PMID(sorted descending)
transportation of aspergillus nidulans class iii and v chitin synthases to the hyphal tips depends on conventional kinesin.cell wall formation and maintenance are crucial for hyphal morphogenesis. in many filamentous fungi, chitin is one of the main structural components of the cell wall. aspergillus nidulans chsb, a chitin synthase, and csma, a chitin synthase with a myosin motor-like domain (mmd) at its n-terminus, both localize predominantly at the hyphal tip regions and at forming septa. chsb and csma play crucial roles in polarized hyphal growth in a. nidulans. in this study, we investigated the mechanism by wh ...201525955346
microbial communication leading to the activation of silent fungal secondary metabolite gene clusters.microorganisms form diverse multispecies communities in various ecosystems. the high abundance of fungal and bacterial species in these consortia results in specific communication between the microorganisms. a key role in this communication is played by secondary metabolites (sms), which are also called natural products. recently, it was shown that interspecies "talk" between microorganisms represents a physiological trigger to activate silent gene clusters leading to the formation of novel sms ...201525941517
genetic transformation of extremophilic fungi acidea extrema and acidothrix acidophila.intact, growing cells of strongly acidophilic fungi acidea extrema and acidothrix acidophila have been successfully transformed by introduction of heterologous dna fragment (composed of the glyceraldehyde-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene promoter from emericella nidulans, a metallothionein-coding gene asmt1 from amanita strobiliformis and glyceraldehyde-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene terminator from colletotrichum gloeosporioides) with the length of 1690 bp. the transformation procedure was based on t ...201525934267
the effects of extracellular ph and of the transcriptional regulator paci on the transcriptome of trichoderma reesei.extracellular ph is one of the several environmental factors affecting protein production by filamentous fungi. regulatory mechanisms ensure that extracellular enzymes are produced under ph-conditions in which the enzymes are active. in filamentous fungi, the transcriptional regulation in different ambient ph has been studied especially in aspergilli, whereas the effects of ph in the industrial producer of hydrolytic enzymes, trichoderma reesei, have mainly been studied at the protein level. in ...201525925231
fungal artificial chromosomes for mining of the fungal secondary metabolome.with thousands of fungal genomes being sequenced, each genome containing up to 70 secondary metabolite (sm) clusters 30-80 kb in size, breakthrough techniques are needed to characterize this sm wealth.201525925221
a lipid-managing program maintains a stout spitzenkörper.the spitzenkörper (spk) is an accumulation of vesicles interleaved with actin microfilaments present at the cytosolic side of the apical plasma membrane (pm) of hyphal tips of many species of filamentous fungi. the physiological role of the spk has captivated fungal biologists over the years, but only very recently this 'organelle' is starting to be understood in the molecular terminology used for cell biological models. one aspect that has received little attention is the role of cellular membr ...201525921726
depletion of ε-cop in the copi vesicular coat reduces cleistothecium production in aspergillus nidulans.we have previously isolated ε-cop, the α-cop interactor in copi of aspergillus nidulans, by yeast two-hybrid screening. to understand the function of ε-cop, the anea (+) gene for ε-cop/anea was deleted by homologous recombination using a gene-specific disruption cassette. deletion of the ε-cop gene showed no detectable changes in vegetative growth or asexual development, but resulted in decrease in the production of the fruiting body, cleistothecium, under conditions favorable for sexual develop ...201525892912
the gβ-like protein cpcb is required for hyphal growth, conidiophore morphology and pathogenicity in aspergillus fumigatus.cpcb (cross pathway control b) encodes a yeast cpc2 and mammalian rack1 (receptor for activated protein kinase c) ortholog, which is a wd repeat protein with functional homology to the β subunit of heterotrimeric g proteins in aspergillus fumigatus. previous study has reported that cpcb governs growth and development in both a. fumigatus and aspergillus nidulans. however, little is known about the functional identities of cpcb orthologs and their relationships with g protein complexes. in this s ...201525892048
regulation of glycogen metabolism by the cre-1, rco-1 and rcm-1 proteins in neurospora crassa. the role of cre-1 as the central transcriptional regulator.the transcription factor crea/mig1/cre-1 is a repressor protein that regulates the use of alternative carbon sources via a mechanism known as carbon catabolite repression (ccr). in saccharomyces cerevisiae, mig1 recruits the complex ssn6-tup1, the neurospora crassa rcm-1 and rco-1 orthologous proteins, respectively, to bind to promoters of glucose-repressible genes. we have been studying the regulation of glycogen metabolism in n. crassa and the identification of the rco-1 corepressor as a regul ...201525889113
cytoplasmic dynein is required for the spatial organization of protein aggregates in filamentous fungi.eukaryotes have evolved multiple strategies for maintaining cellular protein homeostasis. one such mechanism involves neutralization of deleterious protein aggregates via their defined spatial segregation. here, using the molecular disaggregase hsp104 as a marker for protein aggregation, we describe the spatial and temporal dynamics of protein aggregates in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. filamentous fungi, such as a. nidulans, are a diverse group of species of major health and econ ...201525865884
the cryptococcus neoformans alkaline response pathway: identification of a novel rim pathway activator.the rim101/pacc transcription factor acts in a fungal-specific signaling pathway responsible for sensing extracellular ph signals. first characterized in ascomycete fungi such as aspergillus nidulans and saccharomyces cerevisiae, the rim/pal pathway maintains conserved features among very distantly related fungi, where it coordinates cellular adaptation to alkaline ph signals and micronutrient deprivation. however, it also directs species-specific functions in fungal pathogens such as cryptococc ...201525859664
structural and functional analysis of the rpf2-rrs1 complex in ribosome biogenesis.proteins rpf2 and rrs1 are required for 60s ribosomal subunit maturation. these proteins are necessary for the recruitment of three ribosomal components (5s ribosomal rna [rrna], rpl5 and rpl11) to the 90s ribosome precursor and subsequent 27sb pre-rrna processing. here we present the crystal structure of the aspergillus nidulans (an) rpf2-rrs1 core complex. the core complex contains the tightly interlocked n-terminal domains of rpf2 and rrs1. the rpf2 n-terminal domain includes a brix domain ch ...201525855814
high-affinity nitrate/nitrite transporters nrta and nrtb of aspergillus nidulans exhibit high specificity and different inhibitor sensitivity.the nrta and nrtb nitrate transporters are paralogous members of the major facilitator superfamily in aspergillus nidulans. the availability of loss-of-function mutations allowed individual investigation of the specificity and inhibitor sensitivity of both nrta and nrtb. in this study, growth response tests were carried out at a growth-limiting concentration of nitrate (1 mm) as the sole nitrogen source, in the presence of a number of potential nitrate analogues at various concentrations, to eva ...201525855763
a new high-performance heterologous fungal expression system based on regulatory elements from the aspergillus terreus terrein gene cluster.recently, the aspergillus terreus terrein gene cluster was identified and selected for development of a new heterologous expression system. the cluster encodes the specific transcription factor terr that is indispensable for terrein cluster induction. to identify terr binding sites, different recombinant versions of the terr dna-binding domain were analyzed for specific motif recognition. the high affinity consensus motif tcgghhwyhcggh was identified from genes required for terrein production an ...201525852654
the bzip transcription factor pfzipa regulates secondary metabolism and oxidative stress response in the plant endophytic fungus pestalotiopsis fici.the bzip transcription factors are conserved in all eukaryotes and play critical roles in organismal responses to environmental challenges. in filamentous fungi, several lines of evidence indicate that secondary metabolism (sm) is associated with oxidative stress mediated by bzip proteins. here we uncover a connection with a bzip protein and oxidative stress induction of sm in the plant endophytic fungus pestalotiopsis fici. a homology search of the p. fici genome with the bzip protein rsma, inv ...201525847004
aspergillus nidulans flippase dnfa is cargo of the endocytic collar and plays complementary roles in growth and phosphatidylserine asymmetry with another flippase, dnfb.endocytosis and exocytosis are strictly segregated at the ends of hyphal cells of filamentous fungi, with a collar of endocytic activity encircling the growing cell tip, which elongates through directed membrane fusion. it has been proposed that this separation supports an endocytic recycling pathway that maintains polar localization of proteins at the growing apex. in a search for proteins in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans that possess an npfxd motif, which signals for endocytosis, ...201525846564
integration of the catalytic subunit activates deneddylase activity in vivo as final step in fungal cop9 signalosome assembly.the eight-subunit cop9 signalosome (csn) is conserved from filamentous fungi to humans and functions at the interface between cellular signalling and protein half-life control. csn consists of six pci and two mpn domain proteins and forms a scaffold for additional interacting proteins. csn controls protein stability in the ubiquitin-proteasome system where the mpn domain csn5/csne subunit inactivates cullin-ring ligases. the csn5/csne isopeptidase functions as deneddylase and removes the ubiquit ...201525846252
aspergillus nidulans ambient ph signaling does not require endocytosis.aspergillus nidulans (pal) ambient ph signaling takes place in cortical structures containing components of the escrt pathway, which are hijacked by the alkaline ph-activated, ubiquitin-modified version of the arrestin-like protein palf and taken to the plasma membrane. there, escrts scaffold the assembly of dedicated pal proteins acting downstream. the molecular details of this pathway, which results in the two-step proteolytic processing of the transcription factor pacc, have received consider ...201525841020
trappii regulates exocytic golgi exit by mediating nucleotide exchange on the ypt31 ortholog raberab11.the oligomeric complex transport protein particle i (trappi) mediates nucleotide exchange on the rab gtpase rab1/ypt1. trappii is composed of trappi plus three additional subunits, trs120, trs130, and trs65. unclear is whether trappii mediates nucleotide exchange on rab1/ypt1, rab11/ypt31, or both. in aspergillus nidulans, rabo(rab1) resides in the golgi, rabe(rab11) localizes to exocytic post-golgi carriers undergoing transport to the apex, and hypa encodes trs120. rabe(rab11), but not rabo(rab ...201525831508
sphingolipids mediate differential echinocandin susceptibility in candida albicans and aspergillus nidulans.the cell wall synthesis-inhibiting echinocandins, including caspofungin and micafungin, play important roles in the treatment of candidiasis and aspergillosis. previous studies revealed that, in the haploid yeast candida glabrata, sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway mutations confer caspofungin reduced susceptibility (crs) but micafungin increased susceptibility (mis). here, we describe one candida albicans strain (of 10 tested) that similarly yields crs-mis mutants at relatively high frequency. m ...201525824222
azaphilones inhibit tau aggregation and dissolve tau aggregates in vitro.the aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau is a seminal event in many neurodegenerative diseases, including alzheimer's disease. the inhibition or reversal of tau aggregation is therefore a potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases. fungal natural products have proven to be a rich source of useful compounds having wide varieties of biological activities. we have previously screened aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites for their ability to inhibit tau aggregation in v ...201525822288
the srka kinase is part of the saka mitogen-activated protein kinase interactome and regulates stress responses and development in aspergillus nidulans.fungi and many other eukaryotes use specialized mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapk) of the hog1/p38 family to transduce environmental stress signals. in aspergillus nidulans, the mapk saka and the transcription factor atfa are components of a central multiple stress-signaling pathway that also regulates development. here we characterize srka, a putative mapk-activated protein kinase, as a novel component of this pathway. δsrka and δsaka mutants share a derepressed sexual development phenoty ...201525820520
large-scale metabolomics reveals a complex response of aspergillus nidulans to epigenetic perturbation.the microbial world offers a rich source of bioactive compounds for those able to sift through it. technologies capable of quantitatively detecting natural products while simultaneously identifying known compounds would expedite the search for new pharmaceutical leads. prior efforts have targeted histone deacetylases in fungi to globally activate the production of new secondary metabolites, yet no study has directly assessed its effects with minimal bias at the metabolomic level. using untargete ...201525815712
new interaction partners for nek4.1 and nek4.2 isoforms: from the dna damage response to rna splicing.neks are serine-threonine kinases that are similar to nima, a protein found in aspergillus nidulans which is essential for cell division. in humans there are eleven neks which are involved in different biological functions besides the cell cycle control. nek4 is one of the largest members of the nek family and has been related to the primary cilia formation and in dna damage response. however, its substrates and interaction partners are still unknown. in an attempt to better understand the role ...201525798074
a novel thermostable xylanase gh10 from malbranchea pulchella expressed in aspergillus nidulans with potential applications in biotechnology.the search for novel thermostable xylanases for industrial use has intensified in recent years, and thermophilic fungi are a promising source of useful enzymes. the present work reports the heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a novel thermostable xylanase (gh10) from the thermophilic fungus malbranchea pulchella, the influence of glycosylation on its stability, and a potential application in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis.201425788980
examining the evolution of the regulatory circuit controlling secondary metabolism and development in the fungal genus aspergillus.filamentous fungi produce diverse secondary metabolites (sms) essential to their ecology and adaptation. although each sm is typically produced by only a handful of species, global sm production is governed by widely conserved transcriptional regulators in conjunction with other cellular processes, such as development. we examined the interplay between the taxonomic narrowness of sm distribution and the broad conservation of global regulation of sm and development in aspergillus, a diverse funga ...201525786130
the white collar complex is involved in sexual development of fusarium graminearum.sexual spores (ascospores) of fusarium graminearum, a homothallic ascomycetous fungus, are believed to be the primary inocula for epidemics of the diseases caused by this species in cereal crops. based on the light requirement for the formation of fruiting bodies (perithecia) of f. graminearum under laboratory conditions, we explored whether photoreceptors play an important role in sexual development. here, we evaluated the roles of three genes encoding putative photoreceptors [a phytochrome gen ...201525785736
identification and characterization of a novel gene encoding the nbs1 protein in pyricularia oryzae.the ascomycete pyricularia oryzae (teleomorph: magnaporthe oryzae) causes one of the most serious diseases known as rice blast. the nijmegen breakage syndrome protein (nbs1) is essential for dna repair; thus, we studied the p. oryzae nbs1 homolog (ponbs1). a ponbs1 null mutant exhibited high sensitivity to dna damage-inducing agents. the mutant also exhibited the retarded hyphal growth, and induced abnormal conidial germination and shape, but showed normal appressorium formation. the phenotypes ...201525774746
association of fungal secondary metabolism and sclerotial biology.fungal secondary metabolism and morphological development have been shown to be intimately associated at the genetic level. much of the literature has focused on the co-regulation of secondary metabolite production (e.g., sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin in aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus flavus, respectively) with conidiation or formation of sexual fruiting bodies. however, many of these genetic links also control sclerotial production. sclerotia are resistant structures produced by a number ...201525762985
multiple phosphatases regulate carbon source-dependent germination and primary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans is an important mold and a model system for the study of fungal cell biology. in addition, invasive a. nidulans pulmonary infections are common in humans with chronic granulomatous disease. the morphological and biochemical transition from dormant conidia into active, growing, filamentous hyphae requires the coordination of numerous biosynthetic, developmental, and metabolic processes. the present study exhibited the diversity of roles performed by seven phosphatases in regu ...201525762568
targeted production of secondary metabolites by coexpression of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and prenyltransferase genes in aspergillus.prenylated tryptophan-containing cyclic dipeptides are found in different fungi and serve as precursors for the biosynthesis of diverse biologically active secondary metabolites. they show distinct and usually higher biological and pharmacological activities than the respective non-prenylated dipeptides. successful production of such compounds were achieved by a new approach based on the coexpression of ftmps, a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase from neosartorya fischeri, with three cyclic dipept ...201525744649
molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of a ghf 43 xylanase from aspergillus niger in escherichia coli.a new xylanase gene (xyn43a) from aspergillus niger xz-3s was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli bl21-codonplus (de3)-ril. the coding region of the gene was separated by only one intron 86 bp in length. it encoded 318 amino acid residues of a protein with a calculated molecular weight (mw) of 33.47 kda plus a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. the amino acid sequence of the xyn43a gene showed 77.56% amino acid identity to a. nidulans xylanase, and the phylogenetic tree analysis revealed tha ...201425742974
mitogen-activated protein kinases mpka and mpkb independently affect micafungin sensitivity in aspergillus nidulans.the transcriptional regulation of the mapk mpka and cell wall-related genes in aspergillus nidulans differs from that of their counterparts in saccharomyces cerevisiae. the a. nidulans mapk mpkb is putatively orthologous to the yeast mapks kss1p and fus3p. to investigate mpkb and its contribution to cell wall integrity in a. nidulans, we constructed mpkb-disruptant (mpkb∆) strains. we previously showed that mpka∆ strains exhibited reduced colony growth and increased sensitivity to the β-1,3-gluc ...201525727969
two amino acid sequences direct aspergillus nidulans protein kinase c (pkca) localization to hyphal apices and septation sites.the aspergillus nidulans ortholog of protein kinase c (pkca) is involved in the organism's putative cell wall integrity (cwi) pathway, and pkca also is highly localized at growing tips and forming septa. in the present work we identify the regions within pkca that are responsible for its localization to hyphal tips and septation sites. to this end, we used serially truncated pkca constructs and expressed them as green fluorescent protein (gfp) chimeras and identified two regions that direct pkca ...201525724996
origin, diversification and substrate specificity in the family of ncs1/fur transporters.ncs1 proteins are h(+)/na(+) symporters specific for the uptake of purines, pyrimidines and related metabolites. in this article, we study the origin, diversification and substrate specificity of fungal ncs1 transporters. we show that the two fungal ncs1 sub-families, fur and fcy, and plant homologues originate through independent horizontal transfers from prokaryotes and that expansion by gene duplication led to the functional diversification of fungal ncs1. we characterised all fur proteins of ...201525712422
kdma, a histone h3 demethylase with bipartite function, differentially regulates primary and secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans kdma encodes a member of the kdm4 family of jumonji histone demethylase proteins, highly similar to metazoan orthologues both within functional domains and in domain architecture. this family of proteins exhibits demethylase activity towards lysines 9 and 36 of histone h3 and plays a prominent role in gene expression and chromosome structure in many species. mass spectrometry mapping of a. nidulans histones revealed that around 3% of bulk histone h3 carried trimethylated h3k ...201525712266
expression and specificity profile of the major acetate transporter acpa in aspergillus nidulans.acpa has been previously characterized as a high-affinity transporter essential for the uptake and use of acetate as sole carbon source in aspergillus nidulans. here, we follow the expression profile of acpa and define its substrate specificity. acpa-mediated acetate transport is detected from the onset of conidiospore germination, peaks at the time of germ tube emergence, and drops to low basal levels in germlings and young mycelia, where a second acetate transporter is also becoming apparent. ...201525708319
a genomics based discovery of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters in aspergillus ustus.secondary metabolites (sms) produced by aspergillus have been extensively studied for their crucial roles in human health, medicine and industrial production. however, the resulting information is almost exclusively derived from a few model organisms, including a. nidulans and a. fumigatus, but little is known about rare pathogens. in this study, we performed a genomics based discovery of sm biosynthetic gene clusters in aspergillus ustus, a rare human pathogen. a total of 52 gene clusters were ...201525706180
live cell imaging of endosomal trafficking in fungi.endosomes are multipurpose membranous carriers important for endocytosis and secretion. during membrane trafficking, endosomes transport lipids, proteins, and even rnas. in highly polarized cells such as fungal hyphae, they shuttle bidirectionally along microtubules mediated by molecular motors like kinesins and dynein. for in vivo studies of these highly dynamic protein/membrane complexes, advanced fluorescence microscopy is instrumental. in this chapter, we describe live cell imaging of endoso ...201525702128
beyond asexual development: modifications in the gene expression profile caused by the absence of the aspergillus nidulans transcription factor the model fungus aspergillus nidulans, asexual development is induced from vegetative hyphae by a set of early regulators including the bzip-type transcription factor flbb. to determine the range of genes under the influence of the transcriptional activity of flbb and to characterize their role in fungal development, we sequenced and compared the transcriptomes of a δflbb mutant and its isogenic wild-type strain at different developmental stages. results confirmed the activating role of flbb ...201525701285
continuous xylanase production with aspergillus nidulans under pyridoxine limitation using a trickle bed reactor.a trickle bed reactor (tbr) with recycle was designed and tested using aspergillus nidulans with a pyridoxine marker and over-expressing/secreting recombinant client xylanase b (xynb). the pyridoxine marker prevented the fungus from synthesizing its own pyridoxine and fungus was unable to grow when no pyridoxine was present in the medium; however, enzyme production was unaffected. uncontrolled mycelia growth that led to clogging of the tbr was observed when fungus without a pyridoxine marker was ...201525683507
construction of a shuttle vector for heterologous expression of a novel fungal α-amylase gene in aspergillus oryzae.the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae is a well-known expression host used to express homologous and heterologous proteins in a number of industrial applications. to facilitate higher yields of proteins of interest, we constructed the pasop vector to express heterologous proteins in a. oryzae. pasop carries a selectable marker, pyrg, derived from aspergillus nidulans, and a strong promoter and a terminator of the amyb gene derived from a. oryzae. pasop transformed a. oryzae efficiently via t ...201525674804
aspergillus nidulans causing primary cutaneous aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient. 201525671448
transient transformation of podosphaera xanthii by electroporation of conidia.powdery mildew diseases are a major phytosanitary issue causing important yield and economic losses in agronomic, horticultural and ornamental crops. powdery mildew fungi are obligate biotrophic parasites unable to grow on culture media, a fact that has significantly limited their genetic manipulation. in this work, we report a protocol based on the electroporation of fungal conidia, for the transient transformation of podosphaera fusca (synonym podosphaera xanthii), the main causal agent of cuc ...201525651833
a mutation in the converter subdomain of aspergillus nidulans myob blocks constriction of the actomyosin ring in cytokinesis.we have identified a mutant allele of the aspergillus nidulans homologue of myosin ii (myob; an4706), which prevents normal septum formation. this is the first reported myosin ii mutation in a filamentous fungus. strains expressing the myob(g843d) allele produce mainly aberrant septa at 30 °c and are completely aseptate at temperatures above 37 °c. conidium formation is greatly reduced at 30 °c and progressively impaired with increasing temperature. sequencing of the myob(g843d) allele identifie ...201525645080
functional characterization of nat/ncs2 proteins of aspergillus brasiliensis reveals a genuine xanthine-uric acid transporter and an intrinsically misfolded polypeptide.the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat) family includes members in nearly all domains of life. functionally characterized nat transporters from bacteria, fungi, plants and mammals are ion-coupled symporters specific for the uptake of purines, pyrimidines and related analogues. the characterized mammalian nats are specific for the uptake of l-ascorbic acid. in this work we identify in silico a group of fungal putative transporters, named uapd-like proteins, which represent a novel nat subfamil ...201525639910
the ß-importin kap8 (pse1/kap121) is required for nuclear import of the cellulase transcriptional regulator xyr1, asexual sporulation and stress resistance in trichoderma reesei.the ascomycete trichoderma reesei is an industrial producer of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes, and serves as a prime model for their genetic regulation. most of its (hemi-)cellulolytic enzymes are obligatorily dependent on the transcriptional activator xyr1. here, we investigated the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling mechanism that transports xyr1 across the nuclear pore complex. we identified 14 karyopherins in t. reesei, of which eight were predicted to be involved in nuclear import, and ...201525626518
negative regulation of the vacuole-mediated resistance to k(+) stress by a novel c2h2 zinc finger transcription factor encoded by asla in aspergillus fungi and plants, vacuoles function as a storage and sequestration vessel for a wide variety of ions and are responsible for cytosolic ion homeostasis and responses to ionic shock. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, however, little is known about the molecular genetic mechanisms of vacuolar biogenesis and function. in the present study, we analyzed the function of the asla gene (an5583) encoding a novel c2h2-type zinc finger transcription factor (tf) in relation to k(+) stress re ...201525626364
the velvet complex in the gray mold fungus botrytis cinerea: impact of bclae1 on differentiation, secondary metabolism, and virulence.botrytis cinerea, the gray mold fungus, is an important plant pathogen. field populations are characterized by variability with regard to morphology, the mode of reproduction (conidiation or sclerotia formation), the spectrum of secondary metabolites (sm), and virulence. natural variation in bcvel1 encoding the ortholog of aspergillus nidulans vea, a member of the velvet complex, was previously shown to affect light-dependent differentiation, the formation of oxalic acid (oa), and virulence. to ...201525625818
role of lammer kinase in cell wall biogenesis during vegetative growth of aspergillus nidulans.depending on the acquisition of developmental competence, the expression of genes for β-1,3-glucan synthase and chitin synthase was affected in different ways by aspergillus nidulans lammer kinase. lammer kinase deletion, δlkha, led to decrease in β-1,3-glucan, but increase in chitin content. the δlkha strain was also resistant to nikkomycin z.201425606019
(1→3)-α-d-glucans from aspergillus spp.: structural characterization and biological study on their carboxymethylated derivatives.alkali-soluble polysaccharides (asps) were isolated from the cell wall of four aspergillus species (a. fumigatus, a. nidulans, a. niger, and a. wentii). the chemical and spectroscopic investigations (immunofluorescent labelling, composition analysis, methylation analysis, ftir, and 1h nmr) indicated that the asps were polymers composed almost exclusively of (1→3)-linked α-d-glucose. after carboxymethylation (cm), the activity of (1→3)-α-d-glucans on three human cell lines (hsf, hela, and jurkat) ...201525601326
in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of biomodified lignin from acacia nilotica wood.the antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of biomodified alkali lignin extracted from a deciduous plant acacia nilotica, was evaluated in vitro. the extracted alkali lignin was subjected to microbial biotransformation by ligninolytic fungus aspergillus flavus and emericella nidulans. these modifications were done under varying concentration of carbon to nitrogen sources. the structural feature of the lignin samples were compared by ftir, functional group analysis and (13)c solid state nmr. all l ...201525600985
dissecting the function of the different chitin synthases in vegetative growth and sexual development in neurospora crassa.chitin, one of the most important carbohydrates of the fungal cell wall, is synthesized by chitin synthases (chs). seven sequences encoding chss have been identified in the genome of neurospora crassa. previously, chs-1, -3 and -6 were found at the spitzenkörper(spk) core and developing septa. we investigated the functional importance of each chs in growth and development of n. crassa. the cellular distribution of each chs tagged with fluorescent proteins and the impact of corresponding gene del ...201525596036
gene homozygosis and mitotic recombination induced by camptothecin and irinotecan in aspergillus nidulans diploid cells.mitotic recombination is a process involved in carcinogenesis which can lead to genetic loss through the loss of heterozygosity. the recombinogenic potentials of two anticancer drugs topoisomerase i inhibitors, camptothecin (cpt) and irinotecan (cpt-11), were evaluated in the present study. the homozygotization assay, which assess the induction of mitotic recombination and gene homozygosis, as well as the heterozygous a757//ut448 diploid strain of aspergillus nidulans were employed. the three no ...201425590709
deciphering the combinatorial dna-binding code of the ccaat-binding complex and the iron-regulatory basic region leucine zipper (bzip) transcription factor hapx.the heterotrimeric ccaat-binding complex (cbc) is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotic organisms, including fungi, plants, and mammals. the cbc consists of three subunits, which are named in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans hapb, hapc, and hape. hapx, a fourth cbc subunit, was identified exclusively in fungi, except for saccharomyces cerevisiae and the closely related saccharomycotina species. the cbc-hapx complex acts as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. hapx belongs to the ...201525589790
the aspergillus nidulans proline permease as a model for understanding the factors determining substrate binding and specificity of fungal amino acid transporters.amino acid uptake in fungi is mediated by general and specialized members of the yeast amino acid transporter (yat) family, a branch of the amino acid polyamine organocation (apc) transporter superfamily. prnb, a highly specific l-proline transporter, only weakly recognizes other put4p substrates, its saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologue. taking advantage of the high sequence similarity between the two transporters, we combined molecular modeling, induced fit docking, genetic, and biochemical app ...201525572393
riboflavin level manipulates the successive developmental sequences in aspergillus nidulans.auxotrophic markers are useful in fungal genetic analysis. among the auxotrophic markers, ribob2 is one of the most commonly used markers in many laboratory strains. however, ribob2 mutants in aspergillus nidulans confer self-sterility and thus are unable to form hybrid cleistothecia by outcross when both parent strains harbor ribob2 auxotrophic marker under the standard protocol. to assess the role of riboflavin during the different developmental stages of a. nidulans, the limited concentration ...201525567479
increased production of free fatty acids in aspergillus oryzae by disruption of a predicted acyl-coa synthetase gene.fatty acids are attractive molecules as source materials for the production of biodiesel fuel. previously, we attained a 2.4-fold increase in fatty acid production by increasing the expression of fatty acid synthesis-related genes in aspergillus oryzae. in this study, we achieved an additional increase in the production of fatty acids by disrupting a predicted acyl-coa synthetase gene in a. oryzae. the a. oryzae genome is predicted to encode six acyl-coa synthetase genes and disruption of ao0900 ...201525564035
conserved and varied dinucleotide sequences in the genomes of three aspergillus species.both guanine-cytosine content and nucleosome occupancy are higher in exons than in introns. in this study, the association between the frequencies of the dinucleotide sequences and the nucleosome occupancy of the exons and introns of the genes of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus nidulans, and aspergillus oryzae was studied. the frequency of the dinucleotide sequences aa (tt), at, and ta in the introns was more than that in the exons. in addition, the frequency of these sequences in the regions ...201425564023
characterization of npga, a 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase of aspergillus nidulans, and evidence of its involvement in fungal growth and formation of conidia and cleistothecia for development.the null pigmentation mutant (npga1) in aspergillus nidulans results in a phenotype with colorless organs, decreased branching growth, delayed of asexual spore development, and aberrant cell wall structure. the npga gene was isolated from a. nidulans to investigate these pleiomorphic phenomena of npga1 mutant. sequencing analysis of the complementing gene indicated that it contained a 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (pptase) superfamily domain. enzymatic assay of the pptase, encoded by the np ...201525557478
calcium signaling mediates antifungal activity of triazole drugs in the aspergilli.azoles are widely applied and largely effective as antifungals; however, the increasing prevalence of clinically resistant isolates has yet to be matched by approaches to improve the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy. in this study, using the model fungus aspergillus nidulans and one of the most common human pathogen aspergillus fumigatus as research materials, we present the evidence that calcium signaling is involved in the azole-antifungals-induced stress-response reactions. in normal media, ...201525554700
neurospora crassa asm-1 complements the conidiation defect in a stua mutant of aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans stua and neurospora crassa asm-1 are orthologous apses (asm-1, phd1, sok2, efg1, stua) transcription factors conserved across a diverse group of fungi. stua and asm-1 have roles in asexual (conidiation) and sexual (ascospore formation) development in both organisms. to address the hypothesis that the last common ancestor of these diverse fungi regulated conidiation with similar genes, asm-1 was introduced into the stua1 mutant of a. nidulans. expression of asm-1 complemented ...201525550299
preparative separation of echinocandin b from aspergillus nidulans broth using macroporous resin adsorption chromatography.echinocandin b (ecb), an echinocandin type of lipopeptide antibiotic produced by aspergillus nidulans, is a precursor for the synthesis of novel anti-fungal drug - anidulafungin. in this work, a separation strategy involving one-step macroporous resin adsorption chromatography was established for ecb purification from aspergillus nidulans cctcc m 2010275 fermentation broth. among nine macroporous resin adsorbents tested, the non-polar resin hp-20 had the best adsorption and desorption performanc ...201525541471
nup2 requires a highly divergent partner, nupa, to fulfill functions at nuclear pore complexes and the mitotic chromatin region.chromatin and nuclear pore complexes (npcs) undergo dramatic changes during mitosis, which in vertebrates and aspergillus nidulans involves movement of nup2 from npcs to the chromatin region to fulfill unknown functions. this transition is shown to require the cdk1 mitotic kinase and be promoted prematurely by ectopic expression of the nima kinase. nup2 localizes with a copurifying partner termed nupa, a highly divergent yet essential npc protein. nupa and nup2 locate throughout the chromatin re ...201525540430
divergent targets of aspergillus fumigatus acuk and acum transcription factors during growth in vitro versus invasive aspergillus nidulans, the acuk and acum transcription factors form a complex that regulates gluconeogenesis. in aspergillus fumigatus, acum governs gluconeogenesis and iron acquisition in vitro and virulence in immunosuppressed mice. however, the function of acuk was previously unknown. through in vitro studies, we found that a. fumigatus δacuk single and δacuk δacum double mutants had impaired gluconeogenesis and iron acquisition, similar to the δacum mutant. also, the δacuk, δacum, and δacu ...201525534941
the apses family proteins in fungi: characterizations, evolution and functions.the apses protein family belongs to transcriptional factors of the basic helix-loop-helix (bhlh) class, the originally described members (apses: asm1p, phd1p, sok2p, efg1p and stuap) are used to designate this group of proteins, and they have been identified as key regulators of fungal development and other biological processes. apses proteins share a highly conserved dna-binding domain (apses domain) of about 100 amino acids, whose central domain is predicted to form a typical bhlh structure. b ...201525534868
redox metabolites signal polymicrobial biofilm development via the napa oxidative stress cascade in aspergillus.filamentous fungi and bacteria form mixed-species biofilms in nature and diverse clinical contexts. they secrete a wealth of redox-active small molecule secondary metabolites, which are traditionally viewed as toxins that inhibit growth of competing microbes.201525532893
pdbrla, pdabaa and pdweta control distinct stages of conidiogenesis in penicillium digitatum.penicillium digitatum is one of the most important citrus postharvest pathogens worldwide. reproduction of massive asexual spores is the primary factor contributing to the epidemic of citrus green mold. to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in p. digitatum, we functionally characterized the aspergillus nidulans orthologs of brla, abaa and weta. we showed that deletion of pdbrla completely blocked formation of conidiophores, whereas deletion of pdabaa led to the formati ...201525530311
standardization of functional reporter and antibiotic resistance cassettes to facilitate the genetic engineering of filamentous fungi.the unique physiological properties of fungi are useful for a myriad of applications, which could greatly benefit from increased control of native pathways and introduction of recombinant genes. however, fungal genetic engineering is still limited in scope and accessibility, largely due to lack of standardization. to help standardize the genetic engineering of filamentous fungi, we created biobricks of commonly used antibiotic resistance genes, neomycin phosphotransferase (nptii) and hygromycin ...201425524098
erratum to: a novel thermophilic endo-β-1,4-mannanase from aspergillus nidulans xz3: functional roles of carbohydrate-binding module and thr/ser-rich linker region. 201525520174
γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (ggta) of aspergillus nidulans is not necessary for bulk degradation of glutathione.aspergillus nidulans exhibited high γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γgt) activity in both carbon-starved and carbon-limited cultures. glucose repressed, but casein peptone increased γgt production. null mutation of crea did not influence γgt formation, but the functional meab was necessary for the γgt induction. deletion of the an10444 gene (ggta) completely eliminated the γgt activity, and the mrna levels of ggta showed strong correlation with the observed γgt activities. while ggta does not contain ...201525519188
nitrogen regulation of fungal secondary metabolism in fungi.fungi occupy diverse environments where they are constantly challenged by stressors such as extreme ph, temperature, uv exposure, and nutrient deprivation. nitrogen is an essential requirement for growth, and the ability to metabolize a wide variety of nitrogen sources enables fungi to colonize different environmental niches and survive nutrient limitations. favored nitrogen sources, particularly ammonium and glutamine, are used preferentially, while the expression of genes required for the use ...201425506342
identification and structural elucidation of ergotryptamine, a new ergot alkaloid produced by genetically modified aspergillus nidulans and natural isolates of epichloë species.ergot alkaloid pathway reconstruction in aspergillus nidulans is an approach used to better understand the biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. an engineered strain named a. nidulans wfc (expressing ergot alkaloid synthesis genes dmaw, easf, and easc) produced the established intermediate n-methyl-4-dimethylallyltryptophan, as well as an uncharacterized ergot alkaloid. we investigated the chemical structure of the new metabolite and its role in the ergot alkaloid pathway. mass spectrometry, labelin ...201525491167
crystallization and preliminary x-ray crystallographic analysis of ribosome assembly factors: the rpf2-rrs1 complex.rpf2 and rrs1 are essential proteins for ribosome biogenesis. these proteins form a complex (the rpf2-subcomplex) with 5s rrna and two ribosomal proteins (l5 and l11). this complex is recruited to the ribosome precursor (the 90s pre-ribosome). this recruitment is necessary for the maturation of 25s rrna. genetic depletion of rpf2 and rrs1 results in accumulation of the 25s rrna precursor. in this study, rpf2 and rrs1 from aspergillus nidulans were co-overexpressed in escherichia coli, purified a ...201425484219
the old 3-oxoadipate pathway revisited: new insights in the catabolism of aromatics in the saprophytic fungus aspergillus nidulans.aspergilli play major roles in the natural turnover of elements, especially through the decomposition of plant litter, but the end catabolism of lignin aromatic hydrocarbons remains largely unresolved. the 3-oxoadipate pathway of their degradation combines the catechol and the protocatechuate branches, each using a set of specific genes. however, annotation for most of these genes is lacking or attributed to poorly- or un-characterised families. aspergillus nidulans can utilise as sole carbon/en ...201525479309
liaison alcaline: pals entice non-endosomal escrts to the plasma membrane for ph signaling.the alkaline ph-responsive pal/rim signal transduction pathway mediating regulation of gene expression by ambient ph has been extensively studied in aspergillus nidulans and saccharomyces cerevisiae. in a. nidulans, palh, pali, palf, palc, pala and palb are required for the proteolytic activation of the executing transcription factor pacc. although necessary, pal proteins are insufficient to transmit the signal, which additionally requires escrt-i, ii and vps20 with snf7 in escrt-iii. although t ...201425460796
kinesin-3 in the basidiomycete ustilago maydis transports organelles along the entire microtubule array.the molecular motor kinesin-3 transports early endosomes along microtubules in filamentous fungi. it was reported that kinesin-3 from the ascomycete fungi aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa use a subset of post-translationally modified and more stable microtubules. here, i show that kinesin-3 from the basidiomycete ustilago maydis moves along all hyphal microtubules. this difference is likely due to variation in cell cycle control and associated organization of the microtubule array.201525459534
gbf/gea mutant with a single substitution sustains fungal growth in the absence of big/sec7.golgi arf1-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (gefs) belong to two subfamilies: gbf/gea and big/sec7. both are conserved across eukaryotes, but the physiological role of each is not well understood. aspergillus nidulans has a single member of the early golgi gbf/gea-subfamily, geaa, and the late golgi big/sec7-subfamily, hypb. both geaa and hypb are essential. hypb5 conditionally blocks secretion. we sought extragenic hypb5 suppressors and obtained geaa1. geaa1 results in tyr1022cys within a co ...201425451223
trpac1, a ph response transcription regulator, is involved in cellulase gene expression in trichoderma reesei.fungi grow over a relatively wide ph range and adapt to extracellular ph through a genetic regulatory system mediated by a key component pacc, which is a ph transcription regulator. the cellulase production of the filamentous fungi trichoderma reesei is sensitive to ambient ph. to investigate the connection between cellulase expression regulation and ambient ph, an ortholog of aspergillus nidulans pacc, trpac1, was identified and functionally characterized using a target gene deletion strategy. ...201425442944
conditional inactivation of aspergillus nidulans sara(sar1) uncovers the morphogenetic potential of regulating endoplasmic reticulum (er) the genetic model aspergillus nidulans, hyphal growth is exquisitely dependent on exocytic traffic. following mutagenic pcr and gene replacement, we characterized thermosensitive mutations in sara(sar1) encoding a key regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (er) exit. six sara(ts) alleles permitting relatively normal growth at 30°c prevented it at 42°c. this growth phenotype correlated with markedly reduced sara levels at high temperature, suggesting that these alleles cause temperature-dependent ...201525425159
spatial regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint and anaphase-promoting complex in aspergillus nidulans.the spindle assembly checkpoint (sac) plays a critical role in preventing mitotic errors by inhibiting anaphase until all kinetochores are correctly attached to spindle microtubules. in spite of the economic and medical importance of filamentous fungi, relatively little is known about the behavior of sac proteins in these organisms. in our efforts to understand the role of γ-tubulin in cell cycle regulation, we have created functional fluorescent protein fusions of four sac proteins in aspergill ...201525417844
the aspergillus nidulans zn(ii)2cys6 transcription factor an5673/rhar mediates l-rhamnose utilization and the production of α-l-rhamnosidases.various plant-derived substrates contain l-rhamnose that can be assimilated by many fungi and its liberation is catalyzed by α-l-rhamnosidases. initial data obtained in our laboratory focussing on two aspergillus nidulans α-l-rhamnosidase genes (rhaa and rhae) showed α-l-rhamnosidase production to be tightly controlled at the level of transcription by the carbon source available. whilst induction is effected by l-rhamnose, unlike many other glycosyl hydrolase genes repression by glucose and othe ...201425416526
illumina identification of rsra, a conserved c2h2 transcription factor coordinating the napa mediated oxidative stress signaling pathway in aspergillus.chemical mutagenesis screens are useful to identify mutants involved in biological processes of interest. identifying the mutation from such screens, however, often fails when using methodologies involving transformation of the mutant to wild type phenotype with dna libraries.201425416206
genetic transformation of knufia petricola a95 - a model organism for biofilm-material interactions.we established a protoplast-based system to transfer dna to knufia petricola strain a95, a melanised rock-inhabiting microcolonial fungus that is also a component of a model sub-aerial biofilm (sab) system. to test whether the desiccation resistant, highly melanised cell walls would hinder protoplast formation, we treated a melanin-minus mutant of a95 as well as the type-strain with a variety of cell-degrading enzymes. of the different enzymes tested, lysing enzymes from trichoderma harzianum we ...201425401079
heterologous expression of gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus sp. contain ppo genes coding for ppo enzymes that produce oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids. these oxylipins function as signal molecules in sporulation and influence the asexual to sexual ratio of aspergillus sp. fungi like aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus niger contain just ppo genes where the human pathogenic aspergillus flavus and aspergillus fumigatus contain ppo genes as well as lipoxygenases. lipoxygenases catalyze the synthesis of oxylipins and are hypothesized t ...201425401068
structural and functional conservation of fungal mata and human sry sex-determining determination in animals and fungi is regulated by specific sex-determining genes. the aspergillus nidulans mating type gene mata and the human sry (sex-determining region y) encode proteins containing a single hmg (high-mobility group) domain. analysis of the amino-acid sequence of mata and sry transcription factors revealed significant structural similarity. the human sry protein is able to functionally replace mata and drives the sexual cycle in the fungus a. nidulans. functional studies ...201425399555
the aspergillus nidulans metz gene encodes a transcription factor involved in regulation of sulfur metabolism in this fungus and other aspergillus nidulans, expression of sulfur metabolism genes is activated by the metr transcription factor containing a basic region and leucine zipper domain (bzip). here we identified and characterized metz, a new transcriptional regulator in a. nidulans and other eurotiales. it contains a bzip domain similar to the corresponding region in metr and this similarity suggests that metz could potentially complement the metr deficiency. the metr and metz genes are interrupted by unusually long in ...201525391366
the velvet a orthologue vel1 of trichoderma reesei regulates fungal development and is essential for cellulase gene expression.trichoderma reesei is the industrial producer of cellulases and hemicellulases for biorefinery processes. their expression is obligatorily dependent on the function of the protein methyltransferase lae1. the aspergillus nidulans orthologue of lae1--laea--is part of the velvet protein complex consisting of laea, vea and velb that regulates secondary metabolism and sexual as well as asexual reproduction. here we have therefore investigated the function of vel1, the t. reesei orthologue of a. nidul ...201425386652
aspergillus fumigatus and related species.the genus aspergillus contains etiologic agents of aspergillosis. the clinical manifestations of the disease range from allergic reaction to invasive pulmonary infection. among the pathogenic aspergilli, aspergillus fumigatus is most ubiquitous in the environment and is the major cause of the disease, followed by aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus, aspergillus nidulans, and several species in the section fumigati that morphologically resemble a. fumigatus. patients that a ...201425377144
flug affects secretion in colonies of aspergillus niger.colonies of aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. for instance, the glucoamylase gene glaa is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. as a consequence, its encoded protein glaa is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. here, multiple copies of amyr were introduced in a. niger. most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed hete ...201525370014
transcriptional regulation of fksa, a β-1,3-glucan synthase gene, by the apses protein stua during aspergillus nidulans development.the temporal and spatial regulation of β-1,3-glucan synthesis plays an important role in morphogenesis during fungal growth and development. northern blot analysis showed that the transcription of fksa, the gene encoding β-1,3-glucan synthase in aspergillus nidulans, was cell-cycle-dependent and increased steadily over the duration of the vegetative period, but its overall expression during the asexual and sexual stages was fairly constant up until the time of transcription cessation. in an a. n ...201425359270
characterization of the mutagenic spectrum of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-nqo) in aspergillus nidulans by whole genome sequencing.4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-nqo) is a highly carcinogenic chemical that induces mutations in bacteria, fungi, and animals through the formation of bulky purine adducts. 4-nqo has been used as a mutagen for genetic screens and in both the study of dna damage and dna repair. in the model eukaryote aspergillus nidulans, 4-nqo-based genetic screens have been used to study diverse processes, including gene regulation, mitosis, metabolism, organelle transport, and septation. early work during the 1970 ...201425352541
protein kinase c regulates the expression of cell wall-related genes in rlma-dependent and independent manners in aspergillus nidulans.a protein kinase c of aspergillus nidulans, pkca, is required for cell wall integrity (cwi) and is considered a major component of the regulating pathway. to investigate whether pkca regulates the transcription of cell wall-related genes, we constructed strains expressing pkca(r429a) that encodes an activated form of pkca. the mrna levels of most chitin synthase genes and an α-glucan synthase gene, agsb, were increased when pkca(r429a) expression was induced. these mrna increases were not observ ...201525345444
gene homozygosis and mitotic recombination induced by camptothecin and irinotecan in aspergillus nidulans diploid cells.mitotic recombination is a process involved in carcinogenesis which can lead to genetic loss through the loss of heterozygosity. the recombinogenic potentials of two anticancer drugs topoisomerase i inhibitors, camptothecin (cpt) and irinotecan (cpt-11), were evaluated in the present study. the homozygotization assay, which assess the induction of mitotic recombination and gene homozygosis, as well as the heterozygous a757//ut448 diploid strain of aspergillus nidulans were employed. the three no ...201425337669
neurospora crassa female development requires the pacc and other signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, cell-to-cell fusion, and autophagy.using a screening protocol we have identified 68 genes that are required for female development in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa. we find that we can divide these genes into five general groups: 1) genes encoding components of the pacc signal transduction pathway, 2) other signal transduction pathway genes, including genes from the three n. crassa map kinase pathways, 3) transcriptional factor genes, 4) autophagy genes, and 5) other miscellaneous genes. complementation and rip studies ...201425333968
mutations in proteins of the conserved oligomeric golgi complex affect polarity, cell wall structure, and glycosylation in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.we have described two aspergillus nidulans gene mutations, designated podb1 (polarity defective) and swop1 (swollen cell), which cause temperature-sensitive defects during polarization. mutant strains also displayed unevenness and abnormal thickness of cell walls. un-polarized or poorly-polarized mutant cells were capable of establishing normal polarity after a shift to a permissive temperature, and mutant hyphae shifted from permissive to restrictive temperature show wall and polarity abnormali ...201425312861
understanding transporter specificity and the discrete appearance of channel-like gating domains in transporters.transporters are ubiquitous proteins mediating the translocation of solutes across cell membranes, a biological process involved in nutrition, signaling, neurotransmission, cell communication and drug uptake or efflux. similarly to enzymes, most transporters have a single substrate binding-site and thus their activity follows michaelis-menten kinetics. substrate binding elicits a series of structural changes, which produce a transporter conformer open toward the side opposite to the one from whe ...201425309439
the aspergillus nidulans signalling mucin msba regulates starvation responses, adhesion and affects cellulase secretion in response to environmental the heterogeneous semi-solid environment naturally occupied by lignocellulolytic fungi the majority of nutrients are locked away as insoluble plant biomass. hence, lignocellulolytic fungi must actively search for, and attach to, a desirable source of nutrients. during growth on lignocellulose a period of carbon deprivation provokes carbon catabolite derepression and scavenging hydrolase secretion. subsequently, starvation and/or contact sensing was hypothesized to play a role in lignocellulos ...201425294314
protein phosphatase 2a (pp2a) regulatory subunits para and paba orchestrate septation and conidiation and are essential for pp2a activity in aspergillus nidulans.protein phosphatase 2a (pp2a) is a major intracellular protein phosphatase that regulates multiple aspects of cell growth and metabolism. different activities of pp2a and subcellular localization are determined by its regulatory subunits. here we identified and characterized the functions of two protein phosphatase regulatory subunit homologs, para and paba, in aspergillus nidulans. our results demonstrate that para localizes to the septum site and that deletion of para causes hyperseptation, wh ...201425280816
fgflbd regulates hyphal differentiation required for sexual and asexual reproduction in the ascomycete fungus fusarium graminearum.fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal plant pathogen that infects major cereal crops. the fungus produces both sexual and asexual spores in order to endure unfavorable environmental conditions and increase their numbers and distribution across plants. in a model filamentous fungus, aspergillus nidulans, early induction of conidiogenesis is orchestrated by the fluffy genes. the objectives of this study were to characterize fluffy gene homologs involved in conidiogenesis and their mechanism ...201425277408
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