PMID(sorted descending)
morphological changes induced by class iii chitin synthase gene silencing could enhance penicillin production of penicillium chrysogenum.chitin synthases catalyze the formation of β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds between n-acetylglucosamine residues to form the unbranched polysaccharide chitin, which is the major component of cell walls in most filamentous fungi. several studies have shown that chitin synthases are structurally and functionally divergent and play crucial roles in the growth and morphogenesis of the genus aspergillus although little research on this topic has been done in penicillium chrysogenum. we used blast to find the ...201323179625
saga complex components and acetate repression in aspergillus nidulans.alongside the well-established carbon catabolite repression by glucose and other sugars, acetate causes repression in aspergillus nidulans. mutations in crea, encoding the transcriptional repressor involved in glucose repression, also affect acetate repression, but mutations in creb or crec, encoding components of a deubiquitination system, do not. to understand the effects of acetate, we used a mutational screen that was similar to screens that uncovered mutations in crea, creb, and crec, excep ...201223173087
current understanding of hog-mapk pathway in aspergillus fumigatus.aspergillus fumigatus is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes lethal systemic invasive aspergillosis. it must be able to adapt to stress in the microenvironment during host invasion and systemic spread. the high-osmolarity glycerol (hog) mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) signaling pathway is a key element that controls adaptation to environmental stress. it plays a critical role in the virulence of several fungal pathogens. in this review, we summarize the current knowled ...201323161019
transcriptome changes initiated by carbon starvation in aspergillus nidulans.carbon starvation is a common stress for micro-organisms both in nature and in industry. the carbon starvation stress response (cssr) involves the regulation of several important processes including programmed cell death and reproduction of fungi, secondary metabolite production and extracellular hydrolase formation. to gain insight into the physiological events of cssr, dna microarray analyses supplemented with real-time rt-pcr (rrt-pcr) experiments on 99 selected genes were performed. these da ...201323154970
bzip transcription factors affecting secondary metabolism, sexual development and stress responses in aspergillus nidulans.the eukaryotic basic leucine zipper (bzip) transcription factors play critical roles in the organismal response to the environment. recently, a novel yap-like bzip, restorer of secondary metabolism a (rsma), was found in a suppressor screen of an aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolism (sm) mutant in which overexpression of rsma was found to partially remediate loss of sm in velvet complex mutants. the velvet complex is a conserved fungal transcriptional heteromer that couples sm with sexual d ...201323154967
new insights into the biosynthesis of prenylated xanthones: xptb from aspergillus nidulans catalyses an o-prenylation of xanthones.gene-inactivation experiments have indicated that the putative prenyltransferase xptb from aspergillus nidulans was likely to be responsible for the prenylation of 1,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-8-hydroxymethylxanthone. recently, it was suggested that this enzyme might also accept as substrate the benzophenone arugosin h, which is assumed to be a precursor of prenylated xanthones. in this study, five benzophenones and ten xanthones were incubated with purified recombinant xptb in the presence of dimethy ...201223150454
involvement of bcvea and bcvelb in regulating conidiation, pigmentation and virulence in botrytis cinerea.the heterotrimeric velvet complex vea/velb/laea is involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes in aspergillus nidulans. in this work, we investigated functions of two velvet-like genes bcvea and bcvelb in botrytis cinerea. morphological characterization of bcvea and bcvelb deletion mutants showed that the deletion of bcvea and bcvelb led to increased conidiation and melanin biosynthesis. bcvea and bcvelb deletion mutants also showed increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. pathoge ...201323147398
analysis of the structure and conformational states of dewa gives insight into the assembly of the fungal hydrophobins.the hydrophobin dewa from the fungus aspergillus nidulans is a highly surface-active protein that spontaneously self-assembles into amphipathic monolayers at hydrophobic:hydrophilic interfaces. these monolayers are composed of fibrils that are a form of functional amyloid. while there has been significant interest in the use of dewa for a variety of surface coatings and as an emulsifier in biotechnological applications, little is understood about the structure of the protein or the mechanism of ...201323137797
in vitro interactions of amantadine hydrochloride, r-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride and valproic acid sodium salt with antifungal agents against filamentous fungal species causing central nervous system infection.the mortality rates of fungal infections that affect the central nervous system are high in consequence of the absence of effective antifungal drugs with good penetration across the blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. in the present work in vitro antifungal activities of three good penetrating non-antifungal drugs (amantadine hydrochloride, r-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride, valproic acid sodium salt) and their combinations with three antifungal agents (amphotericin b, itra ...201223134606
cell cycle regulation by the nek family of protein kinases.genetic screens for cell division cycle mutants in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans led to the discovery of never-in-mitosis a (nima), a serine/threonine kinase that is required for mitotic entry. since that discovery, nima-related kinases, or neks, have been identified in most eukaryotes, including humans where eleven genetically distinct proteins named nek1 to nek11 are expressed. although there is no evidence that human neks are essential for mitotic entry, it is clear that several ...201223132929
improvement of gene targeting in aspergillus nidulans with excess non-homologous fragments.efficiency of gene targeting was increased more than 10-fold when an excess molar ratio of non-homologous fragments was added in the transformation of aspergillus nidulans. in the targeted transformants, integration of such fragments into the host chromosome was a rare event. hence, our approach proved practical in terms of producing successful targeting events without disturbing the host chromosomes.201223132572
microtubule-based transport in filamentous fungi.defects in microtubule-based transport are implicated in many neuropathologies. the filamentous fungi aspergillus nidulans and ustilago maydis are valuable models for studying transport owing to their yeast-like genetic and biochemical tractability and metazoan-like dependence on microtubule-based transport for cellular trafficking. in these organisms the role of microtubules in nuclear positioning is well studied, but recent work has expanded the range of cargos to include endosomes, messenger ...201223127389
soil metaproteomics - comparative evaluation of protein extraction protocols.metaproteomics and its potential applications are very promising to study microbial activity in environmental samples and to obtain a deeper understanding of microbial interactions. however, due to the complexity of soil samples the exhaustive extraction of proteins is a major challenge. we compared soil protein extraction protocols in terms of their protein extraction efficiency for two different soil types. four different protein extraction procedures were applied based on (a) sds extraction w ...201223125465
antifungal activity of extracellular hydrolases produced by autolysing aspergillus nidulans cultures.carbon-starving aspergillus nidulans cultures produce high activities of versatile hydrolytic enzymes and, among these, chib endochitinase and enga β-1,3-endoglucanase showed significant antifungal activity against various fungal species. double deletion of enga and chib diminished the antifungal activity of the fermentation broths and increased conidiogenesis and long-term viability of a. nidulans, but decreased the growth rate on culture media containing weak carbon sources. production of chib ...201223124755
intracellular trehalase activity is required for development, germination and heat-stress resistance of aspergillus niger conidia.the disaccharide trehalose is known as a stress protectant in several kinds of organisms, including fungi, where it is a major carbohydrate in resting structures, e.g. asexual conidia. the gene encoding the enzyme responsible for degradation of intracellular trehalose, treb, was deleted and the phenotype was analyzed in terms of morphology, trehalose content during conidial outgrowth and stress tolerance. the mutant conidiophores produced fewer and less viable spores, and during early stages of ...201323116628
molecular genetic characterization of a cluster in a. terreus for biosynthesis of the meroterpenoid terretonin.meroterpenoids are natural products produced from polyketide and terpenoid precursors. a gene targeting system for a. terreus nih2624 was developed, and a gene cluster for terretonin biosynthesis was characterized. the intermediates and shunt products were isolated from the mutant strains, and a pathway for terretonin biosynthesis is proposed. analysis of two meroterpenoid pathways corresponding to terretonin in a. terreus and austinol in a. nidulans reveals that they are closely related evoluti ...201223116177
aspergillus oxylipin signaling and quorum sensing pathways depend on g protein-coupled receptors.oxylipins regulate aspergillus development and mycotoxin production and are also involved in aspergillus quorum sensing mechanisms. despite extensive knowledge of how these oxylipins are synthesized and what processes they regulate, nothing is known about how these signals are detected and transmitted by the fungus. g protein-coupled receptors (gpcr) have been speculated to be involved as they are known oxylipin receptors in mammals, and many putative gpcrs have been identified in the aspergilli ...201223105976
evidence that two pcl-like cyclins control cdk9 activity during cell differentiation in aspergillus nidulans asexual development.cyclin-dependent protein kinases (cdks) are usually involved in cell cycle regulation. however, cdk9 is an exception and promotes rna synthesis through phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain (ctd) of the largest subunit of rna polymerase ii (rnapii). the ctd is comprised of repeating heptapeptides, in which serine residues at positions 2, 5, and 7 are of crucial importance. ser5 phosphorylation causes transcription initiation and promoter escape. however, rnapii pauses 20 to 50 bp downst ...201323104571
meab-dependent nutrition sensing regulates autolysis in carbon starved aspergillus nidulans cultures.carbon starvation induced autolysis is an active process of self-digestion and is under complex regulation in aspergillus nidulans. in this study we investigated how autolysis depends on the composition of the culture medium, especially on the presence of yeast extract. we demonstrated that the rate of autolytic cell wall degradation as well as the extracellular chitinase and proteinase productions significantly decreased in the presence of this nutrient. the effect of yeast extract on carbon st ...201023100816
mechanism to combat cobalt toxicity in cobalt resistant mutants of aspergillus nidulans.characteristics of fungal species tolerant to high levels of metals in natural environment can be amplified by isolation and selection of resistant mutants. step-by-step culturing led to identification of highly stable co-resistant (co(r)) mutants of a. nidulans. based on two distinct morphological features, co-resistant mutants were categorized as co(r)i and co(r)ii. the two mutants varied in their growth behavior and colony morphology that were reflected in supplemented as well as unsupplement ...200723100687
development and characterization of nickel accumulating mutants of aspergillus nidulans.stable mutants of aspergillus nidulans, resistant to 1 mm ni were developed by step-by-step repeated culturing of the fungus on the medium containing increasing concentrations of nickel chloride. characterization of mutants could differentiate them into two categories ni(r) i and ni(r) ii. each category of mutants exhibited alterations in growth, conidial germination and melanin secretion both in ni-free and ni-containing media. ni(r) ii mutants were little slow in growth with sparse mycelia and ...200723100672
biodiversity of epilithic cyanobacteria from freshwater streams of kakoijana reserve forest, assam, india.the biodiversity of epilithic cyanobacteria from one of the unexplored habitats of freshwater streams of kakoijana reserve forest of assam, india was estimated. this paper lists a total of 29 species representing 18 genera of 12 families and 4 orders as per recent system of classification. morphological descriptions, common habitats and distribution pattern were described for each species identified that were represented systematically. of these 29 species, 11 were unicellular, 9 non-heterocytou ...200723100670
genetic control of asexual sporulation in filamentous fungi.asexual sporulation (conidiation) in the ascomycetous filamentous fungi involves the formation of conidia, formed on specialized structures called conidiophores. conidiation in filamentous fungi involves many common themes including spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression, specialized cellular differentiation, intra-/inter-cellular communications, and response to environmental factors. the commencement, progression and completion of conidiation are regulated by multiple positive and n ...201223092920
genetic analysis of the arabidopsis protein kinases map3kε1 and map3kε2 indicates roles in cell expansion and embryo development.map3kε1 and map3kε2 are a pair of arabidopsis thaliana genes that encode protein kinases related to cdc7p from saccharomyces cerevisiae. we have previously shown that the map3kε1;map3kε2 double-mutant combination causes pollen lethality. in this study, we have used an ethanol-inducible promoter construct to rescue this lethal phenotype and create map3kε1(-/-);map3kε2(-/-) double-mutant plants in order to examine the function of these genes in the sporophyte. these rescued double-mutant plants ca ...201223087695
a pericentrin-related protein homolog in aspergillus nidulans plays important roles in nucleus positioning and cell polarity by affecting microtubule organization.pericentrin is a large coiled-coil protein in mammalian centrosomes that serves as a multifunctional scaffold for anchoring numerous proteins. recent studies have linked numerous human disorders with mutated or elevated levels of pericentrin, suggesting unrecognized contributions of pericentrin-related proteins to the development of these disorders. in this study, we characterized anpcpa, a putative homolog of pericentrin-related protein in the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, and ...201223087372
aspergillus nidulans galactofuranose biosynthesis affects antifungal drug sensitivity.the cell wall is essential for fungal survival in natural environments. many fungal wall carbohydrates are absent from humans, so they are a promising source of antifungal drug targets. galactofuranose (galf) is a sugar that decorates certain carbohydrates and lipids. it comprises about 5% of the aspergillus fumigatus cell wall, and may play a role in systemic aspergillosis. we are studying aspergillus wall formation in the tractable model system, a. nidulans. previously we showed single-gene de ...201223078837
enhanced enzymatic cellulose degradation by cellobiohydrolases via product removal.product inhibition by cellobiose decreases the rate of enzymatic cellulose degradation. the optimal reaction conditions for two emericella (aspergillus) nidulans-derived cellobiohydrolases i and ii produced in pichia pastoris were identified as cbhi: 52 °c, ph 4.5-6.5, and cbhii: 46 °c, ph 4.8. the optimum in a mixture of the two was 50 °c, ph 4.9. an almost fourfold increase in enzymatic hydrolysis yield was achieved with intermittent product removal of cellobiose with membrane filtration (2 kd ...201323076365
putative calcium channels ccha and mida play the important roles in conidiation, hyphal polarity and cell wall components in aspergillus nidulans.although the high affinity ca(2+) channel, cch1, and its subunit mid1 have been investigated and evaluated in yeast and some of filamentous fungi, little is known about the function of their homologs in the aspergilli. here, we have functionally characterized the yeast homologs, ccha and mida, in aspergillus nidulans using conditional and null deletion mutants. ccha and mida not only have functional benefits of fast growth, which is consistent with cch1 and mid1 in yeast, but also have unique an ...201223071589
investigation of in vivo protein interactions in aspergillus spores.understanding in vivo protein-protein interactions is critical to dissect precise functions of the regulatory proteins of fungal secondary metabolites. as many fungi differentially produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites during their lifecycle, it is important to understand the cell-type specific regulation of secondary metabolism. however, due to the difficulty of sample preparation of biologically active proteins in fungal spores, protein-protein interaction studies have been generall ...201223065622
identification of protein complexes from filamentous fungi with tandem affinity purification.fungal molecular biology has benefited from the enormous advances in understanding protein-protein interactions in prokaryotic or eukaryotic organisms of the past decade. tandem affinity purification (tap) allows the enrichment of native protein complexes from cell extracts under mild conditions. we codon-optimized tags and established tap, previously not applicable to filamentous fungi, for the model organism aspergillus nidulans. we could identify by this method the trimeric velvet complex vel ...201223065618
multi-copy genetic screen in aspergillus nidulans.with the completion of genomes of various aspergillus species, large-scale genome-wide expression studies can be carried out. genomics, however, is more powerful and efficient when combined with genetics. a multi-copy-based gain-of-function screen is a complementary method to loss-of-function genetic screen and can identify novel genes that may not be easily identifiable through loss-of-function-type screens. particularly, gain-of-function genetic screens would identify novel activators or repre ...201223065617
tools for manipulation of secondary metabolism pathways: rapid promoter replacements and gene deletions in aspergillus nidulans.targeted gene deletions and promoter replacements are proving to be a valuable tool for awakening and analyzing silent secondary metabolism gene clusters in aspergillus nidulans and, as molecular genetic methods for manipulating the genomes of other fungi are developed, they will likely be as valuable in those organisms. here we describe procedures for constructing dna fragments by pcr that can be used to replace genes or promoters quickly and on a large scale. we also describe transformation pr ...201223065614
the chemical identification and analysis of aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites.filamentous fungi have long been recognized to be a rich source of secondary metabolites with potential medicinal applications. the recent genomic sequencing of several aspergillus species has revealed that many secondary metabolite gene clusters are apparently silent under standard laboratory conditions. several successful approaches have been utilized to upregulate these genes and unearth the corresponding natural products. a straightforward, reliable method to purify and characterize new meta ...201223065610
galx regulates the d-galactose oxido-reductive pathway in aspergillus niger.galactose catabolism in aspergillus nidulans is regulated by at least two regulators, galr and galx. in aspergillus niger only galx is present, and its role in d-galactose catabolism in this fungus was investigated. phenotypic and gene expression analysis of a wild type and a galx disruptant revealed that galx regulates the d-galactose oxido-reductive pathway, but not the leloir pathway in a. niger.201223063944
the role, interaction and regulation of the velvet regulator velb in aspergillus nidulans.the multifunctional regulator velb physically interacts with other velvet regulators and the resulting complexes govern development and secondary metabolism in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. here, we further characterize velb's role in governing asexual development and conidiogenesis in a. nidulans. in asexual spore formation, velb deletion strains show reduced number of conidia, and decreased and delayed mrna accumulation of the key asexual regulatory genes brla, abaa, and vosa. o ...201223049895
nosa, a transcription factor important in aspergillus fumigatus stress and developmental response, rescues the germination defect of a laea deletion.aspergillus fumigatus is an increasingly serious pathogen of immunocompromised patients, causing the often fatal disease invasive aspergillosis (ia). one a. fumigatus virulence determinant of ia is laea, a conserved virulence factor in pathogenic fungi. to further understand the role of laea in ia, the expression profile of δlaea was compared to wild type, and several transcription factors were found significantly misregulated by laea loss. one of the transcription factors up-regulated over 4-fo ...201223022264
the putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor rica mediates upstream signaling for growth and development in aspergillus.heterotrimeric g proteins (g proteins) govern growth, development, and secondary metabolism in various fungi. here, we characterized rica, which encodes a putative gdp/gtp exchange factor for g proteins in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans and the opportunistic human pathogen aspergillus fumigatus. in both species, rica mrna accumulates during vegetative growth and early developmental phases, but it is not present in spores. the deletion of rica results in severely impaired colony growth and ...201223002107
breaking the silence: protein stabilization uncovers silenced biosynthetic gene clusters in the fungus aspergillus nidulans.the genomes of filamentous fungi comprise numerous putative gene clusters coding for the biosynthesis of chemically and structurally diverse secondary metabolites (sms), which are rarely expressed under laboratory conditions. previous approaches to activate these genes were based primarily on artificially targeting the cellular protein synthesis apparatus. here, we applied an alternative approach of genetically impairing the protein degradation apparatus of the model fungus aspergillus nidulans ...201223001671
high abundance of serine/threonine-rich regions predicted to be hyper-o-glycosylated in the secretory proteins coded by eight fungal genomes.o-glycosylation of secretory proteins has been found to be an important factor in fungal biology and virulence. it consists in the addition of short glycosidic chains to ser or thr residues in the protein backbone via o-glycosidic bonds. secretory proteins in fungi frequently display ser/thr rich regions that could be sites of extensive o-glycosylation. we have analyzed in silico the complete sets of putatively secretory proteins coded by eight fungal genomes (botrytis cinerea, magnaporthe grise ...201222994653
phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase, as a suppressor of the seph mutation in aspergillus nidulans, is required for the proper timing of septation.timely cytokinesis/septation is essential for hyphal growth and conidiation in aspergillus nidulans. genetic analyses have identified that a. nidulans has components of the septum initiation network (sin) pathway; one of these, seph, is a key player for early events during cytokinesis. however, little is known about how the seph kinase cascade is regulated by other components. here, we demonstrate that the phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase family acts antagonistically against the sin so th ...201222994198
characterization of the velvet regulators in aspergillus fumigatus.fungal development and secondary metabolism is intimately associated via activities of the fungi-specific velvet family proteins. here we characterize the four velvet regulators in the opportunistic human pathogen aspergillus fumigatus. the deletion of afuvosa, afuvea and afuvelb causes hyperactive asexual development (conidiation) and precocious and elevated accumulation of afubrla during developmental progression. moreover, the absence of afuvosa, afuvea or afuvelb results in the abundant form ...201222970834
modeling, substrate docking, and mutational analysis identify residues essential for the function and specificity of a eukaryotic purine-cytosine ncs1 transporter.the recent elucidation of crystal structures of a bacterial member of the ncs1 family, the mhp1 benzyl-hydantoin permease from microbacterium liquefaciens, allowed us to construct and validate a three-dimensional model of the aspergillus nidulans purine-cytosine/h(+) fcyb symporter. the model consists of 12 transmembrane α-helical, segments (tmss) and cytoplasmic n- and c-tails. a distinct core of 10 tmss is made of two intertwined inverted repeats (tms1-5 and tms6-10) that are followed by two a ...201222969088
invasive fungal infection in chronic granulomatous disease: insights into pathogenesis and management.invasive fungal infections (ifis) remain a major cause of death in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (cgd). we discuss the new insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and management of invasive fungal infections in patients with cgd.201222964947
ambient ph controls glycogen levels by regulating glycogen synthase gene expression in neurospora crassa. new insights into the ph signaling pathway.glycogen is a polysaccharide widely distributed in microorganisms and animal cells and its metabolism is under intricate regulation. its accumulation in a specific situation results from the balance between glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase activities that control synthesis and degradation, respectively. these enzymes are highly regulated at transcriptional and post-translational levels. the existence of a dna motif for the aspergillus nidulans ph responsive transcription factor pacc ...201222952943
γ-tubulin plays a key role in inactivating apc/c(cdh1) at the g(1)-s boundary.a γ-tubulin mutation in aspergillus nidulans, mipa-d159, causes failure of inactivation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (apc/c) in interphase, resulting in failure of cyclin b (cb) accumulation and removal of nuclei from the cell cycle. we have investigated the role of cdha, the a. nidulans homologue of the apc/c activator protein cdh1, in γ-tubulin-dependent inactivation of the apc/c. cdha was not essential, but it targeted cb for destruction in g(1), and apc/c(cdha) had to be inact ...201222927465
comparative genome analysis between aspergillus oryzae strains reveals close relationship between sites of mutation localization and regions of highly divergent genes among aspergillus species.aspergillus oryzae has been utilized for over 1000 years in japan for the production of various traditional foods, and a large number of a. oryzae strains have been isolated and/or selected for the effective fermentation of food ingredients. characteristics of genetic alterations among the strains used are of particular interest in studies of a. oryzae. here, we have sequenced the whole genome of an industrial fungal isolate, a. oryzae rib326, by using a next-generation sequencing system and com ...201222912434
deletion of the aspergillus flavus orthologue of a. nidulans flug reduces conidiation and promotes production of sclerotia but does not abolish aflatoxin biosynthesis.the flug gene is a member of a family of genes required for conidiation and sterigmatocystin production in aspergillus nidulans. we examined the role of the aspergillus flavus flug orthologue in asexual development and aflatoxin biosynthesis. deletion of flug in a. flavus yielded strains with an approximately 3-fold reduction in conidiation but a 30-fold increase in sclerotial formation when grown on potato dextrose agar in the dark. the concurrent developmental changes suggest that a. flavus fl ...201222904054
dna minor groove sensing and widening by the ccaat-binding complex.the ccaat box is a frequent element of eukaryotic promoters, and its specific recognition by the conserved heterotrimeric ccaat-binding complex (cbc) constitutes a key step in promoter organization and regulation of transcription. here, we report the crystal structures of the cbc from aspergillus nidulans in the absence and in complex with double-stranded dna at 1.8 å resolution. the histone-like subunits hapc and hape induce nucleosome-like dna bending by interacting with the sugar-phosphate ba ...201222902862
proof-of-principle for sers imaging of aspergillus nidulans hyphae using in vivo synthesis of gold nanoparticles.high spatial resolution methods to assess the physiology of growing cells should permit analysis of fungal biochemical composition. whole colony methods cannot capture the details of physiology and organism-environment interaction, in part because the structure, function and composition of fungal hyphae vary within individual cells depending on their distance from the growing apex. surface enhanced raman scattering (sers) can provide chemical information on materials that are in close contact wi ...201222900260
overexpression of the aspergillus nidulans histone 4 acetyltransferase esaa increases activation of secondary metabolite production.regulation of secondary metabolite (sm) gene clusters in aspergillus nidulans has been shown to occur through cluster-specific transcription factors or through global regulators of chromatin structure such as histone methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, or the putative methyltransferase laea. a multicopy suppressor screen for genes capable of returning sm production to the sm deficient δlaea mutant resulted in identification of the essential histone acetyltransferase esaa, able to complemen ...201222882998
induced mitotic homologous recombination by the babesicide imidocarb dipropionate in aspergillus nidulans diploid cells.imidocarb dipropionate (imd) is a chemotherapeutic agent prescribed for the treatment and control of babesiosis; it is known to be a nucleic acid synthesis inhibitor. although it is an effective babesicide, there are reports of persistent imd residues retained at high levels in edible tissues of cattle, swine and sheep, raising concerns about potential effects on humans. since the carcinogenic potential of a chemical compound can be assessed through its effect on the homologous recombination, we ...201222869537
cis- and trans-acting localization determinants of ph response regulator rim13 in saccharomyces cerevisiae.the rim101/pacc pathway governs adaptation to alkaline ph in many fungi. output of the pathway is mediated by transcription factors of the rim101/pacc family, which are activated by proteolytic cleavage. the proteolytic complex includes scaffold protein rim20 and endosome-associated subunits of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (escrt). we provide here evidence that saccharomyces cerevisiae rim13, the protease that is implicated in rim101 cleavage, is associated with the rim20 ...201222865500
aspergillus tanneri sp. nov., a new pathogen that causes invasive disease refractory to antifungal therapy.the most common cause of invasive aspergillosis (ia) in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) is aspergillus fumigatus followed by a. nidulans; other aspergilli rarely cause the disease. here we review two clinical cases of fatal ia in cgd patients and describe a new etiologic agent of ia refractory to antifungal therapy. unlike typical ia caused by a. fumigatus, the disease caused by the new species was chronic and spread from the lung to multiple adjacent organs. mycological charac ...201222855513
motor-driven motility of fungal nuclear pores organizes chromosomes and fosters nucleocytoplasmic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is controlled by nuclear pore complexes (npcs). in animals, npcs are anchored by the nuclear lamina, which ensures their even distribution and proper organization of chromosomes. fungi do not possess a lamina and how they arrange their chromosomes and npcs is unknown. here, we show that motor-driven motility of npcs organizes the fungal nucleus. in ustilago maydis, aspergillus nidulans, and saccharomyces cerevisiae fluorescently labeled npcs showed ...201222851316
identification of the substrate recognition and transport pathway in a eukaryotic member of the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat) family.using the crystal structure of the uracil transporter uraa of escherichia coli, we constructed a 3d model of the aspergillus nidulans uric acid-xanthine/h(+) symporter uapa, which is a prototype member of the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat) family. the model consists of 14 transmembrane segments (tmss) divided into a core and a gate domain, the later being distinctly different from that of uraa. by implementing molecular mechanics (mm) simulations and quantitative structure-activity relat ...201222848666
vea1 is required for cleistothecial formation and virulence in histoplasma capsulatum.histoplasma capsulatum is a pathogenic fungus dependent on dimorphism for virulence. among the four described velvet family genes, two of them, ryp2 and ryp3, have been shown to be required for dimorphism. it is known that velvet a (vea) is necessary for sexual development and toxin production in aspergillus nidulans. however, the role of the vea ortholog in h. capsulatum has not yet been explored. vea1, h. capsulatum homolog of vea, was studied to determine its role in cleistothecial formation, ...201222841690
a time course analysis of the extracellular proteome of aspergillus nidulans growing on sorghum stover.fungi are important players in the turnover of plant biomass because they produce a broad range of degradative enzymes. aspergillus nidulans, a well-studied saprophyte and close homologue to industrially important species such as a. niger and a. oryzae, was selected for this study.201222835028
the aspergillus nidulans mapk module anste11-ste50-ste7-fus3 controls development and secondary metabolism.the sexual fus3 map kinase module of yeast is highly conserved in eukaryotes and transmits external signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. we show here that the module of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans (an) consists of the anfus3 map kinase, the upstream kinases anste7 and anste11, and the anste50 adaptor. the fungal mapk module controls the coordination of fungal development and secondary metabolite production. it lacks the membrane docking yeast ste5 scaffold homolog; bu ...201222829779
aspergillus nidulans and chronic granulomatous disease: a unique host-pathogen interaction.invasive fungal infections are a major threat for patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease (cgd), a primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nadph)-oxidase. interestingly, aspergillus (emericella) nidulans is the second most encountered mold in cgd patients, causing almost exclusively invasive infections in this specific host, and is characterized by its aggressive behavior. a proper diagnosis is complicated by the often mild cl ...201222829648
increasing oxidative stress tolerance and subculturing stability of cordyceps militaris by overexpression of a glutathione peroxidase other filamentous fungi, the medicinal ascomycete cordyceps militaris frequently degenerates during continuous maintenance in culture by showing loss of the ability to reproduce sexually or asexually. degeneration of fungal cultures has been related with cellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ros). in this study, an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase (gpx) gene from aspergillus nidulans was engineered into two c. militaris strains, i.e., the cm01 strain which can fruit normally a ...201322828981
putative cell wall integrity sensor proteins in aspergillus nidulans.the cell wall integrity (cwi) signal transduction pathway, which has been well-studied in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays an important role in the regulation of cell wall biogenesis. recently, we characterized the cwi stress sensor orthologs wsca and wscb in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. disruption of the wsca and wscb genes causes a change in the transcriptional levels of agsa and agsb, which encode α-1,3-glucan synthase, resulting in an increase in alkaline soluble cel ...201222808335
characterization of melanin pigment produced by aspergillus nidulans.although most of the ascomycetes present dhn-melanin, some reports suggest that a. nidulans does not produce this type of melanin. in this study, we analyzed the pigment extracted from highly melanized strains (mel1 and mel2) of aspergillus nidulans to determine the type of melanin present in this fungus. our results showed that the pigment produced by mel1 and mel2 mutants possesses physical and chemical properties and uv- and ir-spectra very similar to synthetic dopa-melanin. the characterizat ...201122805928
hydrolase controls cellular nad, sirtuin, and secondary metabolites.cellular levels of nad(+) and nadh are thought to be controlled by de novo and salvage mechanisms, although evidence has not yet indicated that they are regulated by nad(+) degradation. here we show that the conserved nudix hydrolase isozyme ndxa hydrolyzes and decreases cellular nad(+) and nadh in aspergillus nidulans. the ndxa-deficient fungus accumulated more nad(+) during the stationary growth phase, indicating that ndxa maintains cellular nad(+)/nadh homeostasis. the deficient strain also g ...201222801369
nsdc and nsdd affect aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production.the transcription factors nsdc and nsdd are required for sexual development in aspergillus nidulans. we now show these proteins also play a role in asexual development in the agriculturally important aflatoxin (af)-producing fungus aspergillus flavus. we found that both nsdc and nsdd are required for production of asexual sclerotia, normal aflatoxin biosynthesis, and conidiophore development. conidiophores in nsdc and nsdd deletion mutants had shortened stipes and altered conidial heads compared ...201222798394
flbd, a myb transcription factor of aspergillus nidulans, is uniquely involved in both asexual and sexual the fungus aspergillus nidulans, inactivation of the flba to -e, flug, fluf, and tmpa genes results in similar phenotypes, characterized by a delay in conidiophore and asexual spore production. flbb to -d encode transcription factors needed for proper expression of the brla gene, which is essential for asexual development. however, recent evidence indicates that flbb and flbe also have nontranscriptional functions. here we show that fluf1 is an allele of flbd which results in an r47p substitu ...201222798393
gmca is a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase required for the induction of asexual development in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans asexual differentiation is induced by upstream developmental activators (udas) that include the bzip-type transcription factor (tf) flbb. a 2d-page/ms-ms-coupled screen for proteins differentially expressed in the presence and absence of flbb identified 18 candidates. most candidates belong to go term classes involved in osmotic and/or oxidative stress response. among these, we focused on gmca, a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase which is upregulated in a δflb ...201222792266
comprehensive analysis of the dna-binding specificity of an aspergillus nidulans transcription factor, amyr, using a bead display system.the in vitro dna binding profile of aspergillus nidulans transcription factor amyr was analyzed by a novel approach employing a genetic library of beads and flow cytometry analysis. an artificial library with 22 randomized nucleotides was constructed and subjected to a protein-dna binding reaction with male-tagged amyr. dna fragments with potential amyr-binding sites were labeled with fluorescence-conjugated antibody to be enriched by flow cytometry through 5 rounds of successive selection. fina ...201222790934
vea-dependent rna-pol ii transcription elongation factor-like protein, rtfa, is associated with secondary metabolism and morphological development in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans the global regulatory gene vea is necessary for the biosynthesis of several secondary metabolites, including the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (st). in order to identify additional vea-dependent genetic elements involved in regulating st production, we performed a mutagenesis on a deletion vea (δvea) strain to obtain revertant mutants (rm) that regained the capability to produce toxin. genetic analysis and molecular characterization of one of the revertant mutants, rm3, reve ...201222783880
ph response pathways in fungi: adapting to host-derived and environmental signals.microorganisms are significantly affected when the ambient ph of their environment changes. they must therefore be able to sense and respond to these changes in order to survive. previous investigators have studied various fungal species to define conserved ph-responsive signaling pathways. one of these pathways, known as the pal/rim pathway, is activated in response to alkaline ph signals, ultimately targeting the pacc/rim101 transcription factor. although the central signaling components are c ...201122783112
product patterns of a feruloyl esterase from aspergillus nidulans on large feruloyl-arabino-xylo-oligosaccharides from wheat bran.a purified feruloyl esterase (ec from aspergillus nidulans produced in pichia pastoris was used to study the de-esterification of large feruloyl oligosaccharides consisting of 4 to 20 pentose residues and (xylose plus arabinose) and one ferulic acid residue. the feruloyl oligosaccharides were prepared from total oligosaccharidic hydrolysates from wheat bran treated with a purified endoxylanase from thermobacillus xylanilyticus. the feruloyl esterase showed similar specific activity but ...201222770893
mutations in the basic loop of the zn binuclear cluster of the uay transcriptional activator suppress mutations in the dimerisation domain.uay is the specific znii(2)cys(6) transcriptional activator of the purine utilisation pathway in aspergillus nidulans. previous work has determined the consensus binding sequence by emsa and foot-printing. we determine here that it binds as a dimer to its cognate cgg-n(6)-ccg sites. we identify the uay109 mutation, which has been shown to affect differentially the expression of a number of uay-regulated genes, as a f112i substitution in the dna-binding motif dimerisation domain. we isolated back ...201222760060
development of transformation system of verticillium lecanii (lecanicillium spp.) (deuteromycotina: hyphomycetes) based on nitrate reductase gene of aspergillus nidulans.a heterologous transformation system was developed for v. lecanii based on the complementation of a nitrate reductase mutant. nitrate reductase mutants were obtained by resistance to chlorate in a rate of 23.24% when compared to other mutations that lead to the chlorate resistance. mutant no. 01 and 04 was chosen for the transformation experiments. plasmid pbt was used as transformation vector containing the aspergillus nidulans nitrate reductase gene. a frequency of approximately 3 transformant ...201122754022
protein phosphatase z modulates oxidative stress response in fungi.the genome of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans harbors the gene ppza that codes for the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase z (ppz), and the closely related opportunistic pathogen aspergillus fumigatus encompasses a highly similar ppz gene (phza). when ppza and phza were expressed in saccharomyces cerevisiae or schizosaccharomyces pombe they partially complemented the deleted phosphatases in the ppz1 or the pzh1 mutants, and they also mimicked the effect of ppz1 overexpression in ...201222750657
model and test in a fungus of the probability that beneficial mutations survive drift.determining the probability of fixation of beneficial mutations is critically important for building predictive models of adaptive evolution. despite considerable theoretical work, models of fixation probability have stood untested for nearly a century. however, recent advances in experimental and theoretical techniques permit the development of models with testable predictions. we developed a new model for the probability of surviving genetic drift, a major component of fixation probability, fo ...201322740642
alanine scanning mutagenesis of a high-affinity nitrate transporter highlights the requirement for glycine and asparagine residues in the two nitrate signature motifs.common to all of the nitrate nitrite porter family are two conserved motifs in transmembrane helices 5 and 11 termed ns (nitrate signature) 1 and ns2. although perfectly conserved substrate-interacting arginine residues have been described in transmembrane helices 2 and 8, the role of nss has not been investigated. in the present study, a combination of structural modelling of nrta (nitrate transporter from aspergillus nidulans) with alanine scanning mutagenesis of residues within and around the ...201222738143
otomycosis in central iran: a clinical and mycological study.otomycosis is a fungal infection of the external ear with bothersome symptoms. the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of fungal agents, predisposing factors and characteristics of patients.201122737432
bioaugmented composting of jatropha de-oiled cake and vegetable waste under aerobic and partial anaerobic conditions.this study was conducted to assess the effect of microbial inoculation in jatropha cake composting with different vegetable waste. the microbial inoculums composed of fungal strains (aspergillus awamori, aspergillus nidulans, trichoderma viride, phanerochaete chrysosporium) and bacterial inoculums (pseudomonas striata as phosphorus solublizer and azotobacter chroococcum as nitrogen fixer) were added to the compost mixture after the thermophilic phase was over for bioaugmenting of jatropha cake u ...201322736484
genetic and biosynthetic studies of the fungal prenylated xanthone shamixanthone and related metabolites in aspergillus spp. revisited.biosynthetic genes for the prenylated xanthone shamixanthone have been identified in the aspergillus nidulans genome; based on assignment of putative functions from sequence analyses and selected gene deletions, a pathway was proposed leading from the anthraquinone emodin via the benzophenone carboxylic acid monodictyphenone and the xanthone emericellin to shamixanthone. several aspects of this proposed pathway are inconsistent with previously identified biosynthetic intermediates: the anthraqui ...201222730213
lae1 regulates expression of multiple secondary metabolite gene clusters in fusarium verticillioides.the filamentous fungus fusarium verticillioides can cause disease of maize and is capable of producing fumonisins, a family of toxic secondary metabolites linked to esophageal cancer and neural tube defects in humans and lung edema in swine and leukoencephalomalacia in equines. the expression of fumonisin biosynthetic genes is influenced by broad-domain transcription factors (global regulators) and fum21, a pathway-specific transcription factor. laea is a global regulator that in aspergillus nid ...201222713715
fgvelb is associated with vegetative differentiation, secondary metabolism and virulence in fusarium graminearum.the velvet complex containing vea, velb and laea has been showed to play critical roles in the regulation of secondary metabolism and diverse cellular processes in aspergillus spp. in this study, we identified fgvelb, a homolog of aspergillus nidulans velb, from fusarium graminearum using the blastp program. disruption of fgvelb gene led to several phenotypic defects, including suppression of aerial hyphae formation, reduced hyphal hydrophobicity and highly increased conidiation. the mutant show ...201222713714
lis1 is an initiation factor for dynein-driven organelle transport.the molecular motor cytoplasmic dynein is responsible for most minus-end-directed, microtubule-based transport in eukaryotic cells. it is especially important in neurons, where defects in microtubule-based motility have been linked to neurological diseases. for example, lissencephaly is caused by mutations in the dynein-associated protein lis1. in this paper, using the long, highly polarized hyphae of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, we show that three morphologically and functionall ...201222711696
stabilizing the heterologously expressed uric acid-xanthine transporter uapa from the lower eukaryote aspergillus nidulans.despite detailed genetic and mutagenic analysis and a recent high-resolution structure of a bacterial member of the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat) family, understanding of the mechanism of action of eukaryotic nats is limited. preliminary studies successfully expressed and purified wild-type uapa to high homogeneity; however, the protein was extremely unstable, degrading almost completely after 48 h at 4°c. in an attempt to increase uapa stability we generated a number of single point mu ...201322694048
fungal photobiology: a synopsis.fungi respond and adapt to many environmental signals including light. the photobiology of fungi has been extensively investigated, but in recent years the identification of the first fungal photoreceptor, wc-1 in the ascomycete neurospora crassa, and the discovery that similar photoreceptors are required for photoreception in other ascomycete, basidiomycete and zygomycete fungi has allowed the molecular characterization of light reception and the early steps of signal transduction in a number o ...201122679584
morphogenetic and developmental functions of the aspergillus nidulans homologues of the yeast bud site selection proteins bud4 and axl2.the yeast bud site selection system represents a paradigm for understanding how fungal cells regulate the formation of a polarity axis. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, bud4 and axl2 are components of the axial bud site marker. to address the possibility that these proteins regulate cellular morphogenesis in filamentous fungi, we have characterized homologues of bud4 and axl2 in aspergillus nidulans. our results show that bud4 is involved in septum formation in both hyphae and developing conidiophor ...201222651396
searching for gold beyond mitosis: mining intracellular membrane traffic in aspergillus nidulans.the genetically tractable filamentous ascomycete fungus aspergillus nidulans has been successfully exploited to gain major insight into the eukaryotic cell cycle. more recently, its amenability to in vivo multidimensional microscopy has fueled a potentially gilded second age of a. nidulans cell biology studies. this review specifically deals with studies on intracellular membrane traffic in a. nidulans. the cellular logistics are subordinated to the needs imposed by the polarized mode of growth ...201222645705
proteome analysis of the farnesol-induced stress response in aspergillus nidulans--the role of a putative dehydrin.the isoprenoid alcohol farnesol represents a quorum-sensing molecule in pathogenic yeasts, but was also shown to inhibit the growth of many filamentous fungi. in order to gain a deeper insight into the antifungal activity of farnesol, we performed 2d-differential gel electrophoretic analysis (2d-dige) of aspergillus nidulans exposed to farnesol. we observed an increased abundance of antioxidative enzymes and proteins involved in protein folding and the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. a s ...201222634043
molecular genetic analysis reveals that a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like (nrps-like) gene in aspergillus nidulans is responsible for microperfuranone biosynthesis.genome sequencing of aspergillus species including aspergillus nidulans has revealed that there are far more secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters than secondary metabolites isolated from these organisms. this implies that these organisms can produce additional secondary metabolites, which have not yet been elucidated. the a. nidulans genome contains 12 nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps), one hybrid polyketide synthase/nrps, and 14 nrps-like genes. the only nrps-like gene in a. nid ...201222627757
cryptic peroxisomal targeting via alternative splicing and stop codon read-through in fungi.peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles important for the metabolism of long-chain fatty acids. here we show that in numerous fungal species, several core enzymes of glycolysis, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk), reside in both the cytoplasm and peroxisomes. we detected in these enzymes cryptic type 1 peroxisomal targeting signals (pts1), which are activated by post-transcriptional processes. notably, the molecular mechanisms that genera ...201222622582
an efficient method for transient gene expression in monocots applied to modify the brachypodium distachyon cell wall.agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used to produce insertions into plant genomes. there are a number of well-developed agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods for dicotyledonous plants, but there are few for monocotyledonous plants.201222589326
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation for investigating pathogenicity genes of the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum sansevieriae.agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) has become a common technique for dna transformation of yeast and filamentous fungi. in this study, we first established a protocol of atmt for the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum sansevieriae. binary t-dna vector containing the hygromycin b phosphotransferase gene controlled by the aspergillus nidulans gpda promoter and the trpc terminator was constructed with pcambia0380 and used with three different strains lba4404, gv3101, and gv ...201222585286
volatile organic compounds produced by the phytopathogenic bacterium xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10.xanthomonas campestris is a phytopathogenic bacterium and causes many diseases of agricultural relevance. volatiles were shown to be important in inter- and intraorganismic attraction and defense reactions. recently it became apparent that also bacteria emit a plethora of volatiles, which influence other organisms such as invertebrates, plants and fungi. as a first step to study volatile-based bacterial-plant interactions, the emission profile of xanthomonas c. pv. vesicatoria 85-10 was determin ...201222563356
fungal s-adenosylmethionine synthetase and the control of development and secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans carries a single gene for the s-adenosylmethionine (sam) synthetase sasa, whereas many other organisms possess multiple sam synthetases. the conserved enzyme catalyzes the reaction of methionine and atp to the ubiquitous methyl group donor sam. sam is the main methyl group donor for methyltransferases to modify dna, rna, protein, metabolites, or phospholipid target substrates. we show here that the single a. nidulans sam synthetase encoding gene sasa i ...201222561085
correlation of mycelial growth rate with other phenotypic characters in evolved genotypes of aspergillus nidulans.fungal populations can adapt to their environment by the generation and fixation of spontaneous beneficial mutations. in this study we examined whether adaptation, measured as an increased mycelial growth rate, has correlated responses in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans with several other metric characters that could be important fitness components (colony forming units, germination speed, and biomass formation). studying 60 populations that had evolved over 800 generations by experi ...201222559923
the echinocandin b producer fungus aspergillus nidulans var. roseus atcc 58397 does not possess innate resistance against its lipopeptide antimycotic.aspergillus nidulans var. roseus atcc 58397 is an echinocandin b (ecb) producer ascomycete with great industrial importance. as demonstrated by ecb/caspofungin sensitivity assays, a. nidulans var. roseus does not possess any inherent resistance to echinocandins, and its tolerance to these lipopeptide antimycotics are even lower than those of the non-producer a. nidulans fgsc a4 strain. under ecb producing conditions or ecb exposures, a. nidulans var. roseus induced its ecb tolerance via up-regul ...201222555909
mrna 3' tagging is induced by nonsense-mediated decay and promotes ribosome dissociation.for a range of eukaryote transcripts, the initiation of degradation is coincident with the addition of a short pyrimidine tag at the 3' end. previously, cytoplasmic mrna tagging has been observed for human and fungal transcripts. we now report that arabidopsis thaliana mrna is subject to 3' tagging with u and c nucleotides, as in aspergillus nidulans. mutations that disrupt tagging, including a. nidulans cuta and a newly characterized gene, cutb, retard transcript degradation. importantly, nonse ...201222547684
involvement of a natural fusion of a cytochrome p450 and a hydrolase in mycophenolic acid biosynthesis.mycophenolic acid (mpa) is a fungal secondary metabolite and the active component in several immunosuppressive pharmaceuticals. the gene cluster coding for the mpa biosynthetic pathway has recently been discovered in penicillium brevicompactum, demonstrating that the first step is catalyzed by mpac, a polyketide synthase producing 5-methylorsellinic acid (5-moa). however, the biochemical role of the enzymes encoded by the remaining genes in the mpa gene cluster is still unknown. based on bioinfo ...201222544261
γ-heptalactone is an endogenously produced quorum-sensing molecule regulating growth and secondary metabolite production by aspergillus nidulans.microbes monitor their population density through a mechanism termed quorum sensing. it is believed that quorum-sensing molecules diffuse from the microbial cells and circulate in the surrounding environment as a function of cell density. when these molecules reach a threshold concentration, the gene expression of the entire population is altered in a coordinated manner. this work provides evidence that aspergillus nidulans produces at least one small diffusible molecule during its growth cycle ...201222543352
α-glucosylated 6-gingerol: chemoenzymatic synthesis using α-glucosidase from halomonas sp. h11, and its physical properties.6-gingerol [(s)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decan-3-one] is a biologically active compound and is abundant in the rhizomes of ginger (zingiber officinale). it has some beneficial functions in healthcare, but its use is limited because of its insolubility in water and its heat-instability. to improve these physical properties, the glucosylation of 6-gingerol was investigated using α-glucosidases (ec. from aspergillus niger, aspergillus nidulans abpu1, acremonium strictum, hal ...201222537860
deletion of the ustilago maydis ortholog of the aspergillus sporulation regulator meda affects mating and virulence through pheromone response.mating of compatible haploid cells of ustilago maydis is essential for infection and disease development in the host. for mating and subsequent filamentous growth and pathogenicity, the transcription factor, prf1 is necessary. prf1 is in turn regulated by the camp and mapk pathways and other regulators like rop1 and hap1. here we describe the identification of another putative prf1 regulator, med1, the ortholog of the aspergillus nidulans medusa (meda) transcription factor and show that it is re ...201222537792
conserved and essential transcription factors for cellulase gene expression in ascomycete fungi.rational engineering of filamentous fungi for improved cellulase production is hampered by our incomplete knowledge of transcriptional regulatory networks. we therefore used the model filamentous fungus neurospora crassa to search for uncharacterized transcription factors associated with cellulose deconstruction. a screen of a n. crassa transcription factor deletion collection identified two uncharacterized zinc binuclear cluster transcription factors (clr-1 and clr-2) that were required for gro ...201222532664
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