PMID(sorted ascending)
the velvet complex in the gray mold fungus botrytis cinerea: impact of bclae1 on differentiation, secondary metabolism, and virulence.botrytis cinerea, the gray mold fungus, is an important plant pathogen. field populations are characterized by variability with regard to morphology, the mode of reproduction (conidiation or sclerotia formation), the spectrum of secondary metabolites (sm), and virulence. natural variation in bcvel1 encoding the ortholog of aspergillus nidulans vea, a member of the velvet complex, was previously shown to affect light-dependent differentiation, the formation of oxalic acid (oa), and virulence. to ...201525625818
negative regulation of the vacuole-mediated resistance to k(+) stress by a novel c2h2 zinc finger transcription factor encoded by asla in aspergillus fungi and plants, vacuoles function as a storage and sequestration vessel for a wide variety of ions and are responsible for cytosolic ion homeostasis and responses to ionic shock. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, however, little is known about the molecular genetic mechanisms of vacuolar biogenesis and function. in the present study, we analyzed the function of the asla gene (an5583) encoding a novel c2h2-type zinc finger transcription factor (tf) in relation to k(+) stress re ...201525626364
the ß-importin kap8 (pse1/kap121) is required for nuclear import of the cellulase transcriptional regulator xyr1, asexual sporulation and stress resistance in trichoderma reesei.the ascomycete trichoderma reesei is an industrial producer of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes, and serves as a prime model for their genetic regulation. most of its (hemi-)cellulolytic enzymes are obligatorily dependent on the transcriptional activator xyr1. here, we investigated the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling mechanism that transports xyr1 across the nuclear pore complex. we identified 14 karyopherins in t. reesei, of which eight were predicted to be involved in nuclear import, and ...201525626518
functional characterization of nat/ncs2 proteins of aspergillus brasiliensis reveals a genuine xanthine-uric acid transporter and an intrinsically misfolded polypeptide.the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat) family includes members in nearly all domains of life. functionally characterized nat transporters from bacteria, fungi, plants and mammals are ion-coupled symporters specific for the uptake of purines, pyrimidines and related analogues. the characterized mammalian nats are specific for the uptake of l-ascorbic acid. in this work we identify in silico a group of fungal putative transporters, named uapd-like proteins, which represent a novel nat subfamil ...201525639910
a mutation in the converter subdomain of aspergillus nidulans myob blocks constriction of the actomyosin ring in cytokinesis.we have identified a mutant allele of the aspergillus nidulans homologue of myosin ii (myob; an4706), which prevents normal septum formation. this is the first reported myosin ii mutation in a filamentous fungus. strains expressing the myob(g843d) allele produce mainly aberrant septa at 30 °c and are completely aseptate at temperatures above 37 °c. conidium formation is greatly reduced at 30 °c and progressively impaired with increasing temperature. sequencing of the myob(g843d) allele identifie ...201525645080
transient transformation of podosphaera xanthii by electroporation of conidia.powdery mildew diseases are a major phytosanitary issue causing important yield and economic losses in agronomic, horticultural and ornamental crops. powdery mildew fungi are obligate biotrophic parasites unable to grow on culture media, a fact that has significantly limited their genetic manipulation. in this work, we report a protocol based on the electroporation of fungal conidia, for the transient transformation of podosphaera fusca (synonym podosphaera xanthii), the main causal agent of cuc ...201525651833
aspergillus nidulans causing primary cutaneous aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient. 201525671448
construction of a shuttle vector for heterologous expression of a novel fungal α-amylase gene in aspergillus oryzae.the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae is a well-known expression host used to express homologous and heterologous proteins in a number of industrial applications. to facilitate higher yields of proteins of interest, we constructed the pasop vector to express heterologous proteins in a. oryzae. pasop carries a selectable marker, pyrg, derived from aspergillus nidulans, and a strong promoter and a terminator of the amyb gene derived from a. oryzae. pasop transformed a. oryzae efficiently via t ...201525674804
continuous xylanase production with aspergillus nidulans under pyridoxine limitation using a trickle bed reactor.a trickle bed reactor (tbr) with recycle was designed and tested using aspergillus nidulans with a pyridoxine marker and over-expressing/secreting recombinant client xylanase b (xynb). the pyridoxine marker prevented the fungus from synthesizing its own pyridoxine and fungus was unable to grow when no pyridoxine was present in the medium; however, enzyme production was unaffected. uncontrolled mycelia growth that led to clogging of the tbr was observed when fungus without a pyridoxine marker was ...201525683507
beyond asexual development: modifications in the gene expression profile caused by the absence of the aspergillus nidulans transcription factor the model fungus aspergillus nidulans, asexual development is induced from vegetative hyphae by a set of early regulators including the bzip-type transcription factor flbb. to determine the range of genes under the influence of the transcriptional activity of flbb and to characterize their role in fungal development, we sequenced and compared the transcriptomes of a δflbb mutant and its isogenic wild-type strain at different developmental stages. results confirmed the activating role of flbb ...201525701285
live cell imaging of endosomal trafficking in fungi.endosomes are multipurpose membranous carriers important for endocytosis and secretion. during membrane trafficking, endosomes transport lipids, proteins, and even rnas. in highly polarized cells such as fungal hyphae, they shuttle bidirectionally along microtubules mediated by molecular motors like kinesins and dynein. for in vivo studies of these highly dynamic protein/membrane complexes, advanced fluorescence microscopy is instrumental. in this chapter, we describe live cell imaging of endoso ...201525702128
a genomics based discovery of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters in aspergillus ustus.secondary metabolites (sms) produced by aspergillus have been extensively studied for their crucial roles in human health, medicine and industrial production. however, the resulting information is almost exclusively derived from a few model organisms, including a. nidulans and a. fumigatus, but little is known about rare pathogens. in this study, we performed a genomics based discovery of sm biosynthetic gene clusters in aspergillus ustus, a rare human pathogen. a total of 52 gene clusters were ...201525706180
expression and specificity profile of the major acetate transporter acpa in aspergillus nidulans.acpa has been previously characterized as a high-affinity transporter essential for the uptake and use of acetate as sole carbon source in aspergillus nidulans. here, we follow the expression profile of acpa and define its substrate specificity. acpa-mediated acetate transport is detected from the onset of conidiospore germination, peaks at the time of germ tube emergence, and drops to low basal levels in germlings and young mycelia, where a second acetate transporter is also becoming apparent. ...201525708319
kdma, a histone h3 demethylase with bipartite function, differentially regulates primary and secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans kdma encodes a member of the kdm4 family of jumonji histone demethylase proteins, highly similar to metazoan orthologues both within functional domains and in domain architecture. this family of proteins exhibits demethylase activity towards lysines 9 and 36 of histone h3 and plays a prominent role in gene expression and chromosome structure in many species. mass spectrometry mapping of a. nidulans histones revealed that around 3% of bulk histone h3 carried trimethylated h3k ...201525712266
origin, diversification and substrate specificity in the family of ncs1/fur transporters.ncs1 proteins are h(+)/na(+) symporters specific for the uptake of purines, pyrimidines and related metabolites. in this article, we study the origin, diversification and substrate specificity of fungal ncs1 transporters. we show that the two fungal ncs1 sub-families, fur and fcy, and plant homologues originate through independent horizontal transfers from prokaryotes and that expansion by gene duplication led to the functional diversification of fungal ncs1. we characterised all fur proteins of ...201525712422
two amino acid sequences direct aspergillus nidulans protein kinase c (pkca) localization to hyphal apices and septation sites.the aspergillus nidulans ortholog of protein kinase c (pkca) is involved in the organism's putative cell wall integrity (cwi) pathway, and pkca also is highly localized at growing tips and forming septa. in the present work we identify the regions within pkca that are responsible for its localization to hyphal tips and septation sites. to this end, we used serially truncated pkca constructs and expressed them as green fluorescent protein (gfp) chimeras and identified two regions that direct pkca ...201525724996
mitogen-activated protein kinases mpka and mpkb independently affect micafungin sensitivity in aspergillus nidulans.the transcriptional regulation of the mapk mpka and cell wall-related genes in aspergillus nidulans differs from that of their counterparts in saccharomyces cerevisiae. the a. nidulans mapk mpkb is putatively orthologous to the yeast mapks kss1p and fus3p. to investigate mpkb and its contribution to cell wall integrity in a. nidulans, we constructed mpkb-disruptant (mpkb∆) strains. we previously showed that mpka∆ strains exhibited reduced colony growth and increased sensitivity to the β-1,3-gluc ...201525727969
molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of a ghf 43 xylanase from aspergillus niger in escherichia coli.a new xylanase gene (xyn43a) from aspergillus niger xz-3s was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli bl21-codonplus (de3)-ril. the coding region of the gene was separated by only one intron 86 bp in length. it encoded 318 amino acid residues of a protein with a calculated molecular weight (mw) of 33.47 kda plus a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. the amino acid sequence of the xyn43a gene showed 77.56% amino acid identity to a. nidulans xylanase, and the phylogenetic tree analysis revealed tha ...201425742974
targeted production of secondary metabolites by coexpression of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and prenyltransferase genes in aspergillus.prenylated tryptophan-containing cyclic dipeptides are found in different fungi and serve as precursors for the biosynthesis of diverse biologically active secondary metabolites. they show distinct and usually higher biological and pharmacological activities than the respective non-prenylated dipeptides. successful production of such compounds were achieved by a new approach based on the coexpression of ftmps, a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase from neosartorya fischeri, with three cyclic dipept ...201525744649
multiple phosphatases regulate carbon source-dependent germination and primary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans is an important mold and a model system for the study of fungal cell biology. in addition, invasive a. nidulans pulmonary infections are common in humans with chronic granulomatous disease. the morphological and biochemical transition from dormant conidia into active, growing, filamentous hyphae requires the coordination of numerous biosynthetic, developmental, and metabolic processes. the present study exhibited the diversity of roles performed by seven phosphatases in regu ...201525762568
association of fungal secondary metabolism and sclerotial biology.fungal secondary metabolism and morphological development have been shown to be intimately associated at the genetic level. much of the literature has focused on the co-regulation of secondary metabolite production (e.g., sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin in aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus flavus, respectively) with conidiation or formation of sexual fruiting bodies. however, many of these genetic links also control sclerotial production. sclerotia are resistant structures produced by a number ...201525762985
identification and characterization of a novel gene encoding the nbs1 protein in pyricularia oryzae.the ascomycete pyricularia oryzae (teleomorph: magnaporthe oryzae) causes one of the most serious diseases known as rice blast. the nijmegen breakage syndrome protein (nbs1) is essential for dna repair; thus, we studied the p. oryzae nbs1 homolog (ponbs1). a ponbs1 null mutant exhibited high sensitivity to dna damage-inducing agents. the mutant also exhibited the retarded hyphal growth, and induced abnormal conidial germination and shape, but showed normal appressorium formation. the phenotypes ...201525774746
the white collar complex is involved in sexual development of fusarium graminearum.sexual spores (ascospores) of fusarium graminearum, a homothallic ascomycetous fungus, are believed to be the primary inocula for epidemics of the diseases caused by this species in cereal crops. based on the light requirement for the formation of fruiting bodies (perithecia) of f. graminearum under laboratory conditions, we explored whether photoreceptors play an important role in sexual development. here, we evaluated the roles of three genes encoding putative photoreceptors [a phytochrome gen ...201525785736
examining the evolution of the regulatory circuit controlling secondary metabolism and development in the fungal genus aspergillus.filamentous fungi produce diverse secondary metabolites (sms) essential to their ecology and adaptation. although each sm is typically produced by only a handful of species, global sm production is governed by widely conserved transcriptional regulators in conjunction with other cellular processes, such as development. we examined the interplay between the taxonomic narrowness of sm distribution and the broad conservation of global regulation of sm and development in aspergillus, a diverse funga ...201525786130
a novel thermostable xylanase gh10 from malbranchea pulchella expressed in aspergillus nidulans with potential applications in biotechnology.the search for novel thermostable xylanases for industrial use has intensified in recent years, and thermophilic fungi are a promising source of useful enzymes. the present work reports the heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a novel thermostable xylanase (gh10) from the thermophilic fungus malbranchea pulchella, the influence of glycosylation on its stability, and a potential application in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis.201425788980
new interaction partners for nek4.1 and nek4.2 isoforms: from the dna damage response to rna splicing.neks are serine-threonine kinases that are similar to nima, a protein found in aspergillus nidulans which is essential for cell division. in humans there are eleven neks which are involved in different biological functions besides the cell cycle control. nek4 is one of the largest members of the nek family and has been related to the primary cilia formation and in dna damage response. however, its substrates and interaction partners are still unknown. in an attempt to better understand the role ...201525798074
large-scale metabolomics reveals a complex response of aspergillus nidulans to epigenetic perturbation.the microbial world offers a rich source of bioactive compounds for those able to sift through it. technologies capable of quantitatively detecting natural products while simultaneously identifying known compounds would expedite the search for new pharmaceutical leads. prior efforts have targeted histone deacetylases in fungi to globally activate the production of new secondary metabolites, yet no study has directly assessed its effects with minimal bias at the metabolomic level. using untargete ...201525815712
the srka kinase is part of the saka mitogen-activated protein kinase interactome and regulates stress responses and development in aspergillus nidulans.fungi and many other eukaryotes use specialized mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapk) of the hog1/p38 family to transduce environmental stress signals. in aspergillus nidulans, the mapk saka and the transcription factor atfa are components of a central multiple stress-signaling pathway that also regulates development. here we characterize srka, a putative mapk-activated protein kinase, as a novel component of this pathway. δsrka and δsaka mutants share a derepressed sexual development phenoty ...201525820520
azaphilones inhibit tau aggregation and dissolve tau aggregates in vitro.the aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau is a seminal event in many neurodegenerative diseases, including alzheimer's disease. the inhibition or reversal of tau aggregation is therefore a potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases. fungal natural products have proven to be a rich source of useful compounds having wide varieties of biological activities. we have previously screened aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites for their ability to inhibit tau aggregation in v ...201525822288
sphingolipids mediate differential echinocandin susceptibility in candida albicans and aspergillus nidulans.the cell wall synthesis-inhibiting echinocandins, including caspofungin and micafungin, play important roles in the treatment of candidiasis and aspergillosis. previous studies revealed that, in the haploid yeast candida glabrata, sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway mutations confer caspofungin reduced susceptibility (crs) but micafungin increased susceptibility (mis). here, we describe one candida albicans strain (of 10 tested) that similarly yields crs-mis mutants at relatively high frequency. m ...201525824222
trappii regulates exocytic golgi exit by mediating nucleotide exchange on the ypt31 ortholog raberab11.the oligomeric complex transport protein particle i (trappi) mediates nucleotide exchange on the rab gtpase rab1/ypt1. trappii is composed of trappi plus three additional subunits, trs120, trs130, and trs65. unclear is whether trappii mediates nucleotide exchange on rab1/ypt1, rab11/ypt31, or both. in aspergillus nidulans, rabo(rab1) resides in the golgi, rabe(rab11) localizes to exocytic post-golgi carriers undergoing transport to the apex, and hypa encodes trs120. rabe(rab11), but not rabo(rab ...201525831508
aspergillus nidulans ambient ph signaling does not require endocytosis.aspergillus nidulans (pal) ambient ph signaling takes place in cortical structures containing components of the escrt pathway, which are hijacked by the alkaline ph-activated, ubiquitin-modified version of the arrestin-like protein palf and taken to the plasma membrane. there, escrts scaffold the assembly of dedicated pal proteins acting downstream. the molecular details of this pathway, which results in the two-step proteolytic processing of the transcription factor pacc, have received consider ...201525841020
integration of the catalytic subunit activates deneddylase activity in vivo as final step in fungal cop9 signalosome assembly.the eight-subunit cop9 signalosome (csn) is conserved from filamentous fungi to humans and functions at the interface between cellular signalling and protein half-life control. csn consists of six pci and two mpn domain proteins and forms a scaffold for additional interacting proteins. csn controls protein stability in the ubiquitin-proteasome system where the mpn domain csn5/csne subunit inactivates cullin-ring ligases. the csn5/csne isopeptidase functions as deneddylase and removes the ubiquit ...201525846252
aspergillus nidulans flippase dnfa is cargo of the endocytic collar and plays complementary roles in growth and phosphatidylserine asymmetry with another flippase, dnfb.endocytosis and exocytosis are strictly segregated at the ends of hyphal cells of filamentous fungi, with a collar of endocytic activity encircling the growing cell tip, which elongates through directed membrane fusion. it has been proposed that this separation supports an endocytic recycling pathway that maintains polar localization of proteins at the growing apex. in a search for proteins in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans that possess an npfxd motif, which signals for endocytosis, ...201525846564
the bzip transcription factor pfzipa regulates secondary metabolism and oxidative stress response in the plant endophytic fungus pestalotiopsis fici.the bzip transcription factors are conserved in all eukaryotes and play critical roles in organismal responses to environmental challenges. in filamentous fungi, several lines of evidence indicate that secondary metabolism (sm) is associated with oxidative stress mediated by bzip proteins. here we uncover a connection with a bzip protein and oxidative stress induction of sm in the plant endophytic fungus pestalotiopsis fici. a homology search of the p. fici genome with the bzip protein rsma, inv ...201525847004
a new high-performance heterologous fungal expression system based on regulatory elements from the aspergillus terreus terrein gene cluster.recently, the aspergillus terreus terrein gene cluster was identified and selected for development of a new heterologous expression system. the cluster encodes the specific transcription factor terr that is indispensable for terrein cluster induction. to identify terr binding sites, different recombinant versions of the terr dna-binding domain were analyzed for specific motif recognition. the high affinity consensus motif tcgghhwyhcggh was identified from genes required for terrein production an ...201525852654
high-affinity nitrate/nitrite transporters nrta and nrtb of aspergillus nidulans exhibit high specificity and different inhibitor sensitivity.the nrta and nrtb nitrate transporters are paralogous members of the major facilitator superfamily in aspergillus nidulans. the availability of loss-of-function mutations allowed individual investigation of the specificity and inhibitor sensitivity of both nrta and nrtb. in this study, growth response tests were carried out at a growth-limiting concentration of nitrate (1 mm) as the sole nitrogen source, in the presence of a number of potential nitrate analogues at various concentrations, to eva ...201525855763
structural and functional analysis of the rpf2-rrs1 complex in ribosome biogenesis.proteins rpf2 and rrs1 are required for 60s ribosomal subunit maturation. these proteins are necessary for the recruitment of three ribosomal components (5s ribosomal rna [rrna], rpl5 and rpl11) to the 90s ribosome precursor and subsequent 27sb pre-rrna processing. here we present the crystal structure of the aspergillus nidulans (an) rpf2-rrs1 core complex. the core complex contains the tightly interlocked n-terminal domains of rpf2 and rrs1. the rpf2 n-terminal domain includes a brix domain ch ...201525855814
the cryptococcus neoformans alkaline response pathway: identification of a novel rim pathway activator.the rim101/pacc transcription factor acts in a fungal-specific signaling pathway responsible for sensing extracellular ph signals. first characterized in ascomycete fungi such as aspergillus nidulans and saccharomyces cerevisiae, the rim/pal pathway maintains conserved features among very distantly related fungi, where it coordinates cellular adaptation to alkaline ph signals and micronutrient deprivation. however, it also directs species-specific functions in fungal pathogens such as cryptococc ...201525859664
cytoplasmic dynein is required for the spatial organization of protein aggregates in filamentous fungi.eukaryotes have evolved multiple strategies for maintaining cellular protein homeostasis. one such mechanism involves neutralization of deleterious protein aggregates via their defined spatial segregation. here, using the molecular disaggregase hsp104 as a marker for protein aggregation, we describe the spatial and temporal dynamics of protein aggregates in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. filamentous fungi, such as a. nidulans, are a diverse group of species of major health and econ ...201525865884
regulation of glycogen metabolism by the cre-1, rco-1 and rcm-1 proteins in neurospora crassa. the role of cre-1 as the central transcriptional regulator.the transcription factor crea/mig1/cre-1 is a repressor protein that regulates the use of alternative carbon sources via a mechanism known as carbon catabolite repression (ccr). in saccharomyces cerevisiae, mig1 recruits the complex ssn6-tup1, the neurospora crassa rcm-1 and rco-1 orthologous proteins, respectively, to bind to promoters of glucose-repressible genes. we have been studying the regulation of glycogen metabolism in n. crassa and the identification of the rco-1 corepressor as a regul ...201525889113
the gβ-like protein cpcb is required for hyphal growth, conidiophore morphology and pathogenicity in aspergillus fumigatus.cpcb (cross pathway control b) encodes a yeast cpc2 and mammalian rack1 (receptor for activated protein kinase c) ortholog, which is a wd repeat protein with functional homology to the β subunit of heterotrimeric g proteins in aspergillus fumigatus. previous study has reported that cpcb governs growth and development in both a. fumigatus and aspergillus nidulans. however, little is known about the functional identities of cpcb orthologs and their relationships with g protein complexes. in this s ...201525892048
depletion of ε-cop in the copi vesicular coat reduces cleistothecium production in aspergillus nidulans.we have previously isolated ε-cop, the α-cop interactor in copi of aspergillus nidulans, by yeast two-hybrid screening. to understand the function of ε-cop, the anea (+) gene for ε-cop/anea was deleted by homologous recombination using a gene-specific disruption cassette. deletion of the ε-cop gene showed no detectable changes in vegetative growth or asexual development, but resulted in decrease in the production of the fruiting body, cleistothecium, under conditions favorable for sexual develop ...201525892912
a lipid-managing program maintains a stout spitzenkörper.the spitzenkörper (spk) is an accumulation of vesicles interleaved with actin microfilaments present at the cytosolic side of the apical plasma membrane (pm) of hyphal tips of many species of filamentous fungi. the physiological role of the spk has captivated fungal biologists over the years, but only very recently this 'organelle' is starting to be understood in the molecular terminology used for cell biological models. one aspect that has received little attention is the role of cellular membr ...201525921726
fungal artificial chromosomes for mining of the fungal secondary metabolome.with thousands of fungal genomes being sequenced, each genome containing up to 70 secondary metabolite (sm) clusters 30-80 kb in size, breakthrough techniques are needed to characterize this sm wealth.201525925221
the effects of extracellular ph and of the transcriptional regulator paci on the transcriptome of trichoderma reesei.extracellular ph is one of the several environmental factors affecting protein production by filamentous fungi. regulatory mechanisms ensure that extracellular enzymes are produced under ph-conditions in which the enzymes are active. in filamentous fungi, the transcriptional regulation in different ambient ph has been studied especially in aspergilli, whereas the effects of ph in the industrial producer of hydrolytic enzymes, trichoderma reesei, have mainly been studied at the protein level. in ...201525925231
genetic transformation of extremophilic fungi acidea extrema and acidothrix acidophila.intact, growing cells of strongly acidophilic fungi acidea extrema and acidothrix acidophila have been successfully transformed by introduction of heterologous dna fragment (composed of the glyceraldehyde-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene promoter from emericella nidulans, a metallothionein-coding gene asmt1 from amanita strobiliformis and glyceraldehyde-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene terminator from colletotrichum gloeosporioides) with the length of 1690 bp. the transformation procedure was based on t ...201525934267
microbial communication leading to the activation of silent fungal secondary metabolite gene clusters.microorganisms form diverse multispecies communities in various ecosystems. the high abundance of fungal and bacterial species in these consortia results in specific communication between the microorganisms. a key role in this communication is played by secondary metabolites (sms), which are also called natural products. recently, it was shown that interspecies "talk" between microorganisms represents a physiological trigger to activate silent gene clusters leading to the formation of novel sms ...201525941517
transportation of aspergillus nidulans class iii and v chitin synthases to the hyphal tips depends on conventional kinesin.cell wall formation and maintenance are crucial for hyphal morphogenesis. in many filamentous fungi, chitin is one of the main structural components of the cell wall. aspergillus nidulans chsb, a chitin synthase, and csma, a chitin synthase with a myosin motor-like domain (mmd) at its n-terminus, both localize predominantly at the hyphal tip regions and at forming septa. chsb and csma play crucial roles in polarized hyphal growth in a. nidulans. in this study, we investigated the mechanism by wh ...201525955346
velvet-mediated repression of β-glucan synthesis in aspergillus nidulans spores.beta-glucans are a heterologous group of fibrous glucose polymers that are a major constituent of cell walls in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes fungi. synthesis of β (1,3)- and (1,6)-glucans is coordinated with fungal cell growth and development, thus, is under tight genetic regulation. here, we report that β-glucan synthesis in both asexual and sexual spores is turned off by the nf-kb like fungal regulators vosa and velb in aspergillus nidulans. our genetic and genomic analyses have revealed tha ...201525960370
light-dependent gene activation in aspergillus nidulans is strictly dependent on phytochrome and involves the interplay of phytochrome and white collar-regulated histone h3 acetylation.the ability for light sensing is found from bacteria to humans but relies only on a small number of evolutionarily conserved photoreceptors. a large number of fungi react to light, mostly to blue light. aspergillus nidulans also responds to red light using a phytochrome light sensor, fpha, for the control of hundreds of light-regulated genes. here, we show that photoinduction of one light-induced gene, ccga, occurs mainly through red light. induction strictly depends on phytochrome and its histi ...201525980340
successful combination of sequential gene therapy and rescue allo-hsct in two children with x-cgd - importance of timing.we report on a series of sequential events leading to long-term survival and cure of pediatric x-linked chronic granulomatous disease (x-cgd) patients after gamma-retroviral gene therapy (gt) and rescue hsct. due to therapyrefractory life-threatening infections requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (hsct) but absence of hlaidentical donors, we treated 2 boys with x-cgd by gt. following gt both children completely resolved invasive aspergillus nidulans infections. however, one child d ...201525981636
brain abscesses due to aspergillus nidulans infection during induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.we present the case of a 3-year-old boy who was diagnosed with cerebral abscesses due to aspergillus nidulans infection on day 28 of induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. he responded well to treatment with voriconazole and caspofungin, making a full recovery. there are very few cases of invasive aspergillosis reported in children during induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia and a. nidulans is rare in the absence of chronic granulomatous disease.201525985238
fusarium sambucinum asta gene expressed during potato infection is a functional orthologue of aspergillus nidulans asta.sulfate assimilation plays a vital role in prototrophic organisms. orthologues of the alternative sulfate transporter (asta) gene from aspergillus nidulans were identified in the fungal plant pathogens fusarium sambucinum and fusarium graminearum. by physiological and biochemical analyses, the asta orthologues were determined to be able to uptake sulfate from the environment. similarly to asta in a. nidulans, the fsasta gene was found to be regulated by sulfur metabolite repression (smr) in a su ...201525986548
insight into the antifungal mechanism of neosartorya fischeri antifungal protein.small, cysteine-rich, highly stable antifungal proteins secreted by filamentous ascomycetes have great potential for the development of novel antifungal strategies. however, their practical application is still limited due to their not fully clarified mode of action. the aim of this work was to provide a deep insight into the antifungal mechanism of neosartorya fischeri antifungal protein (nfap), a novel representative of this protein group. within a short exposure time to nfap, reduced cellular ...201525994413
mycetoma caused by aspergillus nidulans. 201626014969
an efficient peg/cacl₂-mediated transformation approach for the medicinal fungus wolfiporia cocos.sclerotia of wolfiporia cocos are of medicinal and culinary value. the genes and molecular mechanisms involved in w. cocos sclerotial formation are poorly investigated because of the lack of a suitable and reproducible transformation system for w. cocos. in this study, a peg/ cacl₂-mediated genetic transformation system for w. cocos was developed. the promoter pgpd from ganoderma lucidum effectively drove expression of the hygromycin b phosphotransferase gene in w. cocos, and approximately 30 tr ...201526017228
combining stable isotope labeling and molecular networking for biosynthetic pathway characterization.filamentous fungi are a rich source of bioactive compounds, ranging from statins over immunosuppressants to antibiotics. the coupling of genes to metabolites is of large commercial interest for production of the bioactives of the future. to this end, we have investigated the use of stable isotope labeled amino acids (silaas). silaas were added to the cultivation media of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans for the study of the cyclic tetrapeptide nidulanin a. analysis by uhplc-tofms conf ...201526020678
minos as a novel tc1/mariner-type transposable element for functional genomic analysis in aspergillus nidulans.transposons constitute powerful genetic tools for gene inactivation, exon or promoter trapping and genome analyses. the minos element from drosophila hydei, a tc1/mariner-like transposon, has proved as a very efficient tool for heterologous transposition in several metazoa. in filamentous fungi, only a handful of fungal-specific transposable elements have been exploited as genetic tools, with the impala tc1/mariner element from fusarium oxysporum being the most successful. here, we developed a t ...201526021704
evolution of chemical diversity in echinocandin lipopeptide antifungal metabolites.the echinocandins are a class of antifungal drugs that includes caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin. gene clusters encoding most of the structural complexity of the echinocandins provided a framework for hypotheses about the evolutionary history and chemical logic of echinocandin biosynthesis. gene orthologs among echinocandin-producing fungi were identified. pathway genes, including the nonribosomal peptide synthetases (nrpss), were analyzed phylogenetically to address the hypothesis tha ...201526024901
snpks19 encodes the polyketide synthase for alternariol mycotoxin biosynthesis in the wheat pathogen parastagonospora nodorum.alternariol (aoh) is an important mycotoxin from the alternaria fungi. aoh was detected for the first time in the wheat pathogen parastagonospora nodorum in a recent study. here, we exploited reverse genetics to demonstrate that snog_15829 (snpks19), a close homolog of penicillium aethiopicum norlichexanthone (nlx) synthase gene gsfa, is required for aoh production. we further validate that snpks19 is solely responsible for aoh production by heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans. the e ...201526025896
gh11 xylanase from emericella nidulans with low sensitivity to inhibition by ethanol and lignocellulose-derived phenolic endo-β-1,4-xylanase (x22) was purified from crude extract of emericella nidulans when cultivated on submerged fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source. the purified protein was identified by mass spectrometry and was most active at ph and temperature intervals of 5.0-6.5 and 50-60°c, respectively. the enzyme showed half-lives of 40, 10 and 7 min at 28, 50 and 55°c, respectively, and ph 5.0. apparent km and vmax values on soluble oat spelt xylan were 3.39 mg/ml and 230.8 iu/mg ...201526040589
oligomerization of the uapa purine transporter is critical for er-exit, plasma membrane localization and turnover.central to the process of transmembrane cargo trafficking is the successful folding and exit from the er (endoplasmic reticulum) through packaging in copii vesicles. here, we use the uapa purine transporter of aspergillus nidulans to investigate the role of cargo oligomerization in membrane trafficking. we show that uapa oligomerizes (at least dimerizes) and that oligomerization persists upon uapa endocytosis and vacuolar sorting. using a validated bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, ...201526049015
the aspergillus fumigatus septins play pleiotropic roles in septation, conidiation, and cell wall stress, but are dispensable for virulence.septins are a conserved family of gtpases that regulate important cellular processes such as cell wall integrity, and septation in fungi. the requirement of septins for virulence has been demonstrated in the human pathogenic yeasts candida albicans and cryptococcus neoformans, as well as the plant pathogen magnaporthe oryzae. aspergillus spp. contains five genes encoding for septins (aspa-e). while the importance of septins aspa, aspb, aspc, and aspe for growth and conidiation has been elucidate ...201526051489
identification of a critical determinant that enables efficient fatty acid synthesis in oleaginous fungi.microorganisms are valuable resources for lipid production. what makes one microbe but not the other able to efficiently synthesize and accumulate lipids is poorly understood. in the present study, global gene expression prior to and after the onset of lipogenesis was determined by transcriptomics using the oleaginous fungus mortierella alpina as a model system. a core of 23 lipogenesis associated genes was identified and their expression patterns shared a high similarity among oleaginous microb ...201526059272
a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of a standard voriconazole regimen in different cyp2c19 genotypes by monte carlo simulation.the objective of this study was to evaluate the standard voriconazole dosage regimen (maintenance dose was 200 mg bid orally) against aspergillus infections in different cyp2c19 genotypes from a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (pk/pd) perspective.201526062298
degradation of glutathione in aspergillus nidulans - short communication.relative transcriptions of aspergillus nidulans dug1-3 (orthologes of saccharomyces cerevisiae dug - deficient in utilization of glutathione - pathway genes) and ggta encoding γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were studied under conditions inducing glutathione degradation. ggta was induced in all cases when glutathione levels decreased, but addition of yeast extract, which moderated glutathione degradation, enhanced its induction. although dug2 showed constitutive transcription, dug1 and dug3 were induc ...201526081279
functional operons in secondary metabolic gene clusters in glarea lozoyensis (fungi, ascomycota, leotiomycetes).operons are multigene transcriptional units which occur mostly in prokaryotes but rarely in eukaryotes. protein-coding operons have not been reported in the fungi even though they represent a very diverse kingdom of organisms. here, we report a functional operon involved in the secondary metabolism of the fungus glarea lozoyensis belonging to leotiomycetes (ascomycota). two contiguous genes, glpks3 and glnrps7, encoding polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase, respectively, are c ...201526081635
mutagenesis breeding of high echinocandin b producing strain and further titer improvement with culture medium optimization.a combination of microbial strain improvement and statistical optimization is investigated to maximize echinocandin b (ecb) production from aspergillus nidulans zjb-0817. a classical sequential mutagenesis was studied first by using physical (ultraviolet irradiation at 254 nm) and chemical mutagens (lithium chloride and sodium nitrite). mutant strain uln-59 exhibited 2.1-fold increase in ecb production to 1583.1 ± 40.9 mg/l when compared with the parent strain (750.8 ± 32.0 mg/l). this is the fi ...201526091897
photoprotective and antimutagenic activity of agaricus subrufescens basidiocarp extracts.the photoprotective and antimutagenic activity of opened and closed basidiocarps of agaricus subrufescens (=a. blazei; =a. brasiliensis) obtained by different extraction methods were evaluated on aspergillus nidulans conidia submitted to ultraviolet (uv) light. the aqueous extracts were obtained by three extraction methods: maceration, infusion, and decoction, at two different extraction times. the extracts of a. subrufescens did not present toxicity for a. nidulans conidia. a suspension of a. n ...201526092419
epigenetics as an emerging tool for improvement of fungal strains used in biotechnology.filamentous fungi are today a major source of industrial biotechnology for the production of primary and secondary metabolites, as well as enzymes and recombinant proteins. all of them have undergone extensive improvement strain programs, initially by classical mutagenesis and later on by genetic manipulation. thereby, strategies to overcome rate-limiting or yield-reducing reactions included manipulating the expression of individual genes, their regulatory genes, and also their function. yet, re ...201526115753
core oxidative stress response in aspergillus nidulans.the b-zip transcription factor atfa plays a key role in regulating stress responses in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. to identify the core regulons of atfa, we examined genome-wide expression changes caused by various stresses in the presence/absence of atfa using a. nidulans microarrays. we also intended to address the intriguing question regarding the existence of core environmental stress response in this important model eukaryote.201526115917
functional analysis of sterol transporter orthologues in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.polarized growth in filamentous fungi needs a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the growing hyphal tip. one of the important membrane compounds in fungi is ergosterol. at the apical plasma membrane ergosterol accumulations, which are called sterol-rich plasma membrane domains (srds). the exact roles and formation mechanism of the srds remained unclear, although the importance has been recognized for hyphal growth. transport of ergosterol to hyphal tips is thought to be important for th ...201526116213
the structure of rpf2-rrs1 explains its role in ribosome biogenesis.the assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes is a hierarchical process involving about 200 biogenesis factors and a series of remodeling steps. the 5s rnp consisting of the 5s rrna, rpl5 and rpl11 is recruited at an early stage, but has to rearrange during maturation of the pre-60s ribosomal subunit. rpf2 and rrs1 have been implicated in 5s rnp biogenesis, but their precise role was unclear. here, we present the crystal structure of the rpf2-rrs1 complex from aspergillus nidulans at 1.5 å resolution and ...201526117542
the aspergillus nidulans bimc4 mutation provides an excellent tool for identification of kinesin-14 inhibitors.centrosome amplification is a hallmark of many types of cancer cells, and clustering of multiple centrosomes is critical for cancer cell survival and proliferation. human kinesin-14 hset/kfic1 is essential for centrosome clustering, and its inhibition leads to the specific killing of cancer cells with extra centrosomes. since kinesin-14 motor domains are conserved evolutionarily, we conceived a strategy of obtaining kinesin-14 inhibitors using aspergillus nidulans, based on the previous result t ...201526117688
a second component of the slta-dependent cation tolerance pathway in aspergillus nidulans.the transcriptional response to alkali metal cation stress is mediated by the zinc finger transcription factor slta in aspergillus nidulans and probably in other fungi of the pezizomycotina subphylum. a second component of this pathway has been identified and characterized. sltb is a 1272 amino acid protein with at least two putative functional domains, a pseudo-kinase and a serine-endoprotease, involved in signaling to the transcription factor slta. absence of sltb activity results in nearly id ...201526119498
an overproduction of astellolides induced by genetic disruption of chromatin-remodeling factors in aspergillus oryzae.the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae is an important industrial mold. recent genomic analysis indicated that a. oryzae has a large number of biosynthetic genes for secondary metabolites (sms), but many of the sms they produce have not been identified. for better understanding of sms production by a. oryzae, we screened a gene-disruption library of transcription factors including chromatin-remodeling factors and found two gene disruptions that show similarly altered sm production profiles. o ...201626126743
reversible oxidation of a conserved methionine in the nuclear export sequence determines subcellular distribution and activity of the fungal nitrate regulator nira.the assimilation of nitrate, a most important soil nitrogen source, is tightly regulated in microorganisms and plants. in aspergillus nidulans, during the transcriptional activation process of nitrate assimilatory genes, the interaction between the pathway-specific transcription factor nira and the exportin kapk/crm1 is disrupted, and this leads to rapid nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity of nira. in this work by mass spectrometry, we found that in the absence of nitrate, when nir ...201526132230
the inner nuclear membrane protein src1 is required for stable post-mitotic progression into g1 in aspergillus membranes and associated proteins of the nuclear envelope (ne) are assembled specifically and inclusively around segregated genomes during exit from mitosis is incompletely understood. inner nuclear membrane (inm) proteins play key roles by providing links between dna and the ne. in this study we have investigated the highly conserved inm protein src1 in aspergillus nidulans and have uncovered a novel cell cycle response during post mitotic formation of g1 nuclei. live cell imaging indicates ...201526147902
identification and characterization of a novel family of selective antifungal compounds (canbefs) that interfere with fungal protein synthesis.invasive mycotic infections have become more common during recent decades, posing an increasing threat to public health. however, despite the growing needs, treatments for invasive fungal infections remain unsatisfactory and are limited to a small number of antifungals. the aim of this study was to identify novel fungal cell wall inhibitors from a library of small chemical compounds using a conditional protein kinase c (pkc)-expressing strain of aspergillus nidulans sensitive to cell wall-active ...201526149982
g-protein coupled receptor-mediated nutrient sensing and developmental control in aspergillus nidulans.nutrient sensing and utilisation are fundamental for all life forms. as heterotrophs, fungi have evolved a diverse range of mechanisms for sensing and taking up various nutrients. despite its importance, only a limited number of nutrient receptors and their corresponding ligands have been identified in fungi. g-protein coupled receptors (gpcrs) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors. the aspergillus nidulans genome encodes 16 putative gpcrs, but only a few have been functionally chara ...201526179439
identification of the scopularide biosynthetic gene cluster in scopulariopsis brevicaulis.scopularide a is a promising potent anticancer lipopeptide isolated from a marine derived scopulariopsis brevicaulis strain. the compound consists of a reduced carbon chain (3-hydroxy-methyldecanoyl) attached to five amino acids (glycine, l-valine, d-leucine, l-alanine, and l-phenylalanine). using the newly sequenced s. brevicaulis genome we were able to identify the putative biosynthetic gene cluster using genetic information from the structurally related emericellamide a from aspergillus nidul ...201526184239
insecticidal activity of ethyl acetate extracts from culture filtrates of mangrove fungal the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (artemia salina) larvae were performed. the extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (ache) inhibition activity. the results showed th ...201526190921
kaea (sudpro), a member of the ubiquitous keops/ekc protein complex, regulates the arginine catabolic pathway and the expression of several other genes in aspergillus nidulans.the kaea(kae1) (sudpro) gene, which was identified in aspergillus nidulans as a suppressor of proline auxotrophic mutations, encodes the orthologue of saccharomyces cerevisiae kae1p, a member of the evolutionarily conserved keops/ekc (kinase, endopeptidase and other proteins of small size/endopeptidase-like and kinase associated to transcribed chromatin) complex. in yeast, this complex has been shown to be involved in trna modification, transcription, and genome maintenance. in a. nidulans, muta ...201526210809
kdma, a histone h3 demethylase with bipartite function, differentially regulates primary and secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans. 201526213895
nucleotide sequence composition adjacent to intronic splice sites improves splicing efficiency via its effect on pre-mrna local folding in fungi.rna splicing is the central process of intron removal in eukaryotes known to regulate various cellular functions such as growth, development, and response to external signals. the canonical sequences indicating the splicing sites needed for intronic boundary recognition are well known. however, the roles and evolution of the local folding of intronic and exonic sequence features adjacent to splice sites has yet to be thoroughly studied. here, focusing on four fungi (saccharomyces cerevisiae, sch ...201526246046
tip-to-nucleus migration dynamics of the asexual development regulator flbb in vegetative aspergillus nidulans, asexual differentiation requires the presence of the transcription factor flbb at the cell tip and apical nuclei. understanding the relationship between these two pools is crucial for elucidating the biochemical processes mediating conidia production. tip-to-nucleus communication was demonstrated by photo-convertible flbb::dendra2 visualization. tip localization of flbb depends on cys382 in the c-terminus and the bzip dna-binding domain in the n-terminus. flbe, a critica ...201526256571
pcr-rflp on β-tubulin gene for rapid identification of the most clinically important species of aspergillus.aspergillus species are important agents of life-threatening infections in immunosuppressed patients. proper speciation in the aspergilli has been justified based on varied fungal virulence, clinical presentations, and antifungal resistance. accurate identification of aspergillus species usually relies on fungal dna sequencing but this requires expensive equipment that is not available in most clinical laboratories. we developed and validated a discriminative low-cost pcr-based test to discrimin ...201526264625
new insights into the conversion of versicolorin a in the biosynthesis of aflatoxin b1.a crucial and enigmatic step in the complex biosynthesis of aflatoxin b1 is the oxidative rearrangement of versicolorin a to demethylsterigmatocystin. this step is thought to proceed by an oxidation-reduction-oxidation sequence, in which the nadph-dependent oxidoreductase aflm catalyzes the enclosed reduction step. aflm from aspergillus parasiticus, after heterologous production in e. coli and purification, however, catalyzed the reduction of the hydroquinoid form of the starting compound versic ...201526266881
genetic evidence for a microtubule-capture mechanism during polarised growth of aspergillus nidulans.the cellular switch from symmetry to polarity in eukaryotes depends on the microtubule (mt) and actin cytoskeletons. in fungi such as schizosaccharomyces pombe or aspergillus nidulans, the mt cytoskeleton determines the sites of actin polymerization through cortical cell-end marker proteins. here we describe a. nidulans mt guidance protein a (miga) as the first ortholog of the karyogamy protein kar9 from saccharomyces cerevisiae in filamentous fungi. a. nidulans miga interacts with the cortical ...201526272919
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the entomopathogenic fungus nomuraea agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system for the entomopathogenic fungus nomuraea rileyi was established. three binary t-dna vectors, ppzp-hph, ppzp-hph-rnai and ppzp-hph-dsred2, were constructed. the trpc promoter from aspergillus nidulans was used as the cis-regulatory element to drive the expression of hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) gene and dsred2, which conferred the hygromycin b (hyg b) resistance and red fluorescence visualization, respectively. the blastospores and co ...201526275508
acstua, which encodes an apses transcription regulator, is involved in conidiation, cephalosporin biosynthesis and cell wall integrity of acremonium chrysogenum.a transcriptional regulatory gene acstua was identified from acremonium chrysogenum. acstua encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein with similarity to stua which regulates the core developmental processes of aspergillus nidulans. like disruption of stua in a. nidulans, deficiency of acstua blocked the conidiation of a. chrysogenum through severely down-regulating the expression of acbrla and acabaa which encode orthologs of the key fungal developmental regulators brla and abaa. disruption of ac ...201526283234
distinct roles for the p53-like transcription factor xprg and autophagy genes in the response to starvation.autophagy and autolysis are two cannibalistic pathways which allow filamentous fungi to obtain nutrients once environmental nutrient sources are exhausted. in aspergillus nidulans, the effects of mutations in two key autophagy genes, atga, the atg1 ortholog, and atgh, the atg8 ortholog, were compared with mutations in xprg, which encodes a transcriptional activator that plays a key role in autolysis. the anti-fungal drug rapamycin induces autophagy in a range of organisms. mutations in atga and ...201526296599
further characterization of the role of the mitochondrial high-mobility group box protein in the intracellular redox environment of aspergillus nidulans.hmbb, a predominantly mitochondrial high-mobility group box (hmgb) protein, of aspergillus nidulans affects diverse biological activities, such as sterigmatocystin production, the maintenance of mitochondrial dna copy number, germination of asexual and sexual spores, and protection against oxidative stress agents. we hypothesized that the latter correlates with an unbalanced intracellular redox state, in which case, a not yet fully characterized physiological function could be attributed to this ...201526297166
development of the dichlorvos-ammonia (dv-am) method for the visual detection of aflatoxigenic fungi.aflatoxins (afs) are carcinogenic and toxic secondary metabolites produced mainly by aspergillus flavus and aspergillus parasiticus. to monitor and regulate the af contamination of crops, a sensitive and precise detection method for these toxigenic fungi in environments is necessary. we herein developed a novel visual detection method, the dichlorvos-ammonia (dv-am) method, for identifying af-producing fungi using dv and am vapor on agar culture plates, in which dv inhibits the esterase in af bi ...201526300294
refining the ph response in aspergillus nidulans: a modulatory triad involving pacx, a novel zinc binuclear cluster protein.the aspergillus nidulans pacc transcription factor mediates gene regulation in response to alkaline ambient ph which, signalled by the pal pathway, results in the processing of pacc(72) to pacc(27) via pacc(53). here we investigate two levels at which the ph regulatory system is transcriptionally moderated by ph and identify and characterise a new component of the ph regulatory machinery, pacx. transcript level analysis and overexpression studies demonstrate that repression of acid-expressed pal ...201526303777
enhancement of acetyl xylan esterase activity on cellulose acetate through fusion to a family 3 cellulose binding module.the current study investigates the potential to increase the activity of a family 1 carbohydrate esterase on cellulose acetate through fusion to a family 3 carbohydrate binding module (cbm). specifically, ctcbm3 from clostridium thermocellum was fused to the carboxyl terminus of the acetyl xylan esterase (anaxe) from aspergillus nidulans, and active forms of both anaxe and anaxe-ctcbm3 were produced in pichia pastoris. ctcbm3 fusion had negligible impact on the thermostability or regioselectivit ...201526320711
qualitative ubiquitome unveils the potential significances of protein lysine ubiquitination in hyphal growth of aspergillus nidulans.protein ubiquitination is an evolutionarily conserved post-translational modification process in eukaryotes, and it plays an important role in many biological processes. aspergillus nidulans, a model filamentous fungus, contributes to our understanding of cellular physiology, metabolism and genetics, but its ubiquitination is not completely revealed. in this study, the ubiquitination sites in the proteome of a. nidulans were identified using a highly sensitive mass spectrometry combined with imm ...201626328806
identification of growth stage molecular markers in trichoderma sp. 'atroviride type b' and their potential application in monitoring fungal growth and development in soil.several members of the genus trichoderma are biocontrol agents of soil-borne fungal plant pathogens. the effectiveness of biocontrol agents depends heavily on how they perform in the complex field environment. therefore, the ability to monitor and track trichoderma within the environment is essential to understanding biocontrol efficacy. the objectives of this work were to: (a) identify key genes involved in trichoderma sp. 'atroviride type b' morphogenesis; (b) develop a robust rna isolation me ...201526341342
fgric8 is involved in regulating vegetative growth, conidiation, deoxynivalenol production and virulence in fusarium graminearum.proteins of the resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (ric8) group act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (gefs) and play important roles in regulating g-protein signaling in animals. in filamentous fungi, putative ric8 orthologs have so far been identified in magnaporthe oryzae, neurospora crassa, aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus fumigatus. here, we report the functional investigation of a potential ric8 ortholog (fgric8) in the wheat head blight pathogen fusarium graminearum. ta ...201526341536
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