TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
a survey of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps) genes in aspergillus nidulans.the genome of aspergillus nidulans carries 27 genes encoding nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps) structures, although only five of these forming peptides and amino acid containing metabolites have been identified so far. this manuscript describes domain structures, substrate binding pockets and related genes and gene clusters and summarizes our current state of product prediction of fungal nrps systems.200918804170
purification and partial characterization of the xanthine-uric acid transporter (uapa) of aspergillus nidulans.uapa, the uric acid-xanthine permease from the filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans, is one of the most thoroughly characterized purine/h(+) transporters in eukaryotes. detailed studies have addressed its regulation of expression, at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels, in response to physiological and developmental signals. an extensive kinetic profile towards a plethora of purines and mutational analyses have established models on how uapa recognizes the purine ring a ...200918824106
the cypome (cytochrome p450 complement) of aspergillus nidulans.the cytochromes p450 (cyps) are found in all biological kingdoms and genome sequencing projects continue to reveal an ever increasing number. the principle aim of this paper is to identify the complete cypome of aspergillus nidulans from the genome sequence version an.3 deposited at the broad institute, assign the appropriate cyp nomenclature and define function where possible. the completed analysis revealed a total of 111 cyp genes, 3 of which were previously unknown and 8 pseudogenes, represe ...200918824241
effect of bioaugmentation and nitrogen supplementation on composting of paddy straw.a composting experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of a hyperlignocellulolytic fungal consortium and different nitrogen amendments on paddy straw composting in terms of changes in physicochemical and biological parameters. a fungal consortium comprising four lignocellulolytic mesophilic fungal cultures was used as inoculum for bioaugmentation of paddy straw in perforated pits. the comparative effect of farmyard manure (fym), soybean trash, poultry litter and urea on the composting proc ...200918839317
overexpression of a novel endogenous nadh kinase in aspergillus nidulans enhances growth.the complete genome sequence of the filamentous fungi aspergillus nidulans has paved the way for fundamental research on this industrially important species. to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a gene encoding for atp-dependent nadh kinase (atp:nadh 2'-phosphotransferase, ec has been identified. the enzyme has a predicted molecular weight of 49 kda. we characterised the role of this nadh kinase by genomic integration of the putative gene an8837.2 under a strong constit ...200918840540
mapping the interaction sites of aspergillus nidulans phytochrome fpha with the global regulator vea and the white collar protein lreb.aspergillus nidulans senses red and blue-light and employs a phytochrome and a neurospora crassa white collar (wc) homologous system for light perception and transmits this information into developmental decisions. under light conditions it undergoes asexual development and in the dark it develops sexually. the phytochrome fpha consists of a light sensory domain and a signal output domain, consisting of a histidine kinase and a response regulator domain. previously it was shown that the phytochr ...200918936976
analysis and prediction of gene splice sites in four aspergillus genomes.several aspergillus fungal genomic sequences have been published, with many more in progress. obviously, it is essential to have high-quality, consistently annotated sets of proteins from each of the genomes, in order to make meaningful comparisons. we have developed a dedicated, publicly available, splice site prediction program called netaspgene, for the genus aspergillus. gene sequences from aspergillus fumigatus, the most common mould pathogen, were used to build and test our model. compared ...200918948220
a novel highly acidic beta-mannanase from the acidophilic fungus bispora sp. mey-1: gene cloning and overexpression in pichia pastoris.using degenerate polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and thermal asymmetric interlaced pcr, a 1,347-bp full-length complementary dna fragment encompassing the gene man5a, which encodes a 429-amino acid beta-mannanase with a calculated mass of 46.8 kda, was cloned from acidophilic bispora sp. mey-1. the deduced amino acid sequence (catalytic domain) displayed highest identity (54.1%) with the emericella nidulans endo-beta-1,4-d-mannanase, a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 5. recombinant man5 ...200918998121
long-distance movement of aspergillus nidulans early endosomes on microtubule fungal hyphal cells, intracellular membrane trafficking is constrained by the relatively long intracellular distances and the mode of growth, exclusively by apical extension. endocytosis plays a key role in hyphal tip growth, which involves the coupling of secretory membrane delivery to the apical region with subapical compensatory endocytosis. however, the identity, dynamics and function of filamentous fungal endosomal compartments remain largely unexplored. aspergillus nidulans raba(rab5) l ...200919000168
aspergillus nidulans flbe is an upstream developmental activator of conidiation functionally associated with the putative transcription factor flbb.aspergillus nidulans switches from vegetative growth to conidiation when aerial hyphae make contact with the atmosphere, or are subjected to specific environmental stress. the activation of the central conidiation pathway led by the transcription factor brla is a critical milestone in this morphogenetic transition. a number of upstream developmental activators (udas), expressed in vegetative cells, are required for this process to occur in conjunction with cessation of vegetative growth. mutants ...200919007409
genetic regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis: from gene to genome.aflatoxins are notorious toxic secondary metabolites known for their impacts on human and animal health, and their effects on the marketability of key grain and nut crops. understanding aflatoxin biosynthesis is the focus of a large and diverse research community. concerted efforts by this community have led not only to a well-characterized biosynthetic pathway, but also to the discovery of novel regulatory mechanisms. common to secondary metabolism is the clustering of biosynthetic genes and th ...200919010433
transcription regulation of the pbgp43 gene by nitrogen in the human pathogen paracoccidioides brasiliensis.we show indirect evidences for the possible involvement of nit2-like binding motifs in transcription modulation of the pbgp43 gene, which codes for an important antigen from the human fungal pathogen paracoccidioides brasiliensis. this investigation was motivated by the finding of 23 nit2-like sites within the proximal -2047 nucleotides of the pbgp43 5' intergenic region from the pb339 isolate. they compose four clusters, two of them identical. we found four nit2-containing probes that were posi ...200919013535
quality evaluation of co-composted wheat straw, poultry droppings and oil seed cakes.poultry droppings, neem cake, castor cake, jatropha cake and grass clippings were used separately as organic nitrogen additives to decrease the high c:n ratio of wheat straw. composting was carried out aerobically in presence of fungal consortium developed by including aspergillus awamori, aspergillus nidulans, trichoderma viride and phanerochaete chrysosporium. the degraded product was characterized to assess the technical viability of organic nitrogen supplements as well as fungal consortium i ...200919015937
the three fungal transmembrane nuclear pore complex proteins of aspergillus nidulans are dispensable in the presence of an intact an-nup84-120 aspergillus nidulans nuclear pore complexes (npcs) undergo partial mitotic disassembly such that 12 npc proteins (nups) form a core structure anchored across the nuclear envelope (ne). to investigate how the npc core is maintained, we affinity purified the major core an-nup84-120 complex and identified two new fungal nups, an-nup37 and an-elys, previously thought to be vertebrate specific. during mitosis the an-nup84-120 complex locates to the ne and spindle pole bodies but, unlike vertebrate ...200919019988
antifungal activity of anidulafungin, a product of aspergillus nidulans, against aspergillus nidulans.anidulafungin is a semisynthetic product originating from aspergillus nidulans. the aim of this study was to determine whether this drug is active against a. nidulans strains. the minimum effective concentration (mec) of anidulafungin without and with 50% foetal calf serum was determined according to the clinical and laboratory standards microdilution method. all 13 a. nidulans strains were highly susceptible to anidulafungin, with a mec of 0.031mg/l. the presence of serum did not affect the in ...200919026523
the aspergillus nidulans kinesin-3 unca motor moves vesicles along a subpopulation of microtubules.the extremely polarized growth form of filamentous fungi imposes a huge challenge on the cellular transport machinery, because proteins and lipids required for hyphal extension need to be continuously transported to the growing tip. recently, it was shown that endocytosis is also important for hyphal growth. here, we found that the aspergillus nidulans kinesin-3 motor protein unca transports vesicles and is required for fast hyphal extension. most surprisingly, unca-dependent vesicle movement oc ...200919037104
thematic issue: aspergillus genomics and beyond. preface. 200919041727
effects of conidia of various aspergillus species on apoptosis of human pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells.aspergillus species can cause mycoses in human and animals. previously, we demonstrated that a. fumigatus conidia from a human isolate inhibited apoptosis in human pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells. in the current study, we studied the effects of a. fumigatus conidia non-human origin and a. flavus, a. nidulans, a. niger and a. oryzae conidia on human cells apoptosis. human pneumocytes or bronchial epithelial cells were simultaneously exposed to apoptotic inductors and aspergilli conidia ...200919117118
atazg1 and atazg2 comprise a novel family of purine transporters in plants, nucleobase biochemistry is highly compartmented relying upon a well-regulated and selective membrane transport system. in arabidopsis two proteins, atazg1 and atazg2, show substantial amino acid sequence similarity to the adenine-guanine-hypoxanthine transporter azga of aspergillus nidulans. analysis of single and double mutant lines harboring t-dna insertion alleles atazg1-1 and atazg2-1 reveal a marked resistance to growth in the presence of 8-azaadenine and 8-azaguanine but not to ...200919121308
response to hypoxia, reduction of electron acceptors, and subsequent survival by filamentous fungi.filamentous fungi usually inhabit normoxic environments by utilizing oxygen as a substrate for respiration and for the biosynthesis of some essential cellular components. this review examines the metabolic mechanisms used by filamentous fungi under oxygen-limited (hypoxic) conditions. denitrification is one mechanism through which fusarium oxysporum and other fungi reduce nitrate or nitrite to nitrous oxide, generating nitric oxide as a reaction intermediate. the involvement of cytochrome p450no ...200919129650
alternative processing of proproteins in aspergilli kexb gene disruptants under hyperosmotic conditions.disruption of the kexb gene encoding a subtilisin-like processing protease in aspergillus oryzae and aspergillus nidulans led to remarkable morphological defects, and these phenotypes were suppressed under hyperosmotic conditions. in this study, we investigated to determine whether non-kexb proteases might complement the in vivo function of kexb in the two aspergillus kexb disruptants. neither overexpression of opsa or opsb encoding a. oryzae aspartyl proteases homologous to yeast yapsins (yps1/ ...200919129662
inactivation of the lipoxygenase zmlox3 increases susceptibility of maize to aspergillus spp.plant and fungal lipoxygenases (lox) catalyze the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, creating fatty-acid hydroperoxides (oxylipins). fungal oxylipins are required for normal fungal development and secondary metabolism, and plant host-derived oxylipins interfere with these processes in fungi, presumably by signal mimicry. the maize lox gene zmlox3 has been implicated previously in seed-aspergillus interactions, so we tested the interactions of a mutant maize line (lox3-4, in which zmlox3 i ...200919132874
the 2008 update of the aspergillus nidulans genome annotation: a community effort.the identification and annotation of protein-coding genes is one of the primary goals of whole-genome sequencing projects, and the accuracy of predicting the primary protein products of gene expression is vital to the interpretation of the available data and the design of downstream functional applications. nevertheless, the comprehensive annotation of eukaryotic genomes remains a considerable challenge. many genomes submitted to public databases, including those of major model organisms, contai ...200919146970
indole prenyltransferases from fungi: a new enzyme group with high potential for the production of prenylated indole derivatives.prenylated indole derivatives are hybrid natural products containing both aromatic and isoprenoid moieties and are widely spread in plants, fungi and bacteria. some of these complex natural products, e.g. the ergot alkaloids ergotamine and fumigaclavine c as well as the diketopiperazine derivative fumitremorgin c and its biosynthetic precursors tryprostatin a and b, show a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities. prenyl transfer reactions catalysed by prenyltransferases represent ...200919149573
contribution of peroxisomes to penicillin biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans.peroxisomal localization of the third enzyme of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway of aspergillus nidulans, acyl-coenzyme a:ipn acyltransferase (iat), is mediated by its atypical peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (pts1). however, mislocalization of iat by deletion of either its pts1 or of genes encoding proteins involved in peroxisome formation or transport does not completely abolish penicillin biosynthesis. this is in contrast to the effects of iat mislocalization in penicillium chrysogenum.200919151327
identification of virulence genes in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by large-scale transposon tagging.forward genetic screens are efficient tools for the dissection of complex biological processes, such as fungal pathogenicity. a transposon tagging system was developed in the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by inserting the novel modified impala element imp160::gfp upstream of the aspergillus nidulans niad gene, followed by transactivation with a constitutively expressed transposase. a collection of 2072 nia(+) revertants was obtained from reporter strain t12 and scree ...200919161356
effect of culture temperature on the heterologous expression of pleurotus eryngii versatile peroxidase in aspergillus hosts.production of recombinant versatile peroxidase in aspergillus hosts was optimized through the modification of temperature during bioreactor cultivations. to further this purpose, the cdna encoding a versatile peroxidase of pleurotus eryngii was expressed under control of the alcohol dehydrogenase (alca) promoter of aspergillus nidulans. a dependence of recombinant peroxidase production on cultivation temperature was found. lowering the culture temperature from 28 to 19 degrees c enhanced the lev ...200918481101
molecular detection and identification of aspergillus spp. from clinical samples using real-time pcr.the definite and rapid diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is necessary because of the high mortality caused. the objective of this study was to evaluate a real-time pcr assay to detect aspergillus spp. in clinical samples, based on the light cycler technology. specificity was assessed by using dna extracted from pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria/fungi from spanish collection including: two aspergillus flavus, four aspergillus fumigatus, two aspergillus nidulans, two aspergillus niger and t ...200918643921
functional diversity of chitin synthases of aspergillus nidulans in hyphal growth, conidiophore development and septum formation.fungal chitin synthases are classified into seven classes. recent advances in genome sequence analyses have revealed that there are more than seven chitin synthase-encoding genes in the genome of filamentous ascomycete fungi. to clarify the functional differences among these genes in the morphogenesis and hyphal tip growth, we have cloned six chitin synthase-encoding genes from aspergillus nidulans and analyzed their functions. the results obtained suggest that chitin synthases are structurally ...200918651309
induction of cell wall thickening by the antifungal compound dihydromaltophilin disrupts fungal growth and is mediated by sphingolipid biosynthesis.dihydromaltophilin (heat-stable antifungal factor [hsaf]) is an antifungal metabolite produced in lysobacter enzymogenes biocontrol strain c3. this compound induces cell wall thickening in aspergillus nidulans. here we show that the cell wall thickening is a general response to hsaf in diverse fungal species. in the a. nidulans model, the thickened cell wall negatively affects hyphal growth. growth of hsaf-pre-treated hyphae failed to resume at hyphal tips with thick cell wall and the actin cabl ...200921462551
[recent advances in the study of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase and its metabolic engineering].amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ads) can convert farnesyl pyrophosphate (fpp) to amorpha-4, 11-diene, a precursor of artemisinin. ads plays an important role in the biosynthesis of artemisinin. this review summarizes the molecular biology and metabolic engineering study of ads in recent years. the genomic dna and its cdna sequences of amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase were cloned from artemisia annua l. the cdna encoding amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase contains a 1 641 bp open reading frame coding for 546 ...200921351463
mononucleotide repeats represent an important source of polymorphic microsatellite markers in aspergillus fungi, microsatellites occur less frequently throughout the genome and tend to be less polymorphic compared with other organisms. most studies that develop microsatellites for fungi focus on dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, and thus mononucleotide repeats, which are much more abundant in fungal genomes, may represent an overlooked resource. this study examined the relative probabilities of polymorphism in mononucleotide, dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats in aspergillus nidulans. a ...200921564695
selection to sequence: opportunities in fungal genomics. 200920025617
aspects on evolution of fungal beta-lactam biosynthesis gene clusters and recruitment of trans-acting factors.penicillins and cephalosporins are beta-lactam antibiotics. the formation of hydrophobic penicillins has been reported in fungi only, notably penicillium chrysogenum and aspergillus (emericella) nidulans, whereas the hydrophilic cephalosporins are produced by both fungi, e.g., acremonium chrysogenum (cephalosporin c), and bacteria. the producing bacteria include gram-negatives and gram-positives, e.g., streptomyces clavuligerus (cephamycin c) and lysobacter lactamgenus (cephabacins), respectivel ...200919863978
the properties of adaptive walks in evolving populations of fungus.the rarity of beneficial mutations has frustrated efforts to develop a quantitative theory of adaptation. recent models of adaptive walks, the sequential substitution of beneficial mutations by selection, make two compelling predictions: adaptive walks should be short, and fitness increases should become exponentially smaller as successive mutations fix. we estimated the number and fitness effects of beneficial mutations in each of 118 replicate lineages of aspergillus nidulans evolving for appr ...200919956798
using a new gpi-anchored-protein identification system to mine the protein databases of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus nidulans, and aspergillus oryzae.computational approaches provide valuable information to start experimental surveys identifying glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi)-anchored proteins in protein sequence databases. we developed a new sequence-based identification system that uses an optimized classifier based on a support vector machine (svm) algorithm to recognize appropriate cooh-terminal sequences and uses a classifier implementing a simple majority voting strategy to recognize appropriate nh2-terminal sequences. the svm class ...200919940384
reconstitution of protection against aspergillus infection in chronic granulomatous disease (cgd). 200919833851
dynein light intermediate chain in aspergillus nidulans is essential for the interaction between heavy and intermediate chains.cytoplasmic dynein is a complex containing heavy chains (hcs), intermediate chains (ics), light intermediate chains (lics), and light chains (lcs). the hcs are responsible for motor activity. the ics at the tail region of the motor interact with dynactin, which is essential for dynein function. however, functions of other subunits and how they contribute to the assembly of the core complex are not clearly defined. here, we analyzed in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans functions of the ...200919837669
bicarbonate gradients modulate growth and colony morphology in aspergillus nidulans.fungal colonies expand through apically extending peripheral hyphae. these long and relatively unbranched leaders leave behind cells that show a higher degree of branching and lower growth rates. towards the centre of the colony, quiescent, but viable cells sustain processes such as transport of water, solutes and organelles, and support the concerted genesis of specialized reproductive structures. a survey of chemical signals controlling changes in hyphal growth and branching of aspergillus nid ...200919799635
uncovering transcriptional regulation of glycerol metabolism in aspergilli through genome-wide gene expression data analysis.glycerol is catabolized by a wide range of microorganisms including aspergillus species. to identify the transcriptional regulation of glycerol metabolism in aspergillus, we analyzed data from triplicate batch fermentations of three different aspergilli (aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus oryzae and aspergillus niger) with glucose and glycerol as carbon sources. protein comparisons and cross-analysis with gene expression data of all three species resulted in the identification of 88 genes having ...200919784673
remediation of arsenic in soil by aspergillus nidulans isolated from an arsenic-contaminated site.high concentrations of heavy metals, such as arsenic, in soils have potential long-term environmental and health consequences due to their persistence in the environment and their associated toxicity to biological organisms. aspergillus nidulans isolated from arsenic-contaminated soil has the potential to remove arsenic from soil. the isolated resistant strain showed resistance up to 500 ppm and the mean weight was found to be 1.309 g. the main objective of this research was to study the improve ...200919803330
intimate bacterial-fungal interaction triggers biosynthesis of archetypal polyketides in aspergillus nidulans.fungi produce numerous low molecular weight molecules endowed with a multitude of biological activities. however, mining the full-genome sequences of fungi indicates that their potential to produce secondary metabolites is greatly underestimated. because most of the biosynthesis gene clusters are silent under laboratory conditions, one of the major challenges is to understand the physiological conditions under which these genes are activated. thus, we cocultivated the important model fungus aspe ...200919666480
kapi, a non-essential member of the pse1p/imp5 karyopherin family, controls colonial and asexual development in aspergillus nidulans.asexual development in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans is governed by the timely expression and cellular localization of multiple transcription factors. hence, factors mediating import and export across the nuclear pore complexes (karyopherins) are expected to play a key role in coordinating the developmental programme. here we characterize kapi, a putative homologue of the saccharomyces cerevisiae kap121/pse1p karyopherin. kapi is a non-essential importin-beta-like protein located i ...200919729403
first case of extensive spinal cord infection with aspergillus nidulans in a child with chronic granulomatous disease.chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) is characterized by a defect in phagocytic cells that lead to recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. the etiology of most common fungal infections in cgd are aspergillus species. aspergillus nidulans is one of several species of aspergillus with low pathogenicity. however, it was reported to cause fatal invasive aspergillosis in patients with cgd. here we report the first cured invasive aspergillus nidulans infection with extensive involvement of the spina ...200919759498
a key role for vesicles in fungal secondary metabolism.eukaryotes have evolved highly conserved vesicle transport machinery to deliver proteins to the vacuole. in this study we show that the filamentous fungus aspergillus parasiticus employs this delivery system to perform new cellular functions, the synthesis, compartmentalization, and export of aflatoxin; this secondary metabolite is one of the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens known. here we show that a highly pure vesicle-vacuole fraction isolated from a. parasiticus under aflatoxin-in ...200919889978
study of codon bias perspective of fungal xylanase gene by multivariate analysis.fungal xylanases has important applications in food, baking, pulp and paper industries in addition to various other industries. xylanases are produced extensively by both bacterial and fungal sources and has tremendous potential of being active at extremes of temperature and ph. in the present study an effort has been made to explore the codon bias perspective of this potential enzyme using bioinformatics tools. multivariate analysis has been used as a tool to study codon bias perspectives of xy ...200919759864
organization and dynamics of the aspergillus nidulans golgi during apical extension and mitosis.aspergillus nidulans hyphae grow exclusively by apical extension. golgi equivalents (ges) labeled with mrfp-tagged ph(osbp) domain form a markedly polarized, dynamic network of ring-shaped and fenestrated cisternae that remains intact during "closed" mitosis. mrfp-ph(osbp) ges advance associated with the growing apex where secretion predominates but do not undergo long-distance movement toward the tip that could account for their polarization. mrfp-ph(osbp) ges overlap with the trans-golgi resid ...200919692566
transcriptional upregulation of four genes of the lysine biosynthetic pathway by homocitrate accumulation in penicillium chrysogenum: homocitrate as a sensor of lysine-pathway distress.the lysine biosynthetic pathway has to supply large amounts of alpha-aminoadipic acid for penicillin biosynthesis in penicillium chrysogenum. in this study, we have characterized the p. chrysogenum l2 mutant, a lysine auxotroph that shows highly increased expression of several lysine biosynthesis genes (lys1, lys2, lys3, lys7). the l2 mutant was found to be deficient in homoaconitase activity since it was complemented by the aspergillus nidulans lysf gene. we have cloned a gene (named lys3) that ...200919696106
the transcription factor homolog ctf1 regulates {beta}-oxidation in candida albicans.carbon starvation is one of the many stresses to which microbial pathogens are subjected while in the host. pathways necessary for the utilization of alternative carbon sources, such as gluconeogenesis, the glyoxylate cycle, and beta-oxidation of fatty acids, have been shown to be required for full virulence in several systems, including the fungal pathogen candida albicans. we have investigated the regulatory network governing alternative carbon metabolism in this organism through characterizat ...200919700635
in vivo analysis of the functions of gamma-tubulin-complex enhance our understanding of the function(s) of gamma-tubulin-complex proteins (gcps), we identified and analyzed the functions of the aspergillus nidulans homologs of gcp2-gcp6 (here designated gcpb-gcbf). the gamma-tubulin small complex (gamma-tusc) components, gamma-tubulin, gcpb and gcpc, are essential for viability and mitotic spindle formation, whereas gcpd-gcpf are not essential for viability, spindle formation or sexual reproduction. gcpd-gcpf function in reducing the frequency of chr ...200919861490
proteomic analysis of aspergillus nidulans cultured under hypoxic conditions.the fungus aspergillus nidulans reduces nitrate to ammonium and simultaneously oxidizes ethanol to acetate to generate atp under hypoxic conditions in a mechanism called ammonia fermentation (takasaki, k. et al.. j. biol. chem. 2004, 279, 12414-12420). to elucidate the mechanism, the fungus was cultured under normoxic and hypoxic (ammonia fermenting) conditions, intracellular proteins were resolved by 2-de, and 332 protein spots were identified using maldi ms after tryptic digestion. alcohol and ...200919053082
aspergillus nidulans genes encoding reverse transsulfuration enzymes belong to homocysteine regulon.homocysteine is an intermediate in methionine synthesis in aspergillus nidulans, but it can also be converted to cysteine by the reverse transsulfuration pathway involving cystathionine beta-synthase (cbs) and cystathionine gamma-lyase (cgl). because homocysteine is toxic to the cell at high concentrations, this pathway also functions as a means of removal of its excess. we found that the transcription of the meca and mecb genes encoding cbs and cgl was upregulated by excess of homocysteine as w ...200919685245
protoplast isolation from cultured lichen usnea ghattensis, their fusion with protoplasts of aspergillus nidulans, fusant regeneration and production of usnic acid.protoplasts isolated from the mycobiont of a cultured lichen usnea ghattensis were fused with protoplasts of the fungus aspergillus nidulans in order to increase the growth rate of the cultured lichen mycobiont in vitro. the maximum protoplast yield (102 x 10(4)/g fresh cell mass) was reached in citrate buffer with 50 mmol/l 2-sulfanylethanol ('2-mercaptoethanol') containing 0.1 % novozym after 1.5 h at ph 5 and <or=25 degrees c. the increase in the concentration of the above effectors or the ad ...200919937214
biodiversity and evolution of primary carbon metabolism in aspergillus nidulans and other aspergillus spp.some of the aspergilli are reputed for their versatile and efficient catabolism of soluble carbon sources and related metabolites as well as raw polymeric materials. here, we present a detailed investigation of the genomic and evolutionary basis for this versatility, using seven aspergillus and one neosartorya genome sequences. we manually annotated about 155 genes per genome covering glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, alternative routes of d-glucose metabolism, catabolism of d-galactose a ...200919610199
inhibition of histone deacetylase causes reduction of appressorium formation in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe modifications (ptms) are important for cellular functions. the regulation of histone acetyltransferases (hats) and histone deacetylases (hdacs) is one of important ptms for epigenetic control, protein activity and protein stability. the regulation of acetylation of the n-terminal histone tails of core histone affects gene expression. two class i hdac genes and two class ii hdac genes have been identified in the magnaporthe oryzae genome. treatment with rpd3/hda1 family (classi ...200920118613
modelling the survival of escherichia coli o157:h7 on raw portioned tomatoes, inoculated with aspergillus fumigatus and emericella nidulans.the metabiotic interactions occurring among two fungi (aspergillus fumigatus and emericella nidulans) and escherichia coli o157:h7 on raw portioned tomatoes were studied. tomatoes, preinoculated with the moulds and inoculated with the pathogen, were packaged in air and stored at 4, 8 and 12( composite function)c for 9 days; pathogen cell number and ph were monitored throughout the storage and the data were modeled using three different equations (geeraerd, weibull, and modified weibull), to asse ...200920037729
genome-wide analysis of microsatellite sequence in seven filamentous fungi.abundance of microsatellites with repeated unit lengths of 1-6 base pairs in seven fungi: aspergillus nidulans, coprinus cinereus, cryptococcus neoformans (serotype a), fusarium graminearum, magnaporthe grisea, neurospora crassa and ustilago maydis were investigated on genomic scale. the results showed that each species has its specific profile for different types and different motifs of ssr loci. ascomycetes fungi m. grisea, n. crassa and basidiomycete fungus u. maydis adopt much more microsate ...200920640828
molecular genetics of emericella nidulans sexual development.many aspergilli that belongs to ascomycetes have sexuality. in a homothallic or self-fertile fungus, a number of fruiting bodies or cleistothecia are formed in a thallus grown from a single haploid conidia or ascospores. genome-sequencing project revealed that two mating genes (mat) encoding the regulatory proteins that are necessary for controlling partner recognition in heterothallic fungi were conserved in most aspergilli. the mat gene products in some self-fertile species were not required f ...200923983529
mechanism of sterigmatocystin biosynthesis regulation by ph in aspergillus nidulans.external ph constitutes one of the most important environmental factors that control growth, metabolism and differentiation in microorganisms, including fungi. we have analyzed the effect of external ph on sterigmatocystin biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans. it was observed in repeated experiments that alkaline ph, in opposition to acid ph, increased sterigmatocystin production and the transcript levels of aflr, the master gene that regulates expression of the sterigmatocystin cluster in a. ni ...200924031444
effect of some food preservatives on the lipolytic activity of beef luncheon fungi.beef luncheon meat is one of the most popular meals in several countries in the world including egypt. thirty one fungal species and 3 species varieties were recovered from 30 samples of beef luncheon meat collected from different supermarkets in qena. alternaria, aspergillus, emericella, mucor, mycosphaerella, penicillium and rhizopus were the most common genera on the two types of media. from the above genera, the most prevalent species were alternaria alternate, aspergillus flavus, a. fumigat ...200823997619
ecological and physiological studies on soil fungi at western region, libya.sixty three species and 5 varieties belonging to 30 fungal genera were collected from 75 soil samples. cultivated (29 genera and 58 species + 5 var.), desert (22 and 35 + 2 var.) and saline soil (21 and 41 + 1 var.) fungi were recovered on glucose-, cellulose- and 50% sucrose-czapek's agar at 28℃. the most common genera were alternaria, aspergillus, emericella, fusarium, mycosphaerella, nectria and penicillium. the most prevalent species from the three types of soils on the three types of media ...200823997599
[in vitro activity of anidulafungin. comparison with the activity of other echinocandins].anidulafungin is a new echinocandin that acts by inhibiting (1,3)-beta-d-glucan synthesis in the fungal cell wall. this agent is a semisynthetic lipopeptide synthesized from a fermentation product of aspergillus nidulans. the spectrum of activity of anidulafungin includes candida and aspergillus, the two main etiological agents causing invasive fungal infections. this drug is also active against strains of these genera resistant to azoles or amphotericin b. however, anidulafungin is not active a ...200819572429
roles of the aspergillus nidulans homologues of tup1 and ssn6 in chromatin structure and cell viability.for three different carbon catabolite repressible promoters, alca, alcr and the bidirectional promoter prnd-prnb, a deletion of rcoa, the aspergillus nidulans homologue of tup1, does not result in carbon catabolite derepression. surprisingly, it results in disruption of the chromatin default structure of alcr and prnd-prnb promoters. in these promoters, and at variance with the wild type, repression occurs in the absence of nucleosome positioning. for alcr, repression occurs together with a nucl ...200819054105
arfb links protein lipidation and endocytosis to polarized growth of aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans undergoes polarized hyphal growth during the majority of its life cycle. regulatory mechanisms for hyphal polarity have been intensively investigated in a variety of filamentous fungi. two important cellular processes, which have received recent attention, include protein myristoylation and endocytosis. it is clear that protein myristoylation is essential for polarity establishment because germinating a. nidulans conidia lost polarity in the presence of cerulenin, a lipid me ...200819704790
role of the lolp cytochrome p450 monooxygenase in loline alkaloid biosynthesis.the insecticidal loline alkaloids, produced by neotyphodium uncinatum and related endophytes, are exo-1-aminopyrrolizidines with an ether bridge between c-2 and c-7. loline alkaloids vary in methyl, acetyl, and formyl substituents on the 1-amine, which affect their biological activity. enzymes for key loline biosynthesis steps are probably encoded by genes in the lol cluster, which is duplicated in n. uncinatum, except for a large deletion in lolp2. the role of lolp1 was investigated by its repl ...200818655839
uvsf rfc1, the large subunit of replication factor c in aspergillus nidulans, is essential for dna replication, functions in uv repair and is upregulated in response to mms-induced dna damage.uvsf201 was the first highly uv-sensitive repair-defective mutation isolated in aspergillus nidulans. it showed epistasis only with postreplication repair mutations, but caused lethal interactions with many other repair-defective strains. unexpectedly, closest homology of uvsf was found to the large subunit of human dna replication factor rfc that is essential for dna replication. sequencing of the uvsf201 region identified changes at two close base pairs and the corresponding amino acids in the ...200818655840
functional analysis of the endoxylanase b (xynb) promoter from penicillium penicillium purpurogenum, the gene encoding endoxylanase b (xynb) is highly expressed by xylan and repressed by glucose at the transcriptional level. the promoter of this gene has a modular structure, with eight putative xlnr binding sites in tandem (xlnr module), and upstream from them, four putative crea binding sites (crea module). promoter fragments containing different modules were inserted into a plasmid, pan49-1, which contains a basal fungal promoter linked to a reporter gene (lacz) a ...200818661134
the design of oligonucleotide primers for the universal amplification of the n-acetylglucosaminidase gene (nag1) in chytridiomycetes with emphasis on the anaerobic neocallimastigales.the common feature of all chytridiomycetous fungi, aerobic as well as anaerobic, is an abundance of chitin in their cell wall. the genes coding for chitinases have therefore been widely used as phylogenetic markers in ascomycetes. as their utility for chytridiomycetes has not been determined we chose the gene encoding an enzyme involved in chitin degradation and energy metabolism, the beta-(1,4)-n-acetylglucosaminidase (nag1). primer pair nag-forward and nag-reverse was used to create pcr produc ...200818661293
comparison between polyethylene glycol- and polyethylenimine-mediated transformation of aspergillus nidulans.genetic transformation of many filamentous fungi is carried out by a protocol that utilizes polyethylene glycol (peg) and calcium ion (ca2+). this method has remained practically unchanged for more than 20 years, but the roles these molecules play are not definitively understood. to gain a better understanding, we have compared peg transformation to a protocol using polyethylenimine (pei) that is the basis for non-viral transfection in mammals and which has a well established molecular model for ...200818649081
expression of a synthetic artemesia annua amorphadiene synthase in aspergillus nidulans yields altered product distribution.a gene encoding a plant terpene cyclase, artemisia annua amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ads), was expressed in aspergillus nidulans under control of a strong constitutive promoter, (p)gpda. the transformants produced only small amounts of amorphadiene, but much larger amounts of similar sesquiterpenes normally produced as minor by-products in planta. in contrast, expression of ads in escherichia coli produced almost exclusively amorpha-4,11-diene. these results indicate that the host environment c ...200818651187
a new protein carrying an nmra-like domain is required for cell differentiation and development in dictyostelium discoideum.we have isolated a dictyostelium mutant unable to induce expression of the prestalk-specific marker ecmb in monolayer assays. the disrupted gene, pada, leads to a range of phenotypic defects in growth and development. we show that pada is essential for growth, and we have generated a thermosensitive mutant allele, pada(-). at the permissive temperature, mutant cells grow poorly; they remain longer at the slug stage during development and are defective in terminal differentiation. at the restrict ...200818638468
ras gtpase-activating protein regulation of actin cytoskeleton and hyphal polarity in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans gapa1, a mutation leading to compact, fluffy colonies and delayed polarity establishment, maps to a gene encoding a ras gtpase-activating protein. domain organization and phylogenetic analyses strongly indicate that gapa regulates one or more "true" ras proteins. a gapadelta strain is viable. gapa colonies are more compact than gapa1 colonies and show reduced conidiation. gapadelta strains have abnormal conidiophores, characterized by the absence of one of the two layers of ...200818039943
functional characterization of the aspergillus fumigatus crz1 homologue, crza.the protein phosphatase calcineurin is an important mediator connecting calcium-dependent signalling to various cellular responses in multiple organisms. in fungi calcineurin acts largely through regulating crz1p-like transcription factors. here we characterize an aspergillus fumigatus crz1 homologue, crza and demonstrate its mediation of cellular tolerance to increased concentrations of calcium and manganese. in addition to acute sensitivity to these ions, and decreased conidiation, the crza nu ...200818298443
acpa, a member of the gpr1/fun34/yaah membrane protein family, is essential for acetate permease activity in the hyphal fungus aspergillus a previous study, alcs, a gene of the aspergillus nidulans alc cluster, was shown to encode a protein that belongs to the gpr1/fun34/yaah membrane protein family. blast screening of the a. nidulans genome data identified additional genes encoding hypothetical proteins that could belong to this family. in this study we report the functional characterization of one of them, an5226. its expression is induced by ethanol and ethyl acetate (two inducers of the alc genes) and is mediated by the spec ...200818302536
ndel1 controls the dynein-mediated transport of vimentin during neurite outgrowth.ndel1, the mammalian homologue of the aspergillus nidulans nude, is emergently viewed as an integrator of the cytoskeleton. by regulating the dynamics of microtubules and assembly of neuronal intermediate filaments (ifs), ndel1 promotes neurite outgrowth, neuronal migration, and cell integrity (1-6). to further understand the roles of ndel1 in cytoskeletal dynamics, we performed a tandem affinity purification of ndel1-interacting proteins. we isolated a novel ndel1 molecular complex composed of ...200818303022
functional characterization of residues within the carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase rx2panaaxf distinct motif.the mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier (cac) is characterized by the presence of a distinct motif, rxxpanaaxf, within its sixth transmembrane alpha-helix. in this study, we analysed the role of the amino acids of this motif in the structure-function relationships of the human cac by using two complementary approaches. first, we performed functional analysis in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans of selected mutations with structural and functional relevance. second, similar mutant h ...200818307102
foly: an integrated database for the classification and functional annotation of fungal oxidoreductases potentially involved in the degradation of lignin and related aromatic compounds.the breakdown of lignin by fungi is a key step during carbon recycling in terrestrial ecosystems. this process is of great interest for green and white biotechnological applications. given the importance of these enzymatic processes, we have classified the enzymes potentially involved in lignin catabolism into sequence-based families and integrated them in a newly developed database, designated fungal oxidative lignin enzymes (foly). families were defined after sequence similarity searches start ...200818308593
more than a repair enzyme: aspergillus nidulans photolyase-like crya is a regulator of sexual development.cryptochromes are blue-light receptors that have presumably evolved from the dna photolyase protein family, and the genomes of many organisms contain genes for both types of molecules. both protein structures resemble each other, which suggests that light control and light protection share a common ancient origin. in the genome of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, however, only one cryptochrome/photolyase-encoding gene, termed crya, was identified. deletion of the crya gene triggers s ...200818495868
structural characterisation of pina ww domain and a comparison with other group iv ww domains, pin1 and ess1.the nmr solution structure of the pina ww domain from aspergillus nidulans is presented. the backbone of the pina ww domain is composed of a triple-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet and an alpha-helix similar to ess1 and pin1 without the alpha-helix linker. large rms deviations in loop i were observed both from the nmr structures and molecular dynamics simulation suggest that the loop i of pina ww domain is flexible and solvent accessible, thus enabling it to bind the ps/pt-p motif. the ww domai ...200818503784
the interaction of induction, repression and starvation in the regulation of extracellular proteases in aspergillus nidulans: evidence for a role for crea in the response to carbon aspergillus nidulans, production of extracellular proteases in response to carbon starvation and to a lesser extent nitrogen starvation is controlled by xprg, a putative transcriptional activator. in this study the role of genes involved in carbon catabolite repression and the role of protein as an inducer of extracellular protease gene expression were examined. the addition of exogenous protein to the growth medium did not increase extracellular protease activity whether or not additional ca ...200818512059
a single amino acid substitution in one of the lipases of aspergillus nidulans confers resistance to the antimycotic drug undecanoic acid.a plausible approach to evaluate the inhibitory action of antifungals is through the investigation of the fungal resistance to these drugs. we describe here the molecular cloning and initial characterization of the a. nidulans lipa gene, where mutation (lipa1) conferred resistance to undecanoic acid, the most fungitoxic fatty acid in the c(7:0)-c(18:0) series. the lipa gene codes for a putative lipase with the sequence consensus gvsis and wifggg as the catalytic signature. comparison of the wild ...200818516670
ambient ph signalling in the yeast yarrowia lipolytica involves ylrim23p/palc, which interacts with snf7p/vps32p, but does not require the long c terminus of ylrim9p/pali.a conserved ambient ph signal transduction pathway has been evidenced in both ascomycetous yeasts and filamentous fungi, called the rim or pal pathway, respectively. however, closely related palc orthologues are found only in yarrowia lipolytica and in filamentous fungi, where the rim9p/pali factor has a much longer c-terminal tail than in other yeasts. we show here that, like aspergillus nidulans pali mutants, a ylrim9delta mutant has a less extreme phenotype than other mutants of the pathway, ...200818524921
aspergillus nidulans arfb plays a role in endocytosis and polarized growth.filamentous fungi undergo polarized growth throughout most of their life cycles. the spitzenkörper is an apical organelle composed primarily of vesicles that is unique to filamentous fungi and is likely to act as a vesicle supply center for tip growth. vesicle assembly and trafficking are therefore important for hyphal growth. adp ribosylation factors (arfs), a group of small gtpase proteins, play an important role in nucleating vesicle assembly. little is known about the role of arfs in filamen ...200818539885
production of the polyketide 6-msa in yeast engineered for increased malonyl-coa supply.the heterologous production of fungal polyketides was investigated using 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase (6-msas) as a model polyketide synthase and saccharomyces cerevisiae as a host. in order to improve the production of 6-msa by enhancing the supply of precursors, the promoter of the gene (acc1) encoding acetyl-coa carboxylase, which catalyzes the conversion of acetyl-coa to malonyl-coa, was replaced with a strong, constitutive promoter (tef1p) in a strain harboring two plasmids carrying the ...200818555717
developmental biology. sex and poison in the dark. 200818556538
velb/vea/laea complex coordinates light signal with fungal development and secondary metabolism.differentiation and secondary metabolism are correlated processes in fungi that respond to light. in aspergillus nidulans, light inhibits sexual reproduction as well as secondary metabolism. we identified the heterotrimeric velvet complex velb/vea/laea connecting light-responding developmental regulation and control of secondary metabolism. vea, which is primarily expressed in the dark, physically interacts with velb, which is expressed during sexual development. vea bridges velb to the nuclear ...200818556559
molecular genetic mining of the aspergillus secondary metabolome: discovery of the emericellamide biosynthetic pathway.the recently sequenced genomes of several aspergillus species have revealed that these organisms have the potential to produce a surprisingly large range of natural products, many of which are currently unknown. we have found that a. nidulans produces emericellamide a, an antibiotic compound of mixed origins with polyketide and amino acid building blocks. additionally, we describe the discovery of four previously unidentified, related compounds that we designate emericellamide c-f. using recentl ...200818559263
induction of mitotic crossing-over in diploid strains of aspergillus nidulans using low-dose a contribution towards detecting the genetic effects of low doses of genotoxic physical agents, this paper deals with the consequences of low-dose x-rays in the aspergillus nidulans genome. the irradiation doses studied were those commonly used in dental clinics (1-5 cgy). even very low doses promoted increased mitotic crossing-over frequencies in diploid strains heterozygous for several genetic markers including the ones involved in dna repair and recombination mechanisms. genetic markers of ...200818561380
nadph oxidases nox-1 and nox-2 require the regulatory subunit nor-1 to control cell differentiation and growth in neurospora crassa.we have proposed that reactive oxygen species (ros) play essential roles in cell differentiation. enzymes belonging to the nadph oxidase (nox) family produce superoxide in a regulated manner. we have identified three distinct nox subfamilies in the fungal kingdom and have shown that noxa is required for sexual cell differentiation in aspergillus nidulans. here we show that neurospora crassa nox-1 elimination results in complete female sterility, decreased asexual development, and reduction of hy ...200818567788
a cytosine methyltransferase homologue is essential for sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.the genome defense processes rip (repeat-induced point mutation) in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa, and mip (methylation induced premeiotically) in the fungus ascobolus immersus depend on proteins with dna methyltransferase (dmt) domains. nevertheless, these proteins, rid and masc1, respectively, have not been demonstrated to have dmt activity. we discovered a close homologue in aspergillus nidulans, a fungus thought to have no methylation and no genome defense system comparable to rip ...200818575630
pichia expression and mutagenesis of 7,8-linoleate diol synthase change the dioxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase.linoleate diol synthases (lds) are homologous 8(r)-dioxygenases with hydroperoxide isomerase activities, expressed in fungal pathogens of humanitarian importance. we report for the first time expression and site-directed mutagenesis of lds. 7,8-lds of the take-all fungus, expressed in pichia pastoris, oxygenated 18:2n-6 to 8(r)-hydroperoxylinoleic acid, which was unexpectedly isomerized to 5,8(r)-dihydroxylinoleic acid (60% 5s) and to 8(r),13-dihydroxyoctadeca-9(e),11(e)-dienoic acid. the latter ...200818586008
genome mining of cyanide-degrading nitrilases from filamentous fungi.a variety of fungal species are known to degrade cyanide through the action of cyanide hydratases, a specialized subset of nitrilases which hydrolyze cyanide to formamide. in this paper, we report on two previously unknown and uncharacterized cyanide hydratases from neurospora crassa and aspergillus nidulans. recombinant forms of four cyanide hydratases from n. crassa, a. nidulans, gibberella zeae, and gloeocercospora sorghi were prepared after their genes were cloned with n-terminal hexahistidi ...200818587571
[progress in research on apoptosis in filamentous fungi--a review].apoptosis is a conserved mechanism that plays an essential role in eukaryotes. malfunction of apoptosis contributes to many human diseases including cancer and aids. compared with yeast, a monocellular eukaryote, which is the model organism for apoptosis research, investigation on filamentous fungi apoptosis has particular advantages, which remained unrecognized until recent years. filamentous fungi, especially aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus fumigatus, are expected to become new model spec ...200818590245
heterotrimeric g protein mediated regulation of proteinase production in aspergillus nidulans.extracellular proteinase production induced by carbon starvation was studied in a series of heterotrimeric g protein signaling pathway mutants of aspergillus nidulans. all the mutants tested--including deltafada (galpha), deltasfad (gbeta), deltagpga (ggamma) and deltasfga (regulator of fada signaling)--showed an elevated proteinase production after glucose depletion. our results strongly support the view that during growth, fada/sfad/gpga g protein signaling inhibits proteinase production via b ...200818595316
lactose and d-galactose catabolism in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.the disaccharide lactose is a byproduct of cheese production accumulating to amounts of 800,000 tons per year worldwide, of which 15% is used as a carbon source for various microbial fermentations. nevertheless, little is known about the regulation of its metabolism in filamentous fungi. lactose is metabolized slowly, and some important fungi such as a. niger cannot use it at all. a more detailed knowledge on the rate-limiting steps would be helpful to improve its industrial application. we have ...200818595317
two gdp-mannose transporters contribute to hyphal form and cell wall integrity in aspergillus order to identify novel genes affecting cell wall integrity, we have generated mutant strains of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans that show hypersensitivity to the chitin-binding agent calcofluor white (cfw). affected loci are designated cal loci. the phenotype of one of these alleles, cali11, also includes shortened hyphal compartments and increased density of branching in the absence of cfw, as well as reduced staining of cell walls by the lectin fitc-concanavalin a (cona), which ...200818599832
structural analysis of the recognition of the negative regulator nmra and dna by the zinc finger from the gata-type transcription factor area.amongst the most common protein motifs in eukaryotes are zinc fingers (zfs), which, although largely known as dna binding modules, also can have additional important regulatory roles in forming protein:protein interactions. area is a transcriptional activator central to nitrogen metabolism in aspergillus nidulans. area contains a gata-type zf that has a competing dual recognition function, binding either dna or the negative regulator nmra. we report the crystal structures of three area zf-nmra c ...200818602114
aspergillus fumigatus rasa regulates asexual development and cell wall integrity.the ras family of proteins is a large group of monomeric gtpases. members of the fungal ras family act as molecular switches that transduce signals from the outside of the cell to signaling cascades inside the cell. a. fumigatus rasa is 94% identical to the essential rasa gene of aspergillus nidulans and is the ras family member sharing the highest identity to ras homologs studied in many other fungi. in this study, we report that rasa is not essential in a. fumigatus, but its absence is associa ...200818606827
basic-zipper-type transcription factor flbb controls asexual development in aspergillus nidulans.the fungal colony is a complex multicellular unit consisting of various cell types and functions. asexual spore formation (conidiation) is integrated through sensory and regulatory elements into the general morphogenetic plan, in which the activation of the transcription factor brla is the first determining step. a number of early regulatory elements acting upstream of brla (flug and flba-e) have been identified, but their functional relations remain to be further investigated. in this report we ...200817993569
expression of the fluorescence markers dsred and gfp fused to a nuclear localization signal in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus glomus, arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi were monitored in vivo introducing the fluorescent reporters dsred and gfp (green fluorescent protein) in glomus intraradices using a biolistic approach and agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. both reporter genes were fused to the nuclear localization signal of the aspergillus nidulans transcription factor stua to target fluorescence to nuclei. expression of dsred was driven by two glomus mosseae promoters highly expressed during early symbi ...200817995919
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