PMID(sorted descending)
gβ-like cpcb plays a crucial role for growth and development of aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus fumigatus.growth, development, virulence and secondary metabolism in fungi are governed by heterotrimeric g proteins (g proteins). a gβ-like protein called gib2 has been shown to function as an atypical gβ in gpa1-camp signaling in cryptococcus neoformans. we found that the previously reported cpcb (cross pathway control b) protein is the ortholog of gib2 in aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus fumigatus. in this report, we further characterize the roles of cpcb in governing growth, development and toxige ...201323936193
spread and change in stress resistance of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli o157 on fungal elucidate the effect of fungal hyphae on the behaviour of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) o157, the spread and change in stress resistance of the bacterium were evaluated after coculture with 11 species of food-related fungi including fermentation starters. spread distances of stec o157 varied depending on the co-cultured fungal species, and the motile bacterial strain spread for longer distances than the non-motile strain. the population of stec o157 increased when co-cultured ...201423919289
characterizations and functions of regulator of g protein signaling (rgs) in fungi.proteins that serve as regulator of g protein signaling (rgs) primarily function as gtpase accelerators that promote gtp hydrolysis by the gα subunits, thereby inactivating the g protein and rapidly switching off g protein-coupled signaling pathways. since the first rgs protein was identified from the budding yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, more than 30 rgs and rgs-like proteins have been characterized from several model fungi, such as aspergillus nidulans, beauveria bassiana, candida albicans, ...201323917634
the binding of zinc ions to emericella nidulans endo-β-1,4-galactanase is essential for crystal formation.a novel emericella nidulans endo-β-1,4-galactanase (engal) demonstrates a strong capacity to generate high levels of very potent prebiotic oligosaccharides from potato pulp, a by-product of the agricultural potato-starch industry. engal belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 53 and shows high (72.5%) sequence identity to an endo-β-1,4-galactanase from aspergillus aculeatus. diffraction data extending to 2.0 å resolution were collected from a crystal of engal grown from conditions containing 0.2 m ...201323908026
a novel thermophilic endo-β-1,4-mannanase from aspergillus nidulans xz3: functional roles of carbohydrate-binding module and thr/ser-rich linker region.the gene man5xz3 from aspergillus nidulans xz3 encodes a multimodular β-mannanase of glycoside hydrolase family 5 that consists of a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (cbm1), a thr/ser-rich linker region, and a catalytic domain. recombinant man5xz3 and its two truncated derivatives, man5δcbm (removing the cbm1) and man5δcl (removing both the cbm1 and linker region), were produced in pichia pastoris and showed significant variance in the secondary structure. the three enzymes had similar bioch ...201423900799
distinct amino acids of histone h3 control secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.chromatin remodelling events play an important role in the secondary metabolism of filamentous fungi. previously, we showed that a bacterium, streptomyces rapamycinicus, is able to reprogram the histone-modifying spt-ada-gcn5-acetyltransferase/ada (saga/ada) complex of the model fungus aspergillus nidulans. consequently, the histone h3 amino acids lysine 9 and lysine 14 at distinct secondary metabolism genes were specifically acetylated during the bacterial fungal interaction, which, furthermore ...201323892751
aniquinazolines a-d, four new quinazolinone alkaloids from marine-derived endophytic fungus aspergillus nidulans.four new quinazolinone alkaloids, namely, aniquinazolines a-d (1-4), were isolated and identified from the culture of aspergillus nidulans ma-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the leaves of marine mangrove plant rhizophora stylosa. the structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of chiral hplc analysis of the acidic hydrolysates. the structure for 1 was confirmed by single-crystal x-ray diffractio ...201323880937
functional roles of fglaea in controlling secondary metabolism, sexual development, and virulence in fusarium graminearum.fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of fusarium head blight in cereal crops, produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone in infected plants. here, we focused on the function of fglaea in f. graminearum, a homolog of aspergillus nidulans laea encoding the global regulator for both secondary metabolism and sexual development. prior to gene analysis, we constructed a novel luciferase reporter system consisting of a transgenic f. graminearum strain expressing a firefly luciferase g ...201323874628
reproductive competence: a recurrent logic module in eukaryotic development.developmental competence is the ability to differentiate in response to an appropriate stimulus, as first elaborated by waddington in relation to organs and tissues. competence thresholds operate at all levels of biological systems from the molecular (e.g. the cell cycle) to the ontological (e.g. metamorphosis and reproduction). reproductive competence, an organismal process, is well studied in mammals (sexual maturity) and plants (vegetative phase change), though far less than later stages of t ...201323864594
new interfacial microtubule inhibitors of marine origin, pm050489/pm060184, with potent antitumor activity and a distinct mechanism.we have investigated the target and mechanism of action of a new family of cytotoxic small molecules of marine origin. pm050489 and its dechlorinated analogue pm060184 inhibit the growth of relevant cancer cell lines at subnanomolar concentrations. we found that they are highly potent microtubule inhibitors that impair mitosis with a distinct molecular mechanism. they bind with nanomolar affinity to unassembled αβ-tubulin dimers, and pm050489 binding is inhibited by known vinca domain ligands. n ...201323859655
deleterious effects of recombination and possible nonrecombinatorial advantages of sex in a fungal model.why sexual reproduction is so prevalent in nature remains a major question in evolutionary biology. most of the proposed advantages of sex rely on the benefits obtained from recombination. however, it is still unclear whether the conditions under which these recombinatorial benefits would be sufficient to maintain sex in the short term are met in nature. our study addresses a largely overlooked hypothesis, proposing that sex could be maintained in the short term by advantages due to functions li ...201323848947
vea and mvla repression of the cryptic orsellinic acid gene cluster in aspergillus nidulans involves histone 3 acetylation.a perplexing aspect of fungal secondary metabolite gene clusters is that most clusters remain 'silent' under common laboratory growth conditions where activation is obtained through gene manipulation or encounters with environmental signals. few proteins have been found involved in repression of silent clusters. through multicopy suppressor mutagenesis, we have identified a novel cluster suppressor in aspergillus nidulans, mvla (modulator of vea loss). genetic assessment of mvla mutants revealed ...201323841751
rrma regulates the stability of specific transcripts in response to both nitrogen source and oxidative stress.differential regulation of transcript stability is an effective means by which an organism can modulate gene expression. a well-characterized example is glutamine signalled degradation of specific transcripts in aspergillus nidulans. in the case of area, which encodes a wide-domain transcription factor mediating nitrogen metabolite repression, the signal is mediated through a highly conserved region of the 3' utr. utilizing this rna sequence we isolated rrma, an rna recognition motif protein. di ...201323841692
role of the zinc finger transcription factor slta in morphogenesis and sterigmatocystin biosynthesis in the fungus aspergillus nidulans.potassium, a widely accepted macronutrient, is vital for many physiological processes such as regulation of cell volume, maintenance of intracellular ph, synthesis of proteins and activation of enzymes in filamentous fungi. another cation, calcium, plays an essential role in many signaling processes from lower to higher eukaryotes. imbalance in the intracellular ionic levels of potassium or calcium causes adverse effects on cell growth, morphology and development, and eventually death. previous ...201323840895
deletion of creb in aspergillus oryzae increases secreted hydrolytic enzyme activity.aspergillus oryzae has been used in the food and beverage industry for centuries, and industrial strains have been produced by multiple rounds of selection. targeted gene deletion technology is particularly useful for strain improvement in such strains, particularly when they do not have a well-characterized meiotic cycle. phenotypes of an aspergillus nidulans strain null for the creb deubiquitinating enzyme include effects on growth and repression, including increased activity levels of various ...201323835170
the aspergillus nidulans peripheral er: disorganization by er stress and persistence during mitosis.the genetically amenable fungus aspergillus nidulans is well suited for cell biology studies involving the secretory pathway and its relationship with hyphal tip growth by apical extension. we exploited live-cell epifluorescence microscopy of the er labeled with the translocon component sec63, endogenously tagged with gfp, to study the organization of 'secretory' er domains. the sec63 a. nidulans er network includes brightly fluorescent peripheral strands and more faintly labeled nuclear envelop ...201323826221
xylh encodes a xylose/h+ symporter from the highly related yeast species debaryomyces fabryi and debaryomyces hansenii.the closely related yeasts debaryomyces fabryi and debaryomyces hansenii are excellent xylose consumers. we previously described the activity of a high-affinity xylose/h(+) symport from an industrial strain of d. hansenii subsequently reclassified as d. fabryi. we now report the identification of the gene encoding this permease, ay347871.2. this was retrieved from d. fabryi gdna using a degenerate primer pcr strategy, based on conserved regions from the amino acid sequences of three well-charact ...201323809840
functional characterisation of the non-essential protein kinases and phosphatases regulating aspergillus nidulans hydrolytic enzyme production.despite recent advances in the understanding of lignocellulolytic enzyme regulation, less is known about how different carbon sources are sensed and the signaling cascades that result in the adaptation of cellular metabolism and hydrolase secretion. therefore, the role played by non-essential protein kinases (npk) and phosphatases (npp) in the sensing of carbon and/or energetic status was investigated in the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.201323800192
a structural model of ppoa derived from saxs-analysis-implications for substrate plants and mammals, oxylipins may be synthesized via multi step processes that consist of dioxygenation and isomerization of the intermediately formed hydroperoxy fatty acid. these processes are typically catalyzed by two distinct enzyme classes: dioxygenases and cytochrome p450 enzymes. in ascomycetes biosynthesis of oxylipins may proceed by a similar two-step pathway. an important difference, however, is that both enzymatic activities may be combined in a single bifunctional enzyme. these t ...201323797010
allopurinol and xanthine use different translocation mechanisms and trajectories in the fungal uapa aspergillus nidulans uapa is a h(+)-driven transporter specific for xanthine, uric acid and several analogues. here, genetic and physiological evidence is provided showing that allopurinol is a high-affinity, low-capacity, substrate for uapa. surprisingly however, transport kinetic measurements showed that, uniquely among all recognized uapa substrates, allopurinol is transported by apparent facilitated diffusion and exhibits a paradoxical effect on the transport of physiological substrates. ...201323791789
metformin's performance in in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicology studies.metformin is a hypoglycemiant drug prescribed for the treatment and control of the type 2 diabetes mellitus. recently, the potential efficacy of this antidiabetic drug as an anticancer agent has been demonstrated in various mammalian cancer cells. this report evaluates the mutagenic as well as the recombinogenic potentials of the metformin drug in therapeutically relevant plasma concentrations (12.5 µm, 25.0 µm or 50.0 µm). since the loss of heterozygosity is a process associated with carcinogen ...201323788173
immobilization and biochemical properties of the enantioselective recombinant nstci esterase of aspergillus nidulans.the recombinant nstci a. nidulans esterase was adsorbed on accurel mp1000, where protein yield and immobilization efficiency were 42.48% and 81.94%, respectively. storage stability test at 4°c and rt showed 100% of residual activity after 40 days at both temperatures. the biocatalyst retains more than 70% of its initial activity after 3 cycles of repeated use. biochemical properties of this new biocatalyst were obtained. maximum activity was achieved at ph 11 and 30°c, while the best stability w ...201323781330
phospho-regulation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of crza in response to calcium and alkaline-ph stress in aspergillus nidulans.tolerance to abiotic stresses by microorganisms require of appropriate signalling and regulatory pathways. calcineurin phosphatases mediate calcium-dependent signalling pathways which are widely distributed among phylogeny. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcineurin mediates the post-translational modification of downstream effectors, most of them transcription factors, being the best-characterized calcineurin-regulated zinc-finger factor 1, crz1p. here we study the signalling process of crza, a f ...201323772954
analysis of a conserved cellulase transcriptional regulator reveals inducer-independent production of cellulolytic enzymes in neurospora crassa.cellulose is recalcitrant to deconstruction to glucose for use in fermentation strategies for biofuels and chemicals derived from lignocellulose. in neurospora crassa, the transcriptional regulator, clr-2, is required for cellulolytic gene expression and cellulose deconstruction. to assess conservation and divergence of cellulase gene regulation between fungi from different ecological niches, we compared clr-2 function with its ortholog (clrb) in the distantly related species, aspergillus nidula ...201323766336
the spt-ada-gcn5 acetyltransferase (saga) complex in aspergillus nidulans.a mutation screen in aspergillus nidulans uncovered mutations in the acdx gene that led to altered repression by acetate, but not by glucose. acdx of a. nidulans is highly conserved with spt8p of saccharomyces cerevisiae, and since spt8p is a component of the spt-ada-gcn5 acetyltransferase (saga) complex, the saga complex may have a role in acetate repression in a. nidulans. we used a bioinformatic approach to identify genes encoding most members of the saga complex in a. nidulans, and a proteom ...201323762321
discovery of cryptic polyketide metabolites from dermatophytes using heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans.dermatophytes belonging to the trichophyton and arthroderma genera cause skin infections in humans and animals. from genome sequencing data, we mined a conserved gene cluster among dermatophytes that are homologous to one that produces an immunosuppressive polyketide in aspergillus fumigatus. using a recombination-based cloning strategy in yeast, we constructed fungal heterologous expression vectors that encode the cryptic clusters. when integrated into the model aspergillus nidulans host, a str ...201323758576
co-immobilization of fungal endo-xylanase and α-l-arabinofuranosidase in glyoxyl agarose for improved hydrolysis of arabinoxylan.plant cell-wall arabinoxylans have a complex structure that requires the action of a pool of debranching (arabinofuranosidases) and depolymerizing enzymes (endo-xylanase). two aspergillus nidulans strains over-secreting endo-xylanase and arabinofuranosidase were inoculated in defined 2% maltose-minimum medium resulting in the simultaneously production of these enzymes. to study the synergistic hydrolysis was used arabinoxylan with 41% of arabinose and 59% of xylose residues. thus, it was adopted ...201323756760
genetic and structural validation of aspergillus fumigatus udp-n-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase as an antifungal target.the sugar nucleotide udp-n-acetylglucosamine (udp-glcnac) is an essential metabolite in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. in fungi, it is the precursor for the synthesis of chitin, an essential component of the fungal cell wall. udp-n-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (uap) is the final enzyme in eukaryotic udp-glcnac biosynthesis, converting utp and n-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate (glcnac-1p) to udp-glcnac. as such, this enzyme may provide an attractive target against pathogenic fungi. here, w ...201323750903
uridylation prevents 3' trimming of oligoadenylated mrnas.degradation of mrnas is usually initiated by deadenylation, the shortening of long poly(a) tails to oligo(a) tails of 12-15 as. deadenylation leads to decapping and to subsequent 5' to 3' degradation by xrn proteins, or alternatively 3' to 5' degradation by the exosome. decapping can also be induced by uridylation as shown for the non-polyadenylated histone mrnas in humans and for several mrnas in schizosaccharomyces pombe and aspergillus nidulans. here we report a novel role for uridylation in ...201323748567
highly glucose tolerant β-glucosidase from aspergillus unguis: nii 08123 for enhanced hydrolysis of biomass.aspergillus unguis nii-08123, a filamentous fungus isolated from soil, was found to produce β-glucosidase (bgl) activity with high glucose tolerance. cultivation of the fungus in different carbon sources resulted in the secretion of different isoforms of the enzyme. a low molecular weight isoform, which retained ~60 % activity in the presence of 1.5 m glucose, was purified to homogeneity and the purified enzyme exhibited a temperature and ph optima of 60 °c and 6, respectively. the k(m) and v(ma ...201323732694
strain improvement by overexpression of the laea gene in monascus pilosus for the production of monascus-fermented rice.monascus species have been used to produce fermented rice called monascus-fermented rice (mfr). to improve a monascus strain via activation of secondary metabolite (sm) gene clusters for use in the production of mfr, we overexpressed an ortholog of the laea gene, which encodes a global positive regulator of secondary metabolism under the control of the strong heterologous aspergillus nidulans alca promoter in monascus pilosus. the oe::laea transformant produced more sms, including those not dete ...201323727802
live-cell imaging of aspergillus nidulans autophagy: rab1 dependence, golgi independence and er involvement.we exploited the amenability of the fungus aspergillus nidulans to genetics and live-cell microscopy to investigate autophagy. upon nitrogen starvation, gfp-atg8-containing pre-autophagosomal puncta give rise to cup-shaped phagophores and circular (0.9-μm diameter) autophagosomes that disappear in the vicinity of the vacuoles after their shape becomes irregular and their gfp-atg8 fluorescence decays. this 'autophagosome cycle' gives rise to characteristic cone-shaped traces in kymographs. autoph ...201323722157
multicenter study of isavuconazole mic distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for aspergillus spp. for the clsi m38-a2 broth microdilution method.epidemiological cutoff values (ecvs) were established for the new triazole isavuconazole and aspergillus species wild-type (wt) mic distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) that were defined with 855 aspergillus fumigatus, 444 a. flavus, 106 a. nidulans, 207 a. niger, 384 a. terreus, and 75 a. versicolor species complex isolates; 22 aspergillus section usti isolates were also included. clsi broth microdilution mic data gathered in ...201323716059
acute inactivation of the aspergillus nidulans golgi membrane fusion machinery: correlation of apical extension arrest and tip swelling with cisternal disorganization.the mechanisms governing traffic across the golgi are incompletely understood. we studied, by live-cell microscopy, the consequences of disorganizing the aspergillus nidulans golgi, using an extended set of fluorescent protein markers to resolve early from late cisternae. the early golgi syntaxin sedv(sed) (5) and the rabo(rab) (1) regulatory gtpase play essential roles in secretion, cooperating in the er-golgi interface. following a temperature shift-up 'on-the-stage', hyphae carrying engineere ...201323714354
molecular genetic characterization of the biosynthesis cluster of a prenylated isoindolinone alkaloid aspernidine a in aspergillus nidulans.aspernidine a is a prenylated isoindolinone alkaloid isolated from the model fungus aspergillus nidulans. a genome-wide kinase knockout library of a. nidulans was examined, and it was found that a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, mpka, deletion strain produces aspernidine a. targeted gene deletions were performed in the kinase deletion background to identify the gene cluster for aspernidine a biosynthesis. intermediates were isolated from mutant strains which provided information about the ...201323706169
neurospora crassa nkin2, a kinesin-3 motor, transports early endosomes and is required for polarized growth.biological motors are molecular nanomachines, which convert chemical energy into mechanical forces. the combination of mechanoenzymes with structural components, such as the cytoskeleton, enables eukaryotic cells to overcome entropy, generate molecular gradients, and establish polarity. hyphae of filamentous fungi are among the most polarized cells, and polarity defects are most obvious. here, we studied the role of the kinesin-3 motor, nkin2, in neurospora crassa. we found that nkin2 localizes ...201323687116
differences in composition of honey samples and their impact on the antimicrobial activities against drug multiresistant bacteria and pathogenic fungi.antibiotic multiresistant microbes represent a challenging problem. because honey has a potent antibacterial property, the antimicrobial effects of different honey samples against multiresistant pathogens and their compositions were investigated.201323684665
rsma regulates aspergillus fumigatus gliotoxin cluster metabolites including cyclo(l-phe-l-ser), a potential new diagnostic marker for invasive aspergillosis.dimeric basic leucine zipper (bzip) proteins are conserved transcriptional enhancers found in all eukaryotes. a recently reported and novel function for bzips is association of these proteins with secondary metabolite production in filamentous fungi. in particular a yap-like bzip termed rsma (restorer of secondary metabolism a) was identified in aspergillus nidulans that positively regulates the carcinogen sterigmatocystin. to assess for conserved function for rsma, we examined a role of this pr ...201323671611
genetic bypass of aspergillus nidulans crza function in calcium homeostasis.after dephosphorylation by the phosphatase calcineurin, the fungal transcription factor crza enters the nucleus and activates the transcription of genes responsible for calcium homeostasis and many other calcium-regulated activities. a lack of crza confers calcium-sensitivity to the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. to further understand calcium signaling in filamentous fungi and to identify genes that interact genetically with crza, we selected for mutations that were able to suppress cr ...201323665873
base composition and nucleosome density in exonic and intronic regions in genes of the filamentous ascomycetes aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus oryzae.we sequenced nucleosomal dna fragments of the filamentous ascomycetes aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus oryzae and then mapped those sequences on their genomes. we compared the gc content and nucleosome density in the exonic and intronic regions in the genes of a. nidulans and a. oryzae. although the gc content and nucleosome density in the exonic regions tended to be higher than those in the intronic regions, the difference in the distribution of the gc content was more notable than that of ...201323664982
identification of metabolic pathways influenced by the g-protein coupled receptors gprb and gprd in aspergillus nidulans.heterotrimeric g-protein-mediated signaling pathways play a pivotal role in transmembrane signaling in eukaryotes. our main aim was to identify signaling pathways regulated by a. nidulans gprb and gprd g-protein coupled receptors (gpcrs). when these two null mutant strains were compared to the wild-type strain, the δgprb mutant showed an increased protein kinase a (pka) activity while growing in glucose 1% and during starvation. in contrast, the δgprd has a much lower pka activity upon starvatio ...201323658706
invasive fungal infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease.invasive fungal infections are a major threat for chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) patients. the present study provides a comprehensive overview of published invasive fungal infections in the cgd host through an extensive review of epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic data. in addition to the often mild clinical presentation, the currently used diagnostics for invasive aspergillosis have low sensitivity in cgd patients and cannot be easily translated to this non-neutropenic h ...201323654055
conf and conj contribute to conidia germination and stress response in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.light induces various responses in fungi including formation of asexual and sexual reproductive structures. the formation of conidia in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans is regulated by red and blue light receptors. expression of conidia associated con genes, which are widely spread in the fungal kingdom, increases upon exposure to light. we have characterized the light-inducible conf and conj genes of a. nidulans which are homologs of con-6 and con-10 of neurospora crassa. con genes a ...201323644150
loss of ccla, required for histone 3 lysine 4 methylation, decreases growth but increases secondary metabolite production in aspergillus fumigatus.secondary metabolite (sm) production in filamentous fungi is mechanistically associated with chromatin remodeling of specific sm clusters. one locus recently shown to be involved in sm suppression in aspergillus nidulans was ccla, a member of the histone 3 lysine 4 methylating compass complex. here we examine loss of ccla and a putative h3k4 demethylase, hdma, in the human pathogen aspergillus fumigatus. although deletion of hdma showed no phenotype under the conditions tested, the ccla deletant ...201323638376
β-glucan synthase gene overexpression and β-glucans overproduction in pleurotus ostreatus using promoter swapping.mushroom β-glucans are potent immunological stimulators in medicine, but their productivities are very low. in this study, we successfully improved its production by promoter engineering in pleurotus ostreatus. the promoter for β-1,3-glucan synthase gene (gls) was replaced by the promoter of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of aspergillus nidulans. the homologous recombination fragment for swapping gls promoter comprised five segments, which were fused by two rounds of combined touc ...201323637884
pyrg is required for maintaining stable cellular uracil level and normal sporulation pattern under excess uracil stress in aspergillus nidulans.tight control of the intracellular uracil level is believed to be important to reduce the occurrence of uracil incorporation into dna. the pyrg gene of aspergillus nidulans encodes orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase, which catalyzes the conversion of orotidine monophosphate (omp) to uridine monophosphate (ump). in this study, we found that pyrg is critical for maintaining uracil at a low concentration in a. nidulans cells in the presence of exogenous uracil. excess uracil and its derivatives h ...201323633078
light sensing in aspergillus fumigatus highlights the case for establishing new models for fungal photobiology.microbes inhabit diverse environmental locations, and many species need to shift their physiology between different niches. to do this effectively requires the accurate sensing of and response to the environment. for pathogens, exposure to light is one major change between a free-living saprophyte lifestyle and causation of disease within the host. however, how light may act as a signal to influence pathogenesis, on the side of either the host or the pathogen, is poorly understood. research duri ...201323631920
an efficient system for heterologous expression of secondary metabolite genes in aspergillus nidulans.fungal secondary metabolites (sms) are an important source of medically valuable compounds. genome projects have revealed that fungi have many sm biosynthetic gene clusters that are not normally expressed. to access these potentially valuable, cryptic clusters, we have developed a heterologous expression system in aspergillus nidulans . we have developed an efficient system for amplifying genes from a target fungus, placing them under control of a regulatable promoter, transferring them into a. ...201323621425
fungal siderophore biosynthesis is partially localized in peroxisomes.siderophores play a central role in iron metabolism and virulence of most fungi. both aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus nidulans excrete the siderophore triacetylfusarinine c (tafc) for iron acquisition. in a. fumigatus, green fluorescence protein-tagging revealed peroxisomal localization of the tafc biosynthetic enzymes sidi (mevalonyl-coa ligase), sidh (mevalonyl-coa hydratase) and sidf (anhydromevalonyl-coa transferase), while elimination of the peroxisomal targeting signal (pts) impaired ...201323617799
comprehensive annotation of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes and gene clusters of aspergillus nidulans, a. fumigatus, a. niger and a. oryzae.secondary metabolite production, a hallmark of filamentous fungi, is an expanding area of research for the aspergilli. these compounds are potent chemicals, ranging from deadly toxins to therapeutic antibiotics to potential anti-cancer drugs. the genome sequences for multiple aspergilli have been determined, and provide a wealth of predictive information about secondary metabolite production. sequence analysis and gene overexpression strategies have enabled the discovery of novel secondary metab ...201323617571
detection of unknown toxic mycotoxins inaspergillus nidulans using a structure-activity approach.mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi that can cause various acute and chronic toxic effects in humans. previous work by büngeret al. exhibited that the cytotoxicityof aspergillus nidulans, one of the most frequent toxigenic moulds in composting plants, could not be explained by its content of identified mycotoxins. the presence of additional mycotoxins or other toxic prinpiples was assumed, which may be detected by a structure-activity hplc-diode array detector m ...200623605709
functional analysis of abp1p-interacting proteins involved in endocytosis of the mcc component in aspergillus oryzae.we have investigated the functions of three endocytosis-related proteins in the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae. yeast two-hybrid screening using the endocytic marker protein aoabp1 (a.oryzae homolog of saccharomyces cerevisiae abp1p) as a bait identified four interacting proteins named aip (aoabp1 interacting proteins). in mature hyphae, egfp (enhanced green fluorescent protein) fused to aips colocalized with aoabp1 at the hyphal tip region and the plasma membrane, suggesting that aips fu ...201323597630
molecular analysis and anticancer properties of two identified isolates, fusarium solani and emericella nidulans isolated from wady el-natron soil in egypt against caco-2 (atcc) cell characterize, identify and investigate the anticancer properties of two new soil fungal isolates, emericella nidulans and fusarium solani isolated from wady el-natron in egypt against colon cancer caco-2 (atcc) cell line.201223569862
vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess due to aspergillus nidulans resulting in spinal cord compression: case report and literature review.vertebral osteomyelitis caused by aspergillus nidulans is rare and usually affects immunocompromised patients. this report presents a case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis with epidural abscesses due to a. nidulans in a 40-year-old immunocompetent female who presented with back pain, numbness and weakness of both lower limbs. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated osteomyelitis involving the thoracic (t)1-t3 vertebral bodies with epidural abscesses, resulting in spinal compression. the patie ...201323569017
genome-wide analysis of the zn(ii)₂cys₆ zinc cluster-encoding gene family in aspergillus flavus.proteins with a zn(ii)₂cys₆ domain, cys-x₂-cys-x₆-cys-x₅₋₁₂-cys-x₂-cys-x₆₋₉-cys (hereafter, referred to as the c6 domain), form a subclass of zinc finger proteins found exclusively in fungi and yeast. genome sequence databases of saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida albicans have provided an overview of this family of genes. annotation of this gene family in most fungal genomes is still far from perfect and refined bioinformatic algorithms are urgently needed. aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic ...201323563886
water recycle as a must: decolorization of textile wastewaters by plant-associated fungi.textile dye effluents are among the most problematic pollutants because of their toxicity on several organisms and ecosystems. low cost and ecocompatible bioremediation processes offer a promising alternative to the conventional and aspecific physico-chemical procedures adopted so far. here, microorganisms resident on three real textile dyeing effluent were isolated, characterized, and tested for their decolorizing performances. although able to survive on these real textile-dyeing wastewaters, ...201423553673
light regulation on growth, development, and secondary metabolism of marine-derived filamentous fungi.effects of different light conditions on development, growth, and secondary metabolism of three marine-derived filamentous fungi were investigated. darkness irritated sexual development of aspergillus glaucus hb1-19, while white, red, and blue lights improved its asexual behavior. the red and blue lights improved asexual stroma formation of xylaria sp. (no. 2508), but the darkness and white light inhibited it. differently, development of halorosellinia sp. (no. 1403) turned out to be insensitive ...201323546832
a novel automethylation reaction in the aspergillus nidulans laea protein generates s-methylmethionine.the filamentous fungi in the genus aspergillus are opportunistic plant and animal pathogens that can adapt to their environment by producing various secondary metabolites, including lovastatin, penicillin, and aflatoxin. the synthesis of these small molecules is dependent on gene clusters that are globally regulated by the laea protein. null mutants of laea in all pathogenic fungi examined to date show decreased virulence coupled with reduced secondary metabolism. although the amino acid sequenc ...201323532849
lammer kinase lkha plays multiple roles in the vegetative growth and asexual and sexual development of aspergillus nidulans.lammer kinase plays pivotal roles in various physiological processes in eukaryotes; however, its function in filamentous fungi is not known. we performed molecular studies on the function of the aspergillus nidulans lammer kinase, lkha, and report its involvement in multiple developmental processes. the gene for lkha was highly expressed during reproductive organ development, such as that of conidiophores and cleistothecia. during vegetative growth, the patterns of germ tube emergence and hyphal ...201323516554
currency notes and coins as a possible source of transmitting fungal pathogens of man and plants.currency (notes and coins) handling by people during transaction is one of the most mobile objects within the community, which has a potential of transmitting pathogens. a survey carried out recently in nanded city (maharashtra) revealed heavy contamination of currency notes and coins by important fungal pathogens of plants and man, i.e. aspergillus niger (60.37%), a. flavus (3.98%), a.nidulans (0.2%), penicillium citrinum (17.80%), alternaria tenuis (0.20%), curvularia pallescens (0.20%), clado ...201123505834
functional analysis of the aspergillus nidulans kinome.the filamentous fungi are an ecologically important group of organisms which also have important industrial applications but devastating effects as pathogens and agents of food spoilage. protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of virtually all biological processes but how they regulate filamentous fungal specific processes is not understood. the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans has long been utilized as a powerful molecular genetic system and recent technical advances have ...201323505451
the arrestin-like protein arta is essential for ubiquitination and endocytosis of the uapa transporter in response to both broad-range and specific signals.we investigated the role of all arrestin-like proteins of aspergillus nidulans in respect to growth, morphology, sensitivity to drugs and specifically for the endocytosis and turnover of the uric acid-xanthine transporter uapa. a single arrestin-like protein, arta, is essential for hula(rsp) (5) -dependent ubiquitination and endocytosis of uapa in response to ammonium or substrates. mutational analysis showed that residues 545-563 of the uapa c-terminal region are required for efficient uapa end ...201323490137
effect of cell wall integrity stress and rlma transcription factor on asexual development and autolysis in aspergillus nidulans.the cell wall integrity (cwi) signaling pathway is responsible for cell wall remodeling and reinforcement upon cell wall stress, which is proposed to be universal in fungal cultures. in aspergillus nidulans, both the deletion of rlma encoding the rlma transcription factor in cwi signaling and low concentrations of the cell wall polymer intercalating agent congo red caused significant physiological changes. the gene deletion mutant δrlma strain showed decreased cwi and oxidative stress resistance ...201323485399
chloroquine modulates the fungal immune response in phagocytic cells from patients with chronic granulomatous disease.invasive aspergillosis is a major threat to patients with chronic granulomatous disease (cgd). fungal pathogenesis is the result of a diminished antifungal capacity and dysregulated inflammation. a deficient nadph-oxidase complex results in defective phagolysosomal alkalization. to investigate the contribution of defective ph regulation in phagocytes among patients with cgd during fungal pathogenesis, we evaluated the effect of the acidotropic, antimalarial drug chloroquine (cq) on the antifunga ...201323482646
aspergillus nidulans translationally controlled tumor protein has a role in the balance between asexual and sexual differentiation and normal hyphal branching.translationally controlled tumor protein (tctp) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed protein present in all eukaryotes. cellular functions of tctp include growth promoting, allergic response and responses to various cellular stresses, but the functions in filamentous fungi have not been reported. in this report, we characterized an aspergillus nidulans tctp (tcpa) with high similarity to tctp. the level of tcpa mrna was relatively high, both during vegetative growth stage and at earl ...201323480775
functional characterization of aspergillus nidulans ypka, a homologue of the mammalian kinase sgk.the serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase (sgk) is an agc kinase involved in signal cascades regulated by glucocorticoid hormones and serum in mammals. the saccharomyces cerevisiae ypk1 and ypk2 genes were identified as sgk homologues and ypk1 was shown to regulate the balance of sphingolipids between the inner and outer plasma membrane. this investigation characterized the aspergillus nidulans ypk1 homologue, ypka, representing the first filamentous fungal ypk1 homologue. two condi ...201323472095
arabidopsis and brachypodium distachyon transgenic plants expressing aspergillus nidulans acetylesterases have decreased degree of polysaccharide acetylation and increased resistance to pathogens.the plant cell wall has many significant structural and physiological roles, but the contributions of the various components to these roles remain unclear. modification of cell wall properties can affect key agronomic traits such as disease resistance and plant growth. the plant cell wall is composed of diverse polysaccharides often decorated with methyl, acetyl, and feruloyl groups linked to the sugar subunits. in this study, we examined the effect of perturbing cell wall acetylation by making ...201323463782
modelling the activation of alkaline ph response transcription factor pacc in aspergillus nidulans: involvement of a negative feedback loop.alkaline ph adaptation represents an important environmental stress response in aspergillus nidulans. it is mediated by the pal signalling pathway and the pacc transcription factor. although studied extensively experimentally, the activation mechanism of pacc has not been quantified, and it is not clear how this activation is regulated. here, by constructing mathematical models, we first show that the pattern of pacc activation observed in previously published experiments cannot be explained bas ...201323458440
improved polyhydroxybutyrate production by saccharomyces cerevisiae through the use of the phosphoketolase pathway.the metabolic pathways of the central carbon metabolism in saccharomyces cerevisiae are well studied and consequently s. cerevisiae has been widely evaluated as a cell factory for many industrial biological products. in this study, we investigated the effect of engineering the supply of precursor, acetyl-coa, and cofactor, nadph, on the biosynthesis of the bacterial biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (phb), in s. cerevisiae. supply of acetyl-coa was engineered by over-expression of genes from the et ...201323456608
pseudo-constitutivity of nitrate-responsive genes in nitrate reductase fungi, transcriptional activation of genes involved in no3(-) assimilation requires the presence of an inducer (nitrate or nitrite) and low intracellular concentrations of the pathway products ammonium or glutamine. in aspergillus nidulans, the two transcription factors nira and area act synergistically to mediate nitrate/nitrite induction and nitrogen metabolite derepression, respectively. in all studied fungi and in plants, mutants lacking nitrate reductase (nr) activity express nitrate-met ...201323454548
partial reconstruction of the ergot alkaloid pathway by heterologous gene expression in aspergillus nidulans.ergot alkaloids are pharmaceutically and agriculturally important secondary metabolites produced by several species of fungi. ergot alkaloid pathways vary among different fungal lineages, but the pathway intermediate chanoclavine-i is evolutionarily conserved among ergot alkaloid producers. at least four genes, dmaw, easf, ease, and easc, are necessary for pathway steps prior to chanoclavine-i; however, the sufficiency of these genes for chanoclavine-i synthesis has not been established. a fragm ...201323435153
reconstitution of the early steps of gliotoxin biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans reveals the role of the monooxygenase glic.the gliotoxin, a member of the epipolythiodioxopiperazine (etp), has received considerable attention from the scientific community for its wide range of biological activity. despite the identification of gliotoxin cluster, however, the sequence of steps in the gliotoxin biosynthesis has remained elusive. as an alternative to the gene knock-out and biochemical approaches used so far, here we report using a heterologous expression approach to determine the sequence of the early steps of gliotoxin ...201323434416
control of multicellular development by the physically interacting deneddylases den1/dena and cop9 signalosome.deneddylases remove the ubiquitin-like protein nedd8 from modified proteins. an increased deneddylase activity has been associated with various human cancers. in contrast, we show here that a mutant strain of the model fungus aspergillus nidulans deficient in two deneddylases is viable but can only grow as a filament and is highly impaired for multicellular development. the den1/dena and the cop9 signalosome (csn) deneddylases physically interact in a. nidulans as well as in human cells, and csn ...201323408908
eisosome distribution and localization in the meiotic progeny of aspergillus the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, pila and pilb, two homologues of the saccharomyces cerevisiae eisosome proteins pil1/lsp1, and surg, a strict orthologue of sur7, are assembled and form tightly packed structures in conidiospores. as a. nidulans differs in its reproduction pattern from the saccharomycotina in that it has the ability to reproduce through two different types of spores, conidiospores and ascospores, the products of the asexual and the sexual cycle respectively, ...201323395641
myosin motor-like domain of class vi chitin synthase csmb of aspergillus nidulans is not functionally equivalent to that of class v chitin synthase csma.chitin is a major cell wall component of many filamentous fungi. among the eight chitin synthase genes of aspergillus nidulans, csma and csmb encode a myosin motor-like domain (mmd) and a chitin synthase domain (csd) at their n- and c-termini respectively. in our previous reports, we suggested that csma and csmb play compensatory roles essential for polarized hyphal growth although their functions do not completely overlap, and that their mmds are essential for their functions. in the present st ...201323391938
functional analyses of trichoderma reesei lae1 reveal conserved and contrasting roles of this regulator.the putative methyltransferase laea is a global regulator that affects the expression of multiple secondary metabolite gene clusters in several fungi, and it can modify heterochromatin structure in aspergillus nidulans. we have recently shown that the laea ortholog of trichoderma reesei (lae1), a fungus that is an industrial producer of cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes, regulates the expression of cellulases and polysaccharide hydrolases. to learn more about the function of lae1 in t. reesei, ...201323390613
light inhibits spore germination through phytochrome in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans responds to light in several aspects. the balance between sexual and asexual development as well as the amount of secondary metabolites produced is controlled by light. here, we show that germination is largely delayed by blue (450 nm), red (700 nm), and far-red light (740 nm). the largest effect was observed with far-red light. whereas 60 % of the conidia produced a germ tube after 20 h in the dark, less than 5 % of the conidia germinated under far-red light conditions. bec ...201323385948
sr-like rna-binding protein slr1 affects candida albicans filamentation and virulence.candida albicans causes both mucosal and disseminated infections, and its capacity to grow as both yeast and hyphae is a key virulence factor. hyphal formation is a type of polarized growth, and members of the sr (serine-arginine) family of rna-binding proteins influence polarized growth of both saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus nidulans. therefore, we investigated whether sr-like proteins affect filamentous growth and virulence of c. albicans. blast searches with s. cerevisiae sr-like pr ...201323381995
engineering fungal nonreducing polyketide synthase by heterologous expression and domain swapping.we reannotated the a. niger nr-pks gene, e_gw1_19.204, and its downstream r domain gene, est_gwplus_c_190476, as a single gene which we named dtba. heterologous expression of dtba in a. nidulans demonstrated that dtba protein produces two polyketides, 2,4-dihydroxy-3,5,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde (1) and 6-ethyl-2,4-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde (2). generation of dtbaδr+te chimeric pkss by swapping the dtba r domain with the ausa (austinol biosynthesis) or anid_06448 te domain enabled the prod ...201323368695
functional analysis of the α-1,3-glucan synthase genes agsa and agsb in aspergillus nidulans: agsb is the major α-1,3-glucan synthase in this fungus.although α-1,3-glucan is one of the major cell wall polysaccharides in filamentous fungi, the physiological roles of α-1,3-glucan remain unclear. the model fungus aspergillus nidulans possesses two α-1,3-glucan synthase (ags) genes, agsa and agsb. for functional analysis of these genes, we constructed several mutant strains in a. nidulans: agsa disruption, agsb disruption, and double-disruption strains. we also constructed several cagsb strains in which agsb expression was controlled by the indu ...201323365684
invasive pulmonary aspergillosis due to emericella nidulans var. echinulata, successfully cured by voriconazole and micafungin.a 78-year-old male who was undergoing prolonged glucocorticoid treatment experienced cough and expectoration for 2 weeks. galactomannan antigen analysis and a chest computed tomography (ct) scan suggested a diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. dna sequencing indicated that emericella nidulans var. echinulata was the causative agent. a combination of voriconazole and micafungin successfully treated the illness.201323363828
overproduction of polygalacturonase by penicillium griseoroseum recombinant strains and functional analysis by targeted disruption of the pgg2 gene.inactivation of the pgg2 gene, a polygalacturonase-encoding gene from penicillium griseoroseum, reduced the total activity of polygalacturonase (pg) by 90 % in wild-type p. griseoroseum, which indicates that the pgg2 gene is the major gene responsible for pg production in this species. to increase pg production, the coding region of the pgg2 gene was cloned under the control of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) promoter and the terminator region of the tryptophan synthase (trpc) ...201323354503
secondary metabolism and development is mediated by llmf control of vea subcellular localization in aspergillus nidulans.secondary metabolism and development are linked in aspergillus through the conserved regulatory velvet complex composed of vea, velb, and laea. the founding member of the velvet complex, vea, shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus in response to alterations in light. here we describe a new interaction partner of vea identified through a reverse genetics screen looking for laea-like methyltransferases in aspergillus nidulans. one of the putative laea-like methyltransferases identified, llmf, ...201323341778
novel sexual-cycle-specific gene silencing in aspergillus nidulans.we report a novel sexual-cycle-specific gene-silencing system in the genetic model aspergillus nidulans. duplication of the mating type mata(hmg) gene in this haploid organism triggers mat-induced silencing (matis) of both endogenous and transgenic mata genes, eliminates function of the encoded sry structural ortholog, and results in formation of barren fruiting bodies. matis is spatiotemporally restricted to the prezygotic stage of the sexual cycle and does not interfere with vegetative growth, ...201323341415
regulation of cellulolytic genes by mcma, the srf-mads box protein in aspergillus nidulans.cellobiose triggers the production of two endoglucanases, egla and eglb, in aspergillus nidulans. the cellulose responsive element (cere) cis-element that is essential for induction has been identified on the egla promoter, but transcription factors that bind to cere have not yet been identified. cere contained a consensus sequence cc(a/t)6gg for binding of the srf-type mads box proteins. introduction of a missense mutation into mcma, encoding for the sole srf-mads protein in a. nidulans, caused ...201323337500
evaluation of strategies to improve the production of alkaline protease prta from aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans produces several proteases. the prta gene encodes a major protease, and two approaches were explored to achieve the overproduction of this enzyme. molecular cloning of the mature form of this enzyme in pichia pastoris resulted in the production of an inactive form. in addition, the presence of this enzyme was toxic for the host and resulted in cell lysis. the modification of the culture medium constituents resulted in a 6.4-fold increase in enzyme production. the main effect ...201323334783
two rare cases of central nervous system opportunistic mycoses.this article presents two cases of opportunistic mycoses (oms) of the central nervous system (cns) caused by cryptococcus neoformans and aspergillus nidulans, respectively. the patients were hospitalised in local hospitals between 2009 and 2011 because of unspecific symptoms (fever, headache, and/or weight lost). duration of symptoms varied from 4 days to over 2 weeks. the patients were treated with antibiotics and symptomatically. om was not suspected in any of them. the patients became critica ...201223334046
characterization of the major woronin body protein hexa of the human pathogenic mold aspergillus filamentous fungi, the septal pore controls the exchange between neighbouring hyphal compartments. woronin bodies are fungal-specific organelles that plug the pore in case of physical damage. the hex protein is their major and essential component. hex proteins of different size are predicted in the data base for pathogenic and non-pathogenic aspergillus species. however, using specific monoclonal antibodies, we identified 2 dominant hexa protein species of 20 and 25kda in a. fumigatus, a. ter ...201323332467
sudden atelectasis and respiratory failure in a neutropenic patient: atypical presentation of pseudomembranous necrotizing bronchial aspergillosis.pseudomembranous necrotizing bronchial aspergillosis (pnba) is a rare form of invasive aspergillosis with a very poor prognosis. the symptoms are non-specific, and the necrotizing plugs cause airway obstruction. atelectasis and respiratory failure can be the initial manifestations. recently, we treated an immunocompromised patient with pnba, who presented with a sudden onset of atelectasis and acute respiratory failure. there were no preceding signs except for a mild cough and one febrile episod ...201223269890
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of penicillium expansum pe-12 and its application in molecular breeding.lipase produced by penicillium expansum is widely used in laundry detergent and leather industry; however, the absence of an efficient transformation technology sets a major obstacle for further enhancement of its lipase productivity through advanced gene engineering. in this work, agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) was investigated for p. expansum pe-12 transformation, using hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) as a selectable marker gene. as a result, we revealed that the ...201223265791
transcriptional changes in the transition from vegetative cells to asexual development in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans.morphogenesis encompasses programmed changes in gene expression that lead to the development of specialized cell types. in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans, asexual development involves the formation of characteristic cell types, collectively known as the conidiophore. with the aim of determining the transcriptional changes that occur upon induction of asexual development, we have applied massive mrna sequencing to compare the expression pattern of 19-h-old submerged vegetative cells (hypha ...201223264642
amdsym, a new dominant recyclable marker cassette for saccharomyces cerevisiae.despite the large collection of selectable marker genes available for saccharomyces cerevisiae, marker availability can still present a hurdle when dozens of genetic manipulations are required. recyclable markers, counterselectable cassettes that can be removed from the targeted genome after use, are therefore valuable assets in ambitious metabolic engineering programs. in the present work, the new recyclable dominant marker cassette amdsym, formed by the ashbya gossypii tef2 promoter and termin ...201323253382
accurate prediction of secondary metabolite gene clusters in filamentous fungi.biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites from fungi are currently subject to an intense effort to elucidate the genetic basis for these compounds due to their large potential within pharmaceutics and synthetic biochemistry. the preferred method is methodical gene deletions to identify supporting enzymes for key synthases one cluster at a time. in this study, we design and apply a dna expression array for aspergillus nidulans in combination with legacy data to form a comprehensive gene expr ...201323248299
modelling colony population growth in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.filamentous fungi are ubiquitous in nature and have high societal significance, being both major (food-borne) pathogens and important industrial organisms in the production of antibiotics and enzymes. in addition, fungi are important model organisms for fundamental research, such as studies in genetics and evolutionary biology. however, mechanistic models for population growth that would help understand fungal biology and fundamental processes are almost entirely missing. here we present such a ...201323246716
characterization of a tannase from emericella nidulans immobilized on ionic and covalent supports for propyl gallate synthesis.the extracellular tannase from emericela nidulans was immobilized on different ionic and covalent supports. the derivatives obtained using deae-sepharose and q-sepharose were thermally stable from 60 to 75 °c, with a half life (t50) >24 h at 80 °c at ph 5.0. the glyoxyl-agarose and amino-glyoxyl derivatives showed a thermal stability which was lower than that observed for ionic supports. however, when the stability to ph was considered, the derivatives obtained from covalent supports were more s ...201323242498
identification of a novel site in the tail of dynein heavy chain important for dynein function in vivo.the minus end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein is responsible for the intracellular movements of many organelles, including nuclei and endosomes. the dynein heavy chain contains a c-terminal motor domain and an n-terminal tail domain. the tail binds other dynein subunits and the cargo-interacting dynactin complex but is dispensable for movement of single dynein molecules in vitro. here, we identified a mutation in the aspergillus nidulans heavy chain tail domain, nuda(f208v), which ...201323212922
involvement of protein kinase c in the suppression of apoptosis and in polarity establishment in aspergillus nidulans under conditions of heat stress.the pkca gene, which encodes a protein kinase c (pkc) in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, is essential for its viability. however, little is known about its functions. to address this issue, we constructed and characterized temperature-sensitive mutants of pkca. the conidia of these mutants swelled slightly and exhibited apoptotic phenotypes at 42°c. the apoptotic phenotypes were suppressed by an osmotic stabilizer. under these conditions, the conidia swelled extensively and did not ...201223209763
proteome-based profiling of hypercellulase-producing strains developed through interspecific protoplast fusion between aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus tubingensis.thirty heterokaryons, formed by protoplast fusion of aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus tubingensis, were selected on the basis of their ability to grow on 2-deoxyglucose (0.2 %, w/v) and intermediate spore color. these heterokaryons were studied for cellulase production using shake flask and solid substrate cultures at 40 °c. fusants 51 and 28 exhibited appreciably higher levels of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, and fpase activities when compared with parental strains. emplo ...201323197346
investigation of the antimicrobial effect of neosartorya fischeri antifungal protein (nfap) after heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans.neosartorya fischeri antifungal protein (nfap) is a β-defensin-like peptide produced by the n. fischeri nrrl 181 isolate. in this study, we investigated the manifestation of the antimicrobial effect of nfap via heterologous expression of the nfap gene in an nfap-sensitive fungus, aspergillus nidulans. heterologous expression of the nfap gene was carried out in a. nidulans cs2902 using a pama1-based autonomous replicative vector construct. the effect of the produced nfap on the germination of a. ...201323197172
multivariate phenotypic divergence due to the fixation of beneficial mutations in experimentally evolved lineages of a filamentous fungus.the potential for evolutionary change is limited by the availability of genetic variation. mutations are the ultimate source of new alleles, yet there have been few experimental investigations of the role of novel mutations in multivariate phenotypic evolution. here, we evaluated the degree of multivariate phenotypic divergence observed in a long-term evolution experiment whereby replicate lineages of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans were derived from a single genotype and allowed to ...201223185601
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