TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
mcma-dependent and -independent regulatory systems governing expression of clrb-regulated cellulase and hemicellulase genes in aspergillus nidulans.fungal cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes are promising tools for industrial hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass; however, the regulatory network underlying their production is not well understood. the recent discovery of the transcriptional activators clrb and mcma in aspergillus nidulans implied a novel regulatory mechanism driven by their interaction, experimental evidence for which was obtained from transcriptional and dna-binding analyses in this study. it was found that clrb was essent ...201627588830
isoindolone-containing meroperpenoids from the endophytic fungus emericella nidulans hdn12-249.six isoindolone containing meroterpenoids, emericellolides a-c (1-3) and emeriphenolicins e-g (4-6), were isolated from a plant endophytic fungus emericella nidulans hdn12-249. emericellolides a-c (1-3) feature the unprecedented macrolide skeleton composed of an unusual l-glutamate fragment, an isoindolone unit, and a sesquiterpene moiety, while structures of emeriphenolicins e-g (4-6) with two farnesyl groups attached to one isoindolone unit are rare in isoindolone-derived meroterpenoids. these ...201627588428
lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases and other oxidative enzymes are abundantly secreted by aspergillus nidulans grown on different starches.starch is the second most abundant plant-derived biomass and a major feedstock in non-food industrial applications and first generation biofuel production. in contrast to lignocellulose, detailed insight into fungal degradation of starch is currently lacking. this study explores the secretomes of aspergillus nidulans grown on cereal starches from wheat and high-amylose (ha) maize, as well as legume starch from pea for 5 days.201627588040
fungi use the saka (hoga) pathway for phytochrome-dependent light signalling.stress-sensing in fungi depends on a signalling cascade comprised of a two-component phosphorylation relay plus a subsequent map kinase cascade to trigger gene expression. besides osmotic or oxidative stress, fungi sense many other environmental factors, one of which is light(1,2). light controls morphogenetic pathways but also the production of secondary metabolites such as penicillin. here we show that phytochrome-dependent light signalling in aspergillus nidulans involves the stress-sensing a ...201627572639
key role of laea and velvet complex proteins on expression of β-lactam and pr-toxin genes in penicillium chrysogenum: cross-talk regulation of secondary metabolite pathways.penicillium chrysogenum is an excellent model fungus to study the molecular mechanisms of control of expression of secondary metabolite genes. a key global regulator of the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites is the laea protein that interacts with other components of the velvet complex (vela, velb, velc, vosa). these components interact with laea and regulate expression of penicillin and pr-toxin biosynthetic genes in p. chrysogenum. both laea and vela are positive regulators of the penicilli ...201627565675
immobilization of lccc laccase from aspergillus nidulans on hard surfaces via fungal hydrophobins.fungal hydrophobins are small amphiphilic proteins that can be used for coatings on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. through the formation of monolayers, they change the hydrophobicity of a given surface. especially, the class i hydrophobins are interesting for biotechnology, because their layers are stable at high temperatures and can only be removed with strong solvents. these proteins self-assemble into monolayers under physiological conditions and undergo conformational changes that sta ...201627565614
diminishing-returns epistasis among random beneficial mutations in a multicellular fungus.adaptive evolution ultimately is fuelled by mutations generating novel genetic variation. non-additivity of fitness effects of mutations (called epistasis) may affect the dynamics and repeatability of adaptation. however, understanding the importance and implications of epistasis is hampered by the observation of substantial variation in patterns of epistasis across empirical studies. interestingly, some recent studies report increasingly smaller benefits of beneficial mutations once genotypes b ...201627559062
molecular components of the neurospora crassa ph signaling pathway and their regulation by ph and the pac-3 transcription factor.environmental ph induces a stress response triggering a signaling pathway whose components have been identified and characterized in several fungi. neurospora crassa shares all six components of the aspergillus nidulans ph signaling pathway, and we investigate here their regulation during an alkaline ph stress response. we show that the n. crassa pal mutant strains, with the exception of δpal-9, which is the a. nidulans pali homolog, exhibit low conidiation and are unable to grow at alkaline ph. ...201627557053
kdmb, a jumonji histone h3 demethylase, regulates genome-wide h3k4 trimethylation and is required for normal induction of secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.histone posttranslational modifications (hptms) are involved in chromatin-based regulation of fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis (smb) in which the corresponding genes-usually physically linked in co-regulated clusters-are silenced under optimal physiological conditions (nutrient-rich) but are activated when nutrients are limiting. the exact molecular mechanisms by which hptms influence silencing and activation, however, are still to be better understood. here we show by a combined approac ...201627548260
evaluation of biosynthetic pathway and engineered biosynthesis of alkaloids.varieties of alkaloids are known to be produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi and plants, as secondary metabolites that exhibit useful bioactivities. however, understanding of how those metabolites are biosynthesized still remains limited, because most of these compounds are isolated from plants and at a trace level of production. in this review, we focus on recent efforts in identifying the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of those nitrogen-containing natural products an ...201627548127
nitrogen metabolism and growth enhancement in tomato plants challenged with trichoderma harzianum expressing the aspergillus nidulans acetamidase amds gene.trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. in addition to the direct application of trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. the amds gene, encoding an acetamidase of aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the trans ...201627536277
botrytis cinerea can import and utilize nucleosides in salvage and catabolism and bcent functions as high affinity nucleoside transporter.nucleotide de novo synthesis is an essential pathway in nearly all organisms. transport processes as well as salvage and catabolism of nucleotides and pathway intermediates are required to balance nucleotide pools. we have analysed the genome of the fungal plant pathogen botrytis cinerea for genes involved in nucleotide metabolism and found a complete set of genes necessary for purine and pyrimidine uptake and salvage based on homology of the gene products to corresponding proteins from aspergil ...201627521624
mapping n-linked glycosylation of carbohydrate-active enzymes in the secretome of aspergillus nidulans grown on lignocellulose.the genus aspergillus includes microorganisms that naturally degrade lignocellulosic biomass, secreting large amounts of carbohydrate-active enzymes (cazymes) that characterize their saprophyte lifestyle. aspergillus has the capacity to perform post-translational modifications (ptm), which provides an additional advantage for the use of these organisms as a host for the production of heterologous proteins. in this study, the n-linked glycosylation of cazymes identified in the secretome of asperg ...201627508003
echinocandin b biosynthesis: a biosynthetic cluster from aspergillus nidulans nrrl 8112 and reassembly of the subclusters ecd and hty from aspergillus pachycristatus nrrl 11440 reveals a single coherent gene cluster.echinocandins are nonribosomal lipopeptides produced by ascommycete fungi. due to their strong inhibitory effect on fungal cell wall biosynthesis and lack of human toxicity, they have been developed to an important class of antifungal drugs. since 2012, the biosynthetic gene clusters of most of the main echinocandin variants have been characterized. especially the comparison of the clusters allows a deeper insight for the biosynthesis of these complex structures.201627502607
in vivo analysis of septin heteropolymer rods and higher-order structures in filamentous fungi.individual septins from separate phylogenetic groups assemble into heteropolymer rods with defined compositions. heteropolymer rods can in turn assemble into larger higher-order structures (hos). using a combination of immunoprecipitation and fluorescence microscopy in aspergillus nidulans wild-type and septin-mutant strains, we have shown that even when septin hos are not visible by fluorescence microscopy, heteropolymer rods can still be present and that a septin found largely in filamentous f ...201627473907
post-synthetic defucosylation of agp by aspergillus nidulans α-1,2-fucosidase expressed in arabidopsis apoplast induces compensatory upregulation of α-1,2-fucosyltransferases.cell walls are essential components of plant cells which perform a variety of important functions for the different cell types, tissues and organs of a plant. besides mechanical function providing cell shape, cell walls participate in intercellular communication, defense during plant-microbe interactions, and plant growth. the plant cell wall consists predominantly of polysaccharides with the addition of structural glycoproteins, phenolic esters, minerals, lignin, and associated enzymes. alterat ...201627448235
increased enzyme production under liquid culture conditions in the industrial fungus aspergillus oryzae by disruption of the genes encoding cell wall α-1,3-glucan synthase.under liquid culture conditions, the hyphae of filamentous fungi aggregate to form pellets, which reduces cell density and fermentation productivity. previously, we found that loss of α-1,3-glucan in the cell wall of the fungus aspergillus nidulans increased hyphal dispersion. therefore, here we constructed a mutant of the industrial fungus a. oryzae in which the three genes encoding α-1,3-glucan synthase were disrupted (tripleδ). although the hyphae of the tripleδ mutant were not fully disperse ...201627442340
rnaseq reveals hydrophobins that are involved in the adaptation of aspergillus nidulans to lignocellulose.sugarcane is one of the world's most profitable crops. waste steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (seb) is a cheap, abundant, and renewable lignocellulosic feedstock for the next-generation biofuels. in nature, fungi seldom exist as planktonic cells, similar to those found in the nutrient-rich environment created within an industrial fermenter. instead, fungi predominantly form biofilms that allow them to thrive in hostile environments.201627437031
dissection of transporter function: from genetics to structure.transporters are transmembrane proteins mediating the selective uptake or efflux of solutes, metabolites, drugs, or ions across cellular membranes. despite their immense biological importance in cell nutrition, communication, signaling, and homeostasis, their study remains technically difficult mostly due to their lipid-embedded nature. the study of eukaryotic transporters presents additional complexity due to multiple subcellular control mechanisms that operate to ensure proper membrane traffic ...201627430403
heterologous expression of fungal secondary metabolite pathways in the aspergillus nidulans host system.heterologous expression of fungal secondary metabolite genes allows for the product formation of otherwise silent secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways. it also allows facile expression of mutants or combinations of genes not found in nature. this capability makes model fungi an ideal platform for synthetic biology. in this chapter a detailed description is provided of how to heterologously express any fungal secondary metabolite gene(s) in a well-developed host strain of aspergillus nidula ...201627417927
a robust analytical pipeline for genome-wide identification of the genes regulated by a transcription factor: combinatorial analysis performed using gselex-seq and rna-seq.for identifying the genes that are regulated by a transcription factor (tf), we have established an analytical pipeline that combines genomic systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (gselex)-seq and rna-seq. here, selex was used to select dna fragments from an aspergillus nidulans genomic library that bound specifically to amyr, a tf from a. nidulans. high-throughput sequencing data were obtained for the dnas enriched through the selection, following which various in silico ana ...201627411092
selective natural induction of laccases in pleurotus sajor-caju, suitable for application at a biofuel cell cathode at neutral ph.laccases are multicopper oxidoreductases with broad substrate specificity and are applied in biofuel cells at the cathode to improve its oxygen reduction performance. however, the production of laccases by e.g. fungi is often accompanied by the need of synthetic growth supplements for increased enzyme production. in this study we present a strategy for the white-rot fungus pleurotus sajor-caju for natural laccase activity induction using lignocellulose substrates and culture supernatant of asper ...201627393835
a wdr gene is a conserved member of a chitin synthase gene cluster and influences the cell wall in aspergillus nidulans.wd40 repeat (wdr) proteins are pleiotropic molecular hubs. we identify a wdr gene that is a conserved genomic neighbor of a chitin synthase gene in ascomycetes. the wdr gene is unique to fungi and plants, and was called fungal plant wd (fpwd). fpwd is within a cell wall metabolism gene cluster in the ascomycetes (pezizomycotina) comprising chsd, a chs activator and a gh17 glucanase. the fpwd, an1556.2 locus was deleted in aspergillus nidulans strain saa.111 by gene replacement and only heterokar ...201627367684
light governs asexual differentiation in the grey mould fungus botrytis cinerea via the putative transcription factor bcltf2.botrytis cinerea is a plant pathogenic fungus known for its utilization of light as environmental cue to regulate asexual differentiation: conidia are formed in the light, while sclerotia are formed in the dark. as no orthologues of known regulators of conidiation (e.g., aspergillus nidulans brla, neurospora crassa fl) exist in the leotiomycetes, we initiated a de novo approach to identify the functional counterpart in b. cinerea. the search revealed the light-responsive c2h2 transcription facto ...201627347834
recombinant expression of a gh12 β-glucanase carrying its own signal peptide from stachybotrys atra in yeast and filamentous fungi.the β-glucanase cel12a gene from stachybotrys atra has been cloned and heterologously expressed in aspergillus nidulans and saccharomyces cerevisiae. the recombinant strains constructed, contained the exonic sequence of cel12a including its own signal peptide coding sequence. sds-page and zymography revealed that recombinant cel12a has a molecular mass of 24 kda which agrees with that deduced from its amino acid sequence, indicating that it is expressed in the non-glycosylated active form. recom ...201627339304
new aspercryptins, lipopeptide natural products, revealed by hdac inhibition in aspergillus nidulans.unlocking the biochemical stores of fungi is key for developing future pharmaceuticals. through reduced expression of a critical histone deacetylase in aspergillus nidulans, increases of up to 100-fold were observed in the levels of 15 new aspercryptins, recently described lipopeptides with two noncanonical amino acids derived from octanoic and dodecanoic acids. in addition to two nmr-verified structures, ms/ms networking helped uncover an additional 13 aspercryptins. the aspercryptins break the ...201627310134
ndel1 and reelin maintain postnatal ca1 hippocampus the integrity of laminar structures in the postnatal brain is maintained impacts neuronal functions. ndel1, the mammalian homolog of nude from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, is an atypical microtubule (mt)-associated protein that was initially investigated in the contexts of neurogenesis and neuronal migration. constitutive knock-out mice for ndel1 are embryonic lethal, thereby necessitating the creation a conditional knock-out to probe the roles of ndel1 in postnatal brains. h ...201627307241
status epilepticus stimulates ndel1 expression via the creb/cre pathway in the adult mouse brain.nuclear distribution element-like 1 (ndel1/nudel) is a mammalian homolog of the aspergillus nidulans nuclear distribution molecule nude. ndel1 plays a critical role in neuronal migration, neurite outgrowth and neuronal positioning during brain development; however within the adult central nervous system, limited information is available regarding ndel1 expression and functions. here, the goal was to examine inducible ndel1 expression in the adult mouse forebrain. immunolabeling revealed ndel1 wi ...201627298008
resistance gene-guided genome mining: serial promoter exchanges in aspergillus nidulans reveal the biosynthetic pathway for fellutamide b, a proteasome inhibitor.fungal genome projects are revealing thousands of cryptic secondary metabolism (sm) biosynthetic gene clusters that encode pathways that potentially produce valuable compounds. heterologous expression systems should allow these clusters to be expressed and their products obtained, but approaches are needed to identify the most valuable target clusters. the inp cluster of aspergillus nidulans contains a gene, inpe, that encodes a proteasome subunit, leading us to hypothesize that the inp cluster ...201627294372
mutational analysis of the aspergillus ambient ph receptor palh underscores its potential as a target for antifungal compounds.the pal/rim ambient ph signalling pathway is crucial for the ability of pathogenic fungi to infect hosts. the aspergillus nidulans 7-tmd receptor palh senses alkaline ph, subsequently facilitating ubiquitination of the arrestin palf. ubiquitinated palf triggers downstream signalling events. the mechanism(s) by which palh transduces the alkaline ph signal to palf is poorly understood. we show that palh is phosphorylated in a signal dependent manner, resembling mammalian gpcrs, although palh phosp ...201627279148
the functional properties of a xyloglucanase (gh12) of aspergillus terreus expressed in aspergillus nidulans may increase performance of biomass degradation.filamentous fungi are attractive hosts for heterologous protein expression due to their capacity to secrete large amounts of enzymes into the extracellular medium. xyloglucanases, which specifically hydrolyze xyloglucan, have been recently applied in lignocellulosic biomass degradation and conversion in many other industrial processes. in this context, this work aimed to clone, express, and determine the functional properties of a recombinant xyloglucanase (atxeg12) from aspergillus terreus, and ...201627245677
dynamics of actin cables in polarized growth of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.highly polarized growth of filamentous fungi requires a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the hyphal tip. this transport is managed by vesicle trafficking via the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and their associated motor proteins. particularly, actin cables originating from the hyphal tip are essential for hyphal growth. although, specific marker proteins have been developed to visualize actin cables in filamentous fungi, the exact organization and dynamics of actin cables has rem ...201627242709
characterization and biotechnological application of recombinant xylanases from aspergillus nidulans.two xylanases from aspergillus nidulans, xlnb and xlnc, were expressed in pichia pastoris, purified and characterized. xlnb and xlnc achieved maximal activities at 60°c and ph 7.5 and at 50°c and ph 6.0, respectively. xlnb showed to be very thermostable by maintaining 50% of its original activity after 49h incubated at 50°c. xlnb had its highest activity against wheat arabinoxylan while xlnc had the best activity against beechwood xylan. both enzymes were completely inhibited by sds and hgcl2. x ...201627235731
gln3 is a main regulator of nitrogen assimilation in candida glabrata.after candida albicans, the yeast candida glabrata ranks second as an aetiological agent of candidaemia and is the most frequently encountered non-candida albicans species in patients with invasive candidiasis. transcriptome analysis in c. albicans, c. glabrata and cryptoccocus neoformans has revealed that, when engulfed by macrophages, these yeasts upregulate genes involved in nutrient acquisition, including nitrogen transporters such as the general amino acid permease gap1, the dicarboxylic am ...201627222014
co-cultivation of aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains produces an enzymatic cocktail as alternative to alkaline sugarcane bagasse pretreatment.plant materials represent a strategic energy source because they can give rise to sustainable biofuels through the fermentation of their carbohydrates. a clear example of a plant-derived biofuel resource is the sugar cane bagasse exhibiting 60-80% of fermentable sugars in its composition. however, the current methods of plant bioconversion employ severe and harmful chemical/physical pretreatments raising biofuel cost production and environmental degradation. replacing these methods with co-culti ...201627199917
qualitative ubiquitome unveils the potential significances of protein lysine ubiquitination in hyphal growth of aspergillus nidulans.protein ubiquitination is an evolutionarily conserved post-translational modification process in eukaryotes, and it plays an important role in many biological processes. aspergillus nidulans, a model filamentous fungus, contributes to our understanding of cellular physiology, metabolism and genetics, but its ubiquitination is not completely revealed. in this study, the ubiquitination sites in the proteome of a. nidulans were identified using a highly sensitive mass spectrometry combined with imm ...201626328806
nitric oxide synthesis by nitrate reductase is regulated during development in aspergillus.nitric oxide (no) is a signalling molecule involved in many biological processes in bacteria, plants and mammals. however, little is known about the role and biosynthesis of no in fungi. here we show that no production is increased at the early stages of the transition from vegetative growth to development in aspergillus nidulans. full no production requires a functional nitrate reductase (nr) gene (niad) that is upregulated upon induction of conidiation, even under n-repressing conditions in th ...201626353949
seeing the world differently: variability in the photosensory mechanisms of two model fungi.light plays an important role for most organisms on this planet, serving either as a source of energy or information for the adaptation of biological processes to specific times of day. the fungal kingdom is estimated to contain well over a million species, possibly 10-fold more, and it is estimated that a majority of the fungi respond to light, eliciting changes in several physiological characteristics including pathogenesis, development and secondary metabolism. two model organisms for photobi ...201626373782
the construction and use of versatile binary vectors carrying pyrg auxotrophic marker and fluorescent reporter genes for agrobacterium-mediated transformation of aspergillus oryzae.aspergillus oryzae is a safe mold widely used in food industry. it is also considered as a microbial cell factory for production of recombinant proteins and enzymes. currently, genetic manipulation of filamentous fungi is achieved via agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation methods usually employing antibiotic resistance markers. these methods are hardly usable for a. oryzae due to its strong resistance to the common antifungal compounds used for fungal transformation. in this study, w ...201627804102
generation of β-glucuronidase reporter-tagged strain to monitor ustilaginoidea virens infection in agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system for the rice false smut fungus ustilaginoidea virens was developed using conidia as recipients. a binary vector, pcambia1301-pgpda-gus-ttrpc, was constructed. the gpda promoter (pgpda) from aspergillus nidulans was used to drive the expression of the β-glucuronidase (gus) gene which enabled gus activity visualization. the conidia transformation efficiency reached approximately 110 to 250 transformants per 1×10(5) conidia. based on the analy ...201627789314
proteolytic activation of both components of the cation stress-responsive slt pathway in aspergillus nidulans.tolerance of aspergillus nidulans to alkalinity and elevated cation concentrations requires both slta and sltb. transcription factor slta and the putative pseudokinase/protease signaling protein sltb comprise a regulatory pathway specific to filamentous fungi. in vivo, sltb is proteolytically cleaved into its two principal domains. mutational analysis defines a chymotrypsin-like serine protease domain that mediates sltb autoproteolysis and proteolytic cleavage of slta. the pseudokinase domain mi ...201627307585
biosynthetic pathway of the reduced polyketide product citreoviridin in aspergillus terreus var. aureus revealed by heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans.citreoviridin (1) belongs to a class of f1-atpase β-subunit inhibitors that are synthesized by highly reducing polyketide synthases. these potent mycotoxins share an α-pyrone polyene structure, and they include aurovertin, verrucosidin, and asteltoxin. the identification of the citreoviridin biosynthetic gene cluster in aspergillus terreus var. aureus and its reconstitution using heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans are reported. two intermediates were isolated that allowed the propos ...201626954888
novel enzyme family found in filamentous fungi catalyzing trans-4-hydroxylation of l-pipecolic acid.hydroxypipecolic acids are bioactive compounds widely distributed in nature and are valuable building blocks for the organic synthesis of pharmaceuticals. we have found a novel hydroxylating enzyme with activity toward l-pipecolic acid (l-pip) in a filamentous fungus, fusarium oxysporum c8d. the enzyme l-pip trans-4-hydroxylase (pip4h) of f. oxysporum (fopip4h) belongs to the fe(ii)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily, catalyzes the regio- and stereoselective hydroxylation of l-pip ...201626801577
linker flexibility facilitates module exchange in fungal hybrid pks-nrps engineering.polyketide synthases (pkss) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (nrpss) each give rise to a vast array of complex bioactive molecules with further complexity added by the existence of natural pks-nrps fusions. rational genetic engineering for the production of natural product derivatives is desirable for the purpose of incorporating new functionalities into pre-existing molecules, or for optimization of known bioactivities. we sought to expand the range of natural product diversity by combining ...201627551732
functional analysis of the nitrogen metabolite repression regulator gene nmra in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans, the nitrogen metabolite repression (nmr) regulator nmra plays a major role in regulating the activity of the gata transcription factor area during nitrogen metabolism. however, the function of nmra in a. flavus has not been previously studied. here, we report the identification and functional analysis of nmra in a. flavus. our work showed that the amino acid sequences of nmra are highly conserved among aspergillus species and that a. flavus nmra protein contains a canoni ...201627933036
negative regulation and developmental competence in aspergillus.asexual development (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans is governed by orchestrated gene expression. the three key negative regulators of conidiation sfga, vosa, and nsdd act at different control point in the developmental genetic cascade. here, we have revealed that nsdd is a key repressor affecting the quantity of asexual spores in aspergillus. moreover, nullifying both nsdd and vosa results in abundant formation of the development specific structure conidiophores even ...201627364479
rmta, a putative arginine methyltransferase, regulates secondary metabolism and development in aspergillus flavus.aspergillus flavus colonizes numerous oil seed crops such as corn, peanuts, treenuts and cotton worldwide, contaminating them with aflatoxin and other harmful potent toxins. in the phylogenetically related model fungus aspergillus nidulans, the methyltransferase, rmta, has been described to be involved in epigenetics regulation through histone modification. epigenetics regulation affects a variety of cellular processes, including morphogenesis and secondary metabolism. our study shows that delet ...201627213959
pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of voriconazole against candida spp. and aspergillus spp. in children, adolescents and adults by monte carlo simulation.the objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative fraction of response of various voriconazole dosing regimens against six candida and six aspergillus spp. in immunocompromised children, immunocompromised adolescents, and adults. using pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic data, 5000-subject monte carlo simulations (mcss) were conducted to evaluate the ability of simulated dosing strategies in terms of fauc/mic targets of voriconazole. according to the results of the mcss, c ...201627179818
rtfa, a putative rna-pol ii transcription elongation factor gene, is necessary for normal morphological and chemical development in aspergillus flavus.the filamentous fungus aspergillus flavus is an agriculturally important opportunistic plant pathogen that produces potent carcinogenic compounds called aflatoxins. we identified the a. flavus rtfa gene, the ortholog of rtf1 in saccharomyces cerevisiae and rtfa in aspergillus nidulans. interestingly, rtfa has multiple cellular roles in this mycotoxin-producing fungus. in this study, we show that rtfa regulates conidiation. the rtfa deletion mutant presented smaller conidiophores with significant ...201627020290
occurrence of moulds from bee pollen in central italy--a preliminary study.the present study aimed to preliminary evaluate the occurrence of fungi in 40 specimens of trapped pollen collected from april-september 2015 in 40 apiaries from tuscany (central italy). cultural and microscopical examinations allowed the recognition of cladosporium sp., alternaria sp., humicola sp. mucoraceae and acremonium sp. penicillium brevicompactum, penicillium chrysogenum, aspergillus flavus , aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus were also identified. yeasts an ...201627010410
the glycolytic enzyme enolase represents a plasminogen-binding protein on the surface of a wide variety of medically important fungal species.allergies are an increasing issue in human health and can, eventually, cause severe anaphylactic shock. aspergillus fumigatus and candida albicans are leading causes of life-threatening invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, but can also cause severe allergic responses in otherwise healthy individuals. the glycolytic enzyme enolase is known as a major allergen despite its function in intracellular metabolism. therefore, its presentation on surfaces of different fungal species ...201626679571
a class 1 histone deacetylase with potential as an antifungal target.histone deacetylases (hdacs) remove acetyl moieties from lysine residues at histone tails and nuclear regulatory proteins and thus significantly impact chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes. in recent years, hdacs of filamentous fungi were found to be decisive regulators of genes involved in pathogenicity and the production of important fungal metabolites such as antibiotics and toxins. here we present proof that one of these enzymes, the class 1 type hdac rpda, is of ...201627803184
fungal sex: the ascomycota.this article provides an overview of sexual reproduction in the ascomycetes, a phylum of fungi that is named after the specialized sacs or "asci" that hold the sexual spores. they have therefore also been referred to as the sac fungi due to these characteristic structures that typically contain four to eight ascospores. ascomycetes are morphologically diverse and include single-celled yeasts, filamentous fungi, and more complex cup fungi. the sexual cycles of many species, including those of the ...201627763253
contribution of molecular tools for the diagnosis and epidemiology of fungal chronic rhinosinusitis.chronic rhinosinusitis (crs) rank second at chronic inflammatory diseases in industrialized countries and are an important public health concern. diagnosis relies on a set of arguments including clinical signs, imaging, histopathologic and mycological analyses of sinus specimens, collected during nasal endoscopy. the sensitivity of fungal cultures is reported to be poor, even when direct examination is positive, thus the epidemiology of fungal chronic sinusitis is ill-known. this study evaluated ...201627335058
decreased cell wall galactosaminogalactan in aspergillus nidulans mediates dysregulated inflammation in the chronic granulomatous disease host.invasive aspergillosis is a major threat to patients suffering from impaired neutrophil function, with aspergillus fumigatus being the most common species causing this life-threatening condition. patients with chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) not only develop infections with a. fumigatus, but also exhibit a unique susceptibility to infection with the normally nonpathogenic species aspergillus nidulans. in this study, we compared the inflammatory cytokine response of peripheral blood mononucle ...201627142572
new applications for known drugs: human glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors as modulators of aspergillus fumigatus growth.invasive aspergillosis (ia) is one of the most severe forms of fungi infection. ia disease is mainly due to aspergillus fumigatus, an air-borne opportunistic pathogen. mortality rate caused by ia is still very high (50-95%), because of difficulty in early diagnostics and reduced antifungal treatment options, thus new and efficient drugs are necessary. the aim of this work is, using aspergillus nidulans as non-pathogen model, to develop efficient drugs to treat ia. the recent discovered role of g ...201627131621
structural divergence of the group i intron binding surface in fungal mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetases that function in rna splicing.the mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetases (mttyrrss) of pezizomycotina fungi, a subphylum that includes many pathogenic species, are bifunctional proteins that both charge mitochondrial trna(tyr) and act as splicing cofactors for autocatalytic group i introns. previous studies showed that one of these proteins, neurospora crassa cyt-18, binds group i introns by using both its n-terminal catalytic and c-terminal anticodon binding domains and that the catalytic domain uses a newly evolved group i ...201627036943
subcellular compartmentalization and trafficking of the biosynthetic machinery for fungal by melanin depends on its subcellular location. although most filamentous fungi synthesize melanin via a polyketide synthase pathway, where and how melanin biosynthesis occurs and how it is deposited as extracellular granules remain elusive. using a forward genetic screen in the pathogen aspergillus fumigatus, we find that mutations in an endosomal sorting nexin abolish melanin cell-wall deposition. we find that all enzymes involved in the early steps of melanin biosynthesis are recru ...201626972005
distinct roles of myosins in aspergillus fumigatus hyphal growth and pathogenesis.myosins are a family of actin-based motor proteins found in many organisms and are categorized into classes based on their structures. class ii and v myosins are known to be important for critical cellular processes, including cytokinesis, endocytosis, exocytosis, and organelle trafficking, in the model fungi saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus nidulans however, the roles of myosins in the growth and virulence of the pathogen aspergillus fumigatus are unknown. we constructed single- and dou ...201626953327
three extracellular dipeptidyl peptidases found in aspergillus oryzae show varying substrate specificities.three extracellular dipeptidyl peptidase genes, dppb, dppe, and dppf, were unveiled by sequence analysis of the aspergillus oryzae genome. we investigated their differential enzymatic profiles, in order to gain an understanding of the diversity of these genes. the three dipeptidyl peptidases were expressed using aspergillus nidulans as the host. each recombinant enzyme was purified and subsequently characterized. the enzymes displayed similar optimum ph values, but optimum temperatures, ph stabi ...201626846741
the signal peptide peptidase sppa is involved in sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage and hypoxia adaptation in aspergillus nidulans.using forward genetics, we revealed that the signal peptide peptidase (spp) sppa, an aspartyl protease involved in regulated intramembrane proteolysis (rip), is essential for hypoxia adaptation in aspergillus nidulans, as well as hypoxia-sensitive mutant alleles of a sterol regulatory element-binding protein (srebp) srba and the dsc ubiquitin e3 ligase complex dsca-e. both null and dead activity [d337a] mutants of sppa failed to grow in hypoxia, and the growth defect of δsppa was complemented by ...201626822492
identification and characterization of haemofungin, a novel antifungal compound that inhibits the final step of haem biosynthesis.during recent decades, the number of invasive fungal infections among immunosuppressed patients has increased significantly, whereas the number of effective systemic antifungal drugs remains low and unsatisfactory. the aim of this study was to characterize a novel antifungal compound, cw-8/haemofungin, which we previously identified in a screen for compounds affecting fungal cell wall integrity.201626747101
matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for rapid identification of fungal rhinosinusitis pathogens.filamentous fungi are among the most important pathogens, causing fungal rhinosinusitis (frs). current laboratory diagnosis of frs pathogens mainly relies on phenotypic identification by culture and microscopic examination, which is time consuming and expertise dependent. although matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (maldi-tof) ms has been employed to identify various fungi, its efficacy in the identification of frs fungi is less clear.201728100314
a novel zn2-cys6 transcription factor atrr plays a key role in an azole resistance mechanism of aspergillus fumigatus by co-regulating cyp51a and cdr1b expressions.successful treatment of aspergillosis caused by aspergillus fumigatus is threatened by an increasing incidence of drug resistance. this situation is further complicated by the finding that strains resistant to azoles, the major antifungal drugs for aspergillosis, have been widely disseminated across the globe. to elucidate mechanisms underlying azole resistance, we identified a novel transcription factor that is required for normal azole resistance in aspergillus fungi including a. fumigatus, as ...201728052140
elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of natural products.during the last decade, we have revealed biosynthetic pathways responsible for the formation of important and chemically complex natural products isolated from various organisms through genetic manipulation. detailed in vivo and in vitro characterizations enabled elucidation of unexpected mechanisms of secondary metabolite biosynthesis. this personal account focuses on our recent efforts in identifying the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of spirotryprostatin, aspoquinolone, sch 210972, py ...201728387469
genetic studies on the physiological role of corvet in aspergillus nidulans.corvet and hops are protein complexes mediating the maturation of early endosomes (ees) into late endosomes (les)/vacuoles. these hetero-hexamers share four 'core' components, vps11, vps16, vps18 and vps33, and differ in two specific subunits, corvet vps8 and vps3 and hops vps39 and vps41. whereas ablating hops-specific components has minor growth effects, ablating any corvet constituent severely debilitates aspergillus nidulans growth, buttressing previous work indicating that maturation of ees ...201728379362
cpsa regulates mycotoxin production, morphogenesis and cell wall biosynthesis in the fungus aspergillus nidulans.the model fungus aspergillus nidulans synthesizes numerous secondary metabolites, including sterigmatocystin (st). the production of this toxin is positively controlled by the global regulator vea. in the absence of vea (δvea), st biosynthesis is blocked. previously we performed random mutagenesis in a δvea strain and identified revertant mutants able to synthesize st, among them rm1. complementation of rm1 with a genomic library revealed that the mutation occurred in a gene designated as cpsa. ...201728370587
gfsa is a β1,5-galactofuranosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the galactofuran side chain of fungal-type galactomannan inaspergillus fumigatus.previously, we reported that gfsa is a novel galactofuranosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of o-glycan, the proper maintenance of fungal morphology, the formation of conidia and anti-fungal resistance in aspergillus nidulans and a. fumigatus (komachi y et al., mol. microbiol. 90, 1054-1073, 2013). in the present paper, to gain an in depth-understanding of the enzymatic functions of gfsa in a. fumigatus (afgfsa), we established an in vitro assay to measure galactofuranosyltransferase a ...201728369326
the low affinity glucose transporter hxtb is also involved in glucose signalling and metabolism in aspergillus of the drawbacks during second-generation biofuel production from plant lignocellulosic biomass is the accumulation of glucose, the preferred carbon source of microorganisms, which causes the repression of hydrolytic enzyme secretion by industrially relevant filamentous fungi. glucose sensing, subsequent transport and cellular signalling pathways have been barely elucidated in these organisms. this study therefore characterized the transcriptional response of the filamentous fungus aspergill ...201728361917
nitrate assimilation in fusarium fujikuroi is controlled by multiple levels of regulation.secondary metabolite production of the phytopathogenic ascomycete fungus fusarium fujikuroi is greatly influenced by the availability of nitrogen. while favored nitrogen sources such as glutamine and ammonium are used preferentially, the uptake and utilization of nitrate is subject to a regulatory mechanism called nitrogen metabolite repression (nmr). in aspergillus nidulans, the transcriptional control of the nitrate assimilatory system is carried out by the synergistic action of the nitrate-sp ...201728352253
an amylase-like protein, amyd, is the major negative regulator for α-glucan synthesis in aspergillus nidulans during the asexual life cycle.α-glucan affects fungal cell-cell interactions and is important for the virulence of pathogenic fungi. interfering with production of α-glucan could help to prevent fungal infection. in our previous study, we reported that an amylase-like protein, amyd, could repress α-glucan accumulation in aspergillus nidulans. however, the underlying molecular mechanism was not clear. here, we examined the localization of amyd and found it was a membrane-associated protein. we studied amyd function in α-gluca ...201728346365
location and functional analysis of the aspergillus nidulans aurora kinase confirm mitotic functions and suggest non-mitotic roles.filamentous fungi have devastating negative impacts as pathogens and agents of food spoilage but also have critical ecological importance and are utilized for industrial applications. the characteristic multinucleate nature of filamentous fungi is facilitated by limiting if, when and where septation, the fungal equivalent of cytokinesis, occurs. in the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans septation does not occur immediately after mitosis and is an incomplete process resulting in the fo ...201728315405
biological evaluation of 3-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, an extrolite produced by aspergillus nidulans strain kzr-132.the aim of the study was to purify and characterize a bioactive compound from aspergillus nidulans strain kzr-132 and its biological evaluation.201728314049
air-borne genotype by genotype indirect genetic effects are substantial in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.genotype by genotype indirect genetic effects (g × g iges) occur when the phenotype of an individual is influenced by an interaction between its own genotype and those of neighbour individuals. little is known regarding the relative importance of g × g iges compared with other forms of direct and indirect genetic effects. we quantified the relative importance of iges in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, a species in which iges are likely to be important as air-borne social interaction ...201728295032
the function of the three phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase (prs) genes in hyphal growth and conidiation in aspergillus nidulans.phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase, which is encoded by the prs gene, catalyses the reaction of ribose-5-phosphate and adenine ribonucleotide triphosphate (atp) and has central importance in cellular metabolism. however, knowledge about how prs family members function and contribute to total 5-phosphoribosyl-α-1-pyrophosphate (prpp) synthetase activity is limited. in this study, we identified that the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans genome contains three prpp synthase-homologous gen ...201728277197
study on the glutathione metabolism of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.yeast protein sequence-based homology search for glutathione (gsh) metabolic enzymes and gsh transporters demonstrated that aspergillus nidulans has a robust gsh uptake and metabolic system with several paralogous genes. in wet laboratory experiments, two key genes of gsh metabolism, gcsa, and glra, encoding γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteine synthetase and glutathione reductase, respectively, were deleted. the gene gcsa was essential, and the δgcsa mutant required gsh supplementation at considerably highe ...201728263103
transgenic expression of fungal accessory hemicellulases in arabidopsis thaliana triggers transcriptional patterns related to biotic stress and defense response.the plant cell wall is an abundant and renewable resource for lignocellulosic applications such as the production of biofuel. due to structural and compositional complexities, the plant cell wall is, however, recalcitrant to hydrolysis and extraction of platform sugars. a cell wall engineering strategy to reduce this recalcitrance makes use of microbial cell wall modifying enzymes that are expressed directly in plants themselves. previously, we constructed transgenic arabidopsis thaliana constit ...201728253318
functional genomics-guided discovery of a light-activated phytotoxin in the wheat pathogen parastagonospora nodorum via pathway activation.parastagonospora nodorum is an important pathogen of wheat. the contribution of secondary metabolites to this pathosystem is poorly understood. a biosynthetic gene cluster (snog_08608-08616) has been shown to be upregulated during the late stage of p. nodorum wheat leaf infection. the gene cluster shares several homologues with the cercospora nicotianae ctb gene cluster encoding the biosynthesis of cercosporin. activation of the gene cluster by overexpression (oe) of the transcription factor gen ...201728251756
the ap-2 complex has a specialized clathrin-independent role in apical endocytosis and polar growth in fungi.filamentous fungi provide excellent systems for investigating the role of the ap-2 complex in polar growth. using aspergillus nidulans, we show that ap-2 has a clathrin-independent essential role in polarity maintenance and growth. this is in line with a sequence analysis showing that the ap-2 β subunit (β2) of higher fungi lacks a clathrin-binding domain, and experiments showing that ap-2 does not co-localize with clathrin. we provide genetic and cellular evidence that ap-2 interacts with endoc ...201728220754
transport of fungal rab11 secretory vesicles involves myosin-5, dynein/dynactin/p25, and kinesin-1 and is independent of kinesin-3.hyphal tip cells of the fungus aspergillus nidulans are useful for studying long-range intracellular traffic. post-golgi secretory vesicles (svs) containing the rab11 orthologue rabe engage myosin-5 as well as plus end- and minus end-directed microtubule motors, providing an experimental system with which to investigate the interplay between microtubule and actin motors acting on the same cargo. by exploiting the fact that depolymerization of f-actin unleashes svs focused at the apex by myosin-5 ...201728209731
functions of the magnaporthe oryzae flb3p and flb4p transcription factors in the regulation of conidiation.the magnaporthe oryzae genes flb3 and flb4, orthologues of the aspergillus nidulans regulators of conidiation flbc and flbd, were inactivated. these genes encode c2h2 zinc finger and myb-like transcription factors, respectively, in a. nidulans. analysis of the resultant mutants demonstrated that flb4 is essential for spore formation and that strains lacking this gene are fluffy in their colony morphology due to an inability to complete conidiophore formation. meanwhile, flb3 is required for norm ...201728164785
ancut2, a thermo-alkaline cutinase from aspergillus nidulans and its potential applications.biochemical characterization of purified ancut2 cutinase from aspergillus nidulans is described. the identified amino acid sequence differs from that predicted in aspergillus genomic databases in amino acids not relevant for catalysis. the enzyme is thermo-alkaline, showing its maximum activity at ph 9 and 60 °c, and it retains more than 60% of its initial activity after incubation for 1 h at 60 °c for ph values between 6 and 10. ancut2 is more active towards long-chain esters and it hydrolyzes ...201728124733
overexpression of a three-gene conidial pigment biosynthetic pathway in aspergillus nidulans reveals the first nrps known to acetylate tryptophan.fungal nonribosomal peptide synthetases (nrpss) are megasynthetases that produce cyclic and acyclic peptides. in aspergillus nidulans, the nrps ivoa (an10576) has been associated with the biosynthesis of grey-brown conidiophore pigments. another gene, ivob (an0231), has been demonstrated to be an n-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan oxidase that putatively acts downstream of ivoa. a third gene, ivoc, has also been predicted to be involved in pigment biosynthesis based on publicly available genomic and t ...201728108400
the aspergillus nidulans pbp1 homolog is required for normal sexual development and secondary metabolism.p bodies and stress granules are rna-containing structures governing mrna degradation and translational arrest, respectively. saccharomyces cerevisiae pbp1 protein localizes to stress granules and promotes their formation and is involved in proper polyadenylation, suppression of rna-dna hybrids, and preventing aberrant rdna recombination. a genetic screen for aspergillus nidulans mutants aberrant in secondary metabolism identified the pbp1 homolog, pbpa. using dcp1 (mrna decapping) as a marker f ...201728089630
cloning, heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a non-specific endoglucanase family 12 from aspergillus terreus nih2624.the cellulases from glycoside hydrolyses family 12 (gh12) play an important role in cellulose degradation and plant cell wall deconstruction being widely used in a number of bioindustrial processes. aiming to contribute toward better comprehension of these class of the enzymes, here we describe a high-yield secretion of a endoglucanase gh12 from aspegillus terreus (atgh12), which was cloned and expressed in aspergillus nidulans strain a773. the purified protein was used for complete biochemical ...201728088615
discovery of an extended austinoid biosynthetic pathway in aspergillus calidoustus.filamentous fungi produce a wide range of natural products that are commonly used in various industrial contexts (e.g., pharmaceuticals and insecticides). meroterpenoids are natural products of interest because of their various biological activities. among the meroterpenoids, there is a group of insecticidal compounds known as the austinoids. these compounds have also been studied because of their intriguing spiro-lactone ring formation along with various modifications. here, we present an exten ...201728233494
establishment of crispr/cas9 in alternaria alternata.the filamentous fungus alternaria alternata is a potent producer of many secondary metabolites, some of which like alternariol or alternariol-methyl ether are toxic and/or cancerogenic. many alternaria species do not only cause post-harvest losses of food and feed, but are aggressive plant pathogens. despite the great economic importance and the large number of research groups working with the fungus, the molecular toolbox is rather underdeveloped. gene deletions often result in heterokaryotic s ...201728286319
the flippase dnfb is cargo of fimbrin-associated endocytosis in aspergillus nidulans, and likely recycles through the late golgi. 201727195062
functional characterization of two novel purine transporters from the basidiomycota phanerochaete chrysosporium.purine transporters as substrate entry points in organisms, are involved in a number of cellular processes such as nitrogen source uptake, energy metabolism and synthesis of nucleic acids. in this study, two nucleobase transporter genes (phz, phu) from phanerochaete chrysosporium were cloned, identified, and functionally characterized. our results show that phz is a transporter of adenine and hypoxanthine, and a protein belonging to the azga-like family, whilst phu belongs to the nat/ncs2 family ...201727923672
analysis of the ionic interaction between the hydrophobin roda and two cutinases of aspergillus nidulans obtained via an aspergillus oryzae expression system.hydrophobins are amphipathic secretory proteins with eight conserved cysteine residues and are ubiquitous among filamentous fungi. in the fungus aspergillus oryzae, the hydrophobin rola and the polyesterase cutl1 are co-expressed when the sole available carbon source is the biodegradable polyester polybutylene succinate-co-adipate (pbsa). rola promotes the degradation of pbsa by attaching to the particle surface, changing its structure and interacting with cutl1 to concentrate cutl1 on the pbsa ...201727917435
self-excising cre/mutant lox marker recycling system for multiple gene integrations and consecutive gene deletions in aspergillus this study, we developed a self-excising cre/loxp-mediated marker recycling system with mutated lox sequences to introduce a number of biosynthetic genes into aspergillus oryzae. to construct the self-excising marker cassette, both the selectable marker, the aspergillus nidulans adea gene, and the cre recombinase gene (cre), conditionally expressed by the xylanase-encoding gene promoter, were designed to be located between the mutant lox sequences, lox66 and lox71. however, construction of th ...201728011085
high-yield production of aryl alcohol oxidase under limited growth conditions in small-scale systems using a mutant aspergillus nidulans strain.aryl alcohol oxidase (mtgloa) is an enzyme that belongs to the ligninolytic consortium and can play an important role in the bioenergy industry. this study investigated production of an mtgloa client enzyme by a mutant strain of aspergillus nidulans unable to synthesize its own pyridoxine. pyridoxine limitation can be used to control cell growth, diverting substrate to protein production. in agitated culture, enzyme production was similar when using media with 1 mg/l and without pyridoxine (26.6 ...201727999967
the function of the three phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate synthetase (prs) genes in hyphal growth and conidiation in aspergillus nidulans.phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase, which is encoded by the prs gene, catalyzes the reaction of ribose-5-phosphate and adenine ribonucleotide triphosphate (atp) and has central importance in cellular metabolism. however, knowledge about how prs family members function and contribute to total prpp synthetase activity is limited. in this study, we identified that the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans genome contains three 5-phosphoribosyl-α-1-pyrophosphate (prpp) synthase-homologous gen ...201728086070
microtubules are reversibly depolymerized in response to changing gaseous microenvironments within aspergillus nidulans microtubules (mts) are regulated during fungal biofilm formation is unknown. by tracking mt +end-binding proteins (+tips) in aspergillus nidulans, we find that mts are regulated to depolymerize within forming fungal biofilms. during this process, eb1, dynein, and clipa form transient fibrous and then bar-like structures, novel configurations for +tips. cells also respond in an autonomous manner, with cells separated by a septum able to maintain different mt dynamics. surprisingly, all cells ...201728057761
the mitotic kinesin-14 klpa contains a context-dependent directionality switch.kinesin-14s are commonly known as nonprocessive minus end-directed microtubule motors that function mainly for mitotic spindle assembly. here we show using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy that klpa-a kinesin-14 from aspergillus nidulans-is a context-dependent bidirectional motor. klpa exhibits plus end-directed processive motility on single microtubules, but reverts to canonical minus end-directed motility when anchored on the surface in microtubule-gliding experiments or inter ...201728051135
an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional activator-repressor module controls expression of genes for d-galacturonic acid utilization in aspergillus niger.the expression of genes encoding extracellular polymer-degrading enzymes and the metabolic pathways required for carbon utilization in fungi are tightly controlled. the control is mediated by transcription factors that are activated by the presence of specific inducers, which are often monomers or monomeric derivatives of the polymers. a d-galacturonic acid-specific transcription factor named gaar was recently identified and shown to be an activator for the expression of genes involved in galact ...201728049705
phospholipid flippases dnfa and dnfb exhibit differential dynamics within the a. nidulans spitzenkörper.the spitzenkörper is a structure at the apex of growing cells in many filamentous fungi. ultrastructural studies indicate that the spitzenkörper is an organized mass of secretory vesicles, with different types of vesicles present in outer and inner layers. here, we used live-cell imaging to demonstrate that the phospholipid flippases dnfa and dnfb, which preferentially localize to the outer and inner layers, respectively, exhibit different dynamics in the spitzenkörper of aspergillus nidulans. a ...201728034798
discovery of mcra, a master regulator of aspergillus secondary metabolism.fungal secondary metabolites (sms) are extremely important in medicine and agriculture, but regulation of their biosynthesis is incompletely understood. we have developed a genetic screen in aspergillus nidulans for negative regulators of fungal sm gene clusters and we have used this screen to isolate mutations that upregulate transcription of the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene required for nidulanin a biosynthesis. several of these mutations are allelic and we have identified the mutant ...201727775185
methylotrophic yeast pichia pastoris as a chassis organism for polyketide synthesis via the full citrinin biosynthetic pathway.with the rapid development of synthetic biology, exploring various chassis organisms has become necessary to improve the heterologous biosynthesis of natural products and pharmaceuticals. in this study, we tested the potential of the industrial methylotrophic yeast strain pichia pastoris for the heterologous synthesis of polyketides. a recombinant p. pastoris gs-pksct-npga carrying the monascus purpureus citrinin polyketide synthase gene pksct and the aspergillus nidulans phosphopantetheinyl tra ...201727913218
clathrin localization and dynamics in aspergillus nidulans.cell growth necessitates extensive membrane remodeling events including vesicle fusion or fission, processes that are regulated by coat proteins. the hyphal cells of filamentous fungi concentrate both exocytosis and endocytosis at the apex. this investigation focuses on clathrin in aspergillus nidulans, with the aim of understanding its role in membrane remodeling in growing hyphae. we examined clathrin heavy chain (clah-gfp) which localized to three distinct subcellular structures: late golgi ( ...201727741567
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