PMID(sorted descending)
nudc is required for interkinetic nuclear migration and neuronal migration during neocortical development.nudc is a highly conserved protein necessary for cytoplasmic dynein-mediated nuclear migration in aspergillus nidulans. nudc interacts genetically with aspergillus nudf and physically with its mammalian orthologue lis1, which is crucial for nuclear and neuronal migration during brain development. to test for related roles for nudc, we performed in utero electroporation into embryonic rat brain of cdnas encoding shrnas as well as wild-type and mutant forms of nudc. we show here that nudc, like li ...201121771589
phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c mediates carbon sensing and vegetative nuclear duplication rates in aspergillus this work, we disrupted one of three putative phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c genes of aspergillus nidulans and studied its effect on carbon source sensing linked to vegetative mitotic nuclear division. we showed that glucose does not affect nuclear division rates during early vegetative conidial germination (6-7 h) in either the wild type or the plca-deficient mutant. only after 8 h of cultivation on glucose did the mutant strain present some decrease in nuclear duplication. however, de ...201121770720
[performance of locked nucleic acid probe real-time polymerase chain reaction in the detection of aspergillus fumigatus].to evaluate the performance of locked nucleic acid (lna) probe real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in the detection of aspergillus fumigatus (a. fumigatus).201121756800
experimental evolution of defense against a competitive mold confers reduced sensitivity to fungal toxins but no increased resistance in drosophila larvae.abstract: background: fungal secondary metabolites have been suggested to function as chemical defenses against insect antagonists, i.e. predators and competitors. because insects and fungi often compete for dead organic material, insects may achieve protection against fungi by reducing sensitivity to fungal chemicals. this, in turn, may lead to increased resistance allowing insects better to suppress the spread of antagonistic but non-pathogenic microbes in their habitat. however, it remains co ...201121756302
ehd2 mediates trafficking from the plasma membrane by modulating rac1 activity.ehds, eh domain containing proteins, participate in different stages of endocytosis. ehd2 is a plasma membrane associated, ehd which regulates trafficking from the plasma membrane [1]and recycling [2]. ehd2 has a role in nucleotide dependent membrane remodeling and its atp binding domain is involved in dimerization, which creates a membrane binding region. nucleotide binding is important for association of ehd2 with the plasma membrane, since a nucleotide free mutant (ehd2 t72a) failed to do so ...201121756249
conidial dihydroxynaphthalene melanin of the human pathogenic fungus aspergillus fumigatus interferes with the host endocytosis pathway.aspergillus fumigatus is the most important air-borne fungal pathogen of humans. the interaction of the pathogen with the host's immune system represents a key process to understand pathogenicity. for elimination of invading microorganisms, they need to be efficiently phagocytosed and located in acidified phagolysosomes. however, as shown previously, a. fumigatus is able to manipulate the formation of functional phagolysosomes. here, we demonstrate that in contrast to pigmentless pksp mutant con ...201121747802
Osmotic stabilizer-coupled suppression of NDR defects is dependent on the calcium-calcineurin signaling cascade in Aspergillus nidulans.Establishment and maintenance of cell polarity are coordinated by signaling pathways such as NDR (nuclear Dbf2-related) protein-kinase signaling and calcium signaling pathway. The NDR family of kinase is structurally related to the human myotonic dystrophy kinase, which, when impaired, confers a disease that involves changes in cytoarchitecture and ion homeostasis. CotA kinase, a member of the NDR protein kinase family, forms a complex with MobB to regulate cell polarized growth in Aspergillus n ...201121741477
improved pectinase production in penicillium griseoroseum recombinant strains.aims:ôçé to obtain recombinant strains of penicillium griseoroseum that produce high levels of pectin lyase (pl) and polygalacturonase (pg) simultaneously. methods and results:ôçé a strain with high production of pl was transformed with the plasmid pan52pgg2, containing the gene encoding pg of p.-ágriseoroseum, under control of the gpd promoter gene from aspergillus nidulans. southern blot analysis demonstrated that all strain had at least one copy of pan52pgg2 integrated into the genome. the re ...201121726361
proteomics of eukaryotic microorganisms: the medically and biotechnologically important fungal genus aspergillus.fungal species of the genus aspergillus play significant roles as model organisms in basic research, as "cell factories" for the production of organic acids, pharmaceuticals or industrially important enzymes and as pathogens causing superficial and invasive infections in animals and humans. the release of the genome sequences of several aspergillus sp. has paved the way for global analyses of protein expression in aspergilli including the characterisation of proteins, which have not designated a ...201121726053
mutational analysis and modeling reveal functionally critical residues in transmembrane segments 1 and 3 of the uapa transporter.earlier, we identified mutations in the first transmembrane segment (tms1) of uapa, a uric acid-xanthine transporter in aspergillus nidulans, that affect its turnover and subcellular localization. here, we use one of these mutations (h86d) and a novel mutation (i74d) as well as genetic suppressors of them, to show that tms1 is a key domain for proper folding, trafficking and turnover. kinetic analysis of mutants further revealed that partial misfolding and deficient trafficking of uapa does not ...201121722649
the mpkb map kinase plays a role in post-karyogamy processes as well as in hyphal anastomosis during sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.two genes encoding map kinase homologs, designated as mpkb and mpkc, were isolated from aspergillus nidulans by pcr with degenerate primers. deletion and over-expression mutants of mpkc showed no detectable phenotypes under any external stress tested. deletion of mpkb caused pleiotropic phenotypes including a failure in forming cleistothecia under any induction conditions for sexual development, increased h++lle cell production, slow hyphal growth and aberrant conidiophore morphology. over-expre ...201121717328
the p25 subunit of the dynactin complex is required for dynein-early endosome interaction.cytoplasmic dynein transports various cellular cargoes including early endosomes, but how dynein is linked to early endosomes is unclear. we find that the aspergillus nidulans orthologue of the p25 subunit of dynactin is critical for dynein-mediated early endosome movement but not for dynein-mediated nuclear distribution. in the absence of nudf/lis1, p25 deletion abolished the localization of dynein-dynactin to the hyphal tip where early endosomes abnormally accumulate but did not prevent dynein ...201121708978
two induced fungal polyketide pathways converge into antiproliferative spiroanthrones. 201121698737
substrate specifity profiling of the aspergillus fumigatus proteolytic secretome reveals consensus motifs with predominance of ile/leu and phe/tyr.the filamentous fungus aspergillus fumigatus (af) can cause devastating infections in immunocompromised individuals. early diagnosis improves patient outcomes but remains challenging because of the limitations of current methods. to augment the clinician's toolkit for rapid diagnosis of af infections, we are investigating af secreted proteases as novel diagnostic targets. the af genome encodes up to 100 secreted proteases, but fewer than 15 of these enzymes have been characterized thus far. give ...201121695046
roles of the aspergillus nidulans udp-galactofuranose transporter, ugta in hyphal morphogenesis, cell wall architecture, conidiation, and drug sensitivity.galactofuranose (galf) is the 5-member-ring form of galactose found in the walls of fungi including aspergillus, but not in mammals. udp-galactofuranose mutase (ugma, anid_3112.1) generates udp-galf from udp-galactopyranose (6-member ring form). ugma-gfp is cytoplasmic, so the udp-galf residues it produces must be transported into an endomembrane compartment prior to incorporation into cell wall components. anid_3113.1 (which we call ugta) was identified as being likely to encode the a. nidulans ...201121693196
redundant ability of phagocytes to kill aspergillus species. 201121689849
The d-galacturonic acid catabolic pathway in Botrytis cinerea.d-galacturonic acid is the most abundant component of pectin, one of the major polysaccharide constituents of plant cell walls. Galacturonic acid potentially is an important carbon source for microorganisms living on (decaying) plant material. A catabolic pathway was proposed in filamentous fungi, comprising three enzymatic steps, involving d-galacturonate reductase, l-galactonate dehydratase, and 2-keto-3-deoxy-l-galactonate aldolase. We describe the functional, biochemical and genetic characte ...201121683149
a genome-wide polyketide synthase deletion library uncovers novel genetic links to polyketides and meroterpenoids in aspergillus nidulans.fungi possess an advanced secondary metabolism that is regulated and coordinated in a complex manner depending on environmental challenges. to understand this complexity, a holistic approach is necessary. we initiated such an analysis in the important model fungus aspergillus nidulans by systematically deleting all 32 individual genes encoding polyketide synthases. wild-type and all mutant strains were challenged on different complex media to provoke induction of the secondary metabolism. screen ...201121658102
coordination of secondary metabolism and development in fungi: the velvet family of regulatory proteins.filamentous fungi produce a number of small bioactive molecules as part of their secondary metabolism ranging from benign antibiotics such as penicillin to threatening mycotoxins such as aflatoxin. secondary metabolism can be linked to fungal developmental programs in response to various abiotic or biotic external triggers. the velvet family of regulatory proteins plays a key role in coordinating secondary metabolism and differentiation processes such as asexual or sexual sporulation and sclerot ...201121658084
analysis of aspergillus nidulans germination, initial growth and carbon source response by flow this work, flow cytometry was utilized to analyze the initial vegetative growth of the model fungus aspergillus nidulans as measured by the number of events increasing size and internal complexity. it was established the ideal parameters for the analysis of conidial populations, whose growth was followed after germination in glucose or sucrose. while glucose in culture increased growth several magnitudes in comparison to control cultures in saline, growth was less intense in cultures amended ...201121656795
regulated inactivation of the spindle assembly checkpoint without functional mitotic spindles.the spindle assembly checkpoint (sac) arrests mitosis until bipolar attachment of spindle microtubules to all chromosomes is accomplished. however, when spindle formation is prevented and the sac cannot be satisfied, mammalian cells can eventually overcome the mitotic arrest while the checkpoint is still activated. we find that aspergillus nidulans cells, which are unable to satisfy the sac, inactivate the checkpoint after a defined period of mitotic arrest. such sac inactivation allows normal n ...201121642954
role of nitric oxide and flavohemoglobin homologous genes in aspergillus nidulans sexual development and mycotoxin production.flavohemoglobins are widely distributed in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. these proteins are involved in reducing nitric oxide levels. deletion of the aspergillus nidulans flavohemoglobin gene fhba induced sexual development and decreased sterigmatocystin production. supplementation with a nitric oxide-releasing compound promoted cleistothecial formation and increased nsdd and stea expression, indicating that nitric oxide induces sexual development. this is the first study on the effect of nit ...201121642398
on the role of microtubules, cell end markers, and septal microtubule organizing centres on site selection for polar growth in aspergillus nidulans.tip growth of filamentous fungi depends on continuous polarized growth and requires the actin and microtubule (mt) cytoskeleton. cortical proteins at polarity sites, also known as cell end markers, play important roles in polarity maintenance. deletion of the cell end marker teaa results in zigzag hyphal morphologies, which is contrary to the normal rectilinear growth pattern. here we studied the role of teaa and mts in the establishment of polarity during tip growth of aspergillus nidulans, inc ...201121640315
regulation of conidiation by light in aspergillus nidulans.light regulates several aspects of the biology of many organisms, including the balance between asexual and sexual development in some fungi. to understand how light regulates fungal development at the molecular level we have used aspergillus nidulans as a model. we have performed a genome-wide expression analysis that has allowed us to identify more than 400 genes upregulated, and more than 100 genes downregulated by light in developmentally competent mycelium. among the upregulated genes were ...201121624998
chronic granulomatous disease of childhood: an unusual cause of recurrent uncommon infections in a 61-year-old man.chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) is a rare congenital immunodeficiency that affects 1 : 250 000 of the population, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and by granuloma formation. we investigated a 61-year-old man presented with a 20-year history of a relapsing skin rash appearing as mildly pruritic and erythematous plaques affecting various body regions. cutaneous biopsies were taken and sent for histology and tissue culture. leucocyte function was assessed by ...201121623884
autophagy induced by rapamycin and carbon-starvation have distinct proteome profiles in aspergillus is hypothesized that autophagy, a global catabolic pathway which is highly conserved from yeast to man, plays an important role in many bioprocesses. though autophagy is known to be induced by either nutrient starvation or treatment with the drug rapamycin, it is not clear whether the two modes of induction have the same long term impact in the cell, particularly in the biotechnologically important filamentous fungi. here, we compare the overall proteomes from the carbon-starved (g-) and rapa ...201121618477
osteomyelitis due to aspergillus species in chronic granulomatous disease: an update of the literature.chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) is a rare inherited disorder characterised by inability of phagocytes to kill catalase-positive organisms including certain fungi. aspergillus species are the most frequent fungal pathogens. this study is a systematic review of the reported cases of osteomyelitis due to aspergillus species in cgd patients. retrospective analysis of 46 osteomyelitis cases caused by aspergillus species in 43 cgd patients (three females) published in the english literature (pubme ...201121615532
kinetics of cyclobutane thymine dimer splitting by dna photolyase directly monitored in the uv.cpd photolyase uses light to repair cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (cpds) formed between adjacent pyrimidines in uv-irradiated dna. the enzyme harbors an fad cofactor in fully reduced state (fadh(-)). the cpd repair mechanism involves electron transfer from photoexcited fadh(-) to the cpd, splitting of its intradimer bonds, and electron return to restore catalytically active fadh(-). the two electron transfer processes occur on time scales of 10(-10) and 10(-9) s, respectively. until now, cpd spl ...201121606324
structure and activity of aspergillus nidulans copper amine oxidase.aspergillus nidulans amine oxidase (anao) has the unusual ability among the family of copper and trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone-containing amine oxidases of being able to oxidize the amine side chains of lysine residues in large peptides and proteins. we show here that in common with the related enzyme from the yeast pichia pastoris, anao can promote the cross-linking of tropoelastin and oxidize the lysine residues in α-casein proteins and tropoelastin. the crystal structure of anao, the first ...201121604787
asperlin induces g(2)/m arrest through ros generation and atm pathway in human cervical carcinoma cells.we exploited the biological activity of an antibiotic agent asperlin isolated from aspergillus nidulans against human cervical carcinoma cells. we found that asperlin dramatically increased reactive oxygen species (ros) generation accompanied by a significant reduction in cell proliferation. cleavage of caspase-3 and parp and reduction of bcl-2 could also be detected after asperlin treatment to the cells. an anti-oxidant n-acetyl-l-cysteine (nac), however, blocked all the apoptotic effects of as ...201121600879
characterisation of anbest1, a functional anion channel in the plasma membrane of the filamentous fungus, aspergillus nidulans.two distant homologues of the bestrophin gene family have been identified in the filamentous fungus, aspergillus nidulans (anbest1 and anbest2). anbest1 was functionally characterised using the patch clamp technique and was shown to be an anion selective channel permeable to citrate. furthermore, anbest1 restored the growth of the pdr12δ yeast mutant on inhibitory concentrations of extracellular propionate, benzoate and sorbate, also consistent with carboxylated organic anion permeation of anbes ...201121596151
immunomodulatory and therapeutic potential of a mycelial lectin from aspergillus nidulans.lectins bind to surface receptors on target cells, and activate a cascade of events, eventually leading to altered immune status of host. the immunomodulatory potential of purified lectin from aspergillus nidulans was evaluated in swiss albino mice treated intraperitoneally with seven different doses of purified lectin. lectin prevented bsa-induced arthus reaction and systemic anaphylaxis. the enhanced functional ability of macrophages was evident from respiratory burst activity and nitric oxide ...201121590306
kin3 protein, a nima-related kinase of saccharomyces cerevisiae, is involved in dna adduct damage response.kin3 is a nonessential serine/threonine protein kinase of the budding yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae with unknown cellular role. it is an ortholog of the aspergillus nidulans protein kinase nima (never-in mitosis, gene a), which is involved in the regulation of g2/m phase progression, dna damage response and mitosis. the aim of this study was to determine whether kin3 is required for proper checkpoint activation and dna repair. here we show that kin3 gene deficient cells present sensitivity and ...201021577056
strategies of xylanase supplementation for an efficient saccharification and cofermentation process from pretreated wheat straw.ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw materials includes a pretreatment step before enzymatic hydrolysis (eh). pretreated substrates contain complex hemicelluloses in the solid fraction that can protect the cellulose from enzymatic attack. in addition, soluble xylooligomers are contained in the pretreated materials and may have an inhibitory effect on cellulase activity. in this context, several approaches for xylanase supplementation have been studied to increase eh yields. in this study, ...201121567993
mononucleotide repeats represent an important source of polymorphic microsatellite markers in aspergillus fungi, microsatellites occur less frequently throughout the genome and tend to be less polymorphic compared with other organisms. most studies that develop microsatellites for fungi focus on dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, and thus mononucleotide repeats, which are much more abundant in fungal genomes, may represent an overlooked resource. this study examined the relative probabilities of polymorphism in mononucleotide, dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats in aspergillus nidulans. a ...200921564695
control of glucosylceramide production and morphogenesis by the bar1 ceramide synthase in fusarium graminearum.the contribution of plasma membrane proteins to the virulence of plant pathogenic fungi is poorly understood. accordingly, the objective of this study was to characterize the acyl-coa dependent ceramide synthase bar1 (previously implicated in plasma membrane organization) in the wheat pathogen fusarium graminearum. the role of bar1 in mediating cell membrane organization was confirmed as δbar1 mutants failed to display a distinct sterol-rich domain at the hyphal tip. the δbar1 mutants were non-p ...201121559419
quantitative trait locus (qtl) mapping reveals a role for unstudied genes in aspergillus virulence.infections caused by the fungus aspergillus are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised populations. to identify genes required for virulence that could be used as targets for novel treatments, we mapped quantitative trait loci (qtl) affecting virulence in the progeny of a cross between two strains of a. nidulans (fgsc strains a4 and a91). we genotyped 61 progeny at 739 single nucleotide polymorphisms (snp) spread throughout the genome, and constructed a linkage map that wa ...201121559404
transcription of the hsp30, hsp70, and hsp90 heat shock protein genes is modulated by the pala protein in response to acid ph-sensing in the fungus aspergillus nidulans.heat shock proteins are molecular chaperones linked to a myriad of physiological functions in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. in this study, we show that the aspergillus nidulans hsp30 (anid_03555.1), hsp70 (anid_05129.1), and hsp90 (anid_08269.1) genes are preferentially expressed in an acidic milieu, whose expression is dependent on the pala (+) background under optimal temperature for fungal growth. heat shock induction of these three hsp genes showed different patterns in response to extrac ...201121553327
multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of ppoa, a cyp450 fusion protein that catalyzes fatty acid dioxygenation.ppoa is a fungal dioxygenase that produces hydroxylated fatty acids involved in the regulation of the life cycle and secondary metabolism of aspergillus nidulans . it was recently proposed that this novel enzyme employs two different heme domains to catalyze two separate reactions: within a heme peroxidase domain, linoleic acid is oxidized to (8r)-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid [(8r)-hpode]; in the second reaction step (8r)-hpode is isomerized within a p450 heme thiolate domain to 5,8-dihydroxy ...201121548577
8-carbon oxylipins inhibit germination and growth, and stimulate aerial conidiation in aspergillus nidulans.germination of aspergillus nidulans conidia in liquid cultures was progressively inhibited at inoculum loads above 1×10(5)conidiaml(-1). high conidial densities also inhibited growth of neighbouring mycelia. the eight-carbon oxylipin 1-octen-3-ol was identified as the main inhibitor in a fraction also containing 3-octanone and 3-octanol. these three oxylipins also increased the conidiation rate of dark-grown surface cultures, but had no effect on liquid cultures. 3-octanone was the most conidiog ...201121530921
structural features and chaperone activity of the nudc protein family.the nudc family consists of four conserved proteins with representatives in all eukaryotes. the archetypal nudc gene from aspergillus nidulans is a member of the nud gene family that is involved in the maintenance of nuclear migration. this family also includes nudf, whose human orthologue, lis1, codes for a protein essential for brain cortex development. three paralogues of nudc are known in vertebrates: nudc, nudc-like (nudcl), and nudc-like 2 (nudcl2). the fourth distantly related member of t ...201121530541
adaptation of the tokuyasu method for the ultrastructural study and immunogold labelling of filamentous fungi.the study of filamentous fungi is fundamental not only to extend their biotechnological applications, but also to develop new drugs to fight pathological species. morphological analyses are particularly relevant when investigating their development and differentiation. the need to maintain the orientation of hyphae and the presence of a cell wall, which hampers the sample infiltration with cryoprotectants and other reagents necessary to preserve the cell ultrastructure, creates difficulties with ...201121527426
formation and stability of eisosomes in the filamentous fungus ashbya hallmark of the rapid expansion of the polar surface of fungal hyphae is the spatial separation of regions of exocytosis and endocytosis at hyphal tips, as recently shown for ashbya gossypii and aspergillus nidulans. to determine where cortex-associated eisosomes form with respect to these two regions, we monitored fluorescently marked eisosomes in a. gossypii. each minute, 1.6±0.5 eisosomes form within the first 30 μm of each hypha and are exclusively subapical of the endocytosis region. th ...201121525038
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the plant pathogenic fungus rosellinia necatrix.rosellinia necatrix is a soil-borne root pathogen affecting a wide range of commercially important plant species. the mycelium of r. necatrix was transformed to hygromycin b resistance by an agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system using a binary plasmid vector containing the hygromycin b phosphotransferase (hph) gene controlled by the heterologous fungal aspergillus nidulans p-gpd (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) promoter and the trpc terminator. co-cultivation of r. n ...201121513216
[comparison of genomes between aspergillus nidulans and 30 filamentous ascomycetes].to investigate the conserved homologs of filamentous ascomycetes genomes, the local fungal genome database used in this analysis was established, which consisted of 31 latest and complete genome data publicly available on the internet. an expectation value cutoff of 0.1 was used to identify significant hits. each complete gene set of the query genome aspergillus nidulans genome with 10,560 annotated genes was splitted into individual fasta files with seqverter and then compared separately agains ...201021513172
enzymatic properties of the recombinant serine-type carboxypeptidase ocpc, which is unique to aspergillus oryzae.gene ao090103000153 is unique to aspergillus oryzae rib40 and a. flavus nrrl3357, and is speculated to encode a serine-type carboxypeptidase. in this study, we purified and characterized a heterologously expressed gene product of ao090103000153. 5'-rapid amplification of cdna ends indicated that the translation start site of the gene is located 1,586 bp downstream of the translation start site predicted by the genome sequencing project. the gene, starting from the revised translation start codon ...201121512241
eisosomes and membrane compartments in the ascomycetes: a view from aspergillus nidulans.eisosomes are punctate structures located in the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane of ascomycetes. in saccharomyces cerevisiae they coincide topologically with and are necessary for the organisation of specific membrane domains. the eisosomal proteins are universally and quite strictly conserved in the sub-phylum, however this evolutionary conservation is in apparent contradiction with an elusive functional significance. the comparative analysis of the eisosomes of s. cerevisiae and aspergil ...201121509182
regulation of pentose utilisation by arar, but not xlnr, differs in aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus niger.filamentous fungi are important producers of plant polysaccharide degrading enzymes that are used in many industrial applications. these enzymes are produced by the fungus to liberate monomeric sugars that are used as carbon source. two of the main components of plant polysaccharides are l: -arabinose and d: -xylose, which are metabolized through the pentose catabolic pathway (pcp) in these fungi. in aspergillus niger, the regulation of pentose release from polysaccharides and the pcp involves t ...201121484208
cryptic aspergillus nidulans antimicrobials.secondary metabolite (sm) production by fungi is hypothesized to provide some fitness attribute for the producing organisms. however, most sm clusters are "silent" when fungi are grown in traditional laboratory settings, and it is difficult to ascertain any function or activity of these sm cluster products. recently, the creation of a chromatin remodeling mutant in aspergillus nidulans induced activation of several cryptic sm gene clusters. systematic testing of nine purified metabolites from th ...201121478304
purification and characterization of antifungal δ-dodecalactone from lactobacillus plantarum af1 isolated from kimchi.the aim of this study was to purify and identify an antifungal compound from lactobacillus plantarum af1, which was isolated from kimchi. the antifungal compound was purified by solid-phase extraction and recycling preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and its structure was elucidated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). the active compound from l. plantarum af1 was confirmed to be δ-dodecalactone (molecular weight, 198.3) by comparison of its gas chromatographic ...201121477483
glutathione reductase/glutathione is responsible for cytotoxic elemental sulfur tolerance via polysulfide shuttle in fungi.fungi that can reduce elemental sulfur to sulfide are widely distributed, but the mechanism and physiological significance of the reaction have been poorly characterized. here, we purified elemental sulfur-reductase (sr) and cloned its gene from the elemental sulfur-reducing fungus fusarium oxysporum. we found that nadph-glutathione reductase (gr) reduces elemental sulfur via glutathione as an intermediate. a loss-of-function mutant of the sr/gr gene generated less sulfide from elemental sulfur ...201121474441
biosorption of as(iii) ions from aqueous solution using dry, heat-treated and naoh-treated aspergillus nidulans.the biosorption of as(iii) ions on dry, heat-treated and naoh-treated aspergillus nidulans in aqueous solutions was studied. the effect ofph (2-6), temperature (25, 30, 35, 45 degrees c), and initial concentration (250-700 mg l(-1)) of as(iii) ions were investigated in a batch system. the maximum biosorption rate of as(iii) ions on the tested biosorbent were obtained at ph 4 and 35 degrees c in about 240 min. the maximum biosorption capacities of dry, heat-treated and naoh-treated fungal biomass ...201121473283
induction of cell wall thickening by the antifungal compound dihydromaltophilin disrupts fungal growth and is mediated by sphingolipid biosynthesis.dihydromaltophilin (heat-stable antifungal factor [hsaf]) is an antifungal metabolite produced in lysobacter enzymogenes biocontrol strain c3. this compound induces cell wall thickening in aspergillus nidulans. here we show that the cell wall thickening is a general response to hsaf in diverse fungal species. in the a. nidulans model, the thickened cell wall negatively affects hyphal growth. growth of hsaf-pre-treated hyphae failed to resume at hyphal tips with thick cell wall and the actin cabl ...200921462551
recruitment of class i hydrophobins to the air:water interface initiates a multi-step process of functional amyloid formation.class i fungal hydrophobins form amphipathic monolayers composed of amyloid rodlets. this is a remarkable case of functional amyloid formation in that a hydrophobic:hydrophilic interface is required to trigger the self-assembly of the proteins. the mechanism of rodlet formation and the role of the interface in this process have not been well understood. here, we have studied the effect of a range of additives, including ionic liquids, alcohols, and detergents, on rodlet formation by two class i ...201121454575
nmr structure of the c-terminal domain of a tyrosyl-trna synthetase that functions in group i intron splicing.the mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetases (mt tyrrss) of pezizomycotina fungi are bifunctional proteins that aminoacylate mitochondrial trna(tyr) and are structure-stabilizing splicing cofactors for group i introns. studies with the neurospora crassa synthetase (cyt-18 protein) showed that splicing activity is dependent upon pezizomycotina-specific structural adaptations that form a distinct group i intron-binding site in the n-terminal catalytic domain. although cyt-18's c-terminal domain also ...201121438536
peritonitis due to aspergillus nidulans and its effective treatment with voriconazole: the first case report. 201121427255
elucidation of functional markers from aspergillus nidulans developmental regulator flbb and their phylogenetic distribution.aspergillus nidulans is a filamentous fungus widely used as a model for biotechnological and clinical research. it is also used as a platform for the study of basic eukaryotic developmental processes. previous studies identified and partially characterized a set of proteins controlling cellular transformations in this ascomycete. among these proteins, the bzip type transcription factor flbb is a key regulator of reproduction, stress responses and cell-death. our aim here was the prediction, thro ...201121423749
wild-type mic distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for caspofungin and aspergillus spp. for the clsi broth microdilution method (m38-a2 document).clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing. epidemiologic cutoff values (ecvs) are available for six aspergillus spp. and the triazoles, but not for caspofungin. wild-type (wt) minimal effective concentration (mec) distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish ecvs for six aspergillus spp. and caspofungin. the number of available isolates was as follows: 1,691 a. fumigatus, 432 a. flavus, 192 ...201121422219
completing the purine utilisation pathway of aspergillus nidulans.we have previously identified by classical genetics and biochemistry, all the genes of aspergillus nidulans predicted to be involved in purine utilisation, together with cognate regulatory genes and one gene encoding a novel xanthine hydroxylation activity. in this article we complete the description of the purine utilisation pathway with the identification of the two genes (uax and uaw) encoding the enzymes catalysing the conversion of the product of urate oxidation by urate oxidase, 5-hydroxyi ...201121419234
how protein kinases co-ordinate mitosis in animal cells.mitosis is associated with profound changes in cell physiology and a spectacular surge in protein phosphorylation. to accomplish these, a remarkably large portion of the kinome is involved in the process. in the present review, we will focus on classic mitotic kinases, such as cyclin-dependent kinases, polo-like kinases and aurora kinases, as well as more recently characterized players such as nima (never in mitosis in aspergillus nidulans)-related kinases, greatwall and haspin. together, these ...201121406064
versatile enzyme expression and characterization system for aspergillus nidulans, with the penicillium brevicompactum polyketide synthase gene from the mycophenolic acid gene cluster as a test case.assigning functions to newly discovered genes constitutes one of the major challenges en route to fully exploiting the data becoming available from the genome sequencing initiatives. heterologous expression in an appropriate host is central in functional genomics studies. in this context, filamentous fungi offer many advantages over bacterial and yeast systems. to facilitate the use of filamentous fungi in functional genomics, we present a versatile cloning system that allows a gene of interest ...201121398493
agrobacterium tumefasciens-mediated transformation of the aquatic fungus blastocladiella emersonii.agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely used for plant dna transformation and more recently, has also been used to transform yeast, filamentous fungi and even human cells. using this technique, we developed the first transformation protocol for the saprobic aquatic fungus blastocladiella emersonii, a blastocladiomycete localized at the base of fungal phylogenetic tree, which has been shown as a promising and interesting model of study of cellular function and differentiation. we constructed binary t ...201121396477
the aspergillus nidulans cenp-e kinesin motor kipa interacts with the fungal homologue of the centromere-associated protein cenp-h at the kinetochore.chromosome segregation is an essential process for nuclear and cell division. the microtubule cytoskeleton, molecular motors and protein complexes at the microtubule plus ends and at kinetochores play crucial roles in the segregation process. here we identified kata (kipatarget protein, homologue of cenp-h) as a kinesin-7 (kipa, homologue of human cenp-e) interacting protein in aspergillus nidulans. kata located at the kinetochore during the whole cell cycle and colocalized with kipa and partial ...201121392133
fluorinated substrates result in variable leakage of a reaction intermediate during catalysis by dehydroquinate synthase.incubation of (3s)-3-fluoro-3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate with dehydroquinate (dhq) synthase from three phylogenetically distinct sources resulted in the production of (6s)-6-fluorodhq and its epimer 1-epi-(6s)-6-fluorodhq. the differences in the product ratios of the reactions catalysed by each enzyme imply that 1-epi-(6s)-6-fluorodhq formation occurs by an unusual partial leakage of a reaction intermediate from the enzyme.201121387027
restoration of anti-aspergillus defense by neutrophil extracellular traps in human chronic granulomatous disease after gene therapy is calprotectin-dependent.aspergillus spp infection is a potentially lethal disease in patients with neutropenia or impaired neutrophil function. we showed previously that aspergillus hyphae, too large for neutrophil phagocytosis, are inhibited by reactive oxygen species-dependent neutrophil extracellular trap (net) formation. this process is defective in chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) because of impaired phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nadph) oxidase function.201121376380
[screening and application of phosphate-dissolving microorganism suitable for corn production].to obtain phosphate-dissolving strains which can be suitable for corn production.201021365915
influence of substrate dideuteration on the reaction of the bifunctional heme enzyme psi factor producing oxygenase a (ppoa).ppoa is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the dioxygenation of unsaturated c18 fatty acids. the products of this reaction are termed psi factors and have been shown to play a crucial role in conferring a balance between sexual and asexual spore development as well as production of secondary metabolites in the fungus aspergillus nidulans. studies on the reaction mechanism revealed that ppoa uses two different heme domains to catalyze two subsequent reactions. initially, the fatty acid substrat ...201121365732
genome-based deletion analysis reveals the prenyl xanthone biosynthesis pathway in aspergillus nidulans.xanthones are a class of molecules that bind to a number of drug targets and possess a myriad of biological properties. an understanding of xanthone biosynthesis at the genetic level should facilitate engineering of second-generation molecules and increasing production of first-generation compounds. the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans has been found to produce two prenylated xanthones, shamixanthone and emericellin, and we report the discovery of two more, variecoxanthone a and epishamix ...201121351751
[recent advances in the study of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase and its metabolic engineering].amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ads) can convert farnesyl pyrophosphate (fpp) to amorpha-4, 11-diene, a precursor of artemisinin. ads plays an important role in the biosynthesis of artemisinin. this review summarizes the molecular biology and metabolic engineering study of ads in recent years. the genomic dna and its cdna sequences of amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase were cloned from artemisia annua l. the cdna encoding amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase contains a 1 641 bp open reading frame coding for 546 ...200921351463
quantifying the importance of galactofuranose in aspergillus nidulans hyphal wall surface organization by atomic force microscopy.the fungal wall mediates cell-environment interactions. galactofuranose (galf), the five-member ring form of galactose, has a relatively low abundance in aspergillus walls yet is important for fungal growth and fitness. aspergillus nidulans strains deleted for galf biosynthesis enzymes ugea (udp-glucose-4-epimerase) and ugma (udp-galactopyranose mutase) lacked immunolocalizable galf, had growth and sporulation defects, and had abnormal wall architecture. we used atomic force microscopy and force ...201121335527
onsite bio-detoxification of steam-exploded corn stover for cellulosic ethanol the process of ethanol production from steam-exploded corn stover (secs), a cellulose-degradation strain of aspergillus nidulans (flz10) was investigated whether it could remove the inhibitors released from steam exploded pretreatment , and thereby be used for biological detoxification on saccharomycescerevisiae. the results showed that flz10 removed 75.2% formic acid, 53.6% acetic acid, and 100% hydroxymethyl furfural (5-hmf) and furfural from the hydrolysate washed from secs after 72h culti ...201121334878
gene knockdown by ihprna-triggering in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete fungus laccaria bicolor.ectomycorrhiza (ecm) is a mutualistic association between fungi and the roots of the vast majority of trees. these include numerous ecologically and economically relevant species and the participating fungal symbionts are predominantly filamentous basidiomycetes. in natural ecosystems the plant nutrient uptake from soil takes place via the extraradical mycelia of these ecm mycosimbionts as a trade for plant photosyntates. the symbiotic phase in the life cycle of ecm basidiomycetes is the dikaryo ...201021326837
simultaneous detection and identification of aspergillus and mucorales species in tissues collected from patients with fungal rhinosinusitis.rapid detection and differentiation of aspergillus and mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. we describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range pcr amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (pcr/rlb) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five aspergillus species (a. fumigatus, a. flavus, a. niger, a. t ...201121325541
human nek6 is a monomeric mostly globular kinase with an unfolded short n-terminal domain.the nima-related kinases (neks) are widespread among eukaryotes. in mammalians they represent an evolutionarily conserved family of 11 serine/threonine kinases, with 40-45% amino acid sequence identity to the aspergillus nidulans mitotic regulator nima within their catalytic domains. neks have cell cycle-related functions and were recently described as related to pathologies, particularly cancer, consisting in potential chemotherapeutic targets. human nek6, -7 and -9 are involved in the control ...201121320329
aspergillus nidulans transcription factor atfa interacts with the mapk saka to regulate general stress responses, development and spore functions.fungi utilize a phosphorelay system coupled to a map kinase module for sensing and processing environmental signals. in aspergillus nidulans, response regulator sska transmits osmotic and oxidative stress signals to the stress mapk (sapk) saka. using a genetic approach together with gfp tagging and molecular bifluorescence we show that saka and atf/creb transcription factor atfa define a general stress-signalling pathway that plays differential roles in oxidative stress responses during growth a ...201121320182
the paf gene product modulates asexual development in penicillium chrysogenum.penicillium chrysogenum secretes a low molecular weight, cationic and cysteine-rich protein (paf). it has growth inhibitory activity against the model organism aspergillus nidulans and numerous zoo- and phytopathogenic fungi but shows only minimal conditional antifungal activity against the producing organism itself. in this study we provide evidence for an additional function of paf which is distinct from the antifungal activity against putative ecologically concurrent microorganisms. our data ...201121298690
role of carnitine acetyltransferases in acetyl coenzyme a metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.the flow of carbon metabolites between cellular compartments is an essential feature of fungal metabolism. during growth on ethanol, acetate, or fatty acids, acetyl units must enter the mitochondrion for metabolism via the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and acetyl coenzyme a (acetyl-coa) in the cytoplasm is essential for the biosynthetic reactions and for protein acetylation. acetyl-coa is produced in the cytoplasm by acetyl-coa synthetase during growth on acetate and ethanol while ß-oxidation of fat ...201121296915
the cytoskeletal protein ndel1 regulates dynamin 2 gtpase activity.cytoskeleton dynamics, membranes trafficking and positioning are essential for the proper functioning of any mammalian cell. the identification of the molecules and mechanisms that allow these cellular processes to interface is vital for understanding cell behaviors. ndel1, the mammalian homolog of the aspergillus nidulans nude, organizes the cytoskeleton and regulates molecular motors, thereby impacting on the positioning of membranes. hypothetically, ndel1 can act in concert with enzymes contr ...201121283621
independent duplications of a-amylase in different strains of aspergillus oryzae.aspergillus oryzae is a filamentous fungus that has arisen through the ancient domestication of aspergillus flavus for making traditional oriental foods and beverages. in the many centuries a. oryzae has been used for fermenting the starch in rice to simple sugars, it has undergone selection for increased secretion of starch-degrading enzymes. in particular, all a. oryzae strains investigated thus far have two or more copies of a gene encoding a-amylase, whereas a. flavus has only one. here we i ...201121277379
effect of endoxylanase and a-l-arabinofuranosidase supplementation on the enzymatic hydrolysis of steam exploded wheat straw.the cost and hydrolytic efficiency of enzymes are major factors that restrict the commercialization of the bioethanol production process from lignocellulosic biomass. hemicellulases and other accessory enzymes are becoming crucial to increase enzymatic hydrolysis (eh) yields at low cellulase dosages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of two recombinant hemicellulolytic enzymes on the eh of steam pretreated wheat straw. pretreatments at two severity conditions were performed and the ...201121262567
phg/psilbaγ vector system for efficient gene silencing in homobasidiomycetes: optimization of ihprna - triggering in the mycorrhizal fungus laccaria bicolor.psilbaγ silencing vector was constructed for efficient rna silencing triggering in the model mycorrhizal fungus laccaria bicolor. this cloning vector carries the agaricus bisporus gpdii promoter, two multiple cloning sites separated by a l. bicolor nitrate reductase intron and the aspergillus nidulans trpc terminator. psilbaγ allows an easy oriented two-step pcr cloning of hairpin sequences to be expressed in basidiomycetes. with one further cloning step into phg, a pcambia1300-based binary vect ...201021255319
maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment.potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan i type pectin which has previously been shown to exhibit promising properties as dietary fiber. the objective of this study was to solubilize dietary fibers from potato pulp by a one-step minimal treatment procedure and evaluate t ...201121253720
homologous overexpression of xylanase in fusarium oxysporum increases ethanol productivity during consolidated bioprocessing (cbp) of an effort to increase ethanol productivity during the consolidated bioprocessing (cbp) of lignocellulosics by fusarium oxysporum, we attempted the constitutive homologous overexpression of one of the key process enzymes, namely an endo-xylanase. the endo-β-1,4-xylanase 2 gene was incorporated into the f. oxysporum genome under the regulation of the gpda promoter of aspergillus nidulans. the transformation was effected through agrobacterium tumefaciens and resulted in 12 transformants, two of ...201121237221
adaptative and developmental responses to stress in aspergillus nidulan.development in the ascomycete a. nidulans is principally determined by environmental signals. adaptability to oxidative stimuli can derive in changes of growth patterns and /or the activation of sexual or asexual reproductive cycles but this model fungus might also respond to high osmotic or salt concentrations, the redox state, the availability and quantity of carbon or nitrogen sources and the degree or quality of illumination. since each cell within the colony follows a single morphogenetic p ...201021235506
characterization of the conserved phosphorylation site in the aspergillus nidulans response regulator srra.ssk1- and skn7-type response regulators are widely conserved in fungal his-asp phosphorelay (two-component) signaling systems. srra, a skn7-type rr of aspergillus nidulans, is implicated not only in oxidative stress responses but also in osmotic adaptation, conidia production (asexual development), inhibition by fungicides, and cell wall stress resistance. here, we characterized srra, focusing on the role of the conserved aspartate residue in the receiver domain, which is essential for phosphore ...201121229249
roles of the his-asp phosphorelay signal transduction system in controlling cell growth and development in aspergillus nidulans.the his-asp phosphorelay signal transduction system has been identified in most organisms, including bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and plants, except for animals. this system is important in adaptation to stress, control of cell growth, and induction of development in response to environmental changes. on the basis of genomic information, it has been found that aspergillus nidulans, a model species of fungi, includes 15 histidine kinases (hks), one histidine-containing phosphotransmitter protein (hpt ...201121228462
characterization of aspergillus nidulans rabc/rab6.the aspergillus nidulans golgi is not stacked. early and late golgi equivalents (ges) are intermingled but can be resolved by epifluorescence microscopy. rabc, the aspergillus ortholog of mammalian rab6, is present across the golgi, preferentially associated with early ges near the tip and with late ges in tip-distal regions. rabc? mutants, showing markedly impaired apical extension, have conspicuously fragmented, brefeldin a-insensitive early and late ges, indicating that the golgi network orga ...201121226815
simple identification of vea1 mutation in aspergillus nidulans.the vea gene plays an important role in development of a homothallic filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. the vea1 phenotype can be difficult to distinguish from the wild-type vea. despite the importance of the vea allele, no efficient identification method has been reported besides dna sequencing. here, we present simple physiological and molecular biological ways to distinguish between the vea wild-type and vea1 allele. the novel approaches, which involve incubation in the presence of oxal ...201021221952
acon-3, the neurospora crassa ortholog of the developmental modifier, meda, complements the conidiation defect of the aspergillus nidulans mutant.aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa are ascomycetes that produce asexual spores through morphologically distinct processes. meda, a protein with unknown function, is required for normal asexual and sexual development in a. nidulans. we determined that the n. crassa ortholog of meda is acon-3, a gene required for early conidiophore development and female fertility. to test hypotheses about the evolutionary origins of asexual development in distinct fungal lineages it is important to unders ...201121220038
enzymatic synthesis of β-xylosyl-oligosaccharides by transxylosylation using two β-xylosidases of glycoside hydrolase family 3 from aspergillus nidulans fgsc a4.two β-xylosidases of glycoside hydrolase family 3 (gh 3) from aspergillus nidulans fgsc a4, bxla and bxlb were produced recombinantly in pichia pastoris and secreted to the culture supernatants in yields of 16 and 118 mg/l, respectively. bxla showed about sixfold higher catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/k(m)) than bxlb towards para-nitrophenyl β-d-xylopyranoside (pnpx) and β-1,4-xylo-oligosaccharides (degree of polymerisation 2-6). for both enzymes k(cat)/k(m) decreased with increasing β-1,4-xylo-oli ...201021215963
crystallization and preliminary x-ray crystallographic analysis of the nmra-like ddb_g0286605 protein from the social amoeba dictyostelium discoideum.the ddb_g0286605 gene product from dictyostelium discoideum, an nmra-like protein that belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 295 k. a 1.64 å resolution data set was collected using synchrotron radiation. the ddb_g0286605 protein crystals belonged to space group p2(1), with unit-cell parameters a=67.598, b=54.935, c=84.219 å, β = 109.620°. assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the so ...201021206034
functional characterization of rho gtpases in aspergillus niger uncovers conserved and diverged roles of rho proteins within filamentous fungi.rho gtpases are signalling molecules regulating morphology and multiple cellular functions including metabolism and vesicular trafficking. to understand the connection between polarized growth and secretion in the industrial model organism aspergillus niger, we investigated the function of all rho family members in this organism. we identified six rho gtpases in its genome and used loss-of-function studies to dissect their functions. while rhoa is crucial for polarity establishment and viability ...201121205013
horizontal transfer of a large and highly toxic secondary metabolic gene cluster between fungi.genes involved in intermediary and secondary metabolism in fungi are frequently physically linked or clustered. for example, in aspergillus nidulans the entire pathway for the production of sterigmatocystin (st), a highly toxic secondary metabolite and a precursor to the aflatoxins (af), is located in a ∼54 kb, 23 gene cluster. we discovered that a complete st gene cluster in podospora anserina was horizontally transferred from aspergillus. phylogenetic analysis shows that most podospora cluster ...201021194949
adaptative and developmental responses to stress in aspergillus nidulan.development in the ascomycete a. nidulans is principally determined by environmental signals. adaptability to oxidative stimuli can derive in changes of growth patterns and /or the activation of sexual or asexual reproductive cycles but this model fungus might also respond to high osmotic or salt concentrations, the redox state, the availability and quantity of carbon or nitrogen sources and the degree or quality of illumination. since each cell within the colony follows a single morphogenetic p ...201021190514
a set of aspartyl protease-deficient strains for improved expression of heterologous proteins in kluyveromyces lactis.secretion of recombinant proteins is a common strategy for heterologous protein expression using the yeast kluyveromyces lactis. however, a common problem is degradation of a target recombinant protein by secretory pathway aspartyl proteases. in this study, we identified five putative pfam00026 aspartyl proteases encoded by the k. lactis genome. a set of selectable marker-free protease deletion mutants was constructed in the prototrophic k. lactis gg799 industrial expression strain background us ...201021166768
mapping woronin body position in aspergillus nidulans.the positions of all woronin bodies in five germlings of aspergillus nidulans prepared by plunge freezing and freeze substitution were determined by transmission electron microscopy. as expected, woronin bodies were found near septa. high numbers of morphologically identical organelles were also found in apical regions. to verify that these organelles were authentic woronin bodies, we used antibodies raised against the neurospora crassa woronin body matrix protein hex1. anti-hex1 antibodies labe ...200221156495
laea control of velvet family regulatory proteins for light-dependent development and fungal cell-type specificity.vea is the founding member of the velvet superfamily of fungal regulatory proteins. this protein is involved in light response and coordinates sexual reproduction and secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans. in the dark, vea bridges velb and laea to form the velb-vea-laea (velvet) complex. the vea-like protein velb is another developmental regulator, and laea has been known as global regulator of secondary metabolism. in this study, we show that velb forms a second light-regulated developme ...201021152013
increased conidiation associated with progression along the sterigmatocystin biosynthetic pathway.the aspergillus nidulans sterigmatocystin (st) gene cluster contains both regulatory (aflr) and biosynthetic genes (stc genes) required for st production. a total of 26 genes are in the cluster, 13 of which have been assigned a known function in the biosynthetic pathway. this complex secondary pathway represents a physiological cost to the fungus. we tested the amount of asexual spore production using a series of isogenic lines of a. nidulans, differing only in a mutation in aflr (resulting in a ...200421148941
presence of a mannoprotein, mnpap, in the hyphal cell wall of aspergillus nidulans.the presence of a mannoprotein, mnpap, in the hyphal cell wall of aspergillus nidulans was examined by immunogold electron microscopy using a mnpa-null mutant as a negative control. the hyphal cell wall of wild type consisted of two layers-an electron-dense smooth outer layer and an electron-translucent inner layer-while the hyphal cell wall of the mnpa-null mutant had an electron-dense irregular outer layer together with the electron-translucent inner layer. in wild type, mnpap was present thro ...200421148828
survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats in the laccaria bicolor genome, with development of microsatellite is becoming clear that simple sequence repeats (ssrs) play a significant role in fungal genome organization, and they are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. we identified ssrs in the laccaria bicolor genome by in silico survey and analyzed their distribution in the different genomic regions. we also compared the abundance and distribution of ssrs in l. bicolor with those of the following fungal genomes: phanerochaete chrysosporium, coprinopsis cinerea, ...201021132299
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