PMID(sorted descending)
first reported case of aspergillus nidulans eumycetoma in a sporotrichoid distribution.mycetomas are chronic subcutaneous infections caused by either fungi (eumycetomas) or bacteria (actinomycetomas). eumycetoma is commonly seen in tropical and subtropical climates, usually in males working in occupations prone to trauma. aspergillus spp. are an uncommon cause of mycetomas.201525267555
penicillium antifungal protein (paf) is involved in the apoptotic and autophagic processes of the producer penicillium chrysogenum.paf, which is produced by the filamentous fungus pencicillium chrysogenum, is a small antifungal protein, triggering ros-mediated apoptotic cell death in aspergillus nidulans. in this work, we provide information on the function of paf in the host p. chrysogenum considering that carbon-starving cultures of the δpaf mutant strain showed significantly reduced apoptosis rates in comparison to the wild-type (wt) strain. moreover, the addition of paf to the δpaf strain resulted in a twofold increase ...201425261948
production of 5,8-dihydroxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid from oleic acid by whole recombinant cells of aspergillus nidulans expressing diol synthase.the optimal conditions for the production of 5,8-dihydroxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid (5,8-dihome) from oleic acid by whole recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing diol synthase from aspergillus nidulans were 40 °c, ph 7.5, 10 % (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide, 35 g cells l(-1), and 12 g oleic acid l(-1) at 250 rpm in a 250 ml baffled flask. under these conditions, whole recombinant cells produced 5.2 g 5,8-dihome l(-1) together with 1 g l(-1) of the intermediate 8-hydroperoxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid ...201525257582
the vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family regulates polarized growth and modulates the microtubule cytoskeleton in fungi.microtubules (mts) are pivotal for numerous eukaryotic processes ranging from cellular morphogenesis, chromosome segregation to intracellular transport. execution of these tasks requires intricate regulation of mt dynamics. here, we identify a new regulator of the schizosaccharomyces pombe mt cytoskeleton: asp1, a member of the highly conserved vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family. inositol pyrophosphates generated by asp1 modulate mt dynamic parameters independent of the central +tip eb1 a ...201425254656
development of rflp-pcr method for the identification of medically important aspergillus species using single restriction enzyme this study we attempted to modify the pcr-rflp method using restriction enzyme mwoi for the identification of medically important aspergillus species. our subjects included nine standard aspergillus species and 205 aspergillus isolates of approved hospital acquired infections and hospital indoor sources. first of all, aspergillus isolates were identified in the level of species by using morphologic method. a twenty four hours culture was performed for each isolates to harvest aspergillus myce ...201425242934
flow cytometry of microencapsulated colonies for genetics analysis of filamentous fungi.the analysis of filamentous fungi by flow cytometry has been impossible to date due to their filamentous nature and size. in this work, we have developed a method that combines single-spore microencapsulation and large-particle flow cytometry as a powerful alternative for the genetic analysis of filamentous fungi. individual spores were embedded in monodisperse alginate microparticles and incubated in the appropriate conditions. growth could be monitored by light or fluorescent microscopy and co ...201425239104
microtubule plus end-tracking proteins play critical roles in directional growth of hyphae by regulating the dynamics of cytoplasmic microtubules in aspergillus nidulans.cytoplasmic microtubules (mts) serve as a rate-limiting factor for hyphal tip growth in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. we hypothesized that this function depended on the mt plus end-tracking proteins (+tips) including the eb1 family protein eba that decorated the mt plus ends undergoing polymerization. the ebaδ mutation reduced colony growth and the mutant hyphae appeared in an undulating pattern instead of exhibiting unidirectional growth in the control. these phenotypes were enha ...201425213466
the role of +tips in directional tip expansion.aspergillus nidulans is an ideal model to study nuclear migration and intracellular transport by dynein and kinesin owing to its long neuron-like hyphae, conserved transport mechanisms, and powerful genetics. in this organism, as in other filamentous fungi, microtubules have been implicated in patterning cell shape through polarized tip growth - the hallmark mode of growth that generates the elongated hyphae. exactly how microtubules regulate tip growth is incompletely understood and remains a f ...201425213368
conserved and distinct functions of the “stunted” (stua)-homolog ust1 during cell differentiation in the corn smut fungus ustilago maydis.ustilago maydis, causal agent of corn smut, can proliferate saprobically in a yeast form but its infectious filamentous form is an obligate parasite. previously, we showed that ust1, the first apses (asm1p, phd1p, sok2p, efg1p, and stuap) transcription factor functionally characterized in the phylum basidiomycota, controlled morphogenesis and virulence in this species. here, we further analyzed ust1 function using multiple experimental approaches and determined that i) ust1 activity was able to ...201525208341
an isoprenylation and palmitoylation motif promotes intraluminal vesicle delivery of proteins in cells from distant species.the c-terminal ends of small gtpases contain hypervariable sequences which may be posttranslationally modified by defined lipid moieties. the diverse structural motifs generated direct proteins towards specific cellular membranes or organelles. however, knowledge on the factors that determine these selective associations is limited. here we show, using advanced microscopy, that the isoprenylation and palmitoylation motif of human rhob (-cincckvl) targets chimeric proteins to intraluminal vesicle ...201425207810
expression of aspergillus nidulans phy gene in nicotiana benthamiana produces active phytase with broad specificities.a full-length phytase gene (phy) of aspergillus nidulans was amplified from the cdna library by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and it was introduced into a bacterial expression vector, pet-28a. the recombinant protein (rphy-e, 56 kda) was overexpressed in the insoluble fraction of escherichia coli culture, purified by ni-nta resin under denaturing conditions and injected into rats as an immunogen. to express a. nidulans phytase in a plant, the full-length of phy was cloned into a plant express ...201425192284
hydroxamate production as a high affinity iron acquisition mechanism in paracoccidioides spp.iron is a micronutrient required by almost all living organisms, including fungi. although this metal is abundant, its bioavailability is low either in aerobic environments or within mammalian hosts. as a consequence, pathogenic microorganisms evolved high affinity iron acquisition mechanisms which include the production and uptake of siderophores. here we investigated the utilization of these molecules by species of the paracoccidioides genus, the causative agents of a systemic mycosis. it was ...201425157575
a dually located multi-hmg-box protein of aspergillus nidulans has a crucial role in conidial and ascospore hmg-box proteins of aspergillus nidulans have been identified in the genomic databases. three of these have the characteristics of non-specific dna-binding proteins. one of these, an1267 (hmbb), comprises one canonical hmg-box in its c-terminus and upstream of the canonical box two structurally related boxes, to be called shadow-hmg-boxes. this protein defines, together with the podospora anserina mthmg1, a clade of proteins present in the pezizomycotina, with orthologues in some of the ta ...201425156107
protein kinase c overexpression suppresses calcineurin-associated defects in aspergillus nidulans and is involved in mitochondrial filamentous fungi, intracellular signaling pathways which are mediated by changing calcium levels and/or by activated protein kinase c (pkc), control fungal adaptation to external stimuli. a rise in intracellular ca2+ levels activates calcineurin subunit a (cnaa), which regulates cellular calcium homeostasis among other processes. pkc is primarily involved in maintaining cell wall integrity (cwi) in response to different environmental stresses. cross-talk between the ca2+ and pkc-mediated pat ...201425153325
metabolism of d-galactose is dispensable for the induction of the beta-galactosidase (bgad) and lactose permease (lacpa) genes in aspergillus this study, we analyze the expression of the aspergillus nidulans bgad-lacpa gene couple (encoding an intracellular beta-galactosidase and a lactose permease) in the presence of d-galactose. this monosaccharide can be catabolized via alternative, independent pathways in this model organism. the inductive capabilities of intermediates of the two alternative routes of d-galactose utilization were addressed in loss-of-function mutants defective in a defined step in one of the two pathways. in a ...201425145606
eucast testing of isavuconazole susceptibility in aspergillus: comparison of results for inoculum standardization using conidium counting versus optical density.the eucast e.def9.1 standard recommends standardization of the inoculum concentration by conidium counting using a hemocytometer rather than a spectrophotometer. in this study, we investigated whether the choice of these methods influenced isavuconazole mics. a blinded collection of 30 molecularly characterized azole-resistant isolates and 10 wild-type aspergillus fumigatus isolates was shared with four different laboratories. additionally, each laboratory selected approximately 100 a. fumigatus ...201425136005
putative pmra and pmca are important for normal growth, morphogenesis and cell wall integrity, but not for viability in aspergillus nidulans.p-type ca(2+)-transporting atpases are ca(2+) pumps, extruding cytosolic ca(2+) to the extracellular environment or the intracellular ca(2+) store lumens. in budding yeast, pmr1 (plasma membrane atpase related), and pmc1 (plasma membrane calcium-atpase) cannot be deleted simultaneously for it to survive in standard medium. here, we deleted two putative ca(2+) pumps, designated anpmra and anpmca, from aspergillus nidulans, and obtained the mutants δanpmra and δanpmca, respectively. then, using δa ...201425118249
the phosphoproteome of aspergillus nidulans reveals functional association with cellular processes involved in morphology and secretion.we describe the first phosphoproteome of the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. phosphopeptides were enriched using titanium dioxide, separated using a convenient ultra-long reverse phase gradient, and identified using a "high-high" strategy (high mass accuracy on the parent and fragment ions) with higher-energy collisional dissociation. using this approach 1801 phosphosites, from 1637 unique phosphopeptides, were identified. functional classification revealed phosphoproteins were ov ...201425116090
restraint of the g2/m transition by the sr/rrm family mrna shuttling binding protein snxahrb1 in aspergillus nidulans.control of the eukaryotic g2/m transition by cdc2/cyclinb is tightly regulated by protein-protein interactions, protein phosphorylations, and nuclear localization of cdc2/cyclinb. we previously reported a screen, in aspergillus nidulans, for extragenic suppressors of nimx2(cdc2) that resulted in the identification of the cold-sensitive snxa1 mutation. we demonstrate here that snxa1 suppresses defects in regulators of the cdk1 mitotic induction pathway, including nimx2(cdc) (2), nime6(cyclinb), a ...201425104516
genome organization and assessment of high copy number and increased expression of pectinolytic genes from penicillium griseoroseum: a potential heterologous system for protein production.the fungus penicillium griseoroseum has the potential for application on an industrial scale as a host for the production of homologous and heterologous proteins, mainly because it does not produce some mycotoxins or secrete proteases under the growth conditions for pectinase production. however, for the fungus to be used effectively as an expression heterologous system, an understanding of the organization of its genome, as well as the mechanisms of gene expression and protein production, is re ...201425099254
high-yield recombinant xylanase production by aspergillus nidulans under pyridoxine limitation.the present study investigated the limitation of pyridoxine on an aspergillus nidulans culture that produces xylanase b (xynb) as a client enzyme and was unable to synthesize pyridoxine. this technique was used to limit cell growth and divert substrate to product formation for a surface grown culture that could be used in trickle bed reactors. it was observed that growth was limited when pyridoxine was absent, while enzyme production was unaffected. enzyme production was 1,026 u after 480 h of c ...201425085742
sporadic distribution of prion-forming ability of sup35p from yeasts and fungi.sup35p of saccharomyces cerevisiae can form the [psi+] prion, an infectious amyloid in which the protein is largely inactive. the part of sup35p that forms the amyloid is the region normally involved in control of mrna turnover. the formation of [psi+] by sup35p's from other yeasts has been interpreted to imply that the prion-forming ability of sup35p is conserved in evolution, and thus of survival/fitness/evolutionary value to these organisms. we surveyed a larger number of yeast and fungal spe ...201425081567
similar is not the same: differences in the function of the (hemi-)cellulolytic regulator xlnr (xlr1/xyr1) in filamentous fungi.the transcriptional activator xlnr (xlr1/xyr1) is a major regulator in fungal xylan and cellulose degradation as well as in the utilization of d-xylose via the pentose catabolic pathway. xlnr homologs are commonly found in filamentous ascomycetes and often assumed to have the same function in different fungi. however, a comparison of the saprobe aspergillus niger and the plant pathogen magnaporthe oryzae showed different phenotypes for deletion strains of xlnr. in this study wild type and xlnr/x ...201425064064
germination of aspergillus niger conidia is triggered by nitrogen compounds related to l-amino acids.conidial germination is fundamentally important to the growth and dissemination of most fungi. it has been previously shown (k. hayer, m. stratford, and d. b. archer, appl. environ. microbiol. 79:6924-6931, 2013,, using sugar analogs, that germination is a 2-stage process involving triggering of germination and then nutrient uptake for hyphal outgrowth. in the present study, we tested this 2-stage germination process using a series of nitrogen-containing c ...201425063657
genome mining and functional genomics for siderophore production in aspergillus niger.iron is an essential metal for many organisms, but the biologically relevant form of iron is scarce because of rapid oxidation resulting in low solubility. simultaneously, excessive accumulation of iron is toxic. consequently, iron uptake is a highly controlled process. in most fungal species, siderophores play a central role in iron handling. siderophores are small iron-specific chelators that can be secreted to scavenge environmental iron or bind intracellular iron with high affinity. a second ...201425062661
elucidating how the saprophytic fungus aspergillus nidulans uses the plant polyester suberin as carbon source.lipid polymers in plant cell walls, such as cutin and suberin, build recalcitrant hydrophobic protective barriers. their degradation is of foremost importance for both plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi. regardless of numerous reports on fungal degradation of emulsified fatty acids or cutin, and on fungi-plant interactions, the pathways involved in the degradation and utilisation of suberin remain largely overlooked. as a structural component of the plant cell wall, suberin isolation, in gen ...201425043916
improvement of aspergillus nidulans penicillin production by targeting acva to peroxisomes.aspergillus nidulans is able to synthesize penicillin and serves as a model to study the regulation of its biosynthesis. only three enzymes are required to form the beta lactam ring tripeptide, which is comprised of l-cysteine, l-valine and l-aminoadipic acid. whereas two enzymes, acva and ipna localize to the cytoplasm, aata resides in peroxisomes. here, we tested a novel strategy to improve penicillin production, namely the change of the residence of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis. w ...201425043338
the putative stress sensor protein mtla is required for conidia formation, cell wall stress tolerance, and cell wall integrity in aspergillus nidulans.the mid2-like protein mtla is a putative sensor of the cell wall integrity (cwi) signaling pathway in aspergillus nidulans. an mtla-egfp fusion protein was localized at the cell surface and septa. the mtla disruptant (∆mtla) showed radial colony growth similar to the wild-type (wt) strain, but showed reduced conidia formation. the ∆mtla mutant showed growth deficiency in the presence of inhibitors of cell wall synthesis. moreover, mtla disruption resulted in a reduction in the glucan and chitin ...201425036689
photo-convertible tagging for localization and dynamic analyses of low-expression proteins in filamentous fluorescent proteins (pcfps) undergo a dramatic change in their excitation and emission spectra upon irradiation at specific wavelengths, thus rendering a different color. dendra2 is a commercially available pcfp used to track the redistribution of proteins within cellular compartments, their life-time or interactions. before photo-conversion dendra2 exhibits green fluorescence, which becomes red after irradiation with either uv or blue lights. multiple studies including dendra ...201425014896
identification of the augmin complex in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.augmin is a protein complex that binds to spindle microtubules (mts), recruits the potent mt nucleator, γ-tubulin, and thereby promotes the centrosome-independent mt generation within mitotic and meiotic spindles. augmin is essential for acentrosomal spindle assembly, which is commonly observed during mitosis in plants and meiosis in female animals. in many animal somatic cells that possess centrosomes, the centrosome- and augmin-dependent mechanisms work cooperatively for efficient spindle asse ...201425003582
the observation of plca mutation and localization in aspergillus know the function of the plca gene, which encodes a putative phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase c, in a model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, it was disrupted thorough homologous recombination and examined. the germination rate of δplca was reduced by approximately 65% and germination of δplca at a lower temperature (25°c) was much slower than germination under normal conditions (37°c), suggesting the plca is responsible for cold-sensitivity. the hyphal growth of δplca was sligh ...201424972808
alternaria alternata transcription factor cmra controls melanization and spore development.melanin is a black pigment widely distributed across the kingdoms, from bacterial to human. the filamentous fungus alternaria alternata is a typical 'black fungus', which produces melanin in its hyphal and especially its asexual spore cell walls. its biosynthesis follows the dihydroxynaphthalene (dhn) pathway with 1,8-dhn as an intermediate. two genes, encoding a polyketide synthase (pksa) and a 1,3,8-trihydroxynaphthalene (thn) reductase (brm2), along with a putative transcription factor, cmra, ...201424972701
purine utilization proteins in the eurotiales: cellular compartmentalization, phylogenetic conservation and divergence.the purine utilization pathway has been thoroughly characterized in aspergillus nidulans. we establish here the subcellular distribution of seven key intracellular enzymes, xanthine dehydrogenase (hxa), urate oxidase (uaz), 5-hydroxy-isourate hydrolase (uax), 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy ureido imidazoline decarboxylase (uaw), allantoinase (alx), allantoicase (aax), ureidoglycolate lyase (ugla), and the fungal-specific α-ketoglutarate fe(ii)-dependent dioxygenase (xana). hxa, alx, aax, uaw and xana ...201424970358
modelling and mutational analysis of aspergillus nidulans urea, a member of the subfamily of urea/h⁺ transporters in fungi and plants.we present the first account of the structure-function relationships of a protein of the subfamily of urea/h(+) membrane transporters of fungi and plants, using aspergillus nidulans urea as a study model. based on the crystal structures of the vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose symporter (vsglt) and of the nucleobase-cation-symport-1 benzylhydantoin transporter from microbacterium liquefaciens (mhp1), we constructed a three-dimensional model of urea which, combined with site-directed and c ...201424966243
genome-scale analysis of the high-efficient protein secretion system of aspergillus oryzae.the koji mold, aspergillus oryzae is widely used for the production of industrial enzymes due to its particularly high protein secretion capacity and ability to perform post-translational modifications. however, systemic analysis of its secretion system is lacking, generally due to the poorly annotated proteome.201424961398
genetics of polyketide metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. the majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making ...201224957370
f-box protein rcya controls turnover of the kinesin-7 motor kipa in aspergillus nidulans.fungal filamentous growth depends on continuous membrane insertion at the tip, the delivery of membrane-bound positional markers, and the secretion of enzymes for cell wall biosynthesis. this is achieved through exocytosis. at the same time, polarized growth requires membrane and protein recycling through endocytosis. endocytic vesicles are thought to enter the protein degradation pathway or recycle their content to the cell surface. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, the rcy1 f-box protein is involve ...201424951440
an aspergillus nidulans β-mannanase with high transglycosylation capacity revealed through comparative studies within glycosidase family 5.β-mannanases are involved in the conversion and modification of mannan-based saccharides. using a retaining mechanism, they can, in addition to hydrolysis, also potentially perform transglycosylation reactions, synthesizing new glyco-conjugates. transglycosylation has been reported for β-mannanases in gh5 and gh113. however, although they share the same fold and catalytic mechanism, there may be differences in the enzymes' ability to perform transglycosylation. three gh5 β-mannanases from asperg ...201424950755
maturation of late golgi cisternae into rabe(rab11) exocytic post-golgi carriers visualized in vivo.the mechanism(s) by which proteins traverse and exit the golgi are incompletely understood. using aspergillus nidulans hyphae, we show that late golgi cisternae undergo changes in composition to gradually lose golgi identity while acquiring post-golgi rabe(rab11) identity. this behavior of late golgi cisternae is consistent with the cisternal maturation model. post-golgi rabe(rab11) carriers travel to, and accumulate at, the apex, indicating that fusion is rate limiting for exocytosis. these car ...201424943841
chitinase but n-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase production correlates to the biomass decline in penicillium and aspergillus species.hydrolytic enzyme production is typical of the autolysis in filamentous fungi; however, less attention has been given to the physiological role of the enzymes. here, the aim was to investigate the possible relation of the chitinolytic enzymes to the changes in the biomass in some filamentous fungi of high importance for pharmaceutical or food industry. in penicillium and aspergillus filamentous fungi, which showed different characteristics in submerged cultures, the growth and biomass decline ra ...201424939682
aspergillus nidulans pmts form heterodimers in all pairwise combinations.eukaryotic protein o-mannosyltransferases (pmts) are divided into three subfamilies (pmt1, pmt2, and pmt4) and activity of pmts in yeasts and animals requires assembly into complexes. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, pmt1 and pmt2 form a heteromeric complex and pmt 4 forms a homomeric complex. the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans has three pmts: pmta (subfamily 2), pmtb (subfamily 1), and pmtc (subfamily 4). in this study we show that a. nidulans pmts form heteromeric complexes in all possibl ...201424936400
bem46 shows eisosomal localization and association with tryptophan-derived auxin pathway in neurospora crassa.bem46 proteins are evolutionarily conserved, but their functions remain elusive. we reported previously that the bem46 protein in neurospora crassa is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (er) and is essential for ascospore germination. in the present study, we established a bem46 knockout strain of n. crassa. this δbem46 mutant exhibited a level of ascospore germination lower than that of the wild type but much higher than those of the previously characterized bem46-overexpressing and rna inte ...201424928924
novel telomere-anchored pcr approach for studying sexual stage telomeres in aspergillus nidulans.telomere length varies between germline and somatic cells of the same organism, leading to the hypothesis that telomeres are lengthened during meiosis. however, little is known about the meiotic telomere length in many organisms. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, the telomere lengths in hyphae and asexual spores are invariant. no study using existing techniques has determined the telomere length of the sexual ascospores due to the relatively low abundance of pure meiotic cells in a ...201424927411
"stop ne(c)king around": how interactomics contributes to functionally characterize nek family kinases.aside from polo and aurora, a third but less studied kinase family involved in mitosis regulation is the never in mitosis-gene a (nima)-related kinases (neks). the founding member of this family is the sole member nima of aspergillus nidulans, which is crucial for the initiation of mitosis in that organism. all 11 human neks have been functionally assigned to one of the three core functions established for this family in mammals: (1) centrioles/mitosis; (2) primary ciliary function/ciliopathies; ...201424921005
the histone acetyltransferase gcne (gcn5) plays a central role in the regulation of aspergillus asexual development.acetylation of histones is a key regulatory mechanism of gene expression in eukaryotes. gcne is an acetyltransferase of aspergillus nidulans involved in the acetylation of histone h3 at lysine 9 and lysine 14. previous works have demonstrated that deletion of gcne results in defects in primary and secondary metabolism. here we unveil the role of gcne in development and show that a ∆gcne mutant strain has minor growth defects but is impaired in normal conidiophore development. no signs of conidia ...201424907261
cytotoxic and antifungal activities of melleolide antibiotics follow dissimilar structure-activity relationships.the fungal genus armillaria is unique in that it is the only natural source of melleolide antibiotics, i.e., protoilludene alcohols esterified with orsellinic acid or its derivatives. this class of natural products is known to exert antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects. here, we present a refined relationship between the structure and the antimicrobial activity of the melleolides. using both agar diffusion and broth dilution assays, we identified the δ(2,4)-double bond of the protoilludene moiety ...201424906293
interdependence of the actin and the microtubule cytoskeleton during fungal growth.cell polarization is a theme in biology conserved from bacteria to man. one of the most extremely polarized cells in nature is the hyphae of filamentous fungi. a continuous flow of secretion vesicles from the hyphal cell body to the tip is essential for cell wall and membrane extension. microtubules (mts) and actin, along with their corresponding motor proteins, are involved in the secretion process. therefore, the arrangement of the cytoskeleton is a crucial step to establish and maintain polar ...201424879477
role of moand1-mediated nuclear positioning in morphogenesis and pathogenicity in the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe cause disease on host plants, many phytopathogenic fungi undergo morphological transitions including development of reproductive structures as well as specialized infection structures called appressoria. such morphological transitions display distinct nuclear dynamics. here we report the developmental requirement of moand1-mediated nuclear positioning for pathogenesis of the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe oryzae. the moand1 gene encodes a protein that shows high similarity to num1 in saccharo ...201424875422
fhip and fts proteins are critical for dynein-mediated transport of early endosomes in aspergillus.the minus end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein transports various cellular cargoes, including early endosomes, but how dynein binds to its cargo remains unclear. recently fungal hook homologues were found to link dynein to early endosomes for their transport. here we identified fhipa in aspergillus nidulans as a key player for hooka (a. nidulans hook) function via a genome-wide screen for mutants defective in early-endosome distribution. the human homologue of fhipa, fhip, is a prot ...201424870033
effect of serum components on biofilm formation by aspergillus fumigatus and other aspergillus species.biofilm production by microorganisms is critical for their pathogenicity. serum promotes biofilm production by aspergillus fumigatus; however, its effects on other aspergillus spp. have not been reported. we analyzed biofilm formation by five aspergillus spp., i.e., a. fumigatus, a. flavus, a. nidulans, a. niger, and a. terreus, and examined the effects of serum/serum proteins such as fetal bovine serum (fbs), fetuin a, and bovine serum albumin (bsa) on hyphal growth, hyphal branching, and extra ...201424858605
endocytosis and early endosome motility in filamentous fungi.hyphal growth of filamentous fungi requires microtubule-based long-distance motility of early endosomes. since the discovery of this process in ustilago maydis, our understanding of its molecular basis and biological function has greatly advanced. studies in u. maydis and aspergillus nidulans reveal a complex interplay of the motor proteins kinesin-3 and dynein, which co-operate to support bi-directional motion of early endosomes. genetic screening has shed light on the molecular mechanisms unde ...201424835422
the set1/compass histone h3 methyltransferase helps regulate mitosis with the cdk1 and nima mitotic kinases in aspergillus nidulans.mitosis is promoted and regulated by reversible protein phosphorylation catalyzed by the essential nima and cdk1 kinases in the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. protein methylation mediated by the set1/compass methyltransferase complex has also been shown to regulate mitosis in budding yeast with the aurora mitotic kinase. we uncover a genetic interaction between an-swd1, which encodes a subunit of the set1 protein methyltransferase complex, with nima as partial inactivation of nim ...201424835271
the aspergillus nidulans acul gene encodes a mitochondrial carrier required for the utilization of carbon sources that are metabolized via the tca aspergillus nidulans, the utilization of acetate as sole carbon source requires several genes (acu). most of them are also required for the utilization of fatty acids. this is the case for acud and acue, which encode the two glyoxylate cycle-specific enzymes, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, respectively, but also for acul that we have identified as an7287, and characterized in this study. deletion of acul resulted in the same phenotype as the original acul217 mutant. acul encodes a 322- ...201424835019
the double zinc finger domain and adjacent accessory domain from the transcription factor loss of zinc sensing 1 (loz1) are necessary for dna binding and zinc sensing.the loz1 transcription factor from schizosaccharomyces pombe plays an essential role in zinc homeostasis by repressing target gene expression in zinc-replete cells. to determine how loz1 function is regulated by zinc, we employed a genetic screen to isolate mutants with impaired zinc-dependent gene expression and analyzed loz1 protein truncations to map a minimal zinc-responsive domain. in the screen, we isolated 36 new loz1 alleles. 27 of these alleles contained mutations resulting in the trunc ...201424831008
modelling, substrate docking and mutational analysis identify residues essential for function and specificity of the major fungal purine transporter azga.the azga purine/h(+) symporter of aspergillus nidulans is the founding member of a functionally and phylogenetically distinct transporter family present in fungi, bacteria and plants. here a valid azga topological model is built based on the crystal structure of the escherichia coli uracil transporter uraa, a member of the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat/ncs2) family. the model consists of 14 transmembrane, mostly α-helical, segments (tmss) and cytoplasmic n- and c-tails. a distinct compac ...201424818808
direct involvement of the crea transcription factor in penicillin biosynthesis and expression of the pcbab gene in penicillium chrysogenum.the transcription factor crea is the main regulator responsible for carbon repression in filamentous fungi. crea is a wide domain regulator that binds to regulatory elements in the promoters of target genes to repress their transcription. penicillin biosynthesis and the expression of penicillin biosynthetic genes are subject to carbon repression. however, evidence of the participation of crea in this regulation is still lacking, and previous studies on the promoter of the pcbc gene of aspergillu ...201424818689
a cyclin-like protein, clga, regulates development in aspergillus nidulans.a cyclin-like protein from aspergillus nidulans, clga, was identified. its cyclin-like subunit shares 28.3% identity to saccharomyces cerevisiae clg1. deletion of clga slightly influenced fungal growth, but repressed asexual development and made it more sensitive to temperature variations. it also downregulated expression of brla, abaa and weta, which are critically responsible for asexual development. sexual development was impaired in the δclga mutant. its related genes, vea and nosa, were exp ...201424794637
isolation and identification of aspergillus spp. from brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli) nocturnal houses in new zealand.aspergillosis, a disease caused by infection with aspergillus spp., is a common cause of death in birds globally and is an irregular cause of mortality of captive kiwi (apteryx spp.). aspergillus spp. are often present in rotting plant material, including the litter and nesting material used for kiwi in captivity. the aim of this study was to survey nocturnal kiwi houses in new zealand to assess the levels of aspergillus currently present in leaf litter. samples were received from 11 nocturnal k ...201424758108
high-affinity glucose transport in aspergillus nidulans is mediated by the products of two related but differentially expressed genes.independent systems of high and low affinity effect glucose uptake in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. low-affinity uptake is known to be mediated by the product of the mste gene. in the current work two genes, msta and mstc, have been identified that encode high-affinity glucose transporter proteins. these proteins' primary structures share over 90% similarity, indicating that the corresponding genes share a common origin. whilst the function of the paralogous proteins is little cha ...201424751997
dual dna binding and coactivator functions of aspergillus nidulans tama, a zn(ii)2cys6 transcription factor.transcription factors containing dna binding domains generally regulate transcription by direct interaction with dna. for most transcription factors, including the fungal zn(ii)2cys6 zinc binuclear cluster transcription factors, the dna binding motif is essential for function. however, aspergillus nidulans tama and the related saccharomyces cerevisiae dal81p protein contain zn(ii)2cys6 motifs shown to be dispensable for function. tama acts at several promoters as a coactivator of the global nitr ...201424750216
in aspergillus nidulans the suppressors suaa and suac code for release factors erf1 and erf3 and suad codes for a glutamine aspergillus nidulans, after extensive mutagenesis, a collection of mutants was obtained and four suppressor loci were identified genetically that could suppress mutations in putative chain termination mutations in different genes. suppressor mutations in suab and suad have a similar restricted spectrum of suppression and suab111 was previously shown to be an alteration in the anticodon of a gln trna. we have shown that like suab, a suad suppressor has a mutation in the anticodon of another gl ...201424727290
six hydrophobins are involved in hydrophobin rodlet formation in aspergillus nidulans and contribute to hydrophobicity of the spore surface.hydrophobins are amphiphilic proteins able to self-assemble at water-air interphases and are only found in filamentous fungi. in aspergillus nidulans two hydrophobins, roda and dewa, have been characterized, which both localize on the conidiospore surface and contribute to its hydrophobicity. roda is the constituent protein of very regularly arranged rodlets, 10 nm in diameter. here we analyzed four more hydrophobins, dewb-e, in a. nidulans and found that all six hydrophobins contribute to the h ...201424722460
production of 5,8-dihydroxy-9,12(z,z)-octadecadienoic acid from linoleic acid by whole recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing diol synthase from aspergillus nidulans.diol synthase from aspergillus nidulans was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. recombinant e. coli cells expressing diol synthase from a. nidulans converted linoleic acid to a product that was identified as 5,8-dihydroxy-9,12(z,z)-octadecadienoic acid by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms). the recombinant cells and the purified enzyme showed the highest activity for linoleic acid among the fatty acids tested. the optimal reaction conditions for the produc ...201424695832
extra- and intracellular lactose catabolism in penicillium chrysogenum: phylogenetic and expression analysis of the putative permease and hydrolase genes.penicillium chrysogenum is used as an industrial producer of penicillin. we investigated its catabolism of lactose, an abundant component of whey used in penicillin fermentation, comparing the type strain nrrl 1951 with the high producing strain as-p-78. both strains grew similarly on lactose as the sole carbon source under batch conditions, exhibiting almost identical time profiles of sugar depletion. in silico analysis of the genome sequences revealed that p. chrysogenum features at least five ...201424690910
functional characterization of a xylose transporter in aspergillus nidulans.the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks will only become economically feasible when the majority of cellulosic and hemicellulosic biopolymers can be efficiently converted into bioethanol. the main component of cellulose is glucose, whereas hemicelluloses mainly consist of pentose sugars such as d-xylose and l-arabinose. the genomes of filamentous fungi such as a. nidulans encode a multiplicity of sugar transporters with broad affinities for hexose and pentose sugars. sacchar ...201424690493
identification of interphase functions for the nima kinase involving microtubules and the escrt pathway.the never in mitosis a (nima) kinase (the founding member of the nek family of kinases) has been considered a mitotic specific kinase with nuclear restricted roles in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans. by extending to a. nidulans the results of a synthetic lethal screen performed in saccharomyces cerevisiae using the nima ortholog kin3, we identified a conserved genetic interaction between nima and genes encoding proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (escrt) pathwa ...201424675878
distinct septin heteropolymers co-exist during multicellular development in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.septins are important components of the cytoskeleton that are highly conserved in eukaryotes and play major roles in cytokinesis, patterning, and many developmental processes. septins form heteropolymers which assemble into higher-order structures including rings, filaments, and gauzes. in contrast to actin filaments and microtubules, the molecular mechanism by which septins assemble is not well-understood. here, we report that in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, four core septins fo ...201424664283
constitutive homologous expression of phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase increases the metabolic flux of fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum is among the few filamentous fungi that have been reported of being able to directly ferment biomass to ethanol in a consolidated bioprocess. understanding its metabolic pathways and their limitations can provide some insights on the genetic modifications required to enhance its growth and subsequent fermentation capability. in this study, we investigated the hypothesis reported previously that phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase are metabolic bottlenecks in the glycolysis an ...201424649884
expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis of aspergillus terreus endo-β-1,4-glucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12.endoglucanases are important enzymes that are involved in the modification and degradation of cellulose. filamentous fungi such as aspergillus terreus are effective biomass degraders in nature owing to their capacity to produce an enzymatic arsenal of glycoside hydrolases, including endoglucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12 (gh12). the a. terreus gh12 endoglucanase was cloned and overexpressed in a. nidulans, purified and crystallized. a single crystal was obtained from a solution consist ...201424637772
hooka is a novel dynein-early endosome linker critical for cargo movement in vivo.cytoplasmic dynein transports membranous cargoes along microtubules, but the mechanism of dynein-cargo interaction is unclear. from a genetic screen, we identified a homologue of human hook proteins, hooka, as a factor required for dynein-mediated early endosome movement in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. hooka contains a putative n-terminal microtubule-binding domain followed by coiled-coil domains and a c-terminal cargo-binding domain, an organization reminiscent of cytoplasmic li ...201424637327
trans-resveratrol concentrations and antimutagenic potential of juice from the grape cultivars vênus, brs violeta and isabel.grape juice, in addition to being an energetic food, due to its high sugar content, has several compounds that can prevent or treat various types of diseases. resveratrol is a compound present in grapes that has attracted a lot of interest; in addition to preventing cardiovascular disease linked to lipid metabolism, it has chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. we evaluated the antimutagenic activity and determined the trans-resveratrol content in grape juice from the varieties vênus, ...201424634171
comparative functional analysis of the velvet gene family reveals unique roles in fungal development and pathogenicity in magnaporthe oryzae.the ascomycete fungus magnaporthe oryzae is an economically important pathogen that causes rice blast disease worldwide. accumulating evidence indicates that the fungal velvet genes are key regulators of a number of cellular processes, including development, pathogenicity and secondary metabolism, in many species of fungi. in this study, we identified and functionally characterized four genes (movosa, movelb, movea, and movelc) from the genome of the fungal pathogen m. oryzae. these genes were h ...201424632440
synthetic biology tools for bioprospecting of natural products in eukaryotes.filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a battery of natural products of often unknown function, synthesized by complex metabolic pathways. unfortunately, most of these pathways appear silent, many in intractable organisms, and their products consequently unidentified. one basic challenge is the difficulty of expressing a biosynthesis pathway for a complex natural product in a heterologous eukaryotic host. here, we provide a proof-of concept solution to this challenge and describe how the ...201424631120
x-ray microfluorescence (μxrf) imaging of aspergillus nidulans cell wall mutants reveals biochemical changes due to gene deletions.we used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence to create the first semiquantitative, submicron resolution, element distribution maps of p, s, k, and ca, in situ, in fungal samples. data collection was performed at the european synchrotron radiation facility beam line id21, grenoble, france. we studied developing hyphae, septa, and conidiophores in aspergillus nidulans, comparing wild type and two cell wall biosynthesis gene deletion strains. the latter encode sequential enzymes for biosynthesis of galac ...201424618991
improved production of fatty acid ethyl esters in saccharomyces cerevisiae through up-regulation of the ethanol degradation pathway and expression of the heterologous phosphoketolase pathway.due to an increasing demand of transportation fuels, a lower availability of cheap crude oil and a lack of sustainability of fossil fuels, a gradual shift from petroleum based fuels towards alternative and renewable fuel resources will be required in the near future. fatty acid ethyl esters (faees) have properties similar to current crude diesel and could therefore form an important contribution to the development of sustainable transportation fuels in future. it is important to develop novel ce ...201424618091
the sugarcane defense protein sugarwin2 causes cell death in colletotrichum falcatum but not in non-pathogenic fungi.plants respond to pathogens and insect attacks by inducing and accumulating a large set of defense-related proteins. two homologues of a barley wound-inducible protein (barwin) have been characterized in sugarcane, sugarwin1 and sugarwin2 (sugarcane wound-inducible proteins). induction of sugarwins occurs in response to diatraea saccharalis damage but not to pathogen infection. in addition, the protein itself does not show any effect on insect development; instead, it has antimicrobial activitie ...201424608349
[mechanisms and regulation of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in filamentous fungi: classical cases and new models].cellulose is the most abundant renewable carbon source on earth. however, this polymer structure comprises a physical and chemical barrier for carbon access, which has limited its exploitation. in nature, only a few percentage of microorganisms may degrade this polymer by cellulase expression. filamentous fungi are one of the most active and efficient groups among these microorganisms. this review describes similarities and differences between cellulase activity mechanisms and regulatory mechani ...201524607657
interactive exploration of integrated biological datasets using context-sensitive inference utilizes experimental high-throughput data for the reconstruction of molecular interaction networks where new relationships between the network entities can be predicted. despite the increasing amount of experimental data, the parameters of each modeling technique cannot be optimized based on the experimental data alone, but needs to be qualitatively assessed if the components of the resulting network describe the experimental setting. candidate list prioritization and validati ...201424600467
application of a new dual localization-affinity purification tag reveals novel aspects of protein kinase biology in aspergillus nidulans.filamentous fungi occupy critical environmental niches and have numerous beneficial industrial applications but devastating effects as pathogens and agents of food spoilage. as regulators of essentially all biological processes protein kinases have been intensively studied but how they regulate the often unique biology of filamentous fungi is not completely understood. significant understanding of filamentous fungal biology has come from the study of the model organism aspergillus nidulans using ...201424599037
rational domain swaps reveal insights about chain length control by ketosynthase domains in fungal nonreducing polyketide synthases.a facile genetic methodology in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans allowed exchange of the starter unit acp transacylase (sat) domain in the nonreduced polyketide synthase (nr-pks) afoe of the asperfuranone pathway with the sat domains from 10 other nr-pkss. the newly created hybrid with the nr-pks an3386 is able to accept a longer starter unit in place of the native substrate to create a novel aromatic polyketide in vivo.201424593241
velc positively controls sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.fungal development and secondary metabolism is intimately associated via activities of the fungi-specific velvet family proteins including vea, vosa, velb and velc. among these, velc has not been characterized in aspergillus nidulans. in this study, we characterize the role of velc in asexual and sexual development in a. nidulans. the velc mrna specifically accumulates during the early phase of sexual development. the deletion of velc leads to increased number of conidia and reduced production o ...201424587098
genetic characterization of the neurospora crassa molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis.molybdenum (mo) is a trace element that is essential for important cellular processes. to gain biological activity, mo must be complexed in the molybdenum cofactor (moco), a pterin derivative of low molecular weight. moco synthesis is a multi-step pathway that involves a variable number of genes in eukaryotes, which are assigned to four steps of eukaryotic moco biosynthesis. moco biosynthesis mutants lack any moco-dependent enzymatic activities, including assimilation of nitrate (plants and fung ...201424569084
multiple nuclear localization signals mediate nuclear localization of the gata transcription factor area.the aspergillus nidulans gata transcription factor area activates transcription of nitrogen metabolic genes in response to nitrogen limitation and is known to accumulate in the nucleus during nitrogen starvation. sequence analysis of area revealed multiple nuclear localization signals (nlss), five putative classical nlss conserved in fungal area orthologs but not in the saccharomyces cerevisiae functional orthologs gln3p and gat1p, and one putative noncanonical rrx33rxr bipartite nls within the ...201424562911
nsdd is a key repressor of asexual development in aspergillus nidulans.asexual development (conidiation) of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans occurs via balanced activities of multiple positive and negative regulators. for instance, flug (+) and sfga (-) govern upstream regulation of the developmental switch, and brla (+) and vosa (-) control the progression and completion of conidiation. to identify negative regulators of conidiation downstream of flug-sfga, we carried out multicopy genetic screens using sfga deletion strains. after visually screening >1 ...201424532783
regulatory mutations affecting sulfur metabolism induce environmental stress response in aspergillus nidulans.mutations in the cysb, sconb and sconc genes affect sulfur metabolism in aspergillus nidulans in different ways. the cysb mutation blocks synthesis of cysteine by the main pathway and leads to a shortage of this amino acid. the sconb and sconc mutations affect subunits of the scf ubiquitin ligase complex, which inactivates the metr transcription factor in the presence of an excess of cysteine. in effect, both cysb and scon mutations lead to permanent derepression of metr-dependent genes. we comp ...201424513272
new branches in the degradation pathway of monochlorocatechols by aspergillus nidulans: a metabolomics analysis.a collective view of the degradation of monochlorocatechols in fungi is yet to be attained, though these compounds are recognised as key degradation intermediates of numerous chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, including monochlorophenols. in the present contribution we have analysed the degradation pathways of monochlorophenols in aspergillus nidulans using essentially metabolomics. degradation intermediates herein identified included those commonly reported (e.g. 3-chloro-cis,cis-muconate) but ...201424509097
furocoumarins and coumarins photoinactivate colletotrichum acutatum and aspergillus nidulans fungi under solar radiation.the increasing tolerance to currently-used fungicides is a major problem both in clinical and agricultural areas leading to an urgent need for the development of novel antifungal strategies. this study investigated the in vitro antimicrobial photo treatment (apt) of conidia of the plant-pathogenic fungus colletotrichum acutatum and the ascomycete aspergillus nidulans with the furocoumarins 8-methoxypsoralen (8-mop) and isopimpinellin, and a mixture of two coumarins (7-methoxy coumarin and citrop ...201424509069
enhanced cellulase producing mutants developed from heterokaryotic aspergillus strain.a heterokaryon 28, derived through protoplast fusion between aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus tubingensis (dal8), was subjected cyclic mutagenesis followed by selection on increasing levels of 2-deoxy glucose (2-dg) as selection marker. the derived deregulated cellulase hyper producing mutant '64', when compared to fusant 28, produced 9.83, 7.8, 3.2, 4.2 and 19.74 folds higher endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, fpase and xylanase, respectively, under shake cultures. the sequenc ...201424491293
control of reactive oxygen species (ros) production through histidine kinases in aspergillus nidulans under different growth conditions.sensor histidine kinases (hks) are important factors that control cellular growth in response to environmental conditions. the expression of 15 hks from aspergillus nidulans was analyzed by quantitative real-time pcr under vegetative, asexual, and sexual growth conditions. most hks were highly expressed during asexual growth. all hk gene-disrupted strains produced reactive oxygen species (ros). three hks are involved in the control of ros: hysa was the most abundant under the restricted oxygen c ...201424490133
cloning and characterization of a dynein light chain gene from puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.stripe rust is one of the most serious wheat diseases worldwide. the fungus puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (pst), the causal agent of this disease, is an obligate biotrophic basidiomycete fungus. numerous studies have shown that dyneins play important roles during fungal growth and propagation. however, knowledge is limited regarding the function of dyneins in pst. in this study, we cloned the dynein light chain gene psdlc1 from pst and characterized its expression. the function of psdlc1 w ...201424470306
temperature dependent changes in absorption and fluorescence properties of the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans.temperature dependent changes in absorbance and fluorescence of chlorophyll a (chl a) were analyzed in membrane fragments and in a chl-protein complex reconstituted with lipids isolated from the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans. absorbance versus temperature curves measured at 656 nm showed an inflection point at 23-24°c and at 14-16°c in the membrane fragments prepared from a. nidulans cells, grown at 39° and 25°c, respectively. temperature-induced absorbance changes measured at 680 and 696 nm ...198424458777
aspergillus nidulans cell wall composition and function change in response to hosting several aspergillus fumigatus udp-galactopyranose mutase activity mutants.deletion or repression of aspergillus nidulans ugma (anugma), involved in galactofuranose biosynthesis, impairs growth and increases sensitivity to caspofungin, a β-1,3-glucan synthesis antagonist. the a. fumigatus ugma (afugma) crystal structure has been determined. from that study, afugma mutants with altered enzyme activity were transformed into anugma▵ to assess their effect on growth and wall composition in a. nidulans. the complemented (anugma::wild type afugma) strain had wild type phenot ...201424454924
mitotic regulation of fungal cell-to-cell connectivity through septal pores involves the nima kinase.intercellular bridges are a conserved feature of multicellular organisms. in multicellular fungi, cells are connected directly via intercellular bridges called septal pores. using aspergillus nidulans, we demonstrate for the first time that septal pores are regulated to be opened during interphase but closed during mitosis. septal pore-associated proteins display dynamic cell cycle-regulated locations at mature septa. of importance, the mitotic nima kinase locates to forming septa and surprising ...201424451264
variation in the polypeptide composition of phycobilisomes from anacystis nidulans and three pigment mutants.phycobilisomes, light harvesting antenna pigment systems, were studied from anacystis nidulans wild type and from several spontaneous pigment mutants selected for improved growth in far-red light (>650 nm). this is the first characterization and description of polypeptide composition of phycobilisomes from spontaneous mutants (not chemically induced) of a. nidulans. the mutants had significant changes in the phycobiliprotein content relative to chlorophyll (chl). two phycobiliproteins, c-phycocy ...198624443211
inhibition of nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor-α production in peritoneal macrophages by aspergillus nidulans melanin.the naturally occurring pigment, melanin is found in organisms of all phylogenetic kingdoms, including fungi, and exhibits a wide range of biological activities. our objective was to investigate the effects of melanin extracted from the fungus aspergillus nidulans on the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (no) and tumour necrosis factor-α (tnf-α) in peritoneal macrophages and on the viability of mccoy mouse fibroblasts. the results showed that a. nidulans melanin did not s ...201324432378
binding, uptake and expression of foreign dna by cyanobacteria and isolated etioplasts.discoveries of the uptake and expression of various escherichia coli plasmids by the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans and isolated cumber etioplasts are reviewed. in particular, the binding and uptake of nick-translated (32)p-labeled plasmids and the expression of genes in the native plasmids are considered.permeaplasts of a. nidulans 6301 and isolated edta-washed cucumber etioplasts exhibit binding and uptake of dna that is unaffected by uncouplers of photophosphorylation or by dissipators of ...198824425366
effect of citrate on radial growth and conidiation of the mould aspergillus nidulans.a mutation of the ctsa locus of aspergillus nidulans affects both the radial growth and conidiation of the mould when grown in the presence of citrate. the ctsa locus was allocated to linkage group iv but it recombines freely with inob2 and pyroa4 (which are also in linkage group iv). it is recessive in heterozygous diploids. a possible role for this gene in maintaining membrane integrity is discussed.199124425277
cloning, expression and directed mutagenesis of the genes for ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase.the dominant natural form of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) is composed of large (l) 55-kda and small (s) 15-kda subunits. this enzyme (as the l8s8 form) is widely distributed among oxygenic photosynthetic species and among chemosynthetic bacteria. another form lacking small subunits is found as an l2 dimer in rhodospirillum rubrum or an l oligomer of uncertain aggregation state from rhodopseudomonas spharoides. the present article reviews two basically different appro ...198824425168
isolation and characterization of β-glucosidases from aspergillus nidulans mutant usdb 1183.two extracellular β-glucosidases (cellobiase, ec, i and ii, from aspergillus nidulans usdb 1183 were purified to homogeneity with molecular weights of 240,000 and 78,000, respectively. both hydrolysed laminaribiose, β-gentiobiose, cellobiose, p-nitrophenyl-β-l-glucoside, phenyl-β-l-glucoside, o-nitrophenyl-β-l-glucoside, salicin and methyl-β-l-glucoside but not α-linked disaccharides. both were competitively inhibited by glucose and non-competitively (mixed) inhibited by glucono-1,5-la ...199324420198
expression of fungal genes involved in penicllin biosynthesis.carbon catabolite repression and ph regulation are regulatory circuits with a wide domain of action in the plectomycetes. penicillin biosynthesis is one of the pathways which are under their control. the conclusions obtained so far, which are based on studies of the genetic and molecular regulation of the penicillin pathway of aspergillus nidulans, would have been much harder to produce using an organism such as penicillium chrysogenum (the industrial penicillin producer). however, a. nidulans a ...199324420113
Displaying items 401 - 500 of 5149