TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
elucidation of functional markers from aspergillus nidulans developmental regulator flbb and their phylogenetic distribution.aspergillus nidulans is a filamentous fungus widely used as a model for biotechnological and clinical research. it is also used as a platform for the study of basic eukaryotic developmental processes. previous studies identified and partially characterized a set of proteins controlling cellular transformations in this ascomycete. among these proteins, the bzip type transcription factor flbb is a key regulator of reproduction, stress responses and cell-death. our aim here was the prediction, thro ...201121423749
peritonitis due to aspergillus nidulans and its effective treatment with voriconazole: the first case report. 201121427255
nmr structure of the c-terminal domain of a tyrosyl-trna synthetase that functions in group i intron splicing.the mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetases (mt tyrrss) of pezizomycotina fungi are bifunctional proteins that aminoacylate mitochondrial trna(tyr) and are structure-stabilizing splicing cofactors for group i introns. studies with the neurospora crassa synthetase (cyt-18 protein) showed that splicing activity is dependent upon pezizomycotina-specific structural adaptations that form a distinct group i intron-binding site in the n-terminal catalytic domain. although cyt-18's c-terminal domain also ...201121438536
recruitment of class i hydrophobins to the air:water interface initiates a multi-step process of functional amyloid formation.class i fungal hydrophobins form amphipathic monolayers composed of amyloid rodlets. this is a remarkable case of functional amyloid formation in that a hydrophobic:hydrophilic interface is required to trigger the self-assembly of the proteins. the mechanism of rodlet formation and the role of the interface in this process have not been well understood. here, we have studied the effect of a range of additives, including ionic liquids, alcohols, and detergents, on rodlet formation by two class i ...201121454575
biosorption of as(iii) ions from aqueous solution using dry, heat-treated and naoh-treated aspergillus nidulans.the biosorption of as(iii) ions on dry, heat-treated and naoh-treated aspergillus nidulans in aqueous solutions was studied. the effect ofph (2-6), temperature (25, 30, 35, 45 degrees c), and initial concentration (250-700 mg l(-1)) of as(iii) ions were investigated in a batch system. the maximum biosorption rate of as(iii) ions on the tested biosorbent were obtained at ph 4 and 35 degrees c in about 240 min. the maximum biosorption capacities of dry, heat-treated and naoh-treated fungal biomass ...201121473283
glutathione reductase/glutathione is responsible for cytotoxic elemental sulfur tolerance via polysulfide shuttle in fungi.fungi that can reduce elemental sulfur to sulfide are widely distributed, but the mechanism and physiological significance of the reaction have been poorly characterized. here, we purified elemental sulfur-reductase (sr) and cloned its gene from the elemental sulfur-reducing fungus fusarium oxysporum. we found that nadph-glutathione reductase (gr) reduces elemental sulfur via glutathione as an intermediate. a loss-of-function mutant of the sr/gr gene generated less sulfide from elemental sulfur ...201121474441
purification and characterization of antifungal δ-dodecalactone from lactobacillus plantarum af1 isolated from kimchi.the aim of this study was to purify and identify an antifungal compound from lactobacillus plantarum af1, which was isolated from kimchi. the antifungal compound was purified by solid-phase extraction and recycling preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and its structure was elucidated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). the active compound from l. plantarum af1 was confirmed to be δ-dodecalactone (molecular weight, 198.3) by comparison of its gas chromatographic ...201121477483
cryptic aspergillus nidulans antimicrobials.secondary metabolite (sm) production by fungi is hypothesized to provide some fitness attribute for the producing organisms. however, most sm clusters are "silent" when fungi are grown in traditional laboratory settings, and it is difficult to ascertain any function or activity of these sm cluster products. recently, the creation of a chromatin remodeling mutant in aspergillus nidulans induced activation of several cryptic sm gene clusters. systematic testing of nine purified metabolites from th ...201121478304
regulation of pentose utilisation by arar, but not xlnr, differs in aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus niger.filamentous fungi are important producers of plant polysaccharide degrading enzymes that are used in many industrial applications. these enzymes are produced by the fungus to liberate monomeric sugars that are used as carbon source. two of the main components of plant polysaccharides are l: -arabinose and d: -xylose, which are metabolized through the pentose catabolic pathway (pcp) in these fungi. in aspergillus niger, the regulation of pentose release from polysaccharides and the pcp involves t ...201121484208
eisosomes and membrane compartments in the ascomycetes: a view from aspergillus nidulans.eisosomes are punctate structures located in the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane of ascomycetes. in saccharomyces cerevisiae they coincide topologically with and are necessary for the organisation of specific membrane domains. the eisosomal proteins are universally and quite strictly conserved in the sub-phylum, however this evolutionary conservation is in apparent contradiction with an elusive functional significance. the comparative analysis of the eisosomes of s. cerevisiae and aspergil ...201121509182
enzymatic properties of the recombinant serine-type carboxypeptidase ocpc, which is unique to aspergillus oryzae.gene ao090103000153 is unique to aspergillus oryzae rib40 and a. flavus nrrl3357, and is speculated to encode a serine-type carboxypeptidase. in this study, we purified and characterized a heterologously expressed gene product of ao090103000153. 5'-rapid amplification of cdna ends indicated that the translation start site of the gene is located 1,586 bp downstream of the translation start site predicted by the genome sequencing project. the gene, starting from the revised translation start codon ...201121512241
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the plant pathogenic fungus rosellinia necatrix.rosellinia necatrix is a soil-borne root pathogen affecting a wide range of commercially important plant species. the mycelium of r. necatrix was transformed to hygromycin b resistance by an agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system using a binary plasmid vector containing the hygromycin b phosphotransferase (hph) gene controlled by the heterologous fungal aspergillus nidulans p-gpd (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) promoter and the trpc terminator. co-cultivation of r. n ...201121513216
formation and stability of eisosomes in the filamentous fungus ashbya hallmark of the rapid expansion of the polar surface of fungal hyphae is the spatial separation of regions of exocytosis and endocytosis at hyphal tips, as recently shown for ashbya gossypii and aspergillus nidulans. to determine where cortex-associated eisosomes form with respect to these two regions, we monitored fluorescently marked eisosomes in a. gossypii. each minute, 1.6±0.5 eisosomes form within the first 30 μm of each hypha and are exclusively subapical of the endocytosis region. th ...201121525038
adaptation of the tokuyasu method for the ultrastructural study and immunogold labelling of filamentous fungi.the study of filamentous fungi is fundamental not only to extend their biotechnological applications, but also to develop new drugs to fight pathological species. morphological analyses are particularly relevant when investigating their development and differentiation. the need to maintain the orientation of hyphae and the presence of a cell wall, which hampers the sample infiltration with cryoprotectants and other reagents necessary to preserve the cell ultrastructure, creates difficulties with ...201121527426
structural features and chaperone activity of the nudc protein family.the nudc family consists of four conserved proteins with representatives in all eukaryotes. the archetypal nudc gene from aspergillus nidulans is a member of the nud gene family that is involved in the maintenance of nuclear migration. this family also includes nudf, whose human orthologue, lis1, codes for a protein essential for brain cortex development. three paralogues of nudc are known in vertebrates: nudc, nudc-like (nudcl), and nudc-like 2 (nudcl2). the fourth distantly related member of t ...201121530541
8-carbon oxylipins inhibit germination and growth, and stimulate aerial conidiation in aspergillus nidulans.germination of aspergillus nidulans conidia in liquid cultures was progressively inhibited at inoculum loads above 1×10(5)conidiaml(-1). high conidial densities also inhibited growth of neighbouring mycelia. the eight-carbon oxylipin 1-octen-3-ol was identified as the main inhibitor in a fraction also containing 3-octanone and 3-octanol. these three oxylipins also increased the conidiation rate of dark-grown surface cultures, but had no effect on liquid cultures. 3-octanone was the most conidiog ...201121530921
multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of ppoa, a cyp450 fusion protein that catalyzes fatty acid dioxygenation.ppoa is a fungal dioxygenase that produces hydroxylated fatty acids involved in the regulation of the life cycle and secondary metabolism of aspergillus nidulans . it was recently proposed that this novel enzyme employs two different heme domains to catalyze two separate reactions: within a heme peroxidase domain, linoleic acid is oxidized to (8r)-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid [(8r)-hpode]; in the second reaction step (8r)-hpode is isomerized within a p450 heme thiolate domain to 5,8-dihydroxy ...201121548577
transcription of the hsp30, hsp70, and hsp90 heat shock protein genes is modulated by the pala protein in response to acid ph-sensing in the fungus aspergillus nidulans.heat shock proteins are molecular chaperones linked to a myriad of physiological functions in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. in this study, we show that the aspergillus nidulans hsp30 (anid_03555.1), hsp70 (anid_05129.1), and hsp90 (anid_08269.1) genes are preferentially expressed in an acidic milieu, whose expression is dependent on the pala (+) background under optimal temperature for fungal growth. heat shock induction of these three hsp genes showed different patterns in response to extrac ...201121553327
quantitative trait locus (qtl) mapping reveals a role for unstudied genes in aspergillus virulence.infections caused by the fungus aspergillus are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised populations. to identify genes required for virulence that could be used as targets for novel treatments, we mapped quantitative trait loci (qtl) affecting virulence in the progeny of a cross between two strains of a. nidulans (fgsc strains a4 and a91). we genotyped 61 progeny at 739 single nucleotide polymorphisms (snp) spread throughout the genome, and constructed a linkage map that wa ...201121559404
control of glucosylceramide production and morphogenesis by the bar1 ceramide synthase in fusarium graminearum.the contribution of plasma membrane proteins to the virulence of plant pathogenic fungi is poorly understood. accordingly, the objective of this study was to characterize the acyl-coa dependent ceramide synthase bar1 (previously implicated in plasma membrane organization) in the wheat pathogen fusarium graminearum. the role of bar1 in mediating cell membrane organization was confirmed as δbar1 mutants failed to display a distinct sterol-rich domain at the hyphal tip. the δbar1 mutants were non-p ...201121559419
homologous overexpression of xylanase in fusarium oxysporum increases ethanol productivity during consolidated bioprocessing (cbp) of an effort to increase ethanol productivity during the consolidated bioprocessing (cbp) of lignocellulosics by fusarium oxysporum, we attempted the constitutive homologous overexpression of one of the key process enzymes, namely an endo-xylanase. the endo-β-1,4-xylanase 2 gene was incorporated into the f. oxysporum genome under the regulation of the gpda promoter of aspergillus nidulans. the transformation was effected through agrobacterium tumefaciens and resulted in 12 transformants, two of ...201121237221
maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment.potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan i type pectin which has previously been shown to exhibit promising properties as dietary fiber. the objective of this study was to solubilize dietary fibers from potato pulp by a one-step minimal treatment procedure and evaluate t ...201121253720
onsite bio-detoxification of steam-exploded corn stover for cellulosic ethanol the process of ethanol production from steam-exploded corn stover (secs), a cellulose-degradation strain of aspergillus nidulans (flz10) was investigated whether it could remove the inhibitors released from steam exploded pretreatment , and thereby be used for biological detoxification on saccharomycescerevisiae. the results showed that flz10 removed 75.2% formic acid, 53.6% acetic acid, and 100% hydroxymethyl furfural (5-hmf) and furfural from the hydrolysate washed from secs after 72h culti ...201121334878
quantifying the importance of galactofuranose in aspergillus nidulans hyphal wall surface organization by atomic force microscopy.the fungal wall mediates cell-environment interactions. galactofuranose (galf), the five-member ring form of galactose, has a relatively low abundance in aspergillus walls yet is important for fungal growth and fitness. aspergillus nidulans strains deleted for galf biosynthesis enzymes ugea (udp-glucose-4-epimerase) and ugma (udp-galactopyranose mutase) lacked immunolocalizable galf, had growth and sporulation defects, and had abnormal wall architecture. we used atomic force microscopy and force ...201121335527
genome-based deletion analysis reveals the prenyl xanthone biosynthesis pathway in aspergillus nidulans.xanthones are a class of molecules that bind to a number of drug targets and possess a myriad of biological properties. an understanding of xanthone biosynthesis at the genetic level should facilitate engineering of second-generation molecules and increasing production of first-generation compounds. the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans has been found to produce two prenylated xanthones, shamixanthone and emericellin, and we report the discovery of two more, variecoxanthone a and epishamix ...201121351751
influence of substrate dideuteration on the reaction of the bifunctional heme enzyme psi factor producing oxygenase a (ppoa).ppoa is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the dioxygenation of unsaturated c18 fatty acids. the products of this reaction are termed psi factors and have been shown to play a crucial role in conferring a balance between sexual and asexual spore development as well as production of secondary metabolites in the fungus aspergillus nidulans. studies on the reaction mechanism revealed that ppoa uses two different heme domains to catalyze two subsequent reactions. initially, the fatty acid substrat ...201121365732
strategies of xylanase supplementation for an efficient saccharification and cofermentation process from pretreated wheat straw.ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw materials includes a pretreatment step before enzymatic hydrolysis (eh). pretreated substrates contain complex hemicelluloses in the solid fraction that can protect the cellulose from enzymatic attack. in addition, soluble xylooligomers are contained in the pretreated materials and may have an inhibitory effect on cellulase activity. in this context, several approaches for xylanase supplementation have been studied to increase eh yields. in this study, ...201121567993
characterization of melanin pigment produced by aspergillus nidulans.although most of the ascomycetes present dhn-melanin, some reports suggest that a. nidulans does not produce this type of melanin. in this study, we analyzed the pigment extracted from highly melanized strains (mel1 and mel2) of aspergillus nidulans to determine the type of melanin present in this fungus. our results showed that the pigment produced by mel1 and mel2 mutants possesses physical and chemical properties and uv- and ir-spectra very similar to synthetic dopa-melanin. the characterizat ...201122805928
development of transformation system of verticillium lecanii (lecanicillium spp.) (deuteromycotina: hyphomycetes) based on nitrate reductase gene of aspergillus nidulans.a heterologous transformation system was developed for v. lecanii based on the complementation of a nitrate reductase mutant. nitrate reductase mutants were obtained by resistance to chlorate in a rate of 23.24% when compared to other mutations that lead to the chlorate resistance. mutant no. 01 and 04 was chosen for the transformation experiments. plasmid pbt was used as transformation vector containing the aspergillus nidulans nitrate reductase gene. a frequency of approximately 3 transformant ...201122754022
otomycosis in central iran: a clinical and mycological study.otomycosis is a fungal infection of the external ear with bothersome symptoms. the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of fungal agents, predisposing factors and characteristics of patients.201122737432
fungal photobiology: a synopsis.fungi respond and adapt to many environmental signals including light. the photobiology of fungi has been extensively investigated, but in recent years the identification of the first fungal photoreceptor, wc-1 in the ascomycete neurospora crassa, and the discovery that similar photoreceptors are required for photoreception in other ascomycete, basidiomycete and zygomycete fungi has allowed the molecular characterization of light reception and the early steps of signal transduction in a number o ...201122679584
allergens/antigens, toxins and polyketides of important aspergillus species.the medical, agricultural and biotechnological importance of the primitive eukaryotic microorganisms, the fungi was recognized way back in 1920. among various groups of fungi, the aspergillus species are studied in great detail using advances in genomics and proteomics to unravel biological and molecular mechanisms in these fungi. aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus parasiticus, aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus terreus are some of the important species r ...201122468035
effects of laea deletion on aspergillus flavus conidial development and hydrophobicity may contribute to loss of aflatoxin production.laea of aspergillus nidulans is a putative methyltransferase and a component of the velvet complex; it is thought to mainly affect expression of genes required for the production of secondary metabolites. we found that although aspergillus flavus ca14 laea deletion mutants showed no aflatoxin production, expression of some of the early genes involved in aflatoxin formation, but not the later genes, could still be detected. the mutants grown in minimal medium supplemented with simple sugars and o ...201122289775
functional characterization and oligomerization of a recombinant xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase (gh12) from aspergillus niveus.xyloglucan is a major structural polysaccharide of the primary (growing) cell wall of higher plants. it consists of a cellulosic backbone (beta-1,4-linked glucosyl residues) that is frequently substituted with side chains. this report describes aspergillus nidulans strain a773 recombinant secretion of a dimeric xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1,4-glucanohydrolase (xega) cloned from aspergillus niveus. the orf of the a. niveus xega gene is comprised of 714 nucleotides, and encodes a 238 amino acid pro ...201122230786
expression and characterization of an endo-1,4-β-galactanase from emericella nidulans in pichia pastoris for enzymatic design of potentially prebiotic oligosaccharides from potato galactans.potato pulp is a high-volume side-stream from industrial potato starch manufacturing. enzymatically solubilized β-1,4-galactan-rich potato pulp polysaccharides of molecular weights >100 kda (sppp) are highly bifidogenic in human fecal sample fermentations in vitro. the objective of the present study was to use potato β-1,4-galactan and the sppp as substrates for enzymatic production of potentially prebiotic compounds of lower and narrower molecular weight. a novel endo-1,4-β-galactanase from eme ...201122226198
currency notes and coins as a possible source of transmitting fungal pathogens of man and plants.currency (notes and coins) handling by people during transaction is one of the most mobile objects within the community, which has a potential of transmitting pathogens. a survey carried out recently in nanded city (maharashtra) revealed heavy contamination of currency notes and coins by important fungal pathogens of plants and man, i.e. aspergillus niger (60.37%), a. flavus (3.98%), a.nidulans (0.2%), penicillium citrinum (17.80%), alternaria tenuis (0.20%), curvularia pallescens (0.20%), clado ...201123505834
A strong promoter, PMagpd, provides a tool for high gene expression in entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium acridum.A glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpd) promoter (PMagpd) was obtained from Metarhizium acridum and its active region analyzed by 5'-deletion strategy using ß-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter. Sequence analysis revealed that typical regulatory elements of PMagpd were included in the 1.7 kb region upstream of the start codon of the Magpd gene. Deletion of the region from -1,691 bp to -1,463 bp, where the gpd box is harbored, did not significantly affect the PMagpd activity. Deletio ...201122109936
Invasive mold infections in chronic granulomatous disease: a 25-year retrospective survey.Invasive fungal infection (IFI) represents a life-threatening condition for patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and causes one-third of deaths in this population. This study offers a descriptive review of invasive mold infection (mIFI) in children with CGD over an extended period of time.201122080130
the vea gene of the pine needle pathogen dothistroma septosporum regulates sporulation and secondary metabolism.fungi possess genetic systems to regulate the expression of genes involved in complex processes such as development and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. the product of the velvet gene vea, first identified and characterized in aspergillus nidulans, is a key player in the regulation of both of these processes. since its discovery and characterization in many aspergillus species, vea has been found to have similar functions in other fungi, including the dothideomycete mycosphaerella graminicola. ...201122227160
Polyphasic characterization of "Aspergillus nidulans var. roseus" ATCC 58397.Polyphasic characterization of the echinocandin B producer Aspergillus nidulans var. roseus ATCC 58397 strain was carried out to elucidate its taxonomical status. According to its carbon source utilization and secondary metabolite spectrum as well as the partial ß-tubulin, calmodulin, and ?-actin gene sequences, A. nidulans var. roseus belongs to the Emericella rugulosa species. Auxotroph mutants of A. nidulans var. roseus ATCC 58397 and E. rugulosa CBS 171.71 and CBS 133.60 formed stable hetero ...201121858538
engineering hydrophobin dewa to generate surfaces that enhance adhesion of human but not bacterial cells.hydrophobins are fungal proteins with the ability to form immunologically inert membranes of high stability, properties that makes them attractive candidates for orthopaedic implant coatings. cell adhesion on the surface of such implants is necessary for better integration with the neighbouring tissue; however, hydrophobin surfaces do not mediate cell adhesion. the aim of this project was therefore to investigate whether the class i hydrophobin dewa from aspergillus nidulans can be functionalize ...201122154865
complex mechanisms regulate developmental expression of the mata (hmg) mating type gene in homothallic aspergillus nidulans.sexual reproduction is a fundamental developmental process that allows for genetic diversity through the control of zygote formation, recombination, and gametogenesis. the correct regulation of these events is paramount. sexual reproduction in filamentous fungi, including mating strategy (self-fertilization/homothallism or outcrossing/heterothallism), is determined by the expression of mating type genes at mat loci. aspergillus nidulans mata encodes a critical regulator that is a fungal ortholog ...201121868608
cytotoxic pheofungins from an engineered fungus impaired in posttranslational protein modification. 201121913294
the anisin1 gene encodes a defensin-like protein and supports the fitness of aspergillus the genome of aspergillus nidulans, a defensin-like protein, anisin1, was annotated with high homology to the mosquito defensin aadefa1. so far, no studies exist on defensins from filamentous ascomycetes. therefore, we characterized the anisin1 gene in a. nidulans and generated a deletion mutant, which suffered from a defect in mitospore development and produced less conidia at 42°c compared to the reference strain. in surface cultures of a. nidulans wild type, the anisin1 expression correlat ...201122113351
Culture-positive invasive aspergillosis in a medical center in Taiwan, 2000-2009.We reviewed 776 patients who were culture positive for Aspergillus species at the hospital from 2000 to 2009. The isolates were collected for species identification by oligonucleotide hybridization and sequence analysis. A total of 96 cases of proven or probable IA were identified according to published criteria. The incidence of IA has increased significantly during the study period. Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus (41.7% each) were equally prevalent causative species. IA due to unusual spe ...201121997774
ph response pathways in fungi: adapting to host-derived and environmental signals.microorganisms are significantly affected when the ambient ph of their environment changes. they must therefore be able to sense and respond to these changes in order to survive. previous investigators have studied various fungal species to define conserved ph-responsive signaling pathways. one of these pathways, known as the pal/rim pathway, is activated in response to alkaline ph signals, ultimately targeting the pacc/rim101 transcription factor. although the central signaling components are c ...201122783112
fungal secondary metabolites - strategies to activate silent gene clusters.filamentous fungi produce a multitude of low molecular weight bioactive compounds. the increasing number of fungal genome sequences impressively demonstrated that their biosynthetic potential is far from being exploited. in fungi, the genes required for the biosynthesis of a secondary metabolite are clustered. many of these bioinformatically newly discovered secondary metabolism gene clusters are silent under standard laboratory conditions. consequently, no product can be found. this review summ ...201120433937
comparison of transcriptional and translational changes caused by long-term menadione exposure in aspergillus nidulans.under long-term oxidative stress caused by menadione sodium bisulfite, genome-wide transcriptional and proteome-wide translational changes were compared in aspergillus nidulans vegetative cells. the comparison of proteomic and dna microarray expression data demonstrated that global gene expression changes recorded with either flip-flop or dendrimer cdna labeling techniques supported proteome changes moderately with 40% and 34% coincidence coefficients, respectively. enzyme levels in the glycolyt ...201120797444
cross-talk between light and glucose regulation controls toxin production and morphogenesis in aspergillus nidulans.light is a major environmental stimulus that has a broad effect on organisms, triggering a cellular response that results in an optimal adaptation enhancing fitness and survival. in fungi, light affects growth, and causes diverse morphological changes such as those leading to reproduction. light can also affect fungal metabolism, including the biosynthesis of natural products. in this study we show that in aspergillus nidulans the effect of light on the production of the sterigmatocystin (st) to ...201020816830
characterization of the developmental regulator flbe in aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus nidulans.several upstream developmental activators control asexual development (conidiation) in aspergillus. in this study, we characterize one of such activators called flbe in aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus nidulans. the predicted flbe protein is composed of 222 and 201 aa in a. fumigatus and a. nidulans, respectively. while flbe is transiently expressed during early phase of growth in a. nidulans, it is somewhat constitutively expressed during the lifecycle of a. fumigatus. the deletion of flbe ...201020817115
analysis of intact and dissected fungal polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase in vitro and in saccharomyces cerevisiae.the widely found fungal iterative pks-nrps hybrid megasynthetases are highly programmed biosynthetic machines involved in the synthesis of 3-acyltetramic acids and related natural products. in vitro analysis of iterative pks-nrps has been hampered by the difficulties associated with obtaining pure and functional forms of these large enzymes (>400 kda). we successfully expressed aspergillus nidulans aspyridone synthetase (apda) from an engineered saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. the complete func ...201020828130
screening for antifungal peptides and their modes of action in aspergillus nidulans.many short cationic peptides have been identified as potent antimicrobial agents, but their modes of action are not well understood. peptide synthesis on cellulose membranes has resulted in the generation of peptide libraries, while high-throughput assays have been developed to test their antibacterial activities. in this paper a microtiter plate-based screening method for fungi has been developed and used to test nine antibacterial peptides against the model fungus aspergillus nidulans. microsc ...201020833782
mitotic recombination: a genotoxic effect of the antidepressant citalopram in aspergillus nidulans.this report evaluates the potential of the antidepressant drug citalopram to induce homozygotization of genes previously present in a heterozygous condition, by homologous recombination. in order to address this question, a heterozygous diploid strain of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans and the homozygotization assay were utilized. non-cytotoxic concentrations of citalopram (50, 75 and 100 μmol/l) showed a strong recombinogenic effect in a. nidulans, inducing homozygosis of the diploi ...201020851831
aspergillus fumigatus flbb encodes two basic leucine zipper domain (bzip) proteins required for proper asexual development and gliotoxin production.the opportunistic human pathogen aspergillus fumigatus reproduces asexually by forming a massive number of mitospores called conidia. in this study, we characterize the upstream developmental regulator a. fumigatus flbb (afuflbb). northern blotting and cdna analyses reveal that afuflbb produces two transcripts predicted to encode two basic leucine zipper domain (bzip) polypeptides, afuflbbβ (420 amino acids [aa]) and afuflbbα (390 aa). the deletion of afuflbb results in delayed/reduced sporulati ...201020852021
quantification of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers induced by uvb radiation in conidia of the fungi aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus nidulans, metarhizium acridum and metarhizium robertsii.conidia are responsible for reproduction, dispersal, environmental persistence and host infection of many fungal species. one of the main environmental factors that can kill and/or damage conidia is solar uv radiation. cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (cpd) are the major dna photoproducts induced by uvb. we examined the conidial germination kinetics and the occurrence of cpd in dna of conidia exposed to different doses of uvb radiation. conidia of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus nidulans and met ...201020860693
the microtubule plus-end localization of aspergillus dynein is important for dynein-early-endosome interaction but not for dynein atpase activation.cytoplasmic dynein in filamentous fungi accumulates at microtubule plus-ends near the hyphal tip, which is important for minus-end-directed transport of early endosomes. it was hypothesized that dynein is switched on at the plus-end by cargo association. here, we show in aspergillus nidulans that kinesin-1-dependent plus-end localization is not a prerequisite for dynein atpase activation. first, the walker a and walker b mutations in the dynein heavy chain aaa1 domain implicated in blocking diff ...201020876661
global gene expression analysis of aspergillus nidulans reveals metabolic shift and transcription suppression under hypoxia.hypoxia imposes a challenge upon most filamentous fungi that require oxygen for proliferation. here, we used whole genome dna microarrays to investigate global transcriptional changes in aspergillus nidulans gene expression after exposure to hypoxia followed by normoxia. aeration affected the expression of 2,864 genes (27% of the total number of genes in the fungus), of which 50% were either induced or repressed under hypoxic conditions. up-regulated genes included those for glycolysis, ethanol ...201020878186
hypertonic conditions trigger transient plasmolysis, growth arrest and blockage of transporter endocytosis in aspergillus nidulans and saccharomyces using aspergillus nidulans strains expressing functional gfp-tagged transporters under hypertonic conditions, we noticed the rapid appearance of cortical, relatively static, fluorescent patches (0.5-2.3 μm). these patches do not correspond to transporter microdomains as they co-localize with other plasma membrane-associated molecules, such as the pleckstrin homology (ph) domain and the ssoa t-snare, or the lipophilic markers fm4-64 and filipin. in addition, they do not show characteristics of ...201020919858
fungal development and the cop9 signalosome.the conserved cop9 signalosome (csn) multiprotein complex is located at the interface between cellular signaling, protein modification, life span and the development of multicellular organisms. csn is required for light-controlled responses in filamentous fungi. this includes the circadian rhythm of neurospora crassa or the repression of sexual development by light in aspergillus nidulans. in contrast to plants and animals, csn is not essential for fungal viability. therefore fungi are suitable ...201020934903
suppressor mutagenesis identifies a velvet complex remediator of aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolism.fungal secondary metabolites (sm) are bioactive compounds that are important in fungal ecology and, moreover, both harmful and useful in human endeavors (e.g., as toxins and pharmaceuticals). recently a nuclear heterocomplex termed the velvet complex, characterized in the model ascomycete aspergillus nidulans, was found to be critical for sm production. deletion of two members of the velvet complex, laea and vea, results in near loss of sm and defective sexual spore production in a. nidulans and ...201020935144
hapx-mediated adaption to iron starvation is crucial for virulence of aspergillus fumigatus.iron is essential for a wide range of cellular processes. here we show that the bzip-type regulator hapx is indispensable for the transcriptional remodeling required for adaption to iron starvation in the opportunistic fungal pathogen aspergillus fumigatus. hapx represses iron-dependent and mitochondrial-localized activities including respiration, tca cycle, amino acid metabolism, iron-sulfur-cluster and heme biosynthesis. in agreement with the impact on mitochondrial metabolism, hapx-deficiency ...201020941352
fungal tyrosine betaine, a novel secondary metabolite from conidia of entomopathogenic metarhizium spp. fungi.fungi, including the entomopathogenic deuteromycete metarhizium anisopliae, produce a wide diversity of secondary metabolites that either can be secreted or stored in specific developmental structures, e.g., conidia. some secondary metabolites, such as pigments, polyols and mycosporines, are associated with pathogenicity and/or fungal tolerance to several stress-inducing environmental factors, including temperature and solar radiation extremes. extracts of m. anisopliae var. anisopliae (strain e ...201020943158
functional characterization of a new member of the cdk9 family in aspergillus nidulans.cdk9-like kinases in complex with t-type cyclins are essential components of the eukaryotic transcription elongation machinery. the full spectrum of cdk9/cyclin t targets, as well as the specific consequences of phosphorylations, is still largely undefined. we identify and characterize here a cdk9 kinase (ptka) in the filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans. deletion of ptka had a lethal effect in later stages of vegetative growth and completely impeded asexual development. overexpression of ...201020952582
activation of a silent fungal polyketide biosynthesis pathway through regulatory cross talk with a cryptic nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene cluster.filamentous fungi produce numerous natural products that constitute a consistent source of potential drug leads, yet it seems that the majority of natural products are overlooked since most biosynthesis gene clusters are silent under standard cultivation conditions. screening secondary metabolite genes of the model fungus aspergillus nidulans, we noted a silent gene cluster on chromosome ii comprising two nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps) genes, inpa and inpb, flanked by a regulatory gene t ...201020952652
novel mutations reveal two important regions in aspergillus nidulans transcriptional activator metr.expression of the sulfur assimilation pathway in aspergillus nidulans is under control of sulfur metabolite repression, which is composed of scon genes encoding subunits of ubiquitin ligase and the metr gene coding for a transcriptional activator. in this paper we report three dominant suppressors of methionine requirement isolated from a metb3 diploid strain. all three mutations lead to the substitution of phenylalanine 48 by serine or leucine in the conserved n-terminal region of the metr prot ...201020955810
pectin lyase production by recombinant penicillium griseoroseum strain 105.recombinant penicillium griseoroseum strain 105 overproduces an extracellular pectin lyase (pl) under the transcriptional control of the strong gpda promoter of aspergillus nidulans. our aim was to evaluate pl production by recombinant p. griseoroseum strain 105 in submerged fermentation system bioreactors biofloiii and biofloiv using 2 or 10 l working volumes under different growth conditions and to analyze the production of cellulase, polygalacturonase, pectin methylesterase, and protease. pl ...201020962906
transcriptome analysis of nitrate assimilation in aspergillus nidulans reveals connections to nitric oxide metabolism.nitrate is a dominant form of inorganic nitrogen (n) in soils and can be efficiently assimilated by bacteria, fungi and plants. we studied here the transcriptome of the short-term nitrate response using assimilating and non-assimilating strains of the model ascomycete aspergillus nidulans. among the 72 genes positively responding to nitrate, only 18 genes carry binding sites for the pathway-specific activator nira. forty-five genes were repressed by nitrate metabolism. because nira(-) strains ar ...201020969648
microbiological analysis of a mummy from the archeological museum in this paper we report the results of the microbiological analysis of the samples taken from the mummy from the collection of the archaeological museum in zagreb, croatia. samples were taken from specific places such as oral, orbital, abdominal cavity and bandages surrounding the mummy, and analyzed in department of microbiology and hospital infections in university hospital "dubrava" in zagreb and in national reference laboratory for systemic mycoses of croatian national institute of public he ...201020977065
an ortholog of fara of aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast yarrowia lipolytica.the yeast yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. to identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to oaf1 and pip2 of saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. we next characterized a y. lipolytica gene, por1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of fara encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilizatio ...201020977884
in vitro susceptibility testing of aspergillus spp. against voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin b and caspofungin.during recent years, the incidence of serious infections caused by opportunistic fungi has increased dramatically due to alterations of the immune status of patients with hematological diseases, malignant tumors, transplantations and so forth. unfortunately, the wide use of triazole antifungal agents to treat these infections has lead to the emergence of aspergillus spp. resistant to triazoles. the present study was to assess the in vitro activities of five antifungal agents (voriconazole, itrac ...201021034656
aspergillus nidulans asexual development: making the most of cellular modules.asexual development in aspergillus nidulans begins in superficial hyphae as the programmed emergence of successive pseudohyphal modules, collectively known as the conidiophore, and is completed by a layer of specialized cells (phialides) giving rise to chains of aerial spores. a discrete number of regulatory factors present in hyphae play different stage-specific roles in pseudohyphal modules, depending on their cellular localization and protein-protein interactions. their multiple roles include ...201021035346
the cop9 signalosome mediates transcriptional and metabolic response to hormones, oxidative stress protection and cell wall rearrangement during fungal development.the cop9 signalosome complex (csn) is a crucial regulator of ubiquitin ligases. defects in csn result in embryonic impairment and death in higher eukaryotes, whereas the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans survives without csn, but is unable to complete sexual development. we investigated overall impact of csn activity on a. nidulans cells by combined transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis. absence of csn5/csne affects transcription of at least 15% of genes during development, inclu ...201021062371
type 2c protein phosphatases in fungi.type 2c ser/thr phosphatases are a remarkable class of protein phosphatases, which are conserved in eukaryotes and involved in a large variety of functional processes. unlike in other ser/thr phosphatases, the catalytic polypeptide is not usually associated with regulatory subunits, and functional specificity is achieved by encoding multiple isoforms. for fungi, most information comes from the study of type 2c protein phosphatase (pp2c) enzymes in saccharomyces cerevisiae, where seven pp2c-encod ...201021076010
human leukocytes kill aspergillus nidulans by reactive oxygen species-independent mechanisms.invasive aspergillosis is a major threat for patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease (cgd). although aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly encountered aspergillus species, the presence of a. nidulans appears to be disproportionately high in cgd patients. the purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of the nadph oxidase and the resulting reactive oxygen species (ros) in host defense against fungi and to clarify their relationship toward a. nidulans. murine cgd a ...201021078850
penicillium marneffei actin expression during phase transition, oxidative stress, and macrophage infection.penicillium marneffei is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that exhibits thermally regulated dimorphism. at 25°c, this fungus grows vegetatively as mycelia, but at 37°c or upon invasion of a host, a fission yeast form is established. yet, despite increased numbers of molecular studies involving this fungus, the role of p. marneffei stress response-related proteins is not well characterized. actin is one of the proteins that have been proposed to play a role not only in cell transition, but also i ...201021088905
conserved components, but distinct mechanisms for the placement and assembly of the cell division machinery in unicellular and filamentous ascomycetes.cytokinesis is essential for cell proliferation, yet its molecular description is challenging, because >100 conserved proteins must be spatially and temporally co-ordinated. despite the high importance of a tight co-ordination of cytokinesis with chromosome and organelle segregation, the mechanism for determining the cell division plane is one of the least conserved aspects of cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells. budding and fission yeast have developed fundamentally distinct mechanisms to ensure pr ...201021091496
involvement of the aspergillus nidulans protein kinase c with farnesol tolerance is related to the unfolded protein response.previously, we demonstrated that the aspergillus nidulans calc2 mutation in protein kinase c pkca was able to confer tolerance to farnesol (foh), an isoprenoid that has been shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis. here, we investigate in more detail the role played by a. nidulans pkca in foh tolerance. we demonstrate that pkca overexpression during foh exposure causes increased cell death. foh is also able to activate several markers of endoplasmic reticulum (er) stress and the unfo ...201021091509
homologue expression of a β-xylosidase from native aspergillus niger.xylan constitutes the second most abundant source of renewable organic carbon on earth and is located in the cell walls of hardwood and softwood plants in the form of hemicellulose. based on its availability, there is a growing interest in production of xylanolytic enzymes for industrial applications. β-1,4-xylan xylosidase (ec hydrolyses from the nonreducing end of xylooligosaccharides arising from endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity. this work reports the partial characterization of a purif ...201021116681
recruitment of the inhibitor cand1 to the cullin substrate adaptor site mediates interaction to the neddylation site.cand1 inhibits cullin ring ubiquitin ligases by binding unneddylated cullins. the cand1 n-terminus blocks the cullin neddylation site, whereas the c-terminus inhibits cullin adaptor interaction. these cand1 binding sites can be separated into two functional polypeptides which bind sequentially. c-terminal cand1 can directly bind to unneddylated cullins in the nucleus without blocking the neddylation site. the smaller n-terminal cand1 cannot bind to the cullin neddylation region without c-termina ...201021119001
hapx positively and negatively regulates the transcriptional response to iron deprivation in cryptococcus neoformans.the fungal pathogen cryptococcus neoformans is a major cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals such as aids patients. the ability of the fungus to acquire nutrients during proliferation in host tissue and the ability to elaborate a polysaccharide capsule are critical determinants of disease outcome. we previously showed that the gata factor, cir1, is a major regulator both of the iron uptake functions needed for growth in host tissue and the key virulence factors such as capsule, melan ...201021124817
the aspergillus nidulans nuca(endog) homologue is not involved in cell death.upon apoptosis induction, translocation of mammalian mitochondrial endonuclease g (endog) to the nucleus coincides with large-scale dna fragmentation. here, we describe for the first time a homologue of endog in filamentous fungi by investigating if the aspergillus nidulans homologue of the endog gene, named nuca(endog), is being activated during farnesol-induced cell death. our results suggest that nuca is not involved in cell death, but it plays a role in the dna-damaging response in a. nidula ...201021131437
survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats in the laccaria bicolor genome, with development of microsatellite is becoming clear that simple sequence repeats (ssrs) play a significant role in fungal genome organization, and they are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. we identified ssrs in the laccaria bicolor genome by in silico survey and analyzed their distribution in the different genomic regions. we also compared the abundance and distribution of ssrs in l. bicolor with those of the following fungal genomes: phanerochaete chrysosporium, coprinopsis cinerea, ...201021132299
differential expression of cita gene encoding the mitochondrial citrate synthase of aspergillus nidulans in response to developmental status and carbon an extension of our previous studies on the mitochondrial citrate synthase of aspergillus nidulans and cloning of its coding gene (cita), we analyzed differential expression of cita in response to the progress of development and change of carbon source. the cdna consisted of 1,700 nucleotides and was predicted to encode a 474-amino acid protein. by comparing the cdna sequence with the corresponding genomic sequence, we confirmed that cita gene contains 7 introns and that its transcription sta ...201020437151
predicting the chemical composition and structure of aspergillus nidulans hyphal wall surface by atomic force fungi, cell wall plays an important role in growth and development. major macromolecular constituents of the aspergilli cell wall are glucan, chitin, and protein. we examined the chemical composition and structure of the aspergillus nidulans hyphal wall surface by an atomic force microscope (afm). to determine the composition of the cell wall surface, the adhesion forces of commercially available beta-glucan, chitin, and various proteins were compared to those of corresponding fractions prepa ...201020437158
analysis of a novel calcium auxotrophy in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans a combination of null mutations in hala, encoding a protein kinase, and slta, encoding a zinc-finger transcription factor having no yeast homologues, results in an elevated calcium requirement ('calcium auxotrophy') without impairing net calcium uptake. slta(-) (+/-hala(-)) mutations result in hypertrophy of the vacuolar system. in hala(-)slta(-) (and slta(-)) strains, transcript levels for pmca and pmcb, encoding vacuolar ca(2+)-atpase homologues, are highly elevated, su ...201020438880
in vitro susceptibility testing in aspergillus species: an update.aspergillus species are the most common causes of invasive mold infections in immunocompromised patients. the introduction of new antifungal agents and recent reports of resistance emerging during treatment of aspergillus infections have highlighted the need for in vitro susceptibility testing. various testing procedures have been proposed, including macro- and micro-dilution, disk diffusion, etest (ab biodisk, sweden) and other commercial tests. although aspergillus species are generally suscep ...201020441550
development of rapid and specific molecular discrimination methods for pathogenic emericella species.aspergillosis is an important mycosis caused primarily by aspergillus fumigatus and its relatives. the genus emericella is a teleomorph related to the aspergillus section nidulantes. the typical anamorphic stage species in this genus is aspergillus nidulans, which is sometimes a significant agent in chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) patients. the mortality rate of osteomyelitis in cgd patients due to a. nidulans ( e. nidulans ) is very high compared to that due to a. fumigatus. moreover, two e ...201020467199
high-throughput screening of dna binding sites for transcription factor amyr from aspergillus nidulans using dna beads display system.we established a high-throughput screening method for the dna binding sequence of a eukaryotic transcription factor by using the bead display system with emulsion pcr and flow cytometry and applied it for identifying a eukaryotic transcriptional activator amyr, which is known to regulate amylolytic gene expression in aspergillus species. segmented parts of the binding site of amyr were randomized to make a dna library on beads, onto which male-tagged amyr protein and fluorescent anti-male tag an ...201020471587
core promoters of the penicillin biosynthesis genes and quantitative rt-pcr analysis of these genes in high and low production strain of penicillium chrysogenum.the transcription start points of the penicillin biosynthesis genes from penicillium chrysogenum were mapped using the primer extension method. for each of the three genes consensus sequences of the core promoter elements were identified, supporting the notion that the basal transcription of these genes is mediated separately. interestingly, transcription start of the pcbc gene is located within the potential inr element with no tata box-like sequence being found at expected position. this is in ...201020490754
the fps1p aquaglyceroporin facilitates the use of small aliphatic amides as a nitrogen source by amidase-expressing yeasts.saccharomyces cerevisiae acquires a resistance to high, toxic levels of acetic acid by destabilizing fps1p, the plasma membrane aquaglyceroporin through which this acid - in its undissociated state - enters the cell. in this study, fps1p loss was shown to confer resistances to acetic acid, acrolein and allyl alcohol, not just in s. cerevisiae but also in the osmotolerant spoilage yeast zygosaccharomyces rouxii. however, in z. rouxii, the loss of fps1p severely compromised the use of acetamide an ...201020491941
atp-citrate lyase is required for production of cytosolic acetyl coenzyme a and development in aspergillus nidulans.acetyl coenzyme a (coa) is a central metabolite in carbon and energy metabolism and in the biosynthesis of cellular molecules. a source of cytoplasmic acetyl-coa is essential for the production of fatty acids and sterols and for protein acetylation, including histone acetylation in the nucleus. in saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida albicans acetyl-coa is produced from acetate by cytoplasmic acetyl-coa synthetase, while in plants and animals acetyl-coa is derived from citrate via atp-citrate ly ...201020495057
gene silencing of transgenes inserted in the aspergillus nidulans alcm and/or alcs loci.while carrying out a systematic disruption of the genes of unknown function in the alc gene cluster from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, we observed a strong diminution of the transcription of markers inserted in the alcs gene. this was found to be the case for the two markers tested, nada (from a. nidulans) and pyrg (from a. fumigatus) involved in purine utilization and uracil/uridine biosynthetic pathway, respectively. the same phenomenon was also observed with insertion of the na ...201020495807
nek1 silencing slows down dna repair and blocks dna damage-induced cell cycle arrest.never in mitosis a (nima)-related kinases (nek) are evolutionarily conserved proteins structurally related to the aspergillus nidulans mitotic regulator nima. nek1 is one of the 11 isoforms of the neks identified in mammals. different lines of evidence suggest the participation of nek1 in response to dna damage, which is also supported by the interaction of this kinase with proteins involved in dna repair pathways and cell cycle regulation. in this report, we show that cells with nek1 knockdown ...201020501547
the transcription repressor nmra is subject to proteolysis by three aspergillus nidulans proteases.the role of specific cleavage of transcription repressor proteins by proteases and how this may be related to the emerging theme of dinucleotides as cellular signaling molecules is poorly characterized. the transcription repressor nmra of aspergillus nidulans discriminates between oxidized and reduced dinucleotides, however, dinucleotide binding has no effect on its interaction with the zinc finger in the transcription activator area. protease activity in a. nidulans was assayed using nmra as th ...201020506376
the mode of reproduction in natural populations of ascomycetous fungus, emericella nidulans, from israel.the mode of reproduction of the soil ascomycetous fungus emericella nidulans of israeli populations was studied using 15 microsatellite (simple sequence repeats or ssr) trinucleotide markers. the study was performed in three canyons: two located in the northern part of israel (mount carmel and western upper galilee) and one in the southern negev desert. in each canyon, e. nidulans strains were isolated from the opposite slopes and (in the desert canyon) the valley bottom. testing the reproductiv ...201020515512
role of phospholipase c and protein kinase c in aspergillus nidulans during growth on pectin or glucose: effects on germination and duplication cycle.the effects of plc and pkc inhibitors on aspergillus nidulans depend on the carbon source. plc inhibitors spm and c48/80 delayed the first nuclear division in cultures growing on glucose, but stimulated it in media supplemented with pectin. less intense were these effects on the mutant transformed with plc-a gene rupture (ap27). neomycin also delayed the germination in cultures growing on glucose or pectin; however, on glucose, the nuclear division was inhibited whereas in pectin it was stimulat ...201020526834
aspergillus rabb rab5 integrates acquisition of degradative identity with the long distance movement of early endosomes.aspergillus nidulans early endosomes display characteristic long-distance bidirectional motility. simultaneous dual-channel acquisition showed that the two rab5 paralogues rabb and raba colocalize in these early endosomes and also in larger, immotile mature endosomes. however, rabb-gtp is the sole recruiter to endosomes of vps34 pi3k (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase) and the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate [pi(3)p] effector anvps19 and rabb delta, leading to thermosensitivity prevents multivesicu ...201020534811
antifungal activity of eugenol against penicillium, aspergillus, and fusarium species.the antifungal activity of eugenol in a model system against aspergilli (aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus, and emericella nidulans), penicilli (penicillium expansum, penicillium glabrum, and penicillium italicum), and fusaria (fusarium oxysporum and fusarium avenaceum) was investigated. minimum detection time (time to attain a colony diameter of 1 cm) and the kinetic parameters were evaluated. the effectiveness of the active compound seemed to be strain or genus dependent; 100 mg/liter rep ...201020537272
methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase activity is involved in the plasma membrane redox system required for pigment biosynthesis in filamentous fungi.methylenetetrahydrofolate reductases (mthfrs) play a key role in biosynthesis of methionine and s-adenosyl-l-methionine (sam) via the recharging methionine biosynthetic pathway. analysis of 32 complete fungal genomes showed that fungi were unique among eukaryotes by having two mthfrs, met12 and met13. the met12 type contained an additional conserved sequence motif compared to the sequences of met13 and mthfrs from other eukaryotes and bacteria. targeted gene replacement of either of the two mthf ...201020543064
self-protection against gliotoxin--a component of the gliotoxin biosynthetic cluster, glit, completely protects aspergillus fumigatus against exogenous gliotoxin.gliotoxin, and other related molecules, are encoded by multi-gene clusters and biosynthesized by fungi using non-ribosomal biosynthetic mechanisms. almost universally described in terms of its toxicity towards mammalian cells, gliotoxin has come to be considered as a component of the virulence arsenal of aspergillus fumigatus. here we show that deletion of a single gene, glit, in the gliotoxin biosynthetic cluster of two a. fumigatus strains, rendered the organism highly sensitive to exogenous g ...201020548963
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