regulating pathway. to investigate whether pkca regulates the transcription of cell wall-related genes, we constructed strains expressing pkca(r429a) that encodes an activated form of pkca. the mrna levels of most chitin synthase genes and an α-glucan synthase gene, agsb, were increased when pkca(r429a) expression was induced. these mrna increases were not observ ...201525345444
flug affects secretion in colonies of aspergillus niger.colonies of aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. for instance, the glucoamylase gene glaa is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. as a consequence, its encoded protein glaa is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. here, multiple copies of amyr were introduced in a. niger. most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed hete ...201525370014
first reported case of aspergillus nidulans eumycetoma in a sporotrichoid distribution.mycetomas are chronic subcutaneous infections caused by either fungi (eumycetomas) or bacteria (actinomycetomas). eumycetoma is commonly seen in tropical and subtropical climates, usually in males working in occupations prone to trauma. aspergillus spp. are an uncommon cause of mycetomas.201525267555
production of 5,8-dihydroxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid from oleic acid by whole recombinant cells of aspergillus nidulans expressing diol synthase.the optimal conditions for the production of 5,8-dihydroxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid (5,8-dihome) from oleic acid by whole recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing diol synthase from aspergillus nidulans were 40 °c, ph 7.5, 10 % (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide, 35 g cells l(-1), and 12 g oleic acid l(-1) at 250 rpm in a 250 ml baffled flask. under these conditions, whole recombinant cells produced 5.2 g 5,8-dihome l(-1) together with 1 g l(-1) of the intermediate 8-hydroperoxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid ...201525257582
[mechanisms and regulation of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in filamentous fungi: classical cases and new models].cellulose is the most abundant renewable carbon source on earth. however, this polymer structure comprises a physical and chemical barrier for carbon access, which has limited its exploitation. in nature, only a few percentage of microorganisms may degrade this polymer by cellulase expression. filamentous fungi are one of the most active and efficient groups among these microorganisms. this review describes similarities and differences between cellulase activity mechanisms and regulatory mechani ...201524607657
recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by aspergillus delacroxii (formerly aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus).we report aspergillus delacroxii (formerly aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus) causing recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis. the fungus was the sole agent detected during replacement of a mechanical aortic valve conduit due to abscess formation. despite extensive surgery and anti-fungal treatment, the patient had a cerebral hemorrhage 4 months post-surgery prompting a diagnosis of recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis and fungemia.201526909244
a second component of the slta-dependent cation tolerance pathway in aspergillus nidulans.the transcriptional response to alkali metal cation stress is mediated by the zinc finger transcription factor slta in aspergillus nidulans and probably in other fungi of the pezizomycotina subphylum. a second component of this pathway has been identified and characterized. sltb is a 1272 amino acid protein with at least two putative functional domains, a pseudo-kinase and a serine-endoprotease, involved in signaling to the transcription factor slta. absence of sltb activity results in nearly id ...201526119498
the aspergillus nidulans bimc4 mutation provides an excellent tool for identification of kinesin-14 inhibitors.centrosome amplification is a hallmark of many types of cancer cells, and clustering of multiple centrosomes is critical for cancer cell survival and proliferation. human kinesin-14 hset/kfic1 is essential for centrosome clustering, and its inhibition leads to the specific killing of cancer cells with extra centrosomes. since kinesin-14 motor domains are conserved evolutionarily, we conceived a strategy of obtaining kinesin-14 inhibitors using aspergillus nidulans, based on the previous result t ...201526117688
the structure of rpf2-rrs1 explains its role in ribosome biogenesis.the assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes is a hierarchical process involving about 200 biogenesis factors and a series of remodeling steps. the 5s rnp consisting of the 5s rrna, rpl5 and rpl11 is recruited at an early stage, but has to rearrange during maturation of the pre-60s ribosomal subunit. rpf2 and rrs1 have been implicated in 5s rnp biogenesis, but their precise role was unclear. here, we present the crystal structure of the rpf2-rrs1 complex from aspergillus nidulans at 1.5 å resolution and ...201526117542
core oxidative stress response in aspergillus nidulans.the b-zip transcription factor atfa plays a key role in regulating stress responses in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. to identify the core regulons of atfa, we examined genome-wide expression changes caused by various stresses in the presence/absence of atfa using a. nidulans microarrays. we also intended to address the intriguing question regarding the existence of core environmental stress response in this important model eukaryote.201526115917
epigenetics as an emerging tool for improvement of fungal strains used in biotechnology.filamentous fungi are today a major source of industrial biotechnology for the production of primary and secondary metabolites, as well as enzymes and recombinant proteins. all of them have undergone extensive improvement strain programs, initially by classical mutagenesis and later on by genetic manipulation. thereby, strategies to overcome rate-limiting or yield-reducing reactions included manipulating the expression of individual genes, their regulatory genes, and also their function. yet, re ...201526115753
photoprotective and antimutagenic activity of agaricus subrufescens basidiocarp extracts.the photoprotective and antimutagenic activity of opened and closed basidiocarps of agaricus subrufescens (=a. blazei; =a. brasiliensis) obtained by different extraction methods were evaluated on aspergillus nidulans conidia submitted to ultraviolet (uv) light. the aqueous extracts were obtained by three extraction methods: maceration, infusion, and decoction, at two different extraction times. the extracts of a. subrufescens did not present toxicity for a. nidulans conidia. a suspension of a. n ...201526092419
mutagenesis breeding of high echinocandin b producing strain and further titer improvement with culture medium optimization.a combination of microbial strain improvement and statistical optimization is investigated to maximize echinocandin b (ecb) production from aspergillus nidulans zjb-0817. a classical sequential mutagenesis was studied first by using physical (ultraviolet irradiation at 254 nm) and chemical mutagens (lithium chloride and sodium nitrite). mutant strain uln-59 exhibited 2.1-fold increase in ecb production to 1583.1 ± 40.9 mg/l when compared with the parent strain (750.8 ± 32.0 mg/l). this is the fi ...201526091897
functional operons in secondary metabolic gene clusters in glarea lozoyensis (fungi, ascomycota, leotiomycetes).operons are multigene transcriptional units which occur mostly in prokaryotes but rarely in eukaryotes. protein-coding operons have not been reported in the fungi even though they represent a very diverse kingdom of organisms. here, we report a functional operon involved in the secondary metabolism of the fungus glarea lozoyensis belonging to leotiomycetes (ascomycota). two contiguous genes, glpks3 and glnrps7, encoding polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase, respectively, are c ...201526081635
degradation of glutathione in aspergillus nidulans - short communication.relative transcriptions of aspergillus nidulans dug1-3 (orthologes of saccharomyces cerevisiae dug - deficient in utilization of glutathione - pathway genes) and ggta encoding γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were studied under conditions inducing glutathione degradation. ggta was induced in all cases when glutathione levels decreased, but addition of yeast extract, which moderated glutathione degradation, enhanced its induction. although dug2 showed constitutive transcription, dug1 and dug3 were induc ...201526081279
identification of a critical determinant that enables efficient fatty acid synthesis in oleaginous fungi.microorganisms are valuable resources for lipid production. what makes one microbe but not the other able to efficiently synthesize and accumulate lipids is poorly understood. in the present study, global gene expression prior to and after the onset of lipogenesis was determined by transcriptomics using the oleaginous fungus mortierella alpina as a model system. a core of 23 lipogenesis associated genes was identified and their expression patterns shared a high similarity among oleaginous microb ...201526059272
oligomerization of the uapa purine transporter is critical for er-exit, plasma membrane localization and turnover.central to the process of transmembrane cargo trafficking is the successful folding and exit from the er (endoplasmic reticulum) through packaging in copii vesicles. here, we use the uapa purine transporter of aspergillus nidulans to investigate the role of cargo oligomerization in membrane trafficking. we show that uapa oligomerizes (at least dimerizes) and that oligomerization persists upon uapa endocytosis and vacuolar sorting. using a validated bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, ...201526049015
gh11 xylanase from emericella nidulans with low sensitivity to inhibition by ethanol and lignocellulose-derived phenolic endo-β-1,4-xylanase (x22) was purified from crude extract of emericella nidulans when cultivated on submerged fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source. the purified protein was identified by mass spectrometry and was most active at ph and temperature intervals of 5.0-6.5 and 50-60°c, respectively. the enzyme showed half-lives of 40, 10 and 7 min at 28, 50 and 55°c, respectively, and ph 5.0. apparent km and vmax values on soluble oat spelt xylan were 3.39 mg/ml and 230.8 iu/mg ...201526040589
evolution of chemical diversity in echinocandin lipopeptide antifungal metabolites.the echinocandins are a class of antifungal drugs that includes caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin. gene clusters encoding most of the structural complexity of the echinocandins provided a framework for hypotheses about the evolutionary history and chemical logic of echinocandin biosynthesis. gene orthologs among echinocandin-producing fungi were identified. pathway genes, including the nonribosomal peptide synthetases (nrpss), were analyzed phylogenetically to address the hypothesis tha ...201526024901
minos as a novel tc1/mariner-type transposable element for functional genomic analysis in aspergillus nidulans.transposons constitute powerful genetic tools for gene inactivation, exon or promoter trapping and genome analyses. the minos element from drosophila hydei, a tc1/mariner-like transposon, has proved as a very efficient tool for heterologous transposition in several metazoa. in filamentous fungi, only a handful of fungal-specific transposable elements have been exploited as genetic tools, with the impala tc1/mariner element from fusarium oxysporum being the most successful. here, we developed a t ...201526021704
combining stable isotope labeling and molecular networking for biosynthetic pathway characterization.filamentous fungi are a rich source of bioactive compounds, ranging from statins over immunosuppressants to antibiotics. the coupling of genes to metabolites is of large commercial interest for production of the bioactives of the future. to this end, we have investigated the use of stable isotope labeled amino acids (silaas). silaas were added to the cultivation media of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans for the study of the cyclic tetrapeptide nidulanin a. analysis by uhplc-tofms conf ...201526020678
an efficient peg/cacl₂-mediated transformation approach for the medicinal fungus wolfiporia cocos.sclerotia of wolfiporia cocos are of medicinal and culinary value. the genes and molecular mechanisms involved in w. cocos sclerotial formation are poorly investigated because of the lack of a suitable and reproducible transformation system for w. cocos. in this study, a peg/ cacl₂-mediated genetic transformation system for w. cocos was developed. the promoter pgpd from ganoderma lucidum effectively drove expression of the hygromycin b phosphotransferase gene in w. cocos, and approximately 30 tr ...201526017228
enhancement of acetyl xylan esterase activity on cellulose acetate through fusion to a family 3 cellulose binding module.the current study investigates the potential to increase the activity of a family 1 carbohydrate esterase on cellulose acetate through fusion to a family 3 carbohydrate binding module (cbm). specifically, ctcbm3 from clostridium thermocellum was fused to the carboxyl terminus of the acetyl xylan esterase (anaxe) from aspergillus nidulans, and active forms of both anaxe and anaxe-ctcbm3 were produced in pichia pastoris. ctcbm3 fusion had negligible impact on the thermostability or regioselectivit ...201526320711
refining the ph response in aspergillus nidulans: a modulatory triad involving pacx, a novel zinc binuclear cluster protein.the aspergillus nidulans pacc transcription factor mediates gene regulation in response to alkaline ambient ph which, signalled by the pal pathway, results in the processing of pacc(72) to pacc(27) via pacc(53). here we investigate two levels at which the ph regulatory system is transcriptionally moderated by ph and identify and characterise a new component of the ph regulatory machinery, pacx. transcript level analysis and overexpression studies demonstrate that repression of acid-expressed pal ...201526303777
further characterization of the role of the mitochondrial high-mobility group box protein in the intracellular redox environment of aspergillus nidulans.hmbb, a predominantly mitochondrial high-mobility group box (hmgb) protein, of aspergillus nidulans affects diverse biological activities, such as sterigmatocystin production, the maintenance of mitochondrial dna copy number, germination of asexual and sexual spores, and protection against oxidative stress agents. we hypothesized that the latter correlates with an unbalanced intracellular redox state, in which case, a not yet fully characterized physiological function could be attributed to this ...201526297166
distinct roles for the p53-like transcription factor xprg and autophagy genes in the response to starvation.autophagy and autolysis are two cannibalistic pathways which allow filamentous fungi to obtain nutrients once environmental nutrient sources are exhausted. in aspergillus nidulans, the effects of mutations in two key autophagy genes, atga, the atg1 ortholog, and atgh, the atg8 ortholog, were compared with mutations in xprg, which encodes a transcriptional activator that plays a key role in autolysis. the anti-fungal drug rapamycin induces autophagy in a range of organisms. mutations in atga and ...201526296599
acstua, which encodes an apses transcription regulator, is involved in conidiation, cephalosporin biosynthesis and cell wall integrity of acremonium chrysogenum.a transcriptional regulatory gene acstua was identified from acremonium chrysogenum. acstua encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein with similarity to stua which regulates the core developmental processes of aspergillus nidulans. like disruption of stua in a. nidulans, deficiency of acstua blocked the conidiation of a. chrysogenum through severely down-regulating the expression of acbrla and acabaa which encode orthologs of the key fungal developmental regulators brla and abaa. disruption of ac ...201526283234
genetic evidence for a microtubule-capture mechanism during polarised growth of aspergillus nidulans.the cellular switch from symmetry to polarity in eukaryotes depends on the microtubule (mt) and actin cytoskeletons. in fungi such as schizosaccharomyces pombe or aspergillus nidulans, the mt cytoskeleton determines the sites of actin polymerization through cortical cell-end marker proteins. here we describe a. nidulans mt guidance protein a (miga) as the first ortholog of the karyogamy protein kar9 from saccharomyces cerevisiae in filamentous fungi. a. nidulans miga interacts with the cortical ...201526272919
new insights into the conversion of versicolorin a in the biosynthesis of aflatoxin b1.a crucial and enigmatic step in the complex biosynthesis of aflatoxin b1 is the oxidative rearrangement of versicolorin a to demethylsterigmatocystin. this step is thought to proceed by an oxidation-reduction-oxidation sequence, in which the nadph-dependent oxidoreductase aflm catalyzes the enclosed reduction step. aflm from aspergillus parasiticus, after heterologous production in e. coli and purification, however, catalyzed the reduction of the hydroquinoid form of the starting compound versic ...201526266881
tip-to-nucleus migration dynamics of the asexual development regulator flbb in vegetative aspergillus nidulans, asexual differentiation requires the presence of the transcription factor flbb at the cell tip and apical nuclei. understanding the relationship between these two pools is crucial for elucidating the biochemical processes mediating conidia production. tip-to-nucleus communication was demonstrated by photo-convertible flbb::dendra2 visualization. tip localization of flbb depends on cys382 in the c-terminus and the bzip dna-binding domain in the n-terminus. flbe, a critica ...201526256571
nucleotide sequence composition adjacent to intronic splice sites improves splicing efficiency via its effect on pre-mrna local folding in fungi.rna splicing is the central process of intron removal in eukaryotes known to regulate various cellular functions such as growth, development, and response to external signals. the canonical sequences indicating the splicing sites needed for intronic boundary recognition are well known. however, the roles and evolution of the local folding of intronic and exonic sequence features adjacent to splice sites has yet to be thoroughly studied. here, focusing on four fungi (saccharomyces cerevisiae, sch ...201526246046
kdma, a histone h3 demethylase with bipartite function, differentially regulates primary and secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans. 201526213895
kaea (sudpro), a member of the ubiquitous keops/ekc protein complex, regulates the arginine catabolic pathway and the expression of several other genes in aspergillus nidulans.the kaea(kae1) (sudpro) gene, which was identified in aspergillus nidulans as a suppressor of proline auxotrophic mutations, encodes the orthologue of saccharomyces cerevisiae kae1p, a member of the evolutionarily conserved keops/ekc (kinase, endopeptidase and other proteins of small size/endopeptidase-like and kinase associated to transcribed chromatin) complex. in yeast, this complex has been shown to be involved in trna modification, transcription, and genome maintenance. in a. nidulans, muta ...201526210809
insecticidal activity of ethyl acetate extracts from culture filtrates of mangrove fungal the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (artemia salina) larvae were performed. the extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (ache) inhibition activity. the results showed th ...201526190921
identification of the scopularide biosynthetic gene cluster in scopulariopsis brevicaulis.scopularide a is a promising potent anticancer lipopeptide isolated from a marine derived scopulariopsis brevicaulis strain. the compound consists of a reduced carbon chain (3-hydroxy-methyldecanoyl) attached to five amino acids (glycine, l-valine, d-leucine, l-alanine, and l-phenylalanine). using the newly sequenced s. brevicaulis genome we were able to identify the putative biosynthetic gene cluster using genetic information from the structurally related emericellamide a from aspergillus nidul ...201526184239
g-protein coupled receptor-mediated nutrient sensing and developmental control in aspergillus nidulans.nutrient sensing and utilisation are fundamental for all life forms. as heterotrophs, fungi have evolved a diverse range of mechanisms for sensing and taking up various nutrients. despite its importance, only a limited number of nutrient receptors and their corresponding ligands have been identified in fungi. g-protein coupled receptors (gpcrs) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors. the aspergillus nidulans genome encodes 16 putative gpcrs, but only a few have been functionally chara ...201526179439
identification and characterization of a novel family of selective antifungal compounds (canbefs) that interfere with fungal protein synthesis.invasive mycotic infections have become more common during recent decades, posing an increasing threat to public health. however, despite the growing needs, treatments for invasive fungal infections remain unsatisfactory and are limited to a small number of antifungals. the aim of this study was to identify novel fungal cell wall inhibitors from a library of small chemical compounds using a conditional protein kinase c (pkc)-expressing strain of aspergillus nidulans sensitive to cell wall-active ...201526149982
the inner nuclear membrane protein src1 is required for stable post-mitotic progression into g1 in aspergillus membranes and associated proteins of the nuclear envelope (ne) are assembled specifically and inclusively around segregated genomes during exit from mitosis is incompletely understood. inner nuclear membrane (inm) proteins play key roles by providing links between dna and the ne. in this study we have investigated the highly conserved inm protein src1 in aspergillus nidulans and have uncovered a novel cell cycle response during post mitotic formation of g1 nuclei. live cell imaging indicates ...201526147902
reversible oxidation of a conserved methionine in the nuclear export sequence determines subcellular distribution and activity of the fungal nitrate regulator nira.the assimilation of nitrate, a most important soil nitrogen source, is tightly regulated in microorganisms and plants. in aspergillus nidulans, during the transcriptional activation process of nitrate assimilatory genes, the interaction between the pathway-specific transcription factor nira and the exportin kapk/crm1 is disrupted, and this leads to rapid nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity of nira. in this work by mass spectrometry, we found that in the absence of nitrate, when nir ...201526132230
insight into the antifungal mechanism of neosartorya fischeri antifungal protein.small, cysteine-rich, highly stable antifungal proteins secreted by filamentous ascomycetes have great potential for the development of novel antifungal strategies. however, their practical application is still limited due to their not fully clarified mode of action. the aim of this work was to provide a deep insight into the antifungal mechanism of neosartorya fischeri antifungal protein (nfap), a novel representative of this protein group. within a short exposure time to nfap, reduced cellular ...201525994413
targeted production of secondary metabolites by coexpression of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and prenyltransferase genes in aspergillus.prenylated tryptophan-containing cyclic dipeptides are found in different fungi and serve as precursors for the biosynthesis of diverse biologically active secondary metabolites. they show distinct and usually higher biological and pharmacological activities than the respective non-prenylated dipeptides. successful production of such compounds were achieved by a new approach based on the coexpression of ftmps, a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase from neosartorya fischeri, with three cyclic dipept ...201525744649
aspergillus nidulans protein kinase a plays an important role in cellulase production.the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks is dependent on lignocellulosic biomass degradation by hydrolytic enzymes. the main component of lignocellulose is cellulose and different types of organisms are able to secrete cellulases. the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans serves as a model organism to study cellulase production and the available tools allow exploring more in depth the mechanisms governing cellulase production and carbon catabolite repression.201526690721
genetic interaction of aspergillus nidulans galr, xlnr and arar in regulating d-galactose and l-arabinose release and catabolism gene aspergillus nidulans, the xylanolytic regulator xlnr and the arabinanolytic regulator arar co-regulate pentose catabolism. in nature, the pentose sugars d-xylose and l-arabinose are both main building blocks of the polysaccharide arabinoxylan. in pectin and arabinogalactan, these two monosaccharides are found in combination with d-galactose. galr, the regulator that responds to the presence of d-galactose, regulates the d-galactose catabolic pathway. in this study we investigated the possible ...201526580075
superresolution microscopy reveals a dynamic picture of cell polarity maintenance during directional growth.polar (directional) cell growth, a key cellular mechanism shared among a wide range of species, relies on targeted insertion of new material at specific locations of the plasma membrane. how these cell polarity sites are stably maintained during massive membrane insertion has remained elusive. conventional live-cell optical microscopy fails to visualize polarity site formation in the crowded cell membrane environment because of its limited resolution. we have used advanced live-cell imaging tech ...201526665168
[effect of microparticles on echinocandin b production by aspergillus nidulans].anidulafungin is an effective antifungal medicine, which can inhibit activities of candida in vitro and in vivo. echinocandin b (ecb) is the key precursor of anidulafungin, thus the price and market prospect of anidulafungin is directly due to the fermentation titer of ecb. in this study, aspergillus nidulans was used for ecb fermentation, and the influence of adding microparticles on ecb fermentation was studied, such as talcum powder, al2o3, and glass beads. the particle size and concentration ...201526647583
investigation of a 6-msa synthase gene cluster in aspergillus aculeatus reveals 6-msa-derived aculinic acid, aculins a-b and epi-aculin a.aspergillus aculeatus, a filamentous fungus belonging to the aspergillus clade nigri, is an industrial workhorse in enzyme production. recently we reported a number of secondary metabolites from this fungus; however, its genetic potential for the production of secondary metabolites is vast. in this study we identified a 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-msa) synthase from a. aculeatus, and verified its functionality by episomal expression in a. aculeatus and heterologous expression in a. nidulans. feedi ...201526374386
examining the evolution of the regulatory circuit controlling secondary metabolism and development in the fungal genus aspergillus.filamentous fungi produce diverse secondary metabolites (sms) essential to their ecology and adaptation. although each sm is typically produced by only a handful of species, global sm production is governed by widely conserved transcriptional regulators in conjunction with other cellular processes, such as development. we examined the interplay between the taxonomic narrowness of sm distribution and the broad conservation of global regulation of sm and development in aspergillus, a diverse funga ...201525786130
(1→3)-α-d-glucans from aspergillus spp.: structural characterization and biological study on their carboxymethylated derivatives.alkali-soluble polysaccharides (asps) were isolated from the cell wall of four aspergillus species (a. fumigatus, a. nidulans, a. niger, and a. wentii). the chemical and spectroscopic investigations (immunofluorescent labelling, composition analysis, methylation analysis, ftir, and 1h nmr) indicated that the asps were polymers composed almost exclusively of (1→3)-linked α-d-glucose. after carboxymethylation (cm), the activity of (1→3)-α-d-glucans on three human cell lines (hsf, hela, and jurkat) ...201525601326
the white collar complex is involved in sexual development of fusarium graminearum.sexual spores (ascospores) of fusarium graminearum, a homothallic ascomycetous fungus, are believed to be the primary inocula for epidemics of the diseases caused by this species in cereal crops. based on the light requirement for the formation of fruiting bodies (perithecia) of f. graminearum under laboratory conditions, we explored whether photoreceptors play an important role in sexual development. here, we evaluated the roles of three genes encoding putative photoreceptors [a phytochrome gen ...201525785736
a genomics based discovery of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters in aspergillus ustus.secondary metabolites (sms) produced by aspergillus have been extensively studied for their crucial roles in human health, medicine and industrial production. however, the resulting information is almost exclusively derived from a few model organisms, including a. nidulans and a. fumigatus, but little is known about rare pathogens. in this study, we performed a genomics based discovery of sm biosynthetic gene clusters in aspergillus ustus, a rare human pathogen. a total of 52 gene clusters were ...201525706180
fungal artificial chromosomes for mining of the fungal secondary metabolome.with thousands of fungal genomes being sequenced, each genome containing up to 70 secondary metabolite (sm) clusters 30-80 kb in size, breakthrough techniques are needed to characterize this sm wealth.201525925221
identification and functional analysis of two golgi-localized udp-galactofuranose transporters with overlapping functions in aspergillus niger.galactofuranose (galf)-containing glycoconjugates are present in numerous microbes, including filamentous fungi where they are important for morphology, virulence and maintaining cell wall integrity. the incorporation of galf-residues into galactomannan, galactomannoproteins and glycolipids is carried out by golgi-localized galf transferases. the nucleotide sugar donor used by these transferases (udp-galf) is produced in the cytoplasm and has to be transported to the lumen of the golgi by a dedi ...201526526354
molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of a ghf 43 xylanase from aspergillus niger in escherichia coli.a new xylanase gene (xyn43a) from aspergillus niger xz-3s was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli bl21-codonplus (de3)-ril. the coding region of the gene was separated by only one intron 86 bp in length. it encoded 318 amino acid residues of a protein with a calculated molecular weight (mw) of 33.47 kda plus a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. the amino acid sequence of the xyn43a gene showed 77.56% amino acid identity to a. nidulans xylanase, and the phylogenetic tree analysis revealed tha ...201425742974
expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis of aspergillus terreus endo-β-1,4-glucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12.endoglucanases are important enzymes that are involved in the modification and degradation of cellulose. filamentous fungi such as aspergillus terreus are effective biomass degraders in nature owing to their capacity to produce an enzymatic arsenal of glycoside hydrolases, including endoglucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12 (gh12). the a. terreus gh12 endoglucanase was cloned and overexpressed in a. nidulans, purified and crystallized. a single crystal was obtained from a solution consist ...201424637772
development of rflp-pcr method for the identification of medically important aspergillus species using single restriction enzyme this study we attempted to modify the pcr-rflp method using restriction enzyme mwoi for the identification of medically important aspergillus species. our subjects included nine standard aspergillus species and 205 aspergillus isolates of approved hospital acquired infections and hospital indoor sources. first of all, aspergillus isolates were identified in the level of species by using morphologic method. a twenty four hours culture was performed for each isolates to harvest aspergillus myce ...201425242934
the transcription factor bcltf1 regulates virulence and light responses in the necrotrophic plant pathogen botrytis cinerea.botrytis cinerea is the causal agent of gray mold diseases in a range of dicotyledonous plant species. the fungus can reproduce asexually by forming macroconidia for dispersal and sclerotia for survival; the latter also participate in sexual reproduction by bearing the apothecia after fertilization by microconidia. light induces the differentiation of conidia and apothecia, while sclerotia are exclusively formed in the absence of light. the relevance of light for virulence of the fungus is not o ...201424415947
inhibition of tau aggregation by three aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites: 2,ω-dihydroxyemodin, asperthecin, and asperbenzaldehyde.the aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau is a significant event in many neurodegenerative diseases including alzheimer's disease. the inhibition or reversal of tau aggregation is therefore a potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases. fungal natural products have proven to be a rich source of useful compounds having wide varieties of biological activity. we have screened aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites containing aromatic ring structures for their ability to in ...201424414310
a microscopy-based screen employing multiplex genome sequencing identifies cargo-specific requirements for dynein velocity.the timely delivery of membranous organelles and macromolecules to specific locations within the majority of eukaryotic cells depends on microtubule-based transport. here we describe a screening method to identify mutations that have a critical effect on intracellular transport and its regulation using mutagenesis, multicolor-fluorescence microscopy, and multiplex genome sequencing. this screen exploits the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, which has many of the advantages of yeast molecu ...201424403603
figa, a putative homolog of low-affinity calcium system member fig1 in saccharomyces cerevisiae, is involved in growth and asexual and sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.calcium-mediated signaling pathways are widely employed in eukaryotes and are implicated in the regulation of diverse biological processes. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, at least two different calcium uptake systems have been identified: the high-affinity calcium influx system (hacs) and the low-affinity calcium influx system (lacs). compared to the hacs, the lacs in fungi is not well known. in this study, figa, a homolog of the lacs member fig1 from s. cerevisiae, was functionally characterized ...201424376003
down-regulation of sidb gene by use of rna interference in aspergillus nidulans.introduction of the rna interference (rnai) machinery has guided the researchers to discover the function of essential vital or virulence factor genes in the microorganisms such as fungi. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, the gene sidb plays an essential role in septation, conidiation and vegetative hyphal growth. in the present study, we benefited from the rnai strategy for down-regulating a vital gene, sidb, in the fungus a. nidulans.201424375164
a novel thermostable xylanase gh10 from malbranchea pulchella expressed in aspergillus nidulans with potential applications in biotechnology.the search for novel thermostable xylanases for industrial use has intensified in recent years, and thermophilic fungi are a promising source of useful enzymes. the present work reports the heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a novel thermostable xylanase (gh10) from the thermophilic fungus malbranchea pulchella, the influence of glycosylation on its stability, and a potential application in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis.201425788980
using aspergillus nidulans to identify antifungal drug resistance mutations.systemic fungal infections contribute to at least 10% of deaths in hospital settings. most antifungal drugs target ergosterol (polyenes) or its biosynthetic pathway (azoles and allylamines), or beta-glucan synthesis (echinocandins). antifungal drugs that target proteins are prone to the emergence of resistant strains. identification of genes whose mutations lead to targeted resistance can provide new information on those pathways. we used aspergillus nidulans as a model system to exploit its tra ...201424363365
in vitro photodynamic inactivation of plant-pathogenic fungi colletotrichum acutatum and colletotrichum gloeosporioides with novel phenothiazinium photosensitizers.the increasing tolerance to currently used fungicides in both clinical and agricultural areas is of great concern. the nonconventional light-based approach of antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (apdt) is a promising alternative to conventional fungicides. we evaluated the effects of apdt with four phenothiazinium derivatives (methylene blue [mb], new methylene blue n [nmbn], toluidine blue o [tbo], and the novel pentacyclic phenothiazinium photosensitizer [ps] s137) on conidia of three fungal ...201424362436
transport assays in filamentous fungi: kinetic characterization of the uapc purine transporter of aspergillus nidulans.transport assays allow the direct kinetic analysis of a specific transporter by measuring apparent km and vmax values, and permit the characterization of substrate specificity profiles through competition assays. in this protocol we describe a rapid and easy method for performing uptake assays in the model filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans. our method makes use of a. nidulans germinating conidiospores at a defined morphological stage in which most transporters show maximal expression, ...201424355588
linkage of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions to spontaneous culture degeneration in aspergillus nidulans.filamentous fungi including mushrooms frequently and spontaneously degenerate during subsequent culture maintenance on artificial media, which shows the loss or reduction abilities of asexual sporulation, sexuality, fruiting, and production of secondary metabolites, thus leading to economic losses during mass production. to better understand the underlying mechanisms of fungal degeneration, the model fungus aspergillus nidulans was employed in this study for comprehensive analyses. first, linkag ...201424345786
recent advances in genome mining of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and the development of heterologous expression systems in aspergillus nidulans.fungi are prolific producers of secondary metabolites (sms) that show a variety of biological activities. recent advances in genome sequencing have shown that fungal genomes harbor far more sm gene clusters than are expressed under conventional laboratory conditions. activation of these "silent" gene clusters is a major challenge, and many approaches have been taken to attempt to activate them and, thus, unlock the vast treasure chest of fungal sms. this review will cover recent advances in geno ...201424342965
investigating aspergillus nidulans secretome during colonisation of cork cell walls.cork, the outer bark of quercus suber, shows a unique compositional structure, a set of remarkable properties, including high recalcitrance. cork colonisation by ascomycota remains largely overlooked. herein, aspergillus nidulans secretome on cork was analysed (2de). proteomic data were further complemented by microscopic (sem) and spectroscopic (atr-ftir) evaluation of the colonised substrate and by targeted analysis of lignin degradation compounds (uplc-hrms). data showed that the fungus forme ...201424316358
functional analysis of the c-ii subgroup killer toxin-like chitinases in the filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans.chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes responsible for chitin polymer degradation. fungal chitinases belong exclusively to glycoside hydrolases family 18 and they are categorized into three phylogenetic groups (a, b and c), which are further divided into subgroups (a-ii to a-v, b-i to b-v and c-i to c-ii). subgroup c chitinases display similarity with the α/β-subunit of the zymocin yeast killer toxin produced by kluyveromyces lactis, suggesting a role of these enzymes in fungal-fungal interactions. i ...201424384382
characterization of aspergillus nidulans α-glucan synthesis: roles for two synthases and two amylases.cell walls are essential for fungal survival and growth. fungal walls are ∼ 90% carbohydrate, mostly types not found in humans, making them promising targets for anti-fungal drug development. echinocandins, which inhibit the essential β-glucan synthase, are already clinically available. in contrast, α-glucan, another abundant fungal cell wall component has attracted relatively little research attention because it is not essential for most fungi. aspergillus nidulans has two α-glucan synthases (a ...201424308872
astpt catalyses both reverse n1- and regular c2 prenylation of a methylated bisindolyl benzoquinone.prenylated bisindolyl benzoquinones exhibit interesting biological activities, such as antidiabetic or anti-hiv activities. a number of these compounds, including asterriquinones, have been isolated from aspergillus terreus. in this study, we identified two putative genes by genome mining, ateg_09980 and ateg_00702, which share high sequence similarity with the known bisindolyl benzoquinone prenyltransferase tdib from aspergillus nidulans. the coding sequences were cloned and overexpressed in e. ...201424302698
insights into dynamic mitotic chromatin organization through the nima kinase suppressor sonc, a chromatin-associated protein involved in the dna damage response.the nuclear pore complex proteins sona and sonb, the orthologs of mammalian rae1 and nup98, respectively, were identified in aspergillus nidulans as cold-sensitive suppressors of a temperature-sensitive allele of the essential mitotic nima kinase (nima1). subsequent analyses found that sonb1 mutants exhibit temperature-dependent dna damage sensitivity. to understand this pathway further, we performed a genetic screen to isolate additional conditional dna damage-sensitive suppressors of nima1. we ...201424214344
establishing a versatile golden gate cloning system for genetic engineering in fungi.the corn pathogen ustilago maydis is a well-studied fungal model organism. along with a broad set of experimental tools, versatile strategies for the generation of gene replacement mutants by homologous recombination in u. maydis have been developed. nevertheless, the production of corresponding linear dna constructs still constitutes a time-limiting step. to overcome this bottleneck, various resistance cassette modules were adopted for use with the so-called golden gate cloning strategy. these ...201424211735
the aspergillus nidulans atm kinase regulates mitochondrial function, glucose uptake and the carbon starvation response.mitochondria supply cellular energy and also perform a role in the adaptation to metabolic stress. in mammals, the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (atm) kinase acts as a redox sensor controlling mitochondrial function. subsequently, transcriptomic and genetic studies were utilized to elucidate the role played by a fungal atm homolog during carbon starvation. in aspergillus nidulans, atma was shown to control mitochondrial function and glucose uptake. carbon starvation responses that are regulated ...201424192833
the nima kinase is required to execute stage-specific mitotic functions after initiation of mitosis.the g2-m transition in aspergillus nidulans requires the nima kinase, the founding member of the nek kinase family. inactivation of nima results in a late g2 arrest, while overexpression of nima is sufficient to promote mitotic events independently of cell cycle phase. endogenously tagged nima-gfp has dynamic mitotic localizations appearing first at the spindle pole body and then at nuclear pore complexes before transitioning to within nuclei and the mitotic spindle and back at the spindle pole ...201424186954
weta is required for conidiogenesis and conidium maturation in the ascomycete fungus fusarium graminearum.fusarium graminearum, a prominent fungal pathogen that infects major cereal crops, primarily utilizes asexual spores to spread disease. to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in f. graminearum, we functionally characterized the f. graminearum ortholog of aspergillus nidulans weta, which has been shown to be involved in conidiogenesis and conidium maturation. deletion of f. graminearum weta did not alter mycelial growth, sexual development, or virulence, but the weta del ...201424186953
the cop9 signalosome is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and of transition metals uptake in saccharomyces cerevisiae.the cop9 signalosome (csn) is a highly conserved eukaryotic protein complex which regulates the cullin ring family of ubiquitin ligases and carries out a deneddylase activity that resides in subunit 5 (csn5). whereas csn activity is essential for the development of higher eukaryotes, several unicellular fungi including the budding yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae can survive without a functional csn. nevertheless, the budding yeast csn is biochemically active and deletion mutants of each of its su ...201424164706
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