TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
transient transformation of podosphaera xanthii by electroporation of conidia.powdery mildew diseases are a major phytosanitary issue causing important yield and economic losses in agronomic, horticultural and ornamental crops. powdery mildew fungi are obligate biotrophic parasites unable to grow on culture media, a fact that has significantly limited their genetic manipulation. in this work, we report a protocol based on the electroporation of fungal conidia, for the transient transformation of podosphaera fusca (synonym podosphaera xanthii), the main causal agent of cuc ...201525651833
[mechanisms and regulation of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in filamentous fungi: classical cases and new models].cellulose is the most abundant renewable carbon source on earth. however, this polymer structure comprises a physical and chemical barrier for carbon access, which has limited its exploitation. in nature, only a few percentage of microorganisms may degrade this polymer by cellulase expression. filamentous fungi are one of the most active and efficient groups among these microorganisms. this review describes similarities and differences between cellulase activity mechanisms and regulatory mechani ...201524607657
conserved and distinct functions of the “stunted” (stua)-homolog ust1 during cell differentiation in the corn smut fungus ustilago maydis.ustilago maydis, causal agent of corn smut, can proliferate saprobically in a yeast form but its infectious filamentous form is an obligate parasite. previously, we showed that ust1, the first apses (asm1p, phd1p, sok2p, efg1p, and stuap) transcription factor functionally characterized in the phylum basidiomycota, controlled morphogenesis and virulence in this species. here, we further analyzed ust1 function using multiple experimental approaches and determined that i) ust1 activity was able to ...201525208341
conditional inactivation of aspergillus nidulans sara(sar1) uncovers the morphogenetic potential of regulating endoplasmic reticulum (er) the genetic model aspergillus nidulans, hyphal growth is exquisitely dependent on exocytic traffic. following mutagenic pcr and gene replacement, we characterized thermosensitive mutations in sara(sar1) encoding a key regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (er) exit. six sara(ts) alleles permitting relatively normal growth at 30°c prevented it at 42°c. this growth phenotype correlated with markedly reduced sara levels at high temperature, suggesting that these alleles cause temperature-dependent ...201525425159
spatial regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint and anaphase-promoting complex in aspergillus nidulans.the spindle assembly checkpoint (sac) plays a critical role in preventing mitotic errors by inhibiting anaphase until all kinetochores are correctly attached to spindle microtubules. in spite of the economic and medical importance of filamentous fungi, relatively little is known about the behavior of sac proteins in these organisms. in our efforts to understand the role of γ-tubulin in cell cycle regulation, we have created functional fluorescent protein fusions of four sac proteins in aspergill ...201525417844
the old 3-oxoadipate pathway revisited: new insights in the catabolism of aromatics in the saprophytic fungus aspergillus nidulans.aspergilli play major roles in the natural turnover of elements, especially through the decomposition of plant litter, but the end catabolism of lignin aromatic hydrocarbons remains largely unresolved. the 3-oxoadipate pathway of their degradation combines the catechol and the protocatechuate branches, each using a set of specific genes. however, annotation for most of these genes is lacking or attributed to poorly- or un-characterised families. aspergillus nidulans can utilise as sole carbon/en ...201525479309
identification and structural elucidation of ergotryptamine, a new ergot alkaloid produced by genetically modified aspergillus nidulans and natural isolates of epichloë species.ergot alkaloid pathway reconstruction in aspergillus nidulans is an approach used to better understand the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. an engineered strain named a. nidulans wfc (expressing ergot alkaloid synthesis genes dmaw, easf, and easc) produced the established intermediate n-methyl-4-dimethylallyltryptophan, as well as an uncharacterized ergot alkaloid. we investigated the chemical structure of the new metabolite and its role in the ergot alkaloid pathway. mass spectrometry, labelin ...201525491167
kinesin-3 in the basidiomycete ustilago maydis transports organelles along the entire microtubule array.the molecular motor kinesin-3 transports early endosomes along microtubules in filamentous fungi. it was reported that kinesin-3 from the ascomycete fungi aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa use a subset of post-translationally modified and more stable microtubules. here, i show that kinesin-3 from the basidiomycete ustilago maydis moves along all hyphal microtubules. this difference is likely due to variation in cell cycle control and associated organization of the microtubule array.201525459534
production of 5,8-dihydroxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid from oleic acid by whole recombinant cells of aspergillus nidulans expressing diol synthase.the optimal conditions for the production of 5,8-dihydroxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid (5,8-dihome) from oleic acid by whole recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing diol synthase from aspergillus nidulans were 40 °c, ph 7.5, 10 % (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide, 35 g cells l(-1), and 12 g oleic acid l(-1) at 250 rpm in a 250 ml baffled flask. under these conditions, whole recombinant cells produced 5.2 g 5,8-dihome l(-1) together with 1 g l(-1) of the intermediate 8-hydroperoxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid ...201525257582
protein kinase c regulates the expression of cell wall-related genes in rlma-dependent and independent manners in aspergillus nidulans.a protein kinase c of aspergillus nidulans, pkca, is required for cell wall integrity (cwi) and is considered a major component of the regulating pathway. to investigate whether pkca regulates the transcription of cell wall-related genes, we constructed strains expressing pkca(r429a) that encodes an activated form of pkca. the mrna levels of most chitin synthase genes and an α-glucan synthase gene, agsb, were increased when pkca(r429a) expression was induced. these mrna increases were not observ ...201525345444
neurospora crassa asm-1 complements the conidiation defect in a stua mutant of aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans stua and neurospora crassa asm-1 are orthologous apses (asm-1, phd1, sok2, efg1, stua) transcription factors conserved across a diverse group of fungi. stua and asm-1 have roles in asexual (conidiation) and sexual (ascospore formation) development in both organisms. to address the hypothesis that the last common ancestor of these diverse fungi regulated conidiation with similar genes, asm-1 was introduced into the stua1 mutant of a. nidulans. expression of asm-1 complemented ...201525550299
preparative separation of echinocandin b from aspergillus nidulans broth using macroporous resin adsorption chromatography.echinocandin b (ecb), an echinocandin type of lipopeptide antibiotic produced by aspergillus nidulans, is a precursor for the synthesis of novel anti-fungal drug - anidulafungin. in this work, a separation strategy involving one-step macroporous resin adsorption chromatography was established for ecb purification from aspergillus nidulans cctcc m 2010275 fermentation broth. among nine macroporous resin adsorbents tested, the non-polar resin hp-20 had the best adsorption and desorption performanc ...201525541471
nup2 requires a highly divergent partner, nupa, to fulfill functions at nuclear pore complexes and the mitotic chromatin region.chromatin and nuclear pore complexes (npcs) undergo dramatic changes during mitosis, which in vertebrates and aspergillus nidulans involves movement of nup2 from npcs to the chromatin region to fulfill unknown functions. this transition is shown to require the cdk1 mitotic kinase and be promoted prematurely by ectopic expression of the nima kinase. nup2 localizes with a copurifying partner termed nupa, a highly divergent yet essential npc protein. nupa and nup2 locate throughout the chromatin re ...201525540430
pdbrla, pdabaa and pdweta control distinct stages of conidiogenesis in penicillium digitatum.penicillium digitatum is one of the most important citrus postharvest pathogens worldwide. reproduction of massive asexual spores is the primary factor contributing to the epidemic of citrus green mold. to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in p. digitatum, we functionally characterized the aspergillus nidulans orthologs of brla, abaa and weta. we showed that deletion of pdbrla completely blocked formation of conidiophores, whereas deletion of pdabaa led to the formati ...201525530311
erratum to: a novel thermophilic endo-β-1,4-mannanase from aspergillus nidulans xz3: functional roles of carbohydrate-binding module and thr/ser-rich linker region. 201525520174
γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (ggta) of aspergillus nidulans is not necessary for bulk degradation of glutathione.aspergillus nidulans exhibited high γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γgt) activity in both carbon-starved and carbon-limited cultures. glucose repressed, but casein peptone increased γgt production. null mutation of crea did not influence γgt formation, but the functional meab was necessary for the γgt induction. deletion of the an10444 gene (ggta) completely eliminated the γgt activity, and the mrna levels of ggta showed strong correlation with the observed γgt activities. while ggta does not contain ...201525519188
the structure of rpf2-rrs1 explains its role in ribosome biogenesis.the assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes is a hierarchical process involving about 200 biogenesis factors and a series of remodeling steps. the 5s rnp consisting of the 5s rrna, rpl5 and rpl11 is recruited at an early stage, but has to rearrange during maturation of the pre-60s ribosomal subunit. rpf2 and rrs1 have been implicated in 5s rnp biogenesis, but their precise role was unclear. here, we present the crystal structure of the rpf2-rrs1 complex from aspergillus nidulans at 1.5 å resolution and ...201526117542
mycetoma caused by aspergillus nidulans. 201626014969
seeing the world differently: variability in the photosensory mechanisms of two model fungi.light plays an important role for most organisms on this planet, serving either as a source of energy or information for the adaptation of biological processes to specific times of day. the fungal kingdom is estimated to contain well over a million species, possibly 10-fold more, and it is estimated that a majority of the fungi respond to light, eliciting changes in several physiological characteristics including pathogenesis, development and secondary metabolism. two model organisms for photobi ...201626373782
qualitative ubiquitome unveils the potential significances of protein lysine ubiquitination in hyphal growth of aspergillus nidulans.protein ubiquitination is an evolutionarily conserved post-translational modification process in eukaryotes, and it plays an important role in many biological processes. aspergillus nidulans, a model filamentous fungus, contributes to our understanding of cellular physiology, metabolism and genetics, but its ubiquitination is not completely revealed. in this study, the ubiquitination sites in the proteome of a. nidulans were identified using a highly sensitive mass spectrometry combined with imm ...201626328806
effect of biotransformation by liver s9 enzymes on the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of melanin extracted from aspergillus nidulans.a mutant that exhibited increased melanin pigment production was isolated from aspergillus nidulans fungus. this pigment has aroused biotechnological interest due to its photoprotector and antioxidant properties. in a recent study, we showed that melanin from a. nidulans also inhibits no and tnf-α production.201626459656
small heat shock proteins, phylogeny in filamentous fungi and expression analyses in aspergillus nidulans.small heat shock proteins (shsps) have been characterized in organisms from all three domains of life and viruses and are involved in a wide range of biological functions. however, the evolution and function of shsp in aspergillus species are largely unknown. in the present work, shsps were identified in 31 filamentous fungi, including species from aspergillus, penicillium, fusarium and magnaporthe, as well as botrytis cinerea and neurospora crassa. phylogenetic analysis revealed high level of d ...201626403724
the aspergillus nidulans syntaxin pepa(pep12) is regulated by two sec1/munc-18 proteins to mediate fusion events at early endosomes, late endosomes and vacuoles.syntaxins are target-snares that crucially contribute to determine membrane compartment identity. three syntaxins, tlg2p, pep12p and vam3p, organize the yeast endovacuolar system. remarkably, filamentous fungi lack the equivalent of the yeast vacuolar syntaxin vam3p, making unclear how these organisms regulate vacuole fusion. we show that the nearly essential aspergillus nidulans syntaxin pepa(pep12) , present in all endocytic compartments between early endosomes and vacuoles, shares features of ...201626395371
the first case of invasive mixed-mold infections due to emericella nidulans var. echinulata and rasamsonia piperina in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease.a 16-year-old boy with chronic granulomatous disease presented with pneumonia and rib osteomyelitis. emericella nidulans var. echinulata was isolated from his sputum. after starting voriconazole, rasamsonia piperina was isolated from the rib swelling. a combination therapy of voriconazole and micafungin effectively eradicated this invasive mixed-mold infection. in immunocompromised patients, a precise pathogenic diagnosis is clinically useful for administration of an appropriate treatment regime ...201626563166
structure of the dioxygenase asqj: mechanistic insights into a one-pot multistep quinolone antibiotic biosynthesis.multienzymatic cascades are responsible for the biosynthesis of natural products and represent a source of inspiration for synthetic chemists. the fe(ii)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase asqj from aspergillus nidulans is outstanding because it stereoselectively catalyzes both a ferryl-induced desaturation reaction and epoxidation on a benzodiazepinedione. interestingly, the enzymatically formed spiro epoxide spring-loads the 6,7-bicyclic skeleton for non-enzymatic rearrangement into the 6,6 ...201626553478
nitric oxide synthesis by nitrate reductase is regulated during development in aspergillus.nitric oxide (no) is a signalling molecule involved in many biological processes in bacteria, plants and mammals. however, little is known about the role and biosynthesis of no in fungi. here we show that no production is increased at the early stages of the transition from vegetative growth to development in aspergillus nidulans. full no production requires a functional nitrate reductase (nr) gene (niad) that is upregulated upon induction of conidiation, even under n-repressing conditions in th ...201626353949
aspergillus mulundensis sp. nov., a new species for the fungus producing the antifungal echinocandin lipopeptides, mulundocandins.the invalidly published name aspergillus sydowii var. mulundensis was proposed for a strain of aspergillus that produced new echinocandin metabolites designated as the mulundocadins. reinvestigation of this strain (y-30462=dsmz 5745) using phylogenetic, morphological, and metabolic data indicated that it is a distinct and novel species of aspergillus sect. nidulantes. the taxonomic novelty, aspergillus mulundensis, is introduced for this historically important echinocandin-producing strain. the ...201626464011
fungal quorum sensing molecules: role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity.when microorganisms live together in high numbers, they need to communicate with each other. to achieve cell-cell communication, microorganisms secrete molecules called quorum-sensing molecules (qsms) that control their biological activities and behaviors. fungi secrete qsms such as farnesol, tyrosol, phenylethanol, and tryptophol. the role of qsms in fungi has been widely studied in both yeasts and filamentous fungi, for example in candida albicans, c. dubliniensis, aspergillus niger, a. nidula ...201626972663
an efficient arabinoxylan-debranching α-l-arabinofuranosidase of family gh62 from aspergillus nidulans contains a secondary carbohydrate binding α-l-arabinofuranosidase of gh62 from aspergillus nidulans fgsc a4 (anabf62a-m2,3) has an unusually high activity towards wheat arabinoxylan (wax) (67 u/mg; k cat = 178/s, k m = 4.90 mg/ml) and arabinoxylooligosaccharides (axos) with degrees of polymerisation (dp) 3-5 (37-80 u/mg), but about 50 times lower activity for sugar beet arabinan and 4-nitrophenyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside. α-1,2- and α-1,3-linked arabinofuranoses are released from monosubstituted, but not from disubstituted, xylose in wa ...201626946172
laea negatively regulates dothistromin production in the pine needle pathogen dothistroma filamentous fungi both pathway-specific and global regulators regulate genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. laea is a global regulator that was named for its mutant phenotype, loss of aflr expression, due to its effect on the aflatoxin-pathway regulator aflr in aspergillus spp. the pine needle pathogen dothistroma septosporum produces a polyketide virulence factor, dothistromin, that is chemically related to aflatoxin and whose pathway genes are also regulated by an or ...201627818262
comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the fuzhuan brick tea-fermentation fungus aspergillus cristatus.aspergillus cristatus is the dominant fungus involved in the fermentation of chinese fuzhuan brick tea. aspergillus cristatus is a homothallic fungus that undergoes a sexual stage without asexual conidiation when cultured in hypotonic medium. the asexual stage is induced by a high salt concentration, which completely inhibits sexual development. the taxon is therefore appropriate for investigating the mechanisms of asexual and sexual reproduction in fungi. in this study, de novo genome sequencin ...201627267057
diversity, molecular phylogeny and fingerprint profiles of airborne aspergillus species using random amplified polymorphic the present study, diversity and phylogenetic relationship of aspergillus species isolated from tehran air was studied using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd)-polymerase chain reaction (rapd-pcr). thirty-eight aspergillus isolates belonging to 12 species i.e. a. niger (28.94 %, 11 isolates), a. flavus (18.42 %, 7 isolates), a. tubingensis (13.15 %, 5 isolates), a. japonicus (10.52 %, 4 isolates), a. ochraceus (10.52 %, 4 isolates), and 2.63 %, 1 isolate from each a. nidulans, a. amstelo ...201627116962
proteomics of survival structures of fungal pathogens.fungal pathogens are causal agents of numerous human, animal, and plant diseases. they employ various infection modes to overcome host defense systems. infection mechanisms of different fungi have been subjected to many comprehensive studies. these investigations have been facilitated by the development of various '-omics' techniques, and proteomics has one of the leading roles in this regard. fungal conidia and sclerotia could be considered the most important structures for pathogenesis as thei ...201626777984
an overproduction of astellolides induced by genetic disruption of chromatin-remodeling factors in aspergillus oryzae.the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae is an important industrial mold. recent genomic analysis indicated that a. oryzae has a large number of biosynthetic genes for secondary metabolites (sms), but many of the sms they produce have not been identified. for better understanding of sms production by a. oryzae, we screened a gene-disruption library of transcription factors including chromatin-remodeling factors and found two gene disruptions that show similarly altered sm production profiles. o ...201626126743
carbon regulation of environmental ph by secreted small molecules that modulate pathogenicity in phytopathogenic fungi.fruit pathogens can contribute to the acidification or alkalinization of the host environment. this capability has been used to divide fungal pathogens into acidifying and/or alkalinizing classes. here, we show that diverse classes of fungal pathogens-colletotrichum gloeosporioides, penicillium expansum, aspergillus nidulans and fusarium oxysporum-secrete small ph-affecting molecules. these molecules modify the environmental ph, which dictates acidic or alkaline colonizing strategies, and induce ...201626666972
stress tolerances of nullmutants of function-unknown genes encoding menadione stress-responsive proteins in aspergillus nidulans.a group of menadione stress-responsive function-unkown genes of aspergillus nidulans (locus ids anid_03987.1, anid_06058.1, anid_10219.1, and anid_10260.1) was deleted and phenotypically characterized. importantly, comparative and phylogenetic analyses of the tested a. nidulans genes and their orthologs shed light only on the presence of a tango2 domain with nrde protein motif in the translated anid_06058.1 gene but did not reveal any recognizable protein-encoding domains in other protein sequen ...201626631869
catalytic conversion of sugarcane bagasse to cellulosic ethanol: tio2 coupled nanocellulose as an effective hydrolysis enhancer.the present study deals with the production of cellulosic ethanol from bagasse using the synthesized tio2 coupled nanocellulose (nc-tio2) as catalyst. aspergillus nidulans ajsu04 cellulase was used for the hydrolysis of bagasse. nc-tio2 at various concentrations was added to bagasse in order to enhance the yield of reducing sugars. complex interaction between cellulase, bagasse, nc-tio2 and the reaction environment is thoroughly studied. a mathematical model was developed to describe the hydroly ...201626572403
a phosphorylation code of the aspergillus nidulans global regulator velveta (vea) determines specific functions.the velvet protein vea is a global fungal regulator for morphogenetic pathways as well as for the control of secondary metabolism. it is found exclusively in filamentous fungi, where it fulfills conserved, but also unique functions in different species. the involvement of vea in various morphogenetic and metabolic pathways is probably due to spatially and timely controlled specific protein-protein interactions with other regulators such as phytochrome (fpha) or velvet-like proteins (velb). here ...201626564476
development of genetic dereplication strains in aspergillus nidulans results in the discovery of reduce the secondary metabolite background in aspergillus nidulans and minimize the rediscovery of compounds and pathway intermediates, we created a "genetic dereplication" strain in which we deleted eight of the most highly expressed secondary metabolite gene clusters (more than 244,000 base pairs deleted in total). this strain allowed us to discover a novel compound that we designate aspercryptin and to propose a biosynthetic pathway for the compound. interestingly, aspercryptin is formed f ...201626563584
changes of global gene expression and secondary metabolite accumulation during light-dependent aspergillus nidulans development.fungal development and secondary metabolite production are coordinated by regulatory complexes as the trimeric velvet complex. light accelerates asexual but decreases sexual development of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. changes in gene expression and secondary metabolite accumulation in response to environmental stimuli have been the focus of many studies, but a comprehensive comparison during entire development is lacking. we compared snapshots of transcript and metabolite profile ...201626773375
function and regulation of fungal amino acid transporters: insights from predicted structure.amino acids constitute a major nutritional source for probably all fungi. studies of model species such as the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae and the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans have shown that they possess multiple amino acid transporters. these proteins belong to a limited number of superfamilies, now defined according to protein fold in addition to sequence criteria, and differ in subcellular location, substrate specificity range, and regulation. structural models of several of th ...201626721271
a global view of gene expression of aspergillus nidulans on responding to the deficiency in soluble potassium.many researchers have suggested that microbes can accelerate the weathering of silicate minerals. however, many genes and metabolic pathways related to microorganisms obtaining potassium (k) from silicate remain undiscovered. it is feasible to detect the gene expression within the scope of the whole genome through high-throughput sequencing. surprisingly, only a few reports have shown fungal weathering of silicate using this technology. this study explored differences in gene expression of asper ...201626693724
cation-stress-responsive transcription factors slta and crza regulate morphogenetic processes and pathogenicity of colletotrichum gloeosporioides.growth of colletotrichum gloeosporioides in the presence of cation salts nacl and kcl inhibited fungal growth and anthracnose symptom of colonization. previous reports indicate that adaptation of aspergillus nidulans to salt- and osmotic-stress conditions revealed the role of zinc-finger transcription factors slta and crza in cation homeostasis. homologs of a. nidulans slta and crza were identified in c. gloeosporioides. the c. gloeosporioides crza homolog is a 682-amino acid protein, which cont ...201628030573
wd40-repeat protein mocrec is essential for carbon repression and is involved in conidiation, growth and pathogenicity of magnaporthe oryzae.carbon catabolite repression (ccr) is a common regulatory mechanism used by microorganisms to prioritize use of a preferred carbon source (usually glucose). the crec wd40-repeat protein is a major component of the ccr pathway in aspergillus nidulans. to clarify the function of the crec ortholog from magnaporthe oryzae in regulating gene expression important for pathogenesis, mocrec was identified and genetically characterized. the vegetative growth rate of the mocrec deletion mutant on various c ...201627909797
spectroscopic evidence for the two c-h-cleaving intermediates of aspergillus nidulans isopenicillin n synthase.the enzyme isopenicillin n synthase (ipns) installs the β-lactam and thiazolidine rings of the penicillin core into the linear tripeptide l-δ-aminoadipoyl-l-cys-d-val (acv) on the pathways to a number of important antibacterial drugs. a classic set of enzymological and crystallographic studies by baldwin and co-workers established that this overall four-electron oxidation occurs by a sequence of two oxidative cyclizations, with the β-lactam ring being installed first and the thiazolidine ring se ...201627193226
new natural products isolated from metarhizium robertsii arsef 23 by chemical screening and identification of the gene cluster through engineered biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans rapidly identify novel natural products and their associated biosynthetic genes from underutilized and genetically difficult-to-manipulate microbes, we developed a method that uses (1) chemical screening to isolate novel microbial secondary metabolites, (2) bioinformatic analyses to identify a potential biosynthetic gene cluster and (3) heterologous expression of the genes in a convenient host to confirm the identity of the gene cluster and the proposed biosynthetic mechanism. the chemical sc ...201627189118
generation and characterization of indoor fungal aerosols for inhalation the indoor environment, people are exposed to several fungal species. evident dampness is associated with increased respiratory symptoms. to examine the immune responses associated with fungal exposure, mice are often exposed to a single species grown on an agar medium. the aim of this study was to develop an inhalation exposure system to be able to examine responses in mice exposed to mixed fungal species aerosolized from fungus-infested building materials. indoor airborne fungi were sampled ...201626921421
bsda(bsd2) -dependent vacuolar turnover of a misfolded version of the uapa transporter along the secretory pathway: prominent role of selective autophagy.transmembrane proteins translocate cotranslationally in the endoplasmic reticulum (er) membrane and traffic as vesicular cargoes, via the golgi, in their final membrane destination. misfolding in the er leads to protein degradation basically through the erad/proteasome system. here, we use a mutant version of the purine transporter uapa (δr481) to show that specific misfolded versions of plasma membrane cargoes undergo vacuolar turnover prior to localization in the plasma membrane. we show that ...201626917498
stereospecific capillary electrophoresis assays using pentapeptide substrates for the study of aspergillus nidulans methionine sulfoxide reductase a and mutant enzymes.stereospecific capillary electrophoresis-based methods for the analysis of methionine sulfoxide [met(o)]-containing pentapeptides were developed in order to investigate the reduction of met(o)-containing peptide substrates by recombinant aspergillus nidulans methionine sulfoxide reductase a (msra) as well as enzymes carrying mutations in position glu99 and asp134. the separation of the diastereomers of the n-acetylated, c-terminally 2,4-dinitrophenyl (dnp)-labeled pentapeptides ac-lys-phe-met(o) ...201627145186
calcineurin and calcium channel ccha coordinate the salt stress response by regulating cytoplasmic ca2+ homeostasis in aspergillus nidulans.the eukaryotic calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin is crucial for the environmental adaption of fungi. however, the mechanism of coordinate regulation of the response to salt stress by calcineurin and the high-affinity calcium channel ccha in fungi is not well understood. here we show that the deletion of ccha suppresses the hyphal growth defects caused by the loss of calcineurin under salt stress in aspergillus nidulans additionally, the hypersensitivity of the δcnaa st ...201627037124
cloning and characterization of filamentous fungal s-nitrosoglutathione reductase from aspergillus nidulans.s-nitrosoglutathione reductase (gsnor) metabolizes s-nitrosoglutathione (gsno) and has been shown to play important roles in regulating cellular signaling and formulating host defense by modulating intracellular nitric oxide levels. the enzyme has been found in bacterial, yeast, mushroom, plant, and mammalian cells. however, to date, there is still no evidence of its occurrence in filamentous fungi. in this study, we cloned and investigated a gsnor-like enzyme from the filamentous fungus aspergi ...201626869606
cytotoxicity and colloidal behavior of polystyrene latex nanoparticles toward filamentous fungi in isotonic solutions.the effects of surface physicochemical properties of functionalized polystyrene latex (psl) nanoparticles (nps) and model filamentous fungi aspergillus oryzae and aspergillus nidulans cultivated in different environment (aqueous and atmospheric environment) on the colloidal behavior and cytotoxicity were investigated in different isotonic solutions (154 mm nacl and 292 mm sucrose). when the liquid cultivated fungal cells were exposed to positively charged psl nps in 154 mm nacl solution, the nps ...201626855210
characterization of the product of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like (nrps-like) gene using the doxycycline dependent tet-on system in aspergillus terreus.genome sequencing of the fungus aspergillus terreus uncovered a number of silent core structural biosynthetic genes encoding enzymes presumed to be involved in the production of cryptic secondary metabolites. there are five nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps)-like genes with the predicted a-t-te domain architecture within the a. terreus genome. among the five genes, only the product of pgna remains unknown. the tet-on system is an inducible, tunable and metabolism-independent expression syste ...201626851300
cooperation of aspergillus nidulans enzymes increases plant polysaccharide saccharification.efficient polysaccharide degradation depends on interaction between enzymes acting on the main chain and the side chains. previous studies demonstrated cooperation between several enzymes, but not all enzyme combinations have been explored. a better understanding of enzyme cooperation would enable the design of better enzyme mixtures, optimally profiting from synergistic effects. in this study, we analyzed the cooperation of several enzymes involved in the degradation of xylan, glucan, xylogluca ...201626848939
transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of ionic liquid stimuli unveils enhanced secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.the inherent potential of filamentous fungi, especially of ascomycota, for producing diverse bioactive metabolites remains largely silent under standard laboratory culture conditions. innumerable strategies have been described to trigger their production, one of the simplest being manipulation of the growth media composition. supplementing media with ionic liquids surprisingly enhanced the diversity of extracellular metabolites generated by penicillia. this finding led us to evaluate the impact ...201627072538
multiple effects of a commercial roundup® formulation on the soil filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans at low doses: evidence of an unexpected impact on energetic metabolism.soil microorganisms are highly exposed to glyphosate-based herbicides (gbh), especially to roundup® which is widely used worldwide. however, studies on the effects of gbh formulations on specific non-rhizosphere soil microbial species are scarce. we evaluated the toxicity of a commercial formulation of roundup® (r450), containing 450 g/l of glyphosate (gly), on the soil filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, an experimental model microorganism. the median lethal dose (ld50) on solid media was ...201627068896
enhancement of echinocandin b production by a uv- and microwave-induced mutant of aspergillus nidulans with precursor- and biotin-supplying strategy.echinocandin b belongs to lipopeptide antifungal antibiotic bearing five types of direct precursor amino acids including proline, ornithine, tyrosine, threonine, and leucine. the objective of this study is to screen over-producing mutant in order to improve echinocandin b production; a stable mutant aspergillus nidulans zjb12073, which can use fructose as optimal carbon source instead of expensive mannitol, was selected from thousand isolates after several cycles of uv and microwave irradiation ...201627039401
development and validation of a custom microarray for global transcriptome profiling of the fungus aspergillus nidulans.transcriptome profiling is a powerful tool for identifying gene networks from whole genome expression analysis in many living species. here is described the first extensively characterized platform using agilent microarray technology for transcriptome analysis in the filamentous fungus aspergillus (emericella) nidulans. we developed and validated a reliable gene expression microarray in 8 × 15 k format, with predictive and experimental data establishing its specificity and sensitivity. either on ...201627038308
palmitoylation of the cysteine residue in the dhhc motif of a palmitoyl transferase mediates ca2+ homeostasis in aspergillus.finely tuned changes in cytosolic free calcium ([ca2+]c) mediate numerous intracellular functions resulting in the activation or inactivation of a series of target proteins. palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification involved in membrane protein trafficking between membranes and in their functional modulation. however, studies on the relationship between palmitoylation and calcium signaling have been limited. here, we demonstrate that the yeast palmitoyl transferase scakr1p h ...201627058039
the adenylate-forming enzymes afea and tmpb are involved in aspergillus nidulans self-communication during asexual development.aspergillus nidulans asexual sporulation (conidiation) is triggered by different environmental signals and involves the differentiation of specialized structures called conidiophores. the elimination of genes flba-e, flug, and tmpa results in a fluffy phenotype characterized by delayed conidiophore development and decreased expression of the conidiation essential gene brla. while flba-e encode regulatory proteins, flug and tmpa encode enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of independent signals n ...201627047469
a case of aspergillus nidulans causing white granule mycetoma. 201626900232
live cell imaging of actin dynamics in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.hyphal cells of filamentous fungi grow at their tips in a method analogous to pollen tube and root hair elongation. this process, generally referred to as tip growth, requires precise regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and characterizing the various actin structures in these cell types is currently an active area of research. here, the actin marker lifeact was used to document actin dynamics in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. contractile double rings were observed at septa, and a ...201626879694
production of 10r-hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids from hempseed oil hydrolyzate by recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing ppoc from aspergillus nidulans.the first and second preferred substrates of recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing 10r-dioxygenase (ppoc) from aspergillus nidulans and the purified enzyme were linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively. ppoc in cells showed higher thermal and reaction stabilities compared to purified ppoc. thus, 10r-hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids were produced from linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, and hempseed oil hydrolyzate containing linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid as substrates by whole r ...201627129531
engineering aspergillus nidulans for heterologous ent-kaurene and gamma-terpinene production.terpenes are a large and varied group of natural products with a wide array of bioactivities and applications. the chemical production of industrially relevant terpenes can be expensive and time-consuming due to the structural complexity of these compounds. here, we studied aspergillus nidulans as a heterologous host for monoterpene and diterpene production. previously, we identified a novel diterpene gene cluster in a. nidulans and showed that overexpression of the cluster-specific transcriptio ...201627098256
characterization of the aoda, dnma, mnsod and pima genes in aspergillus nidulans.mitochondria play key roles in cellular energy generation and lifespan of most eukaryotes. to understand the functions of four nuclear-encoded genes predicted to be related to the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function in aspergillus nidulans, systematic characterization was carried out. the deletion and overexpression mutants of aoda, dnma, mnsod and pima encoding alternative oxidase, dynamin related protein, manganese superoxide dismutase and lon protease, respectively, were gene ...201626846452
diverse regulation of the crea carbon catabolite repressor in aspergillus nidulans.carbon catabolite repression (ccr) is a process that selects the energetically most favorable carbon source in an environment. ccr represses the use of less favorable carbon sources when a better source is available. glucose is the preferential carbon source for most microorganisms because it is rapidly metabolized, generating quick energy for growth. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, ccr is mediated by the transcription factor crea, a c2h2 finger domain dna-binding protein. the ai ...201627017621
genotoxic investigation of a thiazolidinedione pparγ agonist using the in vitro micronucleus test and the in vivo homozygotization assay.pioglitazone (ptz) is an oral antidiabetic agent whose anti-cancer properties have been described recently. since ptz increases the production of reactive oxygen species in mammalian cells, the aim of current study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of ptz using respectively the in vitro mitotic index assay and the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test in human peripheral lymphocytes, and the in vivo homozygotization assay in aspergillus nidulans, which detec ...201626825076
accelerated nucleation of hydroxyapatite using an engineered hydrophobin fusion protein.calcium phosphate mineralization is of particular interest in dental repair. a biomimetic approach using proteins or peptides is a highly promising way to reconstruct eroded teeth. in this study, the screening of several proteins is described for their binding and nucleating activities toward hydroxyapatite. out of 27 tested candidates, only two hydrophobin fusion proteins showed binding abilities to hydroxyapatite in a mouthwash formulation and an increased nucleation in artificial saliva. usin ...201627010648
development of a candida glabrata dominant nutritional transformation marker utilizing the aspergillus nidulans acetamidase gene (amds).the gene encoding aspergillus nidulans acetamidase (amds) was placed under control of candida albicans act1 promoter and terminator sequences and then cloned into a plasmid containing c. glabrata ars10,cen8 or ars10+cen8 sequences. all plasmids transformed c. glabrata wild-type cells to acetamide+, with the ars-only containing plasmid transforming cells at the highest frequencies (>1.0 × 10(4) transformants μg(-1)). plasmids were rapidly lost under non-selective conditions with the frequency dep ...201626975388
thiamine synthesis regulates the fermentation mechanisms in the fungus aspergillus nidulans.thiamine pyrophosphate (tpp) is a critical cofactor and its biosynthesis is under the control of tpp availability. here we disrupted a predicted thia gene of the fungus aspergillus nidulans and demonstrated that it is essential for synthesizing cellular thiamine. the thiamine riboswitch is a post-transcriptional mechanism for tpp to repress gene expression and it is located on a. nidulans thia pre-messenger rna. the thia riboswitch was not fully derepressed under thiamine-limited conditions, and ...201626967817
regulation of genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes by pal-pacc signaling in aspergillus nidulans.cellulosic biomass represents a valuable potential substitute for fossil-based fuels. as such, there is a strong need to develop efficient biotechnological processes for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass via the optimization of cellulase production by fungi. ambient ph is an important factor affecting the industrial production of cellulase. in the present study, we demonstrate that several aspergillus nidulans genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes are regulated by pal-pacc-mediated ph ...201626946171
atp citrate lyase mediated cytosolic acetyl-coa biosynthesis increases mevalonate production in saccharomyces cerevisiae.with increasing concern about the environmental impact of a petroleum based economy, focus has shifted towards greener production strategies including metabolic engineering of microbes for the conversion of plant-based feedstocks to second generation biofuels and industrial chemicals. saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive host for this purpose as it has been extensively engineered for production of various fuels and chemicals. many of the target molecules are derived from the central metabol ...201626939608
characterization of a second physiologically relevant lactose permease gene (lacpb) in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans, uptake rather than hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step of lactose catabolism. deletion of the lactose permease a-encoding gene (lacpa) reduces the growth rate on lactose, while its overexpression enables faster growth than wild-type strains are capable of. we have identified a second physiologically relevant lactose transporter, lacpb. glycerol-grown mycelia from mutants deleted for lacpb appear to take up only minute amounts of lactose during the first 60 h after a med ...201626935851
involvement of an srf-mads protein mcma in regulation of extracellular enzyme production and asexual/sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.srf-mads proteins are transcription factors conserved among eukaryotes that regulate a variety of cellular functions; however, their physiological roles are still not well understood in filamentous fungi. effects of a mutation in mcma gene that encodes the sole srf-mads protein in the fungus aspergillus nidulans were examined by rna sequencing. sequencing data revealed that expression levels of cellulase genes were significantly decreased by the mutation as reported previously. however, expressi ...201626967516
emerging roles of nudc family: from molecular regulation to clinical implications.nuclear distribution gene c (nudc) was first found in aspergillus nidulans as an upstream regulator of nudf, whose mammalian homolog is lissencephaly 1 (lis1). nudc is conserved from fungi to mammals. vertebrate nudc has three homologs: nudc, nudc-like protein (nudcl), and nudc-like protein 2 (nudcl2). all members of the nudc family share a conserved p23 domain, which possesses chaperone activity both in conjunction with and independently of heat shock protein 90 (hsp90). our group and the other ...201626965524
the golgi apparatus: insights from filamentous fungi.cargo passage through the golgi, albeit an undoubtedly essential cellular function, is a mechanistically unresolved and much debated process. although the main molecular players are conserved, diversification of the golgi among different eukaryotic lineages is providing us with tools to resolve standing controversies. during the past decade the golgi apparatus of model filamentous fungi, mainly aspergillus nidulans, has been intensively studied. here an overview of the most important findings in ...201626932185
roles of aspergillus nidulans cdc42/rho gtpase regulators in hyphal morphogenesis and development.the rho-related family of gtpases are pivotal regulators of morphogenetic processes in diverse eukaryotic organisms. in the filamentous fungi two related members of this family, cdc42 and rac1, perform particularly important roles in the establishment and maintenance of hyphal polarity. the activity of these gtpases is tightly controlled by two sets of regulators: guanine nucleotide exchange factors (gefs) and gtpase-activating proteins (gaps). despite the importance of cdc42 and rac1 in polariz ...201626932184
a wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein is involved in endocytosis in aspergillus nidulans.endocytosis is vital for hyphal tip growth in filamentous fungi and is involved in the tip localization of various membrane proteins. to investigate the function of a wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein (wasp) in endocytosis of filamentous fungi, we identified a wasp ortholog-encoding gene, wspa, in aspergillus nidulans and characterized it. the wspa product, wspa, localized to the tips of germ tubes during germination and actin rings in the subapical regions of mature hyphae. wspa is essential for ...201626927610
laser capture microdissection to identify septum-associated proteins in aspergillus spatially resolve genetic differences at the cellular level, the laser-capture microdissection technique was developed. with this method cells can be cut from tissues with a laser beam and analyzed for dna, rna or protein composition. here we adapted the technique to isolate septal microtubule-organizing center (mtoc)-associated proteins in aspergillus nidulans about 3000 septa were collected and subjected to peptide fingerprinting by mass-spectrometric analysis. we identified the microtubule ...201626951366
peroxisomes move by hitchhiking on early endosomes using the novel linker protein pxda.eukaryotic cells use microtubule-based intracellular transport for the delivery of many subcellular cargos, including organelles. the canonical view of organelle transport is that organelles directly recruit molecular motors via cargo-specific adaptors. in contrast with this view, we show here that peroxisomes move by hitchhiking on early endosomes, an organelle that directly recruits the transport machinery. using the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans we found that hitchhiking is mediated ...201626811422
apical control of conidiation in aspergillus nidulans.the infection cycle of filamentous fungi consists of two main stages: invasion (growth) and dispersion (development). after the deposition of a spore on a host, germination, polar extension and branching of vegetative cells called hyphae allow a fast and efficient invasion. under suboptimal conditions, genetic reprogramming of hyphae results in the generation of asexual spores, allowing dissemination to new hosts and the beginning of a new infection cycle. in the model filamentous fungus aspergi ...201626782172
an aspergillus nidulans gh26 endo-β-mannanase with a novel degradation pattern on highly substituted galactomannans.the activity and substrate degradation pattern of a novel aspergillus nidulans gh26 endo-β-mannanase (anman26a) was investigated using two galactomannan substrates with varying amounts of galactopyranosyl residues. the anman26a was characterized in parallel with the gh26 endomannanase from podospora anserina (paman26a) and three gh5 endomannanases from a. nidulans and trichoderma reesei (anman5a, anman5c and trman5a). the initial rates and the maximal degree of enzymatically catalyzed conversion ...201626777252
the mechanism of peroxisome motility in filamentous fungi.peroxisomes (pos) are an essential part of the fungal cell's inventory. they are involved in cellular lipid homeostasis, reactive oxygen metabolism and in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. these functions are thought to require frequent organelle-organelle interactions and the even-distribution of pos in fungal hypha. recent work in the basidiomycete ustilago maydis and the ascomycete aspergillus nidulans reveals a crucial role of early endosomes (ees) in the dynamic behavior of pos requir ...201627825929
acute hepatic necrosis and death in a subadult southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) associated with exposure to sterigmatocystin in forage contaminated with aspergillus nidulans.a young male southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum), which was resident in a zoo as part of a multi-rhinoceros group, died suddenly. necropsy and histopathological findings supported a diagnosis of death from acute hepatic necrosis. the microscopic distribution of liver lesions was suggestive of hepatotoxicosis. further investigation revealed potential exposure to a mycotoxin, sterigmatocystin, present in spoiled lucerne hay contaminated with aspergillus nidulans. it was concluded that ...201627785798
design and synthesis of purine analogues as highly specific ligands for fcyb, a ubiquitous fungal nucleobase the course of our study on fungal purine transporters, a number of new 3-deazapurine analogues have been rationally designed, based on the interaction of purine substrates with the aspergillus nidulans fcyb carrier, and synthesized following an effective synthetic procedure. certain derivatives have been found to specifically inhibit fcyb-mediated [(3)h]-adenine uptake. molecular simulations have been performed, suggesting that all active compounds interact with fcyb through the formation of ...201627720327
a mitotic nuclear envelope tether for gle1 also impacts nuclear and nucleolar architecture.during aspergillus nidulans mitosis peripheral nuclear pore complex (npc) proteins (nups) disperse from the core npc structure. unexpectedly, one predicted peripheral nup, gle1, remains at the mitotic ne via an unknown mechanism. gle1 affinity purification identified mtga ( m: itotic t: ether for g: le1), which tethers gle1 to the ne during mitosis, but not during interphase when gle1 is at npcs. mtga is the ortholog of the schizosaccharomyces pombe telomere-anchoring inner nuclear membrane prot ...201627630260
d-galactose catabolism in penicillium chrysogenum: expression analysis of the structural genes of the leloir this study, we analyzed the expression of the structural genes encoding the five enzymes comprising the leloir pathway of d-galactose catabolism in the industrial cell factory penicillium chrysogenum on various carbon sources. the genome of p. chrysogenum contains a putative galactokinase gene at the annotated locus pc13g10140, the product of which shows strong structural similarity to yeast galactokinase that was expressed on lactose and d-galactose only. the expression profile of the galact ...201627630054
mcma-dependent and -independent regulatory systems governing expression of clrb-regulated cellulase and hemicellulase genes in aspergillus nidulans.fungal cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes are promising tools for industrial hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass; however, the regulatory network underlying their production is not well understood. the recent discovery of the transcriptional activators clrb and mcma in aspergillus nidulans implied a novel regulatory mechanism driven by their interaction, experimental evidence for which was obtained from transcriptional and dna-binding analyses in this study. it was found that clrb was essent ...201627588830
isoindolone-containing meroperpenoids from the endophytic fungus emericella nidulans hdn12-249.six isoindolone containing meroterpenoids, emericellolides a-c (1-3) and emeriphenolicins e-g (4-6), were isolated from a plant endophytic fungus emericella nidulans hdn12-249. emericellolides a-c (1-3) feature the unprecedented macrolide skeleton composed of an unusual l-glutamate fragment, an isoindolone unit, and a sesquiterpene moiety, while structures of emeriphenolicins e-g (4-6) with two farnesyl groups attached to one isoindolone unit are rare in isoindolone-derived meroterpenoids. these ...201627588428
lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases and other oxidative enzymes are abundantly secreted by aspergillus nidulans grown on different starches.starch is the second most abundant plant-derived biomass and a major feedstock in non-food industrial applications and first generation biofuel production. in contrast to lignocellulose, detailed insight into fungal degradation of starch is currently lacking. this study explores the secretomes of aspergillus nidulans grown on cereal starches from wheat and high-amylose (ha) maize, as well as legume starch from pea for 5 days.201627588040
fungi use the saka (hoga) pathway for phytochrome-dependent light signalling.stress-sensing in fungi depends on a signalling cascade comprised of a two-component phosphorylation relay plus a subsequent map kinase cascade to trigger gene expression. besides osmotic or oxidative stress, fungi sense many other environmental factors, one of which is light(1,2). light controls morphogenetic pathways but also the production of secondary metabolites such as penicillin. here we show that phytochrome-dependent light signalling in aspergillus nidulans involves the stress-sensing a ...201627572639
key role of laea and velvet complex proteins on expression of β-lactam and pr-toxin genes in penicillium chrysogenum: cross-talk regulation of secondary metabolite pathways.penicillium chrysogenum is an excellent model fungus to study the molecular mechanisms of control of expression of secondary metabolite genes. a key global regulator of the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites is the laea protein that interacts with other components of the velvet complex (vela, velb, velc, vosa). these components interact with laea and regulate expression of penicillin and pr-toxin biosynthetic genes in p. chrysogenum. both laea and vela are positive regulators of the penicilli ...201627565675
proteins interacting with crea and creb in the carbon catabolite repression network in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans, carbon catabolite repression (ccr) is mediated by the global repressor protein crea. the deubiquitinating enzyme creb is a component of the ccr network. genetic interaction was confirmed using a strain containing complete loss-of-function alleles of both crea and creb. no direct physical interaction was identified between tagged versions of crea and creb. to identify any possible protein(s) that may form a bridge between crea and creb, we purified both proteins from myce ...201627915380
growth-phase sterigmatocystin formation on lactose is mediated via low specific growth rates in aspergillus nidulans.seed contamination with polyketide mycotoxins such as sterigmatocystin (st) produced by aspergilli is a worldwide issue. the st biosynthetic pathway is well-characterized in a. nidulans, but regulatory aspects related to the carbon source are still enigmatic. this is particularly true for lactose, inasmuch as some st production mutant strains still synthesize st on lactose but not on other carbon substrates. here, kinetic data revealed that on d-glucose, st forms only after the sugar is depleted ...201627916804
transporter oligomerization: form and function.transporters are integral membrane proteins with central roles in the efficient movement of molecules across biological membranes. many transporters exist as oligomers in the membrane. depending on the individual transport protein, oligomerization can have roles in membrane trafficking, function, regulation and turnover. for example, our recent studies on uapa, a nucleobase ascorbate transporter, from aspergillus nidulans, have revealed both that dimerization of this protein is essential for cor ...201627913684
evaluation of biosynthetic pathway and engineered biosynthesis of alkaloids.varieties of alkaloids are known to be produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi and plants, as secondary metabolites that exhibit useful bioactivities. however, understanding of how those metabolites are biosynthesized still remains limited, because most of these compounds are isolated from plants and at a trace level of production. in this review, we focus on recent efforts in identifying the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of those nitrogen-containing natural products an ...201627548127
post-synthetic defucosylation of agp by aspergillus nidulans α-1,2-fucosidase expressed in arabidopsis apoplast induces compensatory upregulation of α-1,2-fucosyltransferases.cell walls are essential components of plant cells which perform a variety of important functions for the different cell types, tissues and organs of a plant. besides mechanical function providing cell shape, cell walls participate in intercellular communication, defense during plant-microbe interactions, and plant growth. the plant cell wall consists predominantly of polysaccharides with the addition of structural glycoproteins, phenolic esters, minerals, lignin, and associated enzymes. alterat ...201627448235
nitrogen metabolism and growth enhancement in tomato plants challenged with trichoderma harzianum expressing the aspergillus nidulans acetamidase amds gene.trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. in addition to the direct application of trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. the amds gene, encoding an acetamidase of aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the trans ...201627536277
botrytis cinerea can import and utilize nucleosides in salvage and catabolism and bcent functions as high affinity nucleoside transporter.nucleotide de novo synthesis is an essential pathway in nearly all organisms. transport processes as well as salvage and catabolism of nucleotides and pathway intermediates are required to balance nucleotide pools. we have analysed the genome of the fungal plant pathogen botrytis cinerea for genes involved in nucleotide metabolism and found a complete set of genes necessary for purine and pyrimidine uptake and salvage based on homology of the gene products to corresponding proteins from aspergil ...201627521624
mapping n-linked glycosylation of carbohydrate-active enzymes in the secretome of aspergillus nidulans grown on lignocellulose.the genus aspergillus includes microorganisms that naturally degrade lignocellulosic biomass, secreting large amounts of carbohydrate-active enzymes (cazymes) that characterize their saprophyte lifestyle. aspergillus has the capacity to perform post-translational modifications (ptm), which provides an additional advantage for the use of these organisms as a host for the production of heterologous proteins. in this study, the n-linked glycosylation of cazymes identified in the secretome of asperg ...201627508003
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