PMID(sorted descending)
live cell imaging of actin dynamics in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.hyphal cells of filamentous fungi grow at their tips in a method analogous to pollen tube and root hair elongation. this process, generally referred to as tip growth, requires precise regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and characterizing the various actin structures in these cell types is currently an active area of research. here, the actin marker lifeact was used to document actin dynamics in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. contractile double rings were observed at septa, and a ...201626879694
cloning and characterization of filamentous fungal s-nitrosoglutathione reductase from aspergillus nidulans.s-nitrosoglutathione reductase (gsnor) metabolizes s-nitrosoglutathione (gsno) and has been shown to play important roles in regulating cellular signaling and formulating host defense by modulating intracellular nitric oxide levels. the enzyme has been found in bacterial, yeast, mushroom, plant, and mammalian cells. however, to date, there is still no evidence of its occurrence in filamentous fungi. in this study, we cloned and investigated a gsnor-like enzyme from the filamentous fungus aspergi ...201626869606
cytotoxicity and colloidal behavior of polystyrene latex nanoparticles toward filamentous fungi in isotonic solutions.the effects of surface physicochemical properties of functionalized polystyrene latex (psl) nanoparticles (nps) and model filamentous fungi aspergillus oryzae and aspergillus nidulans cultivated in different environment (aqueous and atmospheric environment) on the colloidal behavior and cytotoxicity were investigated in different isotonic solutions (154 mm nacl and 292 mm sucrose). when the liquid cultivated fungal cells were exposed to positively charged psl nps in 154 mm nacl solution, the nps ...201626855210
characterization of the product of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like (nrps-like) gene using the doxycycline dependent tet-on system in aspergillus terreus.genome sequencing of the fungus aspergillus terreus uncovered a number of silent core structural biosynthetic genes encoding enzymes presumed to be involved in the production of cryptic secondary metabolites. there are five nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps)-like genes with the predicted a-t-te domain architecture within the a. terreus genome. among the five genes, only the product of pgna remains unknown. the tet-on system is an inducible, tunable and metabolism-independent expression syste ...201626851300
cooperation of aspergillus nidulans enzymes increases plant polysaccharide saccharification.efficient polysaccharide degradation depends on interaction between enzymes acting on the main chain and the side chains. previous studies demonstrated cooperation between several enzymes, but not all enzyme combinations have been explored. a better understanding of enzyme cooperation would enable the design of better enzyme mixtures, optimally profiting from synergistic effects. in this study, we analyzed the cooperation of several enzymes involved in the degradation of xylan, glucan, xylogluca ...201626848939
three extracellular dipeptidyl peptidases found in aspergillus oryzae show varying substrate specificities.three extracellular dipeptidyl peptidase genes, dppb, dppe, and dppf, were unveiled by sequence analysis of the aspergillus oryzae genome. we investigated their differential enzymatic profiles, in order to gain an understanding of the diversity of these genes. the three dipeptidyl peptidases were expressed using aspergillus nidulans as the host. each recombinant enzyme was purified and subsequently characterized. the enzymes displayed similar optimum ph values, but optimum temperatures, ph stabi ...201626846741
characterization of the aoda, dnma, mnsod and pima genes in aspergillus nidulans.mitochondria play key roles in cellular energy generation and lifespan of most eukaryotes. to understand the functions of four nuclear-encoded genes predicted to be related to the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function in aspergillus nidulans, systematic characterization was carried out. the deletion and overexpression mutants of aoda, dnma, mnsod and pima encoding alternative oxidase, dynamin related protein, manganese superoxide dismutase and lon protease, respectively, were gene ...201626846452
genotoxic investigation of a thiazolidinedione pparγ agonist using the in vitro micronucleus test and the in vivo homozygotization assay.pioglitazone (ptz) is an oral antidiabetic agent whose anti-cancer properties have been described recently. since ptz increases the production of reactive oxygen species in mammalian cells, the aim of current study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of ptz using respectively the in vitro mitotic index assay and the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test in human peripheral lymphocytes, and the in vivo homozygotization assay in aspergillus nidulans, which detec ...201626825076
the signal peptide peptidase sppa is involved in sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage and hypoxia adaptation in aspergillus nidulans.using forward genetics, we revealed that the signal peptide peptidase (spp) sppa, an aspartyl protease involved in regulated intramembrane proteolysis (rip), is essential for hypoxia adaptation in aspergillus nidulans, as well as hypoxia-sensitive mutant alleles of a sterol regulatory element-binding protein (srebp) srba and the dsc ubiquitin e3 ligase complex dsca-e. both null and dead activity [d337a] mutants of sppa failed to grow in hypoxia, and the growth defect of δsppa was complemented by ...201626822492
peroxisomes move by hitchhiking on early endosomes using the novel linker protein pxda.eukaryotic cells use microtubule-based intracellular transport for the delivery of many subcellular cargos, including organelles. the canonical view of organelle transport is that organelles directly recruit molecular motors via cargo-specific adaptors. in contrast with this view, we show here that peroxisomes move by hitchhiking on early endosomes, an organelle that directly recruits the transport machinery. using the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans we found that hitchhiking is mediated ...201626811422
novel enzyme family found in filamentous fungi catalyzing trans-4-hydroxylation of l-pipecolic acid.hydroxypipecolic acids are bioactive compounds widely distributed in nature and are valuable building blocks for the organic synthesis of pharmaceuticals. we have found a novel hydroxylating enzyme with activity toward l-pipecolic acid (l-pip) in a filamentous fungus, fusarium oxysporum c8d. the enzyme l-pip trans-4-hydroxylase (pip4h) of f. oxysporum (fopip4h) belongs to the fe(ii)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily, catalyzes the regio- and stereoselective hydroxylation of l-pip ...201626801577
apical control of conidiation in aspergillus nidulans.the infection cycle of filamentous fungi consists of two main stages: invasion (growth) and dispersion (development). after the deposition of a spore on a host, germination, polar extension and branching of vegetative cells called hyphae allow a fast and efficient invasion. under suboptimal conditions, genetic reprogramming of hyphae results in the generation of asexual spores, allowing dissemination to new hosts and the beginning of a new infection cycle. in the model filamentous fungus aspergi ...201626782172
proteomics of survival structures of fungal pathogens.fungal pathogens are causal agents of numerous human, animal, and plant diseases. they employ various infection modes to overcome host defense systems. infection mechanisms of different fungi have been subjected to many comprehensive studies. these investigations have been facilitated by the development of various '-omics' techniques, and proteomics has one of the leading roles in this regard. fungal conidia and sclerotia could be considered the most important structures for pathogenesis as thei ...201626777984
an aspergillus nidulans gh26 endo-β-mannanase with a novel degradation pattern on highly substituted galactomannans.the activity and substrate degradation pattern of a novel aspergillus nidulans gh26 endo-β-mannanase (anman26a) was investigated using two galactomannan substrates with varying amounts of galactopyranosyl residues. the anman26a was characterized in parallel with the gh26 endomannanase from podospora anserina (paman26a) and three gh5 endomannanases from a. nidulans and trichoderma reesei (anman5a, anman5c and trman5a). the initial rates and the maximal degree of enzymatically catalyzed conversion ...201626777252
changes of global gene expression and secondary metabolite accumulation during light-dependent aspergillus nidulans development.fungal development and secondary metabolite production are coordinated by regulatory complexes as the trimeric velvet complex. light accelerates asexual but decreases sexual development of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. changes in gene expression and secondary metabolite accumulation in response to environmental stimuli have been the focus of many studies, but a comprehensive comparison during entire development is lacking. we compared snapshots of transcript and metabolite profile ...201626773375
identification and characterization of haemofungin, a novel antifungal compound that inhibits the final step of haem biosynthesis.during recent decades, the number of invasive fungal infections among immunosuppressed patients has increased significantly, whereas the number of effective systemic antifungal drugs remains low and unsatisfactory. the aim of this study was to characterize a novel antifungal compound, cw-8/haemofungin, which we previously identified in a screen for compounds affecting fungal cell wall integrity.201626747101
function and regulation of fungal amino acid transporters: insights from predicted structure.amino acids constitute a major nutritional source for probably all fungi. studies of model species such as the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae and the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans have shown that they possess multiple amino acid transporters. these proteins belong to a limited number of superfamilies, now defined according to protein fold in addition to sequence criteria, and differ in subcellular location, substrate specificity range, and regulation. structural models of several of th ...201626721271
a global view of gene expression of aspergillus nidulans on responding to the deficiency in soluble potassium.many researchers have suggested that microbes can accelerate the weathering of silicate minerals. however, many genes and metabolic pathways related to microorganisms obtaining potassium (k) from silicate remain undiscovered. it is feasible to detect the gene expression within the scope of the whole genome through high-throughput sequencing. surprisingly, only a few reports have shown fungal weathering of silicate using this technology. this study explored differences in gene expression of asper ...201626693724
aspergillus nidulans protein kinase a plays an important role in cellulase production.the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks is dependent on lignocellulosic biomass degradation by hydrolytic enzymes. the main component of lignocellulose is cellulose and different types of organisms are able to secrete cellulases. the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans serves as a model organism to study cellulase production and the available tools allow exploring more in depth the mechanisms governing cellulase production and carbon catabolite repression.201526690721
the glycolytic enzyme enolase represents a plasminogen-binding protein on the surface of a wide variety of medically important fungal species.allergies are an increasing issue in human health and can, eventually, cause severe anaphylactic shock. aspergillus fumigatus and candida albicans are leading causes of life-threatening invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, but can also cause severe allergic responses in otherwise healthy individuals. the glycolytic enzyme enolase is known as a major allergen despite its function in intracellular metabolism. therefore, its presentation on surfaces of different fungal species ...201626679571
carbon regulation of environmental ph by secreted small molecules that modulate pathogenicity in phytopathogenic fungi.fruit pathogens can contribute to the acidification or alkalinization of the host environment. this capability has been used to divide fungal pathogens into acidifying and/or alkalinizing classes. here, we show that diverse classes of fungal pathogens-colletotrichum gloeosporioides, penicillium expansum, aspergillus nidulans and fusarium oxysporum-secrete small ph-affecting molecules. these molecules modify the environmental ph, which dictates acidic or alkaline colonizing strategies, and induce ...201626666972
superresolution microscopy reveals a dynamic picture of cell polarity maintenance during directional growth.polar (directional) cell growth, a key cellular mechanism shared among a wide range of species, relies on targeted insertion of new material at specific locations of the plasma membrane. how these cell polarity sites are stably maintained during massive membrane insertion has remained elusive. conventional live-cell optical microscopy fails to visualize polarity site formation in the crowded cell membrane environment because of its limited resolution. we have used advanced live-cell imaging tech ...201526665168
[effect of microparticles on echinocandin b production by aspergillus nidulans].anidulafungin is an effective antifungal medicine, which can inhibit activities of candida in vitro and in vivo. echinocandin b (ecb) is the key precursor of anidulafungin, thus the price and market prospect of anidulafungin is directly due to the fermentation titer of ecb. in this study, aspergillus nidulans was used for ecb fermentation, and the influence of adding microparticles on ecb fermentation was studied, such as talcum powder, al2o3, and glass beads. the particle size and concentration ...201526647583
stress tolerances of nullmutants of function-unknown genes encoding menadione stress-responsive proteins in aspergillus nidulans.a group of menadione stress-responsive function-unkown genes of aspergillus nidulans (locus ids anid_03987.1, anid_06058.1, anid_10219.1, and anid_10260.1) was deleted and phenotypically characterized. importantly, comparative and phylogenetic analyses of the tested a. nidulans genes and their orthologs shed light only on the presence of a tango2 domain with nrde protein motif in the translated anid_06058.1 gene but did not reveal any recognizable protein-encoding domains in other protein sequen ...201626631869
genetic interaction of aspergillus nidulans galr, xlnr and arar in regulating d-galactose and l-arabinose release and catabolism gene aspergillus nidulans, the xylanolytic regulator xlnr and the arabinanolytic regulator arar co-regulate pentose catabolism. in nature, the pentose sugars d-xylose and l-arabinose are both main building blocks of the polysaccharide arabinoxylan. in pectin and arabinogalactan, these two monosaccharides are found in combination with d-galactose. galr, the regulator that responds to the presence of d-galactose, regulates the d-galactose catabolic pathway. in this study we investigated the possible ...201526580075
catalytic conversion of sugarcane bagasse to cellulosic ethanol: tio2 coupled nanocellulose as an effective hydrolysis enhancer.the present study deals with the production of cellulosic ethanol from bagasse using the synthesized tio2 coupled nanocellulose (nc-tio2) as catalyst. aspergillus nidulans ajsu04 cellulase was used for the hydrolysis of bagasse. nc-tio2 at various concentrations was added to bagasse in order to enhance the yield of reducing sugars. complex interaction between cellulase, bagasse, nc-tio2 and the reaction environment is thoroughly studied. a mathematical model was developed to describe the hydroly ...201626572403
a phosphorylation code of the aspergillus nidulans global regulator velveta (vea) determines specific functions.the velvet protein vea is a global fungal regulator for morphogenetic pathways as well as for the control of secondary metabolism. it is found exclusively in filamentous fungi, where it fulfills conserved, but also unique functions in different species. the involvement of vea in various morphogenetic and metabolic pathways is probably due to spatially and timely controlled specific protein-protein interactions with other regulators such as phytochrome (fpha) or velvet-like proteins (velb). here ...201626564476
development of genetic dereplication strains in aspergillus nidulans results in the discovery of reduce the secondary metabolite background in aspergillus nidulans and minimize the rediscovery of compounds and pathway intermediates, we created a "genetic dereplication" strain in which we deleted eight of the most highly expressed secondary metabolite gene clusters (more than 244,000 base pairs deleted in total). this strain allowed us to discover a novel compound that we designate aspercryptin and to propose a biosynthetic pathway for the compound. interestingly, aspercryptin is formed f ...201626563584
the first case of invasive mixed-mold infections due to emericella nidulans var. echinulata and rasamsonia piperina in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease.a 16-year-old boy with chronic granulomatous disease presented with pneumonia and rib osteomyelitis. emericella nidulans var. echinulata was isolated from his sputum. after starting voriconazole, rasamsonia piperina was isolated from the rib swelling. a combination therapy of voriconazole and micafungin effectively eradicated this invasive mixed-mold infection. in immunocompromised patients, a precise pathogenic diagnosis is clinically useful for administration of an appropriate treatment regime ...201626563166
the selective expression of carbonic anhydrase genes of aspergillus nidulans in response to changes in mineral nutrition and co2 concentration.carbonic anhydrase (ca) plays an important role in the formation and evolution of life. however, to our knowledge, there has been no report on ca isoenzyme function differentiation in fungi. two different ca gene sequences in aspergillus nidulans with clear genetic background provide us a favorable basis for studying function differentiation of ca isoenzymes. heterologously expressed ca1 was used to test its weathering ability on silicate minerals and real-time quantitative pcr was used to detec ...201526553629
structure of the dioxygenase asqj: mechanistic insights into a one-pot multistep quinolone antibiotic biosynthesis.multienzymatic cascades are responsible for the biosynthesis of natural products and represent a source of inspiration for synthetic chemists. the fe(ii)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase asqj from aspergillus nidulans is outstanding because it stereoselectively catalyzes both a ferryl-induced desaturation reaction and epoxidation on a benzodiazepinedione. interestingly, the enzymatically formed spiro epoxide spring-loads the 6,7-bicyclic skeleton for non-enzymatic rearrangement into the 6,6 ...201626553478
identification and functional analysis of two golgi-localized udp-galactofuranose transporters with overlapping functions in aspergillus niger.galactofuranose (galf)-containing glycoconjugates are present in numerous microbes, including filamentous fungi where they are important for morphology, virulence and maintaining cell wall integrity. the incorporation of galf-residues into galactomannan, galactomannoproteins and glycolipids is carried out by golgi-localized galf transferases. the nucleotide sugar donor used by these transferases (udp-galf) is produced in the cytoplasm and has to be transported to the lumen of the golgi by a dedi ...201526526354
extreme diversity in the regulation of ndt80-like transcription factors in fungi.the saccharomyces cerevisiae ndt80 protein is the founding member of a class of p53-like transcription factors that is known as the ndt80/phog-like dna-binding family. the number of ndt80-like genes in different fungi is highly variable and their roles, which have been examined in only a few species, include regulation of meiosis, sexual development, biofilm formation, drug resistance, virulence, the response to nutrient stress and programmed cell death. the protein kinase ime2 regulates the sin ...201526497142
the fungal exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan mediates virulence by enhancing resistance to neutrophil extracellular traps.of the over 250 aspergillus species, aspergillus fumigatus accounts for up to 80% of invasive human infections. a. fumigatus produces galactosaminogalactan (gag), an exopolysaccharide composed of galactose and n-acetyl-galactosamine (galnac) that mediates adherence and is required for full virulence. less pathogenic aspergillus species were found to produce gag with a lower galnac content than a. fumigatus and expressed minimal amounts of cell wall-bound gag. increasing the galnac content of gag ...201526492565
hgt-finder: a new tool for horizontal gene transfer finding and application to aspergillus genomes.horizontal gene transfer (hgt) is a fast-track mechanism that allows genetically unrelated organisms to exchange genes for rapid environmental adaptation. we developed a new phyletic distribution-based software, hgt-finder, which implements a novel bioinformatics algorithm to calculate a horizontal transfer index and a probability value for each query gene. applying this new tool to the aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, and aspergillus nidulans genomes, we found 273, 542, and 715 transf ...201526473921
characterization of annce102 and its role in eisosome stability and sphingolipid biosynthesis.the plasma membrane is implicated in a variety of functions, whose coordination necessitates highly dynamic organization of its constituents into domains of distinct protein and lipid composition. eisosomes, at least partially, mediate this lateral plasma membrane compartmentalization. in this work, we show that the nce102 homologue of aspergillus nidulans colocalizes with eisosomes and plays a crucial role in density/number of pila/surg foci in the head of germlings. in addition we demonstrate ...201526468899
aspergillus mulundensis sp. nov., a new species for the fungus producing the antifungal echinocandin lipopeptides, mulundocandins.the invalidly published name aspergillus sydowii var. mulundensis was proposed for a strain of aspergillus that produced new echinocandin metabolites designated as the mulundocadins. reinvestigation of this strain (y-30462=dsmz 5745) using phylogenetic, morphological, and metabolic data indicated that it is a distinct and novel species of aspergillus sect. nidulantes. the taxonomic novelty, aspergillus mulundensis, is introduced for this historically important echinocandin-producing strain. the ...201626464011
effect of biotransformation by liver s9 enzymes on the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of melanin extracted from aspergillus nidulans.a mutant that exhibited increased melanin pigment production was isolated from aspergillus nidulans fungus. this pigment has aroused biotechnological interest due to its photoprotector and antioxidant properties. in a recent study, we showed that melanin from a. nidulans also inhibits no and tnf-α production.201626459656
small heat shock proteins, phylogeny in filamentous fungi and expression analyses in aspergillus nidulans.small heat shock proteins (shsps) have been characterized in organisms from all three domains of life and viruses and are involved in a wide range of biological functions. however, the evolution and function of shsp in aspergillus species are largely unknown. in the present work, shsps were identified in 31 filamentous fungi, including species from aspergillus, penicillium, fusarium and magnaporthe, as well as botrytis cinerea and neurospora crassa. phylogenetic analysis revealed high level of d ...201626403724
the aspergillus nidulans syntaxin pepa(pep12) is regulated by two sec1/munc-18 proteins to mediate fusion events at early endosomes, late endosomes and vacuoles.syntaxins are target-snares that crucially contribute to determine membrane compartment identity. three syntaxins, tlg2p, pep12p and vam3p, organize the yeast endovacuolar system. remarkably, filamentous fungi lack the equivalent of the yeast vacuolar syntaxin vam3p, making unclear how these organisms regulate vacuole fusion. we show that the nearly essential aspergillus nidulans syntaxin pepa(pep12) , present in all endocytic compartments between early endosomes and vacuoles, shares features of ...201626395371
rite of passage: a bzip transcription factor must transit the cell apex to become the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans brla triggers the central developmental pathway that controls the transition from vegetative growth to asexual reproduction. upstream regulators including the bzip transcription factor flbb activate the expression of brla. previous work has established that flbb localizes to both the apex of the hypha, where it interacts with and is anchored by flbe, and to nuclei, with highest levels in the nucleus closest to the apex and successively lower levels ...201526387769
novel β-1,4-mannanase belonging to a new glycoside hydrolase family in aspergillus nidulans.many filamentous fungi produce β-mannan-degrading β-1,4-mannanases that belong to the glycoside hydrolase 5 (gh5) and gh26 families. here we identified a novel β-1,4-mannanase (man134a) that belongs to a new glycoside hydrolase (gh) family (gh134) in aspergillus nidulans. blast analysis of the amino acid sequence using the ncbi protein database revealed that this enzyme had no similarity to any sequences and no putative conserved domains. protein homologs of the enzyme were distributed to limite ...201526385921
discovery of a vezatin-like protein for dynein-mediated early endosome transport.early endosomes are transported bidirectionally by cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-3, but how the movements are regulated in vivo remains unclear. here our forward genetic study led to the discovery of veza, a vezatin-like protein in aspergillus nidulans, as a factor critical for early endosome distribution. loss of veza causes an abnormal accumulation of early endosomes at the hyphal tip, where microtubule plus ends are located. this abnormal accumulation depends on kinesin-3 and is due to a dec ...201526378255
investigation of a 6-msa synthase gene cluster in aspergillus aculeatus reveals 6-msa-derived aculinic acid, aculins a-b and epi-aculin a.aspergillus aculeatus, a filamentous fungus belonging to the aspergillus clade nigri, is an industrial workhorse in enzyme production. recently we reported a number of secondary metabolites from this fungus; however, its genetic potential for the production of secondary metabolites is vast. in this study we identified a 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-msa) synthase from a. aculeatus, and verified its functionality by episomal expression in a. aculeatus and heterologous expression in a. nidulans. feedi ...201526374386
seeing the world differently: variability in the photosensory mechanisms of two model fungi.light plays an important role for most organisms on this planet, serving either as a source of energy or information for the adaptation of biological processes to specific times of day. the fungal kingdom is estimated to contain well over a million species, possibly 10-fold more, and it is estimated that a majority of the fungi respond to light, eliciting changes in several physiological characteristics including pathogenesis, development and secondary metabolism. two model organisms for photobi ...201626373782
involvement of lipocalin-like cgha in decalin-forming stereoselective intramolecular [4+2] cycloaddition.understanding enzymatic diels-alder (da) reactions that can form complex natural product scaffolds is of considerable interest. sch 210972 1, a potential anti-hiv fungal natural product, contains a decalin core that is proposed to form through a da reaction. we identified the gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of 1 and heterologously reconstituted the biosynthetic pathway in aspergillus nidulans to characterize the enzymes involved. most notably, deletion of cgha resulted in a loss of ...201526360642
the wopr domain protein osaa orchestrates development in aspergillus nidulans.orchestration of cellular growth and development occurs during the life cycle of aspergillus nidulans. a multi-copy genetic screen intended to unveil novel regulators of development identified the an6578 locus predicted to encode a protein with the wopr domain, which is a broadly present fungi-specific dna-binding motif. multi-copy of an6578 disrupted the normal life cycle of the fungus leading to enhanced proliferation of vegetative cells, whereas the deletion resulted in hyper-active sexual fr ...201526359867
nitric oxide synthesis by nitrate reductase is regulated during development in aspergillus.nitric oxide (no) is a signalling molecule involved in many biological processes in bacteria, plants and mammals. however, little is known about the role and biosynthesis of no in fungi. here we show that no production is increased at the early stages of the transition from vegetative growth to development in aspergillus nidulans. full no production requires a functional nitrate reductase (nr) gene (niad) that is upregulated upon induction of conidiation, even under n-repressing conditions in th ...201626353949
soil fungi for mycoremediation of arsenic pollution in agriculture soils.soil arsenic (as) contamination of food-chains and public health can be mitigated through fungal bioremediation. to enumerate culturable soil fungi, soils were collected from the as-contaminated paddy fields (3-35 mg kg(-1) ) of the middle indo-gangetic plains.201526348882
fgric8 is involved in regulating vegetative growth, conidiation, deoxynivalenol production and virulence in fusarium graminearum.proteins of the resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (ric8) group act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (gefs) and play important roles in regulating g-protein signaling in animals. in filamentous fungi, putative ric8 orthologs have so far been identified in magnaporthe oryzae, neurospora crassa, aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus fumigatus. here, we report the functional investigation of a potential ric8 ortholog (fgric8) in the wheat head blight pathogen fusarium graminearum. ta ...201526341536
identification of growth stage molecular markers in trichoderma sp. 'atroviride type b' and their potential application in monitoring fungal growth and development in soil.several members of the genus trichoderma are biocontrol agents of soil-borne fungal plant pathogens. the effectiveness of biocontrol agents depends heavily on how they perform in the complex field environment. therefore, the ability to monitor and track trichoderma within the environment is essential to understanding biocontrol efficacy. the objectives of this work were to: (a) identify key genes involved in trichoderma sp. 'atroviride type b' morphogenesis; (b) develop a robust rna isolation me ...201526341342
qualitative ubiquitome unveils the potential significances of protein lysine ubiquitination in hyphal growth of aspergillus nidulans.protein ubiquitination is an evolutionarily conserved post-translational modification process in eukaryotes, and it plays an important role in many biological processes. aspergillus nidulans, a model filamentous fungus, contributes to our understanding of cellular physiology, metabolism and genetics, but its ubiquitination is not completely revealed. in this study, the ubiquitination sites in the proteome of a. nidulans were identified using a highly sensitive mass spectrometry combined with imm ...201626328806
enhancement of acetyl xylan esterase activity on cellulose acetate through fusion to a family 3 cellulose binding module.the current study investigates the potential to increase the activity of a family 1 carbohydrate esterase on cellulose acetate through fusion to a family 3 carbohydrate binding module (cbm). specifically, ctcbm3 from clostridium thermocellum was fused to the carboxyl terminus of the acetyl xylan esterase (anaxe) from aspergillus nidulans, and active forms of both anaxe and anaxe-ctcbm3 were produced in pichia pastoris. ctcbm3 fusion had negligible impact on the thermostability or regioselectivit ...201526320711
refining the ph response in aspergillus nidulans: a modulatory triad involving pacx, a novel zinc binuclear cluster protein.the aspergillus nidulans pacc transcription factor mediates gene regulation in response to alkaline ambient ph which, signalled by the pal pathway, results in the processing of pacc(72) to pacc(27) via pacc(53). here we investigate two levels at which the ph regulatory system is transcriptionally moderated by ph and identify and characterise a new component of the ph regulatory machinery, pacx. transcript level analysis and overexpression studies demonstrate that repression of acid-expressed pal ...201526303777
development of the dichlorvos-ammonia (dv-am) method for the visual detection of aflatoxigenic fungi.aflatoxins (afs) are carcinogenic and toxic secondary metabolites produced mainly by aspergillus flavus and aspergillus parasiticus. to monitor and regulate the af contamination of crops, a sensitive and precise detection method for these toxigenic fungi in environments is necessary. we herein developed a novel visual detection method, the dichlorvos-ammonia (dv-am) method, for identifying af-producing fungi using dv and am vapor on agar culture plates, in which dv inhibits the esterase in af bi ...201526300294
further characterization of the role of the mitochondrial high-mobility group box protein in the intracellular redox environment of aspergillus nidulans.hmbb, a predominantly mitochondrial high-mobility group box (hmgb) protein, of aspergillus nidulans affects diverse biological activities, such as sterigmatocystin production, the maintenance of mitochondrial dna copy number, germination of asexual and sexual spores, and protection against oxidative stress agents. we hypothesized that the latter correlates with an unbalanced intracellular redox state, in which case, a not yet fully characterized physiological function could be attributed to this ...201526297166
distinct roles for the p53-like transcription factor xprg and autophagy genes in the response to starvation.autophagy and autolysis are two cannibalistic pathways which allow filamentous fungi to obtain nutrients once environmental nutrient sources are exhausted. in aspergillus nidulans, the effects of mutations in two key autophagy genes, atga, the atg1 ortholog, and atgh, the atg8 ortholog, were compared with mutations in xprg, which encodes a transcriptional activator that plays a key role in autolysis. the anti-fungal drug rapamycin induces autophagy in a range of organisms. mutations in atga and ...201526296599
acstua, which encodes an apses transcription regulator, is involved in conidiation, cephalosporin biosynthesis and cell wall integrity of acremonium chrysogenum.a transcriptional regulatory gene acstua was identified from acremonium chrysogenum. acstua encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein with similarity to stua which regulates the core developmental processes of aspergillus nidulans. like disruption of stua in a. nidulans, deficiency of acstua blocked the conidiation of a. chrysogenum through severely down-regulating the expression of acbrla and acabaa which encode orthologs of the key fungal developmental regulators brla and abaa. disruption of ac ...201526283234
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the entomopathogenic fungus nomuraea agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system for the entomopathogenic fungus nomuraea rileyi was established. three binary t-dna vectors, ppzp-hph, ppzp-hph-rnai and ppzp-hph-dsred2, were constructed. the trpc promoter from aspergillus nidulans was used as the cis-regulatory element to drive the expression of hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) gene and dsred2, which conferred the hygromycin b (hyg b) resistance and red fluorescence visualization, respectively. the blastospores and co ...201526275508
genetic evidence for a microtubule-capture mechanism during polarised growth of aspergillus nidulans.the cellular switch from symmetry to polarity in eukaryotes depends on the microtubule (mt) and actin cytoskeletons. in fungi such as schizosaccharomyces pombe or aspergillus nidulans, the mt cytoskeleton determines the sites of actin polymerization through cortical cell-end marker proteins. here we describe a. nidulans mt guidance protein a (miga) as the first ortholog of the karyogamy protein kar9 from saccharomyces cerevisiae in filamentous fungi. a. nidulans miga interacts with the cortical ...201526272919
new insights into the conversion of versicolorin a in the biosynthesis of aflatoxin b1.a crucial and enigmatic step in the complex biosynthesis of aflatoxin b1 is the oxidative rearrangement of versicolorin a to demethylsterigmatocystin. this step is thought to proceed by an oxidation-reduction-oxidation sequence, in which the nadph-dependent oxidoreductase aflm catalyzes the enclosed reduction step. aflm from aspergillus parasiticus, after heterologous production in e. coli and purification, however, catalyzed the reduction of the hydroquinoid form of the starting compound versic ...201526266881
pcr-rflp on β-tubulin gene for rapid identification of the most clinically important species of aspergillus.aspergillus species are important agents of life-threatening infections in immunosuppressed patients. proper speciation in the aspergilli has been justified based on varied fungal virulence, clinical presentations, and antifungal resistance. accurate identification of aspergillus species usually relies on fungal dna sequencing but this requires expensive equipment that is not available in most clinical laboratories. we developed and validated a discriminative low-cost pcr-based test to discrimin ...201526264625
tip-to-nucleus migration dynamics of the asexual development regulator flbb in vegetative aspergillus nidulans, asexual differentiation requires the presence of the transcription factor flbb at the cell tip and apical nuclei. understanding the relationship between these two pools is crucial for elucidating the biochemical processes mediating conidia production. tip-to-nucleus communication was demonstrated by photo-convertible flbb::dendra2 visualization. tip localization of flbb depends on cys382 in the c-terminus and the bzip dna-binding domain in the n-terminus. flbe, a critica ...201526256571
nucleotide sequence composition adjacent to intronic splice sites improves splicing efficiency via its effect on pre-mrna local folding in fungi.rna splicing is the central process of intron removal in eukaryotes known to regulate various cellular functions such as growth, development, and response to external signals. the canonical sequences indicating the splicing sites needed for intronic boundary recognition are well known. however, the roles and evolution of the local folding of intronic and exonic sequence features adjacent to splice sites has yet to be thoroughly studied. here, focusing on four fungi (saccharomyces cerevisiae, sch ...201526246046
kdma, a histone h3 demethylase with bipartite function, differentially regulates primary and secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans. 201526213895
kaea (sudpro), a member of the ubiquitous keops/ekc protein complex, regulates the arginine catabolic pathway and the expression of several other genes in aspergillus nidulans.the kaea(kae1) (sudpro) gene, which was identified in aspergillus nidulans as a suppressor of proline auxotrophic mutations, encodes the orthologue of saccharomyces cerevisiae kae1p, a member of the evolutionarily conserved keops/ekc (kinase, endopeptidase and other proteins of small size/endopeptidase-like and kinase associated to transcribed chromatin) complex. in yeast, this complex has been shown to be involved in trna modification, transcription, and genome maintenance. in a. nidulans, muta ...201526210809
insecticidal activity of ethyl acetate extracts from culture filtrates of mangrove fungal the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (artemia salina) larvae were performed. the extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (ache) inhibition activity. the results showed th ...201526190921
identification of the scopularide biosynthetic gene cluster in scopulariopsis brevicaulis.scopularide a is a promising potent anticancer lipopeptide isolated from a marine derived scopulariopsis brevicaulis strain. the compound consists of a reduced carbon chain (3-hydroxy-methyldecanoyl) attached to five amino acids (glycine, l-valine, d-leucine, l-alanine, and l-phenylalanine). using the newly sequenced s. brevicaulis genome we were able to identify the putative biosynthetic gene cluster using genetic information from the structurally related emericellamide a from aspergillus nidul ...201526184239
g-protein coupled receptor-mediated nutrient sensing and developmental control in aspergillus nidulans.nutrient sensing and utilisation are fundamental for all life forms. as heterotrophs, fungi have evolved a diverse range of mechanisms for sensing and taking up various nutrients. despite its importance, only a limited number of nutrient receptors and their corresponding ligands have been identified in fungi. g-protein coupled receptors (gpcrs) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors. the aspergillus nidulans genome encodes 16 putative gpcrs, but only a few have been functionally chara ...201526179439
identification and characterization of a novel family of selective antifungal compounds (canbefs) that interfere with fungal protein synthesis.invasive mycotic infections have become more common during recent decades, posing an increasing threat to public health. however, despite the growing needs, treatments for invasive fungal infections remain unsatisfactory and are limited to a small number of antifungals. the aim of this study was to identify novel fungal cell wall inhibitors from a library of small chemical compounds using a conditional protein kinase c (pkc)-expressing strain of aspergillus nidulans sensitive to cell wall-active ...201526149982
the inner nuclear membrane protein src1 is required for stable post-mitotic progression into g1 in aspergillus membranes and associated proteins of the nuclear envelope (ne) are assembled specifically and inclusively around segregated genomes during exit from mitosis is incompletely understood. inner nuclear membrane (inm) proteins play key roles by providing links between dna and the ne. in this study we have investigated the highly conserved inm protein src1 in aspergillus nidulans and have uncovered a novel cell cycle response during post mitotic formation of g1 nuclei. live cell imaging indicates ...201526147902
reversible oxidation of a conserved methionine in the nuclear export sequence determines subcellular distribution and activity of the fungal nitrate regulator nira.the assimilation of nitrate, a most important soil nitrogen source, is tightly regulated in microorganisms and plants. in aspergillus nidulans, during the transcriptional activation process of nitrate assimilatory genes, the interaction between the pathway-specific transcription factor nira and the exportin kapk/crm1 is disrupted, and this leads to rapid nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity of nira. in this work by mass spectrometry, we found that in the absence of nitrate, when nir ...201526132230
an overproduction of astellolides induced by genetic disruption of chromatin-remodeling factors in aspergillus oryzae.the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae is an important industrial mold. recent genomic analysis indicated that a. oryzae has a large number of biosynthetic genes for secondary metabolites (sms), but many of the sms they produce have not been identified. for better understanding of sms production by a. oryzae, we screened a gene-disruption library of transcription factors including chromatin-remodeling factors and found two gene disruptions that show similarly altered sm production profiles. o ...201626126743
a second component of the slta-dependent cation tolerance pathway in aspergillus nidulans.the transcriptional response to alkali metal cation stress is mediated by the zinc finger transcription factor slta in aspergillus nidulans and probably in other fungi of the pezizomycotina subphylum. a second component of this pathway has been identified and characterized. sltb is a 1272 amino acid protein with at least two putative functional domains, a pseudo-kinase and a serine-endoprotease, involved in signaling to the transcription factor slta. absence of sltb activity results in nearly id ...201526119498
the aspergillus nidulans bimc4 mutation provides an excellent tool for identification of kinesin-14 inhibitors.centrosome amplification is a hallmark of many types of cancer cells, and clustering of multiple centrosomes is critical for cancer cell survival and proliferation. human kinesin-14 hset/kfic1 is essential for centrosome clustering, and its inhibition leads to the specific killing of cancer cells with extra centrosomes. since kinesin-14 motor domains are conserved evolutionarily, we conceived a strategy of obtaining kinesin-14 inhibitors using aspergillus nidulans, based on the previous result t ...201526117688
the structure of rpf2-rrs1 explains its role in ribosome biogenesis.the assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes is a hierarchical process involving about 200 biogenesis factors and a series of remodeling steps. the 5s rnp consisting of the 5s rrna, rpl5 and rpl11 is recruited at an early stage, but has to rearrange during maturation of the pre-60s ribosomal subunit. rpf2 and rrs1 have been implicated in 5s rnp biogenesis, but their precise role was unclear. here, we present the crystal structure of the rpf2-rrs1 complex from aspergillus nidulans at 1.5 å resolution and ...201526117542
functional analysis of sterol transporter orthologues in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.polarized growth in filamentous fungi needs a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the growing hyphal tip. one of the important membrane compounds in fungi is ergosterol. at the apical plasma membrane ergosterol accumulations, which are called sterol-rich plasma membrane domains (srds). the exact roles and formation mechanism of the srds remained unclear, although the importance has been recognized for hyphal growth. transport of ergosterol to hyphal tips is thought to be important for th ...201526116213
core oxidative stress response in aspergillus nidulans.the b-zip transcription factor atfa plays a key role in regulating stress responses in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. to identify the core regulons of atfa, we examined genome-wide expression changes caused by various stresses in the presence/absence of atfa using a. nidulans microarrays. we also intended to address the intriguing question regarding the existence of core environmental stress response in this important model eukaryote.201526115917
epigenetics as an emerging tool for improvement of fungal strains used in biotechnology.filamentous fungi are today a major source of industrial biotechnology for the production of primary and secondary metabolites, as well as enzymes and recombinant proteins. all of them have undergone extensive improvement strain programs, initially by classical mutagenesis and later on by genetic manipulation. thereby, strategies to overcome rate-limiting or yield-reducing reactions included manipulating the expression of individual genes, their regulatory genes, and also their function. yet, re ...201526115753
photoprotective and antimutagenic activity of agaricus subrufescens basidiocarp extracts.the photoprotective and antimutagenic activity of opened and closed basidiocarps of agaricus subrufescens (=a. blazei; =a. brasiliensis) obtained by different extraction methods were evaluated on aspergillus nidulans conidia submitted to ultraviolet (uv) light. the aqueous extracts were obtained by three extraction methods: maceration, infusion, and decoction, at two different extraction times. the extracts of a. subrufescens did not present toxicity for a. nidulans conidia. a suspension of a. n ...201526092419
mutagenesis breeding of high echinocandin b producing strain and further titer improvement with culture medium optimization.a combination of microbial strain improvement and statistical optimization is investigated to maximize echinocandin b (ecb) production from aspergillus nidulans zjb-0817. a classical sequential mutagenesis was studied first by using physical (ultraviolet irradiation at 254 nm) and chemical mutagens (lithium chloride and sodium nitrite). mutant strain uln-59 exhibited 2.1-fold increase in ecb production to 1583.1 ± 40.9 mg/l when compared with the parent strain (750.8 ± 32.0 mg/l). this is the fi ...201526091897
functional operons in secondary metabolic gene clusters in glarea lozoyensis (fungi, ascomycota, leotiomycetes).operons are multigene transcriptional units which occur mostly in prokaryotes but rarely in eukaryotes. protein-coding operons have not been reported in the fungi even though they represent a very diverse kingdom of organisms. here, we report a functional operon involved in the secondary metabolism of the fungus glarea lozoyensis belonging to leotiomycetes (ascomycota). two contiguous genes, glpks3 and glnrps7, encoding polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase, respectively, are c ...201526081635
degradation of glutathione in aspergillus nidulans - short communication.relative transcriptions of aspergillus nidulans dug1-3 (orthologes of saccharomyces cerevisiae dug - deficient in utilization of glutathione - pathway genes) and ggta encoding γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were studied under conditions inducing glutathione degradation. ggta was induced in all cases when glutathione levels decreased, but addition of yeast extract, which moderated glutathione degradation, enhanced its induction. although dug2 showed constitutive transcription, dug1 and dug3 were induc ...201526081279
a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of a standard voriconazole regimen in different cyp2c19 genotypes by monte carlo simulation.the objective of this study was to evaluate the standard voriconazole dosage regimen (maintenance dose was 200 mg bid orally) against aspergillus infections in different cyp2c19 genotypes from a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (pk/pd) perspective.201526062298
identification of a critical determinant that enables efficient fatty acid synthesis in oleaginous fungi.microorganisms are valuable resources for lipid production. what makes one microbe but not the other able to efficiently synthesize and accumulate lipids is poorly understood. in the present study, global gene expression prior to and after the onset of lipogenesis was determined by transcriptomics using the oleaginous fungus mortierella alpina as a model system. a core of 23 lipogenesis associated genes was identified and their expression patterns shared a high similarity among oleaginous microb ...201526059272
the aspergillus fumigatus septins play pleiotropic roles in septation, conidiation, and cell wall stress, but are dispensable for virulence.septins are a conserved family of gtpases that regulate important cellular processes such as cell wall integrity, and septation in fungi. the requirement of septins for virulence has been demonstrated in the human pathogenic yeasts candida albicans and cryptococcus neoformans, as well as the plant pathogen magnaporthe oryzae. aspergillus spp. contains five genes encoding for septins (aspa-e). while the importance of septins aspa, aspb, aspc, and aspe for growth and conidiation has been elucidate ...201526051489
oligomerization of the uapa purine transporter is critical for er-exit, plasma membrane localization and turnover.central to the process of transmembrane cargo trafficking is the successful folding and exit from the er (endoplasmic reticulum) through packaging in copii vesicles. here, we use the uapa purine transporter of aspergillus nidulans to investigate the role of cargo oligomerization in membrane trafficking. we show that uapa oligomerizes (at least dimerizes) and that oligomerization persists upon uapa endocytosis and vacuolar sorting. using a validated bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, ...201526049015
gh11 xylanase from emericella nidulans with low sensitivity to inhibition by ethanol and lignocellulose-derived phenolic endo-β-1,4-xylanase (x22) was purified from crude extract of emericella nidulans when cultivated on submerged fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source. the purified protein was identified by mass spectrometry and was most active at ph and temperature intervals of 5.0-6.5 and 50-60°c, respectively. the enzyme showed half-lives of 40, 10 and 7 min at 28, 50 and 55°c, respectively, and ph 5.0. apparent km and vmax values on soluble oat spelt xylan were 3.39 mg/ml and 230.8 iu/mg ...201526040589
snpks19 encodes the polyketide synthase for alternariol mycotoxin biosynthesis in the wheat pathogen parastagonospora nodorum.alternariol (aoh) is an important mycotoxin from the alternaria fungi. aoh was detected for the first time in the wheat pathogen parastagonospora nodorum in a recent study. here, we exploited reverse genetics to demonstrate that snog_15829 (snpks19), a close homolog of penicillium aethiopicum norlichexanthone (nlx) synthase gene gsfa, is required for aoh production. we further validate that snpks19 is solely responsible for aoh production by heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans. the e ...201526025896
evolution of chemical diversity in echinocandin lipopeptide antifungal metabolites.the echinocandins are a class of antifungal drugs that includes caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin. gene clusters encoding most of the structural complexity of the echinocandins provided a framework for hypotheses about the evolutionary history and chemical logic of echinocandin biosynthesis. gene orthologs among echinocandin-producing fungi were identified. pathway genes, including the nonribosomal peptide synthetases (nrpss), were analyzed phylogenetically to address the hypothesis tha ...201526024901
minos as a novel tc1/mariner-type transposable element for functional genomic analysis in aspergillus nidulans.transposons constitute powerful genetic tools for gene inactivation, exon or promoter trapping and genome analyses. the minos element from drosophila hydei, a tc1/mariner-like transposon, has proved as a very efficient tool for heterologous transposition in several metazoa. in filamentous fungi, only a handful of fungal-specific transposable elements have been exploited as genetic tools, with the impala tc1/mariner element from fusarium oxysporum being the most successful. here, we developed a t ...201526021704
combining stable isotope labeling and molecular networking for biosynthetic pathway characterization.filamentous fungi are a rich source of bioactive compounds, ranging from statins over immunosuppressants to antibiotics. the coupling of genes to metabolites is of large commercial interest for production of the bioactives of the future. to this end, we have investigated the use of stable isotope labeled amino acids (silaas). silaas were added to the cultivation media of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans for the study of the cyclic tetrapeptide nidulanin a. analysis by uhplc-tofms conf ...201526020678
an efficient peg/cacl₂-mediated transformation approach for the medicinal fungus wolfiporia cocos.sclerotia of wolfiporia cocos are of medicinal and culinary value. the genes and molecular mechanisms involved in w. cocos sclerotial formation are poorly investigated because of the lack of a suitable and reproducible transformation system for w. cocos. in this study, a peg/ cacl₂-mediated genetic transformation system for w. cocos was developed. the promoter pgpd from ganoderma lucidum effectively drove expression of the hygromycin b phosphotransferase gene in w. cocos, and approximately 30 tr ...201526017228
mycetoma caused by aspergillus nidulans. 201626014969
insight into the antifungal mechanism of neosartorya fischeri antifungal protein.small, cysteine-rich, highly stable antifungal proteins secreted by filamentous ascomycetes have great potential for the development of novel antifungal strategies. however, their practical application is still limited due to their not fully clarified mode of action. the aim of this work was to provide a deep insight into the antifungal mechanism of neosartorya fischeri antifungal protein (nfap), a novel representative of this protein group. within a short exposure time to nfap, reduced cellular ...201525994413
fusarium sambucinum asta gene expressed during potato infection is a functional orthologue of aspergillus nidulans asta.sulfate assimilation plays a vital role in prototrophic organisms. orthologues of the alternative sulfate transporter (asta) gene from aspergillus nidulans were identified in the fungal plant pathogens fusarium sambucinum and fusarium graminearum. by physiological and biochemical analyses, the asta orthologues were determined to be able to uptake sulfate from the environment. similarly to asta in a. nidulans, the fsasta gene was found to be regulated by sulfur metabolite repression (smr) in a su ...201525986548
brain abscesses due to aspergillus nidulans infection during induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.we present the case of a 3-year-old boy who was diagnosed with cerebral abscesses due to aspergillus nidulans infection on day 28 of induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. he responded well to treatment with voriconazole and caspofungin, making a full recovery. there are very few cases of invasive aspergillosis reported in children during induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia and a. nidulans is rare in the absence of chronic granulomatous disease.201525985238
successful combination of sequential gene therapy and rescue allo-hsct in two children with x-cgd - importance of timing.we report on a series of sequential events leading to long-term survival and cure of pediatric x-linked chronic granulomatous disease (x-cgd) patients after gamma-retroviral gene therapy (gt) and rescue hsct. due to therapyrefractory life-threatening infections requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (hsct) but absence of hlaidentical donors, we treated 2 boys with x-cgd by gt. following gt both children completely resolved invasive aspergillus nidulans infections. however, one child d ...201525981636
light-dependent gene activation in aspergillus nidulans is strictly dependent on phytochrome and involves the interplay of phytochrome and white collar-regulated histone h3 acetylation.the ability for light sensing is found from bacteria to humans but relies only on a small number of evolutionarily conserved photoreceptors. a large number of fungi react to light, mostly to blue light. aspergillus nidulans also responds to red light using a phytochrome light sensor, fpha, for the control of hundreds of light-regulated genes. here, we show that photoinduction of one light-induced gene, ccga, occurs mainly through red light. induction strictly depends on phytochrome and its histi ...201525980340
velvet-mediated repression of β-glucan synthesis in aspergillus nidulans spores.beta-glucans are a heterologous group of fibrous glucose polymers that are a major constituent of cell walls in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes fungi. synthesis of β (1,3)- and (1,6)-glucans is coordinated with fungal cell growth and development, thus, is under tight genetic regulation. here, we report that β-glucan synthesis in both asexual and sexual spores is turned off by the nf-kb like fungal regulators vosa and velb in aspergillus nidulans. our genetic and genomic analyses have revealed tha ...201525960370
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